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Sample records for dose chemotherapy significantly

  1. Challenging historical perspectives of the 24-h chemotherapy day: Flexible chemotherapy dose-timing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Marliese; Coenders, Frank; Murray, Danielle; Kirsa, Sue; Seymour, John

    2016-03-01

    Variation in dose-timing within multiday chemotherapy regimens is largely unknown with convention being to administer subsequent days of treatment at 24-h intervals. However, in reality there are many occasions where doses are given either earlier or later to accommodate a variety of clinical and operational priorities. This project aimed to evaluate the degree of existing variation in chemotherapy dose-timing and to investigate whether deliberate variation could improve quality and efficiency outcomes such as reduction of after hours chemotherapy administration or reduced inpatient length of stay. Chemotherapy charts and hospital admission datasets (n = 112) from sarcoma and hematology inpatient regimens were retrospectively audited to ascertain existing variation in dose-timing and overall length of stay. Clinical practice guidelines enabling a safe degree of dose-timing variation for individual chemotherapy regimens were developed, implemented over a 3-month period, and evaluated against safety, efficiency and economic outcomes. Baseline dose-timing variation was common with administration occurring up to 8 h early and 7 h later than conventional 24-h dosing intervals. Following implementation of clinical practice guidelines, there was a 10% reduction in chemotherapy finishing after hours and a significant reduction in length of stay for two sarcoma regimens, projected to save 24 inpatient bed days (over $20,000) across more than forty inpatient episodes annually. Deviation from the standard 24-h chemotherapy day (deliberately or inadvertently) was a common yet unstandardized practice. Clinical practice guidelines enabling flexible dose-timing of chemotherapy provided an opportunity to improve chemotherapy administration safety measures, tailor chemotherapy delivery to ward and patient needs, and in some instances reduce non-value-added length of stay. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The dose-dense principle in chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    López, Álvaro G; Iarosz, Kelly C; Batista, Antonio M; Seoane, Jesús M; Viana, Ricardo L; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2017-10-07

    Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment modality that uses drugs to kill tumor cells. A typical chemotherapeutic protocol consists of several drugs delivered in cycles of three weeks. We present mathematical analyses demonstrating the existence of a maximum time between cycles of chemotherapy for a protocol to be effective. A mathematical equation is derived, which relates such a maximum time with the variables that govern the kinetics of the tumor and those characterizing the chemotherapeutic treatment. Our results suggest that there are compelling arguments supporting the use of dose-dense protocols. Finally, we discuss the limitations of these protocols and suggest an alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tumor type, degree of obesity, and chemotherapy regimen on chemotherapy dose intensity in obese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, T; Mochinaga, S; Kimura, S; Aragane, N; Yakabe, T; Morita, S; Okudaira, K; Fujito, H

    2013-01-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology recently published a Clinical Practice Guideline entitled "Appropriate Chemotherapy Dosing for Obesity Adult Patients with Cancer." The panel recommended that full weight (actual weight)-based cytotoxic chemotherapy doses are used to treat obese patients with cancer, particularly when the goal of treatment is cure. However, no study has examined dosage calculation methods used for obese cancer patients in Japan. Here, we retrospectively studied the relationships between chemotherapy dose intensity, the occurrence of adverse events, and treatment outcomes in obese patients undergoing chemotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups: the actual BW group (BWg) was composed of patients receiving dosage amounts calculated using their actual BW (n = 64), and the ideal BWg was composed of patients receiving dosage amounts calculated using their ideal BW (n = 41). There were significant differences in the incidence of Grade 3/4 hematological toxicity in the actual and ideal BWg in solid tumor patients, but not in patients with hematological malignancies. In solid tumor patients with ≥30 body mass index (BMI), the incidence of Grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was significantly lower in the ideal BWg than in the actual BWg. Particularly, in patients with complications, incidence of Grade 4 hematological toxicity was significantly higher in the actual BWg than in the ideal BWg. These results suggest that the tumor type, degree of obesity, complications, and choice of chemotherapy regimen should be considered when determining chemotherapy dosage for obese patients.

  4. Chemotherapy dosing in achondroplastic dwarfism: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Elsoueidi, R; Gresham, C; Michael, L; Chaney, D; Mourad, H

    2016-12-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION: A 74-year-old female with achondroplastic dwarfism was diagnosed with ER-, BR- and HER2- breast cancer. No guideline currently exists to direct chemotherapy dosing in this population. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on body surface area utilizing actual height and weight with dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Satisfactory clinical response and remission were achieved, and treatment proceeded without any significant toxicity or delays. In the absence of guideline recommendations, dosing chemotherapy based on actual height and weight in patients with achondroplastic dwarfism may be safe and appropriate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, E G E; Mulder, N H; van der Graaf, W T A

    2005-05-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with high-dose chemotherapy in a variety of tumour types showed good response rates. Nowadays, several phase 3 studies are available especially in metastatic and high-risk breast cancer patients. The high expectations of high-dose chemotherapy did not come true. This review analyses results of randomised studies and comments on the discrepancy between findings in patients versus those in tissue culture. Potential factors involved are the presence of tumour stem cells with different characteristics from more mature tumour cells, limitations in drug escalation in the clinic, transplant mortality, trial design and tumour cell contamination of the haematopoietic stem cell transplant. Maturation of the results from recent studies indicating a more modest benefit in, e.g., adjuvant breast cancer balanced versus long-term side effects will ultimately determine the role of high-dose chemotherapy in certain solid tumours. In case of well-defined indications for high-dose chemotherapy, further selection of patients based on patient and tumour characteristics as well as the introduction of new agents will most likely play a role.

  6. Stress Encountered by Significant Others of Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kay

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to identify and describe perceived stress and coping responses of family and nonfamily significant others of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Significant others were asked to identify stressful events related to treatment factors, relationship factors, and perception of the patient's condition. Coping responses were categorized in…

  7. Anti-angiogenic treatment of breast cancer using metronomic low-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Raquel; Shaked, Yuval; Bertolini, Francesco; Emmenegger, Urban; Man, Shan; Kerbel, Robert S

    2005-12-01

    We have been studying the molecular and cellular basis of chronic low-dose, frequently administered, metronomic chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of cancer in a variety of preclinical models, including human breast cancer xenografts. The advantages of metronomic-maintenance-type chemotherapy regimens include significantly reduced host toxicity, potentially reduced costs, increased convenience for patients when oral chemotherapy drugs are used, and the possibility of adopting chronic combination therapies involving conventional chemotherapy drugs and cytostatic molecularly targeted therapies. However, a disadvantage is the empiricism associated with determining the optimal biologic dose (OBD). Recently, we have developed a surrogate biomarker approach involving measurement of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) in peripheral blood to help determine the OBD of anti-angiogenic drugs or treatments, including metronomic chemotherapy. Using this approach we determined the OBD for different metronomic chemotherapy regimens and then tested the effect of such drugs for the treatment of established, advanced (high volume) and widespread human breast cancer metastases in immunodeficient mice. This treatment strategy, which was maintained for over 6 months, with no breaks, resulted in marked prolongation of survival and was devoid of overt toxicity. These results suggest the possibility of using metronomic chemotherapy regimens as an adjuvant therapy for early-stage disease, including breast cancer, as was demonstrated recently using long-term daily low-dose UFT for the treatment of early-stage resected non-small cell lung cancer or UFT in combination for early stage breast cancer combined with tamoxifen.

  8. High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Overview of Six Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Donald A.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Lei, Xiudong; Caputo, Jean; Smith, Dori A.; Yancey, Linda J.; Crump, Michael; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Biron, Pierre; Crown, John P.; Schmid, Peter; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Rosti, Giovanni; Bregni, Marco; Demirer, Taner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose High doses of effective chemotherapy are compelling if they can be delivered safely. Substantial interest in supporting high-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow or autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in the 1980s and 1990s led to the initiation of randomized trials to evaluate its effect in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Methods We identified six randomized trials in metastatic breast cancer that evaluated high doses of chemotherapy with transplant support versus a control regimen without stem-cell support. We assembled a single database containing individual patient information from these trials. The primary analysis of overall survival was a log-rank test comparing high dose versus control. We also used Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for known covariates. We addressed potential treatment differences within subsets of patients. Results The effect of high-dose chemotherapy on overall survival was not statistically different (median, 2.16 v 2.02 years; P = .08). A statistically significant advantage in progression-free survival (median, 0.91 v 0.69 years) did not translate into survival benefit. Subset analyses found little evidence that there are groups of patients who might benefit from high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic support. Conclusion Overall survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the six randomized trials was not significantly improved by high-dose chemotherapy; any benefit from high doses was small. No identifiable subset of patients seems to benefit from high-dose chemotherapy. PMID:21768454

  9. [High-dose chemotherapy as a strategy to overcome drug resistance in solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Selle, Frédéric; Gligorov, Joseph; Soares, Daniele G; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The concept of high-doses chemotherapy was developed in the 1980s based on in vitro scientific observations. Exposure of tumor cells to increasing concentrations of alkylating agents resulted in increased cell death in a strong dose-response manner. Moreover, the acquired resistance of tumor cells could be overcome by dose intensification. In clinic, dose intensification of alkylating agents resulted in increased therapeutic responses, however associated with significant hematological toxicity. Following the development of autologous stem cells transplantation harvesting from peripheral blood, the high-doses of chemotherapy, initially associated with marked toxic effects, could be more easily tolerated. As a result, the approach was evaluated in different types of solid tumors, including breast, ovarian and germ cell tumors, small cell lung carcinoma, soft tissue sarcomas and Ewing sarcoma. To date, high-doses chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cells support is only used as a salvage therapy to treat poor prognosis germ cell tumors patients with chemo-sensitive disease. Regarding breast and ovarian cancer, high-doses chemotherapy should be considered only in the context of clinical trials. However, intensive therapy as an approach to overcome resistance to standard treatments is still relevant. Numerous efforts are still ongoing to identify novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments to improve patients' responses.

  10. From total empiricism to a rational design of metronomic chemotherapy phase I dosing trials.

    PubMed

    Lam, Thomas; Hetherington, John W; Greenman, John; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2006-02-01

    'Metronomic chemotherapy' represents a novel anti-angiogenic strategy whereby low-dose chemotherapy is utilized in a continuous fashion in order to target tumor endothelium. There are many potential advantages of this strategy and clinical trials are already underway. However, although the scheduling of metronomic chemotherapy is relatively unequivocal, metronomic dosing principles are at present poorly defined. Arbitrarily, 10-33% of the maximum tolerated dose comprises 'the dose range'. We argue that this is too empirical and propose a set of phase I metronomic chemotherapy dosing strategies based on a principled approach which may help to reduce the problem of empiricism in dosing for metronomic chemotherapy trials.

  11. Efficacy and Toxicity of Low-Dose versus Conventional-Dose Chemotherapy for Malignant Tumors: a Meta-Analysis of 6 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianhe; Wu, Yupeng; Luo, Shuimei; Yang, Haitao; Li, Lina; Zhou, Sijing; Shen, Ruifen; Lin, Heng

    2017-02-01

    Low-dose chemotherapy has emerged as a new strategy for control of cancer. However, there is a controversy as to whether low-dose chemotherapy is an effective way to manage many human malignancies. To shed light on this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of relative merits between low-dose and conventional-dose chemotherapy in different carcinomas. Studies published before February 29, 2016 were reviewed for the meta-analysis and selected according to defined criteria. The effect levels of low-dose chemotherapy regarding overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and severe adverse events (SAEs) (Grade≥3) were calculated as risk ratios (ORs) or adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Six randomized controlled studies (RCTs) have provided data for low-dose chemotherapy versus conventional-dose chemotherapy for 838 cases and 833 cases, respectively. Interestingly, low-dose chemotherapy achieved the same desired potency as conventional-dose chemotherapy, with no differences in pooled ORR (RR=1.00, 95%CI [0.89, 1.13]; (P=0.97), OS (HR=1.07, 95%CI [0.90, 1.26]; P=0.44) and PFS (HR=1.02, 95%CI [0.84, 1.23]; P=0.87) values. Furthermore, pooled data for common SAEs showed that, compared with conventional-dose chemotherapy regimen, low-dose chemotherapy regimen resulted in significant less mucositis (P<0.0001), thrombocytopenia (P<0.00001), anemia (P=0.0001) and febrile neutropenia (P=0.004). At the same time, no statistically significant differences were observed with regard to treatment-related death (P=0.36), diarrhea (P=0.49), leucopenia (P=0.11), neutropenia (P=0.74) and nausea/vomiting (ʺPʺ=0.21). Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and the funnel plot. In conclusion, the meta-analysis seems to support the idea that low-dose chemotherapy may play an important role in achieving the same desired potency as conventional-dose chemotherapy in managing malignant tumors. Moreover, low-dose regimen seems to possess positive advantages of lower

  12. Optimal Treatment for Intracranial Germinoma: Can We Lower Radiation Dose Without Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Sang-Hue; Chen, Yi-Wei; Huang, Pin-I

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the effectiveness of reduced-dose and restricted-volume radiation-only therapy in the treatment of intracranial germinoma and to assess the feasibility of reducing or eliminating the use of chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1996 and March 2007, a retrospective analysis was performed that included 38 patients who received either reduced radiation alone (30 Gy for 26 patients) or reduced radiation with chemotherapy (n = 12 patients). All 38 patients received extended focal (including whole-ventricle) irradiation and were followed up until February 2008. Overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were calculated. Variables associated with survival were evaluated by univariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Median follow-up was 62.4 months (range, 10.1-142.5 months). The total 5-year OS rate was 93.7%. The 5-year OS and RFS rates for patients receiving radiation only were 100% and 96.2%, respectively. The rates for those receiving radiation plus chemotherapy were 83.3 % and 91.7%, respectively (not statistically significant). No predictive factor was significantly associated with the OS or RFS rate. Chemotherapy had no significant effect on survival but was associated with a higher incidence of treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions: A further decrease in the radiation dose to 30 Gy with whole-ventricle irradiation is sufficient to treat selected patients with intracranial germinoma. Wide-field irradiation or chemotherapy should be avoided as these methods are unnecessary. Thus, reduction of the radiation dose to 30 Gy may be feasible, even without chemotherapy.

  13. High-dose Helical Tomotherapy With Concurrent Full-dose Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Suk; Wang, Michael L.C.; Koom, Woong Sub; Yoon, Hong In; Chung, Yoonsun; Song, Si Young; Seong, Jinsil

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To improve poor therapeutic outcome of current practice of chemoradiotherapy (CRT), high-dose helical tomotherapy (HT) with concurrent full-dose chemotherapy has been performed on patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), and the results were analyzed. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 39 patients with LAPC treated with radiotherapy using HT (median, 58.4 Gy; range, 50.8-59.9 Gy) and concomitant chemotherapy between 2006 and 2009. Radiotherapy was directed to the primary tumor with a 0.5-cm margin without prophylactic nodal coverage. Twenty-nine patients (79%) received full-dose (1000 mg/m{sup 2}) gemcitabine-based chemotherapy during HT. After completion of CRT, maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 37 patients (95%). Results: The median follow-up was 15.5 months (range, 3.4-43.9) for the entire cohort, and 22.5 months (range, 12.0-43.9) for the surviving patients. The 1- and 2-year local progression-free survival rates were 82.1% and 77.3%, respectively. Eight patients (21%) were converted to resectable status, including 1 with a pathological complete response. The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 21.2 and 14.0 months, respectively. Acute toxicities were acceptable with no gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity higher than Grade 3. Severe late GI toxicity ({>=}Grade 3) occurred in 10 patients (26%); 1 treatment-related death from GI bleeding was observed. Conclusion: High-dose helical tomotherapy with concurrent full-dose chemotherapy resulted in improved local control and long-term survival in patients with LAPC. Future studies are needed to widen the therapeutic window by minimizing late GI toxicity.

  14. Poor chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control in children receiving intermediate or high dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Vol, Helen; Flank, Jacqueline; Lavoratore, Sara R; Nathan, Paul C; Taylor, Tracey; Zelunka, Elyse; Maloney, Anne Marie; Lee Dupuis, L

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy emetogenicity is the most important known determinant of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) in children. However, direct evidence regarding the emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents in children is limited. This study describes the prevalence of complete control of acute and delayed phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children receiving methotrexate. The prevalence of anticipatory CINV is described, and risk factors for CINV are explored. English-speaking children (4 to 18 years) receiving intermediate-dose (ID-MTX: >1 to <12 g/m(2)/dose) or high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX: ≥12 g/m(2)/dose) participated in this prospective study. Emetic episodes, nausea severity, and antiemetic administration were documented for 24 h from the start of the methotrexate infusion (acute phase) and for up to a further 168 h (delayed phase). CINV prophylaxis was provided at the discretion of the treating physician. Anticipatory CINV was assessed in the 24 h preceding chemotherapy. Complete CINV control was defined as no emetic episodes and no nausea. Thirty children (mean age, 11.8 ± 4 years; ID-MTX, 20; HD-MTX, 10) completed the study. CINV prophylaxis included the following: ondansetron/granisetron plus dexamethasone or nabilone. Few patients experienced complete CINV control (ID-MTX: acute phase 20%, delayed phase 5%; HD-MTX: acute phase 0%, delayed phase 30%). Complete emesis control was higher (ID-MTX: acute phase 70%, delayed phase 50%; HD-MTX: acute phase 70%, delayed phase 60%). Anticipatory CINV was reported by 6/28 patients (21%). Patient age, sex, and history of motion sickness were not significant predictors of CINV. The poor complete CINV control rate in children receiving methotrexate confirms the classification of HD-MTX as highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and suggests that ID-MTX be reclassified as HEC.

  15. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer cells. This is called palliative chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for conditions other than cancer Some chemotherapy drugs ... you'll receive. Side effects that occur during chemotherapy treatment Common side effects of chemotherapy drugs include: ...

  16. Effect of Body Mass Index- and Actual Weight-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Doses on Pathologic Complete Response in Operable Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rachna; Mott, Sarah L; Schroeder, Mary C; Phadke, Sneha; El Masri, Jad; Thomas, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) and chemotherapy dose reduction on pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locoregional breast cancer remains unclear. Contemporary studies have reported largely on trial populations and used dose-capping. Patient registries at the University of Iowa were queried to identify patients with operable breast cancer who received NAC. Dose reductions were calculated for taxanes (T), anthracyclines (A) and non-A-T chemotherapy. Clinical-pathologic characteristics, chemotherapy dose reductions, and adverse events were compared between normal (BMI <25) and overweight/obese patients (BMI ≥25). Additionally, the synergistic effect of BMI and chemotherapy dose reduction on pCR was assessed. Of 171 eligible patients, 112 were overweight/obese. Chemotherapy dosing was capped in 2 patients; all others initiated full weight-based treatment. Overweight/obese patients required more frequent taxane (44.6% vs. 25.4%; P = .01) and any chemotherapy dose reductions (50.9% vs. 33.9%; P = .03). pCR was attained in 29.2% of patients. In a multivariable model, the interaction term for BMI as a continuous variable and any chemotherapy dose reduction was significant independent of the clinical stage and tumor receptor status (P = .04). For obese patients, any chemotherapy dose reduction was significantly associated with increased odds of not attaining pCR. During NAC, overweight/obese patients more often have chemotherapy dose reductions. Chemotherapy dose reduction in obese patients was a powerful predictor of not attaining pCR. This was not seen for normal or overweight patients. Opportunities might exist to improve pCR rates in this higher-risk group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Febrile Neutropenia Rates According to Body Mass Index and Dose Capping in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lote, H; Sharp, A; Redana, S; Papadimitraki, E; Capelan, M; Ring, A

    2016-09-01

    Studies suggest worse outcomes in obese women with breast cancer than in non-obese women. One potential reason may be that oncologists 'dose cap' adjuvant chemotherapy in obese patients in order to avoid excessive toxicity. Reductions from standard dosing may compromise survival outcomes in the curative setting. Here we describe the body mass index (BMI) distribution of patients in a non-trial population, the frequency with which oncologists dose cap and its effect on febrile neutropenia chemotherapy toxicity. In this non-randomised study, electronic patient records retrospectively identified patients with early breast cancer who initiated neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1 January and 31 December 2013. Baseline data included age, BMI, performance status, tumour characteristics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and comorbidities. Chemotherapy doses, rates of dose capping across BMI groups and rates of febrile neutropenia were reported. In total, 325 patients were eligible: 79 (24.5%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30), 109 (33.5%) were overweight (BMI ≥25 - <30) and 137 (42%) were normal bodyweight (BMI < 25). Sixteen patients (20.5%) in the obese group received dose-capped chemotherapy. Overall, 62 patients (19%) had an episode of febrile neutropenia. Obese patients receiving uncapped chemotherapy did not experience a significant difference in febrile neutropenia rates when compared with overweight or normal bodyweight groups (P = 0.5798). The febrile neutropenia rate in obese patients receiving capped chemotherapy was 6.5%, compared with 24% in obese patients receiving uncapped chemotherapy (P = 0.1216). In a non-trial population of obese patients, dose capping is frequently used. Obese patients receiving uncapped chemotherapy do not experience increased febrile neutropenia rates when compared with uncapped overweight or normal bodyweight patients. Furthermore, dose capping was associated with a trend towards lower

  18. Combined chemoradiation for the management of nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma: elucidating the significance of systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ye; Lu, Jiade J; Ma, Xuejun; Wang, Biyun; Hong, Xiaonan; Li, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and treatment outcome of CHOP and CHOP combined with nitrosourea chemotherapy in natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity. Sixty-three patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity were treated with CHOP or CHOP combined with oral nitrosourea chemotherapy between January 1997 and June 2005. By the Ann Arbor Lymphoma Staging Classification, 57 patients (90%) had Stage IE or IIE disease and six patients (10%) had Stage III or IV disease. All patients with Stage IE or IIE disease were intended to be treated curatively with combined chemoradiation; and patients who had Stage III or IV disease were treated with chemotherapy alone with curative intention. Chemotherapy consisted of: (1) up to six cycles of the standard CHOP based regimen, or (2) up to six cycles of the standard CHOP based regimen with oral Semustine dosed at 120 mg (or Lomustine dosed at 100mg) on day 1 of each chemotherapy cycle. External beam radiation therapy was delivered by daily conventional fractionation by Co-60 or 6MVx linear accelerator for patients with Stage IE or IIE disease. The radiation dose to the tumor bed was between 36 and 50 Gy with a median dose of 45 Gy. Fifty-three patients received chemotherapy prior to radiation, and four patients were treated with involved field radiation before chemotherapy. The median follow up for all 44 surviving patients was 31 months (range: 6-104 months). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 60% and 70%, respectively. The PFS and OS of patients who were treated with or without oral nitrosourea in addition to CHOP were 73% vs. 44% (P=0.035) and 75% vs. 64% (P=0.276), respectively. Nine patients with Stage IE or IIE diseases developed disease progression during their planned treatment and died within 10 months after the initiation of treatment; Six patients who achieved complete response (CR) after planned chemoradiation developed

  19. Outcomes in obese and overweight acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy dosed according to actual body weight.

    PubMed

    Wenzell, Candice M; Gallagher, Erika M; Earl, Marc; Yeh, Jun-Yen; Kusick, Karissa N; Advani, Anjali S; Kalaycio, Matt E; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Tiu, Ramon V; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Sekeres, Mikkael A

    2013-10-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy dosages are traditionally calculated according to body surface area (BSA). No guidelines exist for chemotherapy dosing of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients at extremes of weight. We investigated the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy dosed according to BSA based on actual body weight (ABW) among under/normal weight, overweight, and obese AML patients. AML patients (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia) treated with anthracycline and cytarabine-based remission induction chemotherapy from 2002 to 2009 at Cleveland Clinic were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: under/normal weight (BMI ≤ 24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0). Among 247 AML patients, 81 (33%) were under/normal weight, 81 (33%) were overweight, and 85 (34%) were obese. Complete remission (CR) rates were similar among these groups (69.1, 79.0, and 76.5%, respectively; P = 0.321), as was median survival (10.7, 16.7, and 14.2 months, respectively, P = 0.352) and 30-day mortality (3.7, 2.5, 7.1%, respectively, P = 0.331). There was no difference among groups in days to neutrophil or platelet recovery, hospitalization days for induction chemotherapy, and bacteremia. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, BMI, white blood cells, cytogenetic risk, etiology, and bacteremia), overall survival was significantly shorter for normal weight compared to overweight (P = 0.006) and obese (0.038) patients. Response rates and adverse events were not significantly different among AML patients of all weight classes when induction chemotherapy was dosed according to ABW. Induction chemotherapy in these patients can be safely dosed using ABW. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim to prevent neutropenia and maintain dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Skarlos, Dimosthenis V; Gogas, Helen; Pentheroudakis, George; Koutras, Angelos; Fountzilas, George; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of prophylactic single fixed dose of pegfilgrastim and daily administration of filgrastim on febrile neutropenia (FN), severe neutropenia, treatment delay, and dose reduction in patients with breast cancer receiving dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy. A retrospective cohort study with 1058 breast cancer patients matched by age and chemotherapy was conducted. The primary endpoints were FN, severe (grade 3, 4) neutropenia, dose reduction (>10 % reduction of the dose planned), and treatment delay (dose given more than 2 days later). Eighteen episodes of FN (3.4%) in the filgrastim group and 23 (4.3%) in the pegfilgrastim group (p = 0.500) were recorded. More than half of the total episodes (27/41) occurred during the first 4 cycles of treatment. Patients who received filgrastim were almost three times more likely to experience a severe neutropenia episode and were significantly more likely to experience a dose reduction (18.5%) compared to those who received pegfilgrastim (10.8%) (p < 0.001). The percentage of patients, who received their planned dose on time, was significantly lower in patients receiving filgrastim (58%) compared to those receiving pegfilgrastim (72.4%, p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected on FN rate between daily administration of filgrastim and single administration of pegfilgrastim. However, patients receiving pegfilgrastim had a significantly lower rate of severe neutropenia, as well as dose reduction and treatment delay, thus, achieving a higher dose density.

  1. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is most often given in cycles. These cycles may last 1 day, several days, or a ... period when no chemotherapy is given between each cycle. A rest period may last for days, weeks, ...

  2. [High dose cinobufocini in attenuation and treatment of infection and granulocytopenia during combined chemotherapy of malignant blood diseases].

    PubMed

    Yue, B B

    1992-03-01

    The use of high dose Cinobufocini in attenuation and treatment of infection and granulocytopenia during combined chemotherapy was observed in patients with malignant blood diseases. The study was designed in such a way that each patient served as self control. The patients, 18 males and 12 females, aged 16-66 (average 34), 62 experiments in 20 patients with acute leukemia, 8 with malignant lymphoma and 2 with multiple myeloma were observed. In patients with the treatment of high dose Cinobufocini, infection was significantly decreased and the number of granulocytes was not markedly changed before and after the treatment. The observation demonstrated that high dose Cinobufocini can significantly reduce the risk of infection and degree and duration of granulocytopenia associated with chemotherapy of patients with malignant blood diseases. The use of high dose Cinobufocini is simple and convenient and with very little side effects.

  3. Chemotherapy of onchocerciasis with high doses of diethylcarbamazine or a single dose of ivermectin: microfilaria levels and side effects.

    PubMed

    Albiez, E J; Newland, H S; White, A T; Kaiser, A; Greene, B M; Taylor, H R; Büttner, D W

    1988-03-01

    Fifty adult male subjects with moderate to heavy onchocerciasis from the Liberian rain forest were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled chemotherapy study. The effects of high doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) - 30 mg/kg/d - over one week preceded by a one week initial treatment with normal oral doses of DEC or DEC lotion were compared with a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) and placebo. During the initial treatment DEC tablets or lotion caused distinctly more frequent and severe reactions than did invermectin. The reactions to ivermectin did not differ from those of the placebo patients. High doses of DEC caused, in about half of the patients, headache, dizziness, nausea or vomiting. DEC markedly increased the number of corneal microfilariae and of corneal opacities compared to ivermectin. All changes resolved with a return to pretreatment findings two months after treatment. The three treatment groups showed no differences at the ten months follow-up. In all treated patients skin microfilaria counts fell almost to zero by the end of the two week therapy. In the ivermectin group microfilaria counts remained significantly lower than in the DEC patients at the two and ten months examinations. In summary, ivermectin was much better tolerated than DEC and had a longer lasting effect on the microfilariae in the skin. Since high doses of DEC were less effective and caused more frequent and severe side effects, this approach cannot be recommended for treatment of onchocerciasis.

  4. Clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy agents reversibly block formation of glioblastoma neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Mihaliak, Alicia M.; Gilbert, Candace A.; Li, Li; Daou, Marie-Claire; Moser, Richard P.; Reeves, Andrew; Cochran, Brent H.; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma patients have a poor prognosis, even after surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with temozolomide or 1,3-bis(2-chloroethy)-1-nitrosourea. We developed an in vitro recovery model using neurosphere cultures to analyze the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments, and tested whether glioblastoma neurosphere initiating cells are resistant. Concentrations of chemotherapy drugs that inhibit neurosphere formation are similar to clinically relevant doses. Some lines underwent a transient cell cycle arrest and a robust recovery of neurosphere formation. These results indicate that glioblastoma neurospheres can regrow after treatment with chemotherapy drugs. This neurosphere recovery assay will facilitate studies of chemo-resistant subpopulations and methods to enhance glioblastoma therapy. PMID:20435409

  5. Prognostic significance of a complete pathological response after induction chemotherapy in operable breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, P; Amat, S; Cure, H; de Latour, M; Bouedec, G Le; Mouret-Reynier, M-A; Ferriere, J-P; Achard, J-L; Dauplat, J; Penault-Llorca, F

    2002-01-01

    Only a few papers have been published concerning the incidence and outcome of patients with a pathological complete response after cytotoxic treatment in breast cancer. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the outcome of patients found to have a pathological complete response in both the breast and axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer. Our goal was also to determine whether the residual pathological size of the tumour in breast could be correlated with pathological node status. Between 1982 and 2000, 451 consecutive patients were registered into five prospective phase II trials. After six cycles, 396 patients underwent surgery with axillary dissection for 277 patients (69.9%). Pathological response was evaluated according to the Chevallier's classification. At a median follow-up of 8 years, survival was analysed as a function of pathological response. A pathological complete response rate was obtained in 60 patients (15.2%) after induction chemotherapy. Breast tumour persistence was significantly related to positive axillary nodes (P=5.10−6). At 15 years, overall survival and disease-free survival rates were significantly higher in the group who had a pathological complete response than in the group who had less than a pathological complete response (P=0.047 and P=0.024, respectively). In the absence of pathological complete response and furthermore when there is a notable remaining pathological disease, axillary dissection is still important to determine a major prognostic factor and subsequently, a second non cross resistant adjuvant regimen or high dose chemotherapy could lead to a survival benefit. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1041–1046. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600210 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953845

  6. Low-dose docetaxel, estramustine and prednisolone combination chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    NAKANO, MAYURA; SHOJI, SUNAO; HIGURE, TARO; KAWAKAMI, MASAYOSHI; TOMONAGA, TETSURO; TERACHI, TOSHIRO; UCHIDA, TOYOAKI

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report our experience with weekly low-dose docetaxel (DOC) chemotherapy for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). From 2007 to 2014, 39 consecutive patients received weekly low-dose DOC; the oncological effectiveness, side effects and tolerability were prospectively analyzed. The median patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score at diagnosis of prostate cancer were 71 years (range, 55–83 years), 187 ng/ml (range, 2.0–1711 ng/ml) and 8 (range, 5–10), respectively. The median number of cycles of DOC was 7 (range, 1–45 cycles). Of the 39 patients, the PSA level decreased by >50% in 13 (33%). In the multivariate analysis of prediction of patient overall survival, a decrease of the PSA level to <50% was a significant predictor (hazard ratio = 6.913; 95% confidence interval: 1.147–41.669; P=0.035). The median cancer-specific overall survival from the diagnosis of CRPC was 16.7 months (range, 2–54 months). Grade 3 toxicities were observed in 5 patients (13%); specifically, limb edema, nausea and hepatic disorders were detected in 2 (5%), 2 (5%) and 1 patient (3%), respectively. Treatment-related death (grade 5) occurred in 1 patient due to interstitial pneumonia after two courses of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy was completed in the majority of the patients (n=37, 94.8%) in the outpatient department, without interruption. These findings suggest that weekly low-dose DOC is feasible and safe for selected patients with CRPC, without treament with novel agents, such as abiraterone, enzalutamide and cabazitaxel. PMID:27284427

  7. High dose intensity combination chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetenham, J. W.; McKendrick, J. J.; Jones, D. H.; Whitehouse, J. M.; Williams, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrospective studies have recently demonstrated a significant correlation between dose intensity of chemotherapy and response rates and survival in various diseases including epithelial ovarian carcinoma. As part of a proposed randomised trial to assess the effect of dose intensity on outcome in ovarian carcinoma, a pilot study has been undertaken to determine the toxicity and efficacy of the high intensity therapy. Nineteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma received initial treatment with cisplatin 120 mg m-2 i.v. day 1, and cyclophosphamide 1,000 mg-2 i.v. day 1, given at 21-day intervals for six cycles. The average relative dose intensity of this therapy is 1.14 when compared with the CHAP regimen. Severe toxicity was experienced by most patients. The median received average relative dose intensity was 0.90, with only one patient receiving treatment to the proposed intensity. Randomised studies of the effect of dose intensity in ovarian carcinoma are essential, but an initial step must be to assess whether the proposed high dose treatment can be delivered. PMID:2155645

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma stem cell-like cells are enriched following low-dose 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yongqiang; Mou, Lisha; Cheng, Kangwen; Wang, Chengyou; Deng, Xuesong; Chen, Junren; Fan, Zhibing; Ni, Yong

    2016-10-01

    It has been proposed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumor resistance to chemotherapy and tumor relapse. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of low-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) on enriched hepatocellular CSC-like cells. Increased cell motility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition were observed by migration assay in human hepatoblastoma PLC/RAF/5 cells following 5-Fu treatment, as well as a significant enhancement in their sphere-forming abilities. CSC-like cells were identified by side population cell analysis. The percentage of CSC-like cells in the surviving cells was greatly increased in response to 5-Fu. These findings indicate that low-dose 5-Fu treatment may efficiently enrich the CSC-like cell population in PLC/RAF/5 cells.

  9. A safe and effective dose of cisplatin in hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Akihiko; Suda, Takeshi; Kamimura, Kenya; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Tamura, Yasushi; Takamura, Masaaki; Igarashi, Masato; Kawai, Hirokazu; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is an anticancer agent that is commonly used in hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the safe and effective dose of CDDP in HAI for HCC. The hypervascular area was measured in 42 HCCs before and after HAI with CDDP. Serum platinum concentration was quantified in the peripheral and/or middle hepatic veins by atomic absorption spectrometry. The relation between the HCC response and CDDP dose was statistically analyzed. The multiple HCC nodules in an individual case generally demonstrated the same response to CDDP. The free-platinum concentration stayed relatively constant in the hepatic vein during HAI followed by a rapid decline, while total-platinum gradually increased then slowly disappeared over several days. After CDDP-HAI, 15 HCCs shrunk and 27 HCCs grew. The reduction rate in the shrunken nodules was tended to be correlated with CDDP dose after standardization with the target liver volume. On the other hand, the growth rate of the enlarged HCCs was significantly correlated with CDDP dose after normalization with creatinine clearance. These data support a recommendation of CDDP-HAI infusion where the amount of CDDP (mg) administered is less than patient creatinine clearance (mL/min/1.73 m2) upon an assumption of HCC doubling time of 90 days, and the targeted liver is smaller than 200 times the CDDP dose (mg). A further analysis is required to define appropriate injection speeds. PMID:24133631

  10. Chemotherapy dose--response relationships in non-small cell lung cancer and implied resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David J; Chiritescu, Gabriela; Dahrouge, Simone; Banerjee, Srabani; Tomiak, Eva M

    2007-04-01

    We hypothesized excess resistance factor ("active resistance") gives a dose--response curve (DRC) shoulder, deficiency of a factor required for drug sensitivity ("saturable passive resistance") gives a DRC terminal plateau, and alteration of a factor gives decreased DRC slope. We used response rates from published non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinical studies to estimate mean percent tumor cell kill in each study (assuming cell kill is proportional to tumor volume change) and performed regression and meta-regression analyses of percent cell survival and patient survival vs planned dose-intensity. As single agents, cell kill approached that of combinations only at highest doses. While DRC shape varied between single agents, DRCs for all combinations tested flattened at higher doses. Patient median survival times also failed to vary significantly with dose for any combination. DRC flattening at higher doses suggests therapy efficacy is limited by deficiency/saturation of factors required for cell killing. Based on this and other clinical observations, we hypothesize: (1) active resistance may modulate cell killing at lower doses, but ability to overcome this by increasing doses is limited by saturable passive resistance (e.g. by non-cycling cells). (2) Cells surviving initial chemotherapy may upregulate active resistance mechanisms (permitting growth despite therapy). (3) If active resistance mechanisms are insufficient for growth/survival, cells may survive until therapy cessation by downregulating metabolism/cycling, becoming temporarily quiescent. This could help explain broad cross-resistance between agents and would imply that improved targeting of non-cycling cells will be required for major improvement in therapy efficacy.

  11. Chemotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  12. High dose of prokinetics for refractory hiccups after chemotherapy or the return to a simple drug

    PubMed Central

    Uña, Esther; Alonso, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Hiccups in patients with cancer might be difficult to treat, impacting negatively on the quality of life. Many therapies are available, but they are usually started empirically, and often they are unsuccessful. We report a case of a man with metastatic colon cancer who after the first cycle of chemotherapy developed persistent hiccups refractory to neuroleptics and low dose of metoclopramide. After searching for the potential cause, a high dose of prokinetics was initiated in the hospital and his symptoms disappeared. This case shows how searching for potential causes helps start the right treatment immediately, and therefore it is relevant for the prompt relief from this bothersome symptom. So far, no cases reporting high doses of prokinetics to treat persistent hiccups after chemotherapy have been published. This option should be taken into account when developing hiccups and gastro-oesophageal reflux after chemotherapy, especially if low doses of prokinetics have already been tried. PMID:24169870

  13. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people. But knowing what chemotherapy is, how it works, and what to expect can often help calm your fears. It can also give you a better sense of control over your cancer treatment. ... Drugs Work CancerQuest: Chemotherapy [video] Interactive Chemotherapy Program from Emmi ...

  14. Low-dose metronomic chemotherapy: from past experience to new paradigms in the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Loven, David; Hasnis, Erez; Bertolini, Francesco; Shaked, Yuval

    2013-02-01

    Low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy represents an emerging concept in the treatment of cancer. Directed against tumor cells and other types of cells, such as endothelial and immune cells, this treatment regimen alters the tumor microenvironment and suppresses innate features which support tumor growth. Ongoing Phase III clinical studies explore various applications of LDM chemotherapy, mostly combined with other anticancer agents, to act as complementary treatments to conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. In this article we summarize preclinical and clinical experience with LDM chemotherapy, emphasizing the potential contribution of this new treatment modality to future paradigms in the systemic treatment of patients with cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal biologic dose of metronomic chemotherapy regimens is associated with maximum antiangiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Yuval; Emmenegger, Urban; Man, Shan; Cervi, Dave; Bertolini, Francesco; Ben-David, Yaacov; Kerbel, Robert S

    2005-11-01

    Low-dose metronomic chemotherapy is a promising therapeutic cancer treatment strategy thought to have an antiangiogenic basis. However, the advantages of reduced toxicity, increased efficacy in some cases, and ability to combine chemotherapy administered long term in this way with targeted therapies can be compromised by the empiricism associated with determining the optimum biologic dose (OBD). Using 4 distinct metronomic chemotherapy regimens in 4 different preclinical tumor models, including a hematologic malignancy, we established the OBD by determining the maximum efficacy associated with minimum or no toxicity. We then found each OBD to be strikingly correlated with the maximum reduction in viable peripheral blood circulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive (VEGFR-2+) endothelial precursors (CEPs). These results suggest that CEPs may serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to determine the OBD of metronomic chemotherapy regimens.

  16. Reinforcement learning-based control of drug dosing for cancer chemotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Regina; Meskin, Nader; Haddad, Wassim M

    2017-08-16

    The increasing threat of cancer to human life and the improvement in survival rate of this disease due to effective treatment has promoted research in various related fields. This research has shaped clinical trials and emphasized the necessity to properly schedule cancer chemotherapy to ensure effective and safe treatment. Most of the control methodologies proposed for cancer chemotherapy scheduling treatment are model-based. In this paper, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based, model-free method is proposed for the closed-loop control of cancer chemotherapy drug dosing. Specifically, the Q-learning algorithm is used to develop an optimal controller for cancer chemotherapy drug dosing. Numerical examples are presented using simulated patients to illustrate the performance of the proposed RL-based controller. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maculopapular skin rashes associated with high-dose chemotherapy: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lynette G

    2006-11-27

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for maculopapular skin rashes associated with high-dose chemotherapy. Observational pilot study. A bone marrow transplant hematology-oncology unit in a private city hospital. Data were collected on 14 patients who developed maculopapular rashes out of 127 patients who received high-dose chemotherapy (purposive sampling). Observation of the distribution and nature of skin rashes in relation to chemotherapy, disease, adjuvant medications, and white blood cell counts. Diseases, chemotherapy protocols and doses, adjuvant medications, and blood counts. Skin reactions ranged from mild, scattered macular or maculopapular rashes to severe rashes. Patients newly diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who received induction protocols containing cytarabine had the most rashes, affecting 6 of 11 patients (55%). No rashes were observed on patients treated with the protocol that included high-dose corticosteroids. Patients rarely had recurrence of the rash with further courses of chemotherapy. Cytarabine doses higher than 700 mg/m2 may be a cause of maculopapular skin rashes. Patients most at risk were those newly diagnosed with AML who received induction therapy. Corticosteroids may prevent the development of skin rashes. No useful nursing strategy exists to prevent, lessen the intensity of, or shorten the course of a delayed hypersensitivity rash. Knowing which patients are most at risk is useful to enable close monitoring and patient and staff education.

  18. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Childhood Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Spreafico, Filippo Gandola, Lorenza; Marchiano, Alfonso; Simonetti, Fabio; Poggi, Geraldina; Adduci, Anna; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Luksch, Roberto; Biassoni, Veronica; Meazza, Cristina; Catania, Serena; Terenziani, Monica; Musumeci, Renato; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Massimino, Maura

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Results: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T{sub 1}-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T{sub 2}-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74% {+-} 6% at 1 year and 57% {+-} 8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Conclusion: Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-a-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation.

  19. Whole brain radiation dose reduction for primary central nervous system lymphoma patients who achieved partial response after high-dose methotrexate based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Su; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Won; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Kihyun

    2017-08-30

    The whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) dose for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients who achieved complete response after induction chemotherapy was recently reduced to 23.4 Gy, but the optimal radiation dose for patients who achieved partial response (PR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of reduced-dose WBRT for patients who achieved PR. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of PCNSL patients who were treated with high-dose methotrexate based chemotherapy. We compared treatment outcomes between the patients who received WBRT at either 36 Gy or 45 Gy. The overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival (IC-PFS) was 66.3% and 42.6% at 5 years, respectively. There was no significant difference in treatment outcomes between the patients who received 36 Gy and 45 Gy, especially among patients who achieved PR. Three-year OS was 100% and 83.3% for 36 Gy and 45 Gy group, respectively (P = 0.313). Three-year IC-PFS was 60.0% and 66.7% for 36 Gy and 45 Gy group, respectively (P = 0.916). Findings of our study might provide a possibility for dose-reduction in patients achieving PR to induction chemotherapy, which may in turn reduce delayed neurologic sequelae. However, the number of patients included in this study was too small to lead to a concrete conclusion, thus further study is needed.

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy dosing in low-income women: the impact of Hispanic ethnicity and patient self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jennifer J; Liu, Yihang; Sorbero, Melony E; Jagielski, Christina H; Maly, Rose C

    2014-04-01

    Unwarranted breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy dose reductions have been documented in black women, women of lower socioeconomic status, and those who are obese. No information on the quality of chemotherapy is available in Hispanic women. The purpose of this study was to characterize factors associated with first cycle chemotherapy dose selection in a multi-ethnic sample of low-income women receiving chemotherapy through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Treatment Program (BCCPT) and to investigate the impact of Hispanic ethnicity and patient self-efficacy on adjuvant chemotherapy dose selection. Survey and chemotherapy information were obtained from consenting participants enrolled in the California BCCPT. Analyses identified clinical and non-clinical factors associated with first cycle chemotherapy doses less than 90 % of expected doses. Of 552 patients who received chemotherapy, 397 (72 %) were eligible for inclusion. First cycle dose reductions were given to 14 % of the sample. In multivariate analyses, increasing body mass index and non-academic treatment site were associated with doses below 90 % of the expected doses. No other clinical or non-clinical factors, including ethnicity, were associated with first cycle doses selection. In this universally low-income sample, we identified no association between Hispanic ethnicity and other non-clinical patient factors, including patient self-efficacy, in chemotherapy dose selection. As seen in other studies, obesity was associated with systematic dose limits. The guidelines on chemotherapy dose selection in the obese may help address such dose reductions. A greater understanding of the association between type of treatment site and dose selection is warranted. Overall, access to adequate health care allows the vast majority of low-income women with breast cancer to receive high-quality breast cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Comparing two lower-dose cisplatin programs for radio-chemotherapy of locally advanced head-and-neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Seidl, Daniel; Janssen, Stefan; Strojan, Primoz; Karner, Katarina; Bajrovic, Amira; Hakim, Samer G; Wollenberg, Barbara; Schild, Steven E

    2017-02-01

    Radio-chemotherapy is a common treatment for locally advanced squamous cell head-and-neck cancers (LA-SCCHN). Cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks is very common but associated with considerable toxicity. Therefore, cisplatin programs with lower daily doses were introduced. There is a lack of studies comparing lower-dose programs. In this study, 85 patients receiving radio-chemotherapy with 20 mg/m(2) cisplatin on 5 days every 4 weeks (group A) were retrospectively compared to 85 patients receiving radio-chemotherapy with 30-40 mg/m(2) cisplatin weekly (group B). Groups were matched for nine factors including age, gender, performance score, tumor site, T-/N-category, surgery, hemoglobin before radio-chemotherapy, and radiation technique. One- and 3-year loco-regional control rates were 83 and 69 % in group A versus 74 and 63 % in group B (p = 0.12). One- and 3-year survival rates were 93 % and 73 % in group A versus 91 and 49 % in group B (p = 0.011). On multivariate analysis, survival was significantly better for group A (HR 1.17; p = 0.002). In groups A and B, 12 and 28 % of patients, respectively, did not receive a cumulative cisplatin dose ≥180 mg/m(2) (p = 0.016). Toxicity rates were not significantly different. On subgroup analyses, group A patients had better loco-regional control (p = 0.040) and survival (p = 0.005) than group B patients after definitive radio-chemotherapy. In patients receiving adjuvant radio-chemotherapy, outcomes were not significantly different. Thus, 20 mg/m(2) cisplatin on 5 days every 4 weeks resulted in better loco-regional control and survival in patients receiving definitive radio-chemotherapy and may be preferable for these patients. Confirmation of these results in a randomized trial is warranted.

  2. Hypofractionated Dose-Painting Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Chemotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, Richard L.; Lee, Nancy; Pfister, David G.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Hunt, Margie A.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose-painting intensity-modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) with a hypofractionated regimen to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with concomitant toxicity reduction. Methods and Materials: From October 2002 through April 2007, 25 newly diagnosed NPC patients were enrolled in a prospective trial. DP-IMRT was prescribed to deliver 70.2 Gy using 2.34-Gy fractions to the gross tumor volume for the primary and nodal sites while simultaneously delivering 54 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to regions at risk of microscopic disease. Patients received concurrent and adjuvant platin-based chemotherapy similar to the Intergroup 0099 trial. Results: Patient and disease characteristics are as follows: median age, 46; 44% Asian; 68% male; 76% World Health Organization III; 20% T1, 52% T2, 16% T3, 12% T4; 20% N0, 36% N1, 36% N2, 8% N3. With median follow-up of 33 months, 3-year local control was 91%, regional control was 91%, freedom from distant metastases was 91%, and overall survival was 89%. The average mean dose to each cochlea was 43 Gy. With median audiogram follow-up of 14 months, only one patient had clinically significant (Grade 3) hearing loss. Twelve percent of patients developed temporal lobe necrosis; one patient required surgical resection. Conclusions: Preliminary findings using a hypofractionated DP-IMRT regimen demonstrated that local control, freedom from distant metastases, and overall survival compared favorably with other series of IMRT and chemotherapy. The highly conformal boost to the tumor bed resulted low rates of severe ototoxicity (Grade 3-4). However, the incidence of in-field brain radiation necrosis indicates that 2.34 Gy per fraction is not safe in this setting.

  3. Monitoring and Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia After High Dose Methotrexate Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received high dose methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy and explore the corresponding treatment. Methods 180 children who received high dose MTX chemotherapy were observed with serum MTX concentration and serum creatinine. Patients with AKI of stage 3 or poor response to conventional treatment were performed on hemodialysis and assessed the treatment outcome. Results 9 patients (5%) have appeared AKI, including 7 cases of AKI of stage 3. However, there were not any significant correlation between age, gender, serum MTX concentration and AKI, respectively. Compared with normal serum MTX concentration, the patients with high serum MTX concentration easily were developed to AKI, the MTX and serum creatinine concentration had been significantly decreased in 9 patients after hemodialysis. Conclusion AKI has appeared in some children with ALL who receive high dose MTX chemotherapy, and this may due to increase of serum MTX concentration. The monitoring of serum MTX concentration and AKI index could help to find out AKI, and even to prevent the occurrence of it. Furthermore, once AKI is present, those patients with AKI stage 3 or poor response to conventional treatment should be performed on hemodialysis treatment. PMID:28243295

  4. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell support for recurrent primary AFP-producing intracranial germinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ziske, Carsten; Mezger, Jörg; Jiménez, Carlos; Kleinschmidt, Rolf; Pels, Hendrik; Schlegel, Uwe; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We report of a 34-year old man with second intracranial relapse of a suprasellar germinoma. Despite of extensive pretreatment with radiation and conventional chemotherapy relapse occurred and was treated with sequential high-dose chemotherapy followed by transfusion of autologous peripheral stem cells. The high-dose chemotherapy course was complicated by refractory derailment of pineal gland insufficiency. The patient achieved a complete remission after high dose chemotherapy which lasted for 13 months. Subsequently, he developed a third relapse and died. PMID:19675701

  5. Efficacy of granulocyte colony stimulating factor as a secondary prophylaxis along with full-dose chemotherapy following a prior cycle of febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Seema; Singh, Pankaj K; Bhatt, Madan L B; Pant, Mohan C; Gupta, Rajeev; Negi, Mahendra P S

    2010-10-01

    Secondary prophylaxis with recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is recommended where patients have experienced febrile neutropenia in an earlier chemotherapy cycle and for whom the maintenance of chemotherapy dose intensity is important; or where febrile neutropenia has not occurred but prolonged neutropenia is causing excessive dose delay or reduction, where maintenance of dose intensity is important. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of G-CSF as secondary prophylaxis when used along with full dose moderately myelotoxic chemotherapy following a prior cycle with febrile-neutropenia. Fifty-two patients aged 22-75 years with febrile neutropenia that required intravenous antibiotics following moderately myelotoxic chemotherapy were included. These patients received the next cycle of the same chemotherapy regime without dose modification but with support of filgrastim 24 h after completion of chemotherapy (300 μg/day/subcutaneously (s.c.) for weight < 60 kg, 480 μg/day/s.c. for weight > 60 kg, for at least 10 consecutive days), patients in whom neutropenia was associated with a life-threatening infection and those who developed prolonged myelosuppression were excluded. The use of the hematopoietic growth factor G-CSF was shown to shorten the neutrophil recovery time, resulting in significant reduction of incidence of febrile neutropenia, hospitalization and use of broad spectrum antibiotics. There was no drug related death or adverse events associated with either cycle. In conclusion, recombinant human G-CSF is effective and relatively safe as a secondary prophylaxis with full dose chemotherapy in patients who develop febrile neutropenia following prior cycles of moderately myelotoxic chemotherapy.

  6. Impact of obesity on chemotherapy dosing for women with advanced stage serous ovarian cancer in the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS).

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, George; Webb, Penelope M; DeFazio, Anna; Fereday, Sian; Bressel, Mathias; Mileshkin, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem that is reported to influence chemotherapy dosing. The extent to which this occurs and whether this affects outcomes in ovarian cancer was unclear. To describe chemotherapy dosing practices in normal, overweight and obese patients treated for FIGO Stage III/IV serous ovarian cancer in the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS). To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), dose intensity of chemotherapy received, overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Patient characteristics including age, height, weight, FIGO stage, serum creatinine, primary chemotherapy received and outcome data were extracted from medical records and entered into the AOCS database. Outcomes were analysed against BMI and relative dose intensity (RDI) received, based on calculations derived from a standard regimen (carboplatin AUC 5 and paclitaxel 175mg/m(2)). 333 women were included in the analysis. 27% were overweight and 21% were obese. In cycle 1 66% of obese patients received carboplatin doses more than 5% below their optimal calculated dose, and 32% received sub-optimal paclitaxel doses, compared to 25% and 13% of normal weight patients respectively. Obese women were more likely to have received <85% RDI for carboplatin compared to normal weight women (p<0.001). BMI group and RDI of carboplatin and paclitaxel were not predictors of OS. Women who received less than 85% RDI for carboplatin had a worse PFS (univariate analysis, median PFS 11 versus 15 months; p=0.04). There was no significant association between RDI and OS or PFS in multivariate analysis. Obesity is common in ovarian cancer patients, and commonly results in lower chemotherapy dosing than recommended. Analysis of chemotherapy dosing from this study suggests that reduced dose intensity of carboplatin, which was more common in obese women, may impact on PFS in patients with advanced serous ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    PubMed

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients.

  8. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients. PMID:26820986

  9. Clinical significance of systemic chemotherapy after curative resection of metachronous pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwoo; Kang, Byung Woog; Lee, Soo Jung; Yoon, Shinkyo; Chae, Yee Soo; Kim, Jong Gwang; Lee, Kyung Hee; Koh, Sung Ae; Song, Hong Suk; Park, Keon Uk; Kim, Jin Young; Heo, Mi Hwa; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Cho, Yoon Young; Jo, Jungmin; Lee, Jung Lim; Lee, Sun Ah

    2017-07-01

    The use of systemic chemotherapy after resection remains controversial in patients with resectable metachronous pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). This retrospective study compared systemic chemotherapy with observation alone after resection of pulmonary metastases from CRC. Between 2001 and 2015, 91 patients with metachronous pulmonary metastases underwent curative surgical resection at five centers. Patients with stage IV at diagnosis were excluded. Overall survival (OS) was defined as the time from pulmonary resection until death. The disease-free interval (DFI) was defined as the time from pulmonary resection until recurrence or death. Among the 91 patients, 63 were in the chemotherapy group, while 28 were in the observation alone group. The characteristics were similar between the two groups, except for the carcinoembryonic antigen level after pulmonary metastases and the use of adjuvant treatment after resection of the primary tumor. With a median follow-up duration of 46 months (11-126), the estimated 5-year DFI and OS rates were 32.8 and 61.4%, respectively. The chemotherapy following pulmonary resection was not significantly associated with the DFI (p = 0.416) and OS (p = 0.119). Systemic chemotherapy after pulmonary resection was not found to have a significant effect on survival.

  10. Roles of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy in the Etiology of Stomach Cancer as a Second Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W. van den; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Besseling, Gijs; Bruin, Marie L. de; Hauptmann, Michael; Veer, Mars B. van't; Wit, Ronald de; Ribot, Jacques G.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Kerst, J. Martijn; Gietema, Jourik A.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the Netherlands between 1965 and 1995. In a nested case-control study, detailed information on treatment, smoking, gastrointestinal diseases, and family history was collected for 42 patients with stomach cancer and 126 matched controls. For each subject, the mean radiation dose to the stomach was estimated. Relative risks (RRs) of stomach cancer and the radiation-related excess relative risk (ERR) per gray were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: The risk of stomach cancer was 3.4-fold increased compared with the general population. The risk increased with increasing mean stomach dose (p for trend, <0.001), at an ERR of 0.84 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-15.6). Mean stomach doses of more than 20 Gy were associated with a RR of 9.9 (95% CI, 3.2-31.2) compared with doses below 11 Gy. The risk was 1.8-fold (95% CI, 0.8-4.4) increased after chemotherapy and 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.2-23.9) increased after high doses of procarbazine (>=13,000 mg) vs. <10,000 mg. The RR of smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day vs. no smoking was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6-4.2). Conclusions: Stomach cancer risk is strongly radiation dose dependent. The role of chemotherapy, particularly of procarbazine and related agents, needs further study, because of the relatively small numbers of chemotherapy-treated subjects.

  11. High-dose treatment with autologous stem cell transplantation versus sequential chemotherapy: the GELA experience.

    PubMed

    Bosly, A; Haioun, C; Gisselbrecht, C; Reyes, F; Coiffier, B

    2001-07-01

    Autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) has permitted to deliver high-dose therapy (HDT). In aggressive lymphomas, the GELA group conducted prospective and retrospective studies comparing HDT + ASCT to conventional sequential chemotherapy. In relapsing patients and in partial remission, retrospective studies showed a survival advantage for HDT + ASCT over sequential chemotherapy. In complete response, advantage for HDT + ASCT was demonstrated in a prospective trial only for patients with high intermediate or high risk in the IPI score. The attainment of a maximal reduction of the tumoral mass before going HDT is very important either in first line or in relapsing patients.

  12. Treatment of permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia with low dose oral minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyi; Thai, Keng-Ee

    2015-05-13

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a well-established cause of major distress to patients. Permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (PCIA) is the absence of or incomplete hair regrowth lasting longer than 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy and it does not respond to standard treatments of scalp cooling or topical minoxidil. The increasing numbers of reports of PCIA highlight the need for research into an effective treatment. We report a case of a 39 year-old woman with cosmetically significant regrowth after continuous therapy with oral minoxidil.

  13. A randomised phase III study comparing high-dose chemotherapy to conventionally dosed chemotherapy for stage III ovarian cancer: the Finnish Ovarian Cancer (FINOVA) study.

    PubMed

    Grénman, Seija; Wiklund, Tom; Jalkanen, Jyrki; Kuoppala, Tapio; Mäenpää, Johanna; Kuronen, Arja; Leminen, Arto; Puistola, Ulla; Vuolo-Merilä, Päivi; Salmi, Tuula; Vuento, Maarit; Yliskoski, Merja; Itälä, Maija; Helenius, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lehtovirta, Pentti

    2006-09-01

    Women with stage III ovarian cancer and with < or = 2 cm residual tumour were randomly assigned to receive either conventionally dosed chemotherapy (group A) or HDCT (group B). Patients allocated to group A received 6 cycles of paclitaxel (T) 135 mg/m2 and cisplatin (P) 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, and those allocated to HDCT received 3 TP cycles followed by peripheral blood stem cell mobilisation with cyclophosphamide (C) 3000 mg/m2 and T 175 mg/m2, and subsequently HDCT with carboplatin 1500 mg/m2, C 120 mg/kg, and mitoxantrone 75 mg/m2. The trial was closed early after 42 patients were entered due to slow accrual. The median follow-up time of patients who were alive was 81 months. The median progression-free survival time was 15.9 and 16.6 months (hazard ratio, HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.41-1.69, P = 0.61) and the median overall survival time was 43.7 and 64.3 months (HR, 0.74; 95% CI 0.34-1.61, P = 0.44) in groups A and B, respectively. Although one patient died of HDCT-related toxicity, the regimen was otherwise relatively well tolerated. We conclude that the HDCT regimen used was feasible, but did not result in significantly improved survival in this prematurely closed trial. A clinically important survival benefit cannot be excluded due to the small sample size.

  14. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being visual analog scale pain intensity. Psychoactive side effects and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed-effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 2 active dose groups' results (P > .7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo versus low-dose, 2.9 for placebo versus medium-dose, and 25 for medium- versus low-dose. As these NNTs are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. The analgesia obtained from a low dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (1.29%) in patients, most of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite conventional treatments, is a clinically significant outcome. In general, the effect sizes on cognitive testing were consistent with this minimal dose. As a result, one might not anticipate a significant impact on daily functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapy improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes-RAEB: a retrospective analysis vs. chemotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Ye, Li; Ren, Yanling; Zhou, Xinping; Mei, Chen; Ma, Liya; Ye, Xingnong; Wei, Juying; Xu, Weilai; Meng, Haitao; Qian, Wenbin; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Xu, Gaixiang; Qian, Jiejing; Lou, Yejiang; Luo, Yingwan; Xie, Lili; Lin, Peipei; Hu, Chao; Jin, Jie; Tong, Hongyan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapeutic regimens could improve outcomes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes-refractory anemia with excess of blasts (MDS-RAEB). The current retrospective analysis included all MDS-RAEB patients receiving idarubicin/cytarabine (IA) or aclacinomycin/cytarabine (AA), with or without decitabine priming during a period from February 2010 to May 2015. Treatment response and toxicity were compared between patients receiving decitabine priming and those who did not. A panel of 6 MDS-related genes was examined using bone marrow specimens. A total of 81 patients were included in the analysis: 40 received decitabine priming prior to chemotherapy (decitabine priming group). The median follow-up was 10.9 months (IQR: 6.2-21.9). The rate of overall response (OR) and complete remission (CR) was significantly higher in the decitabine priming group than in the chemotherapy group (OR: 75.0 vs. 51.2%, p = 0.027; CR: 55.0 vs. 29.3%, p = 0.019). Overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between the two groups (19.5 vs. 14.7 months, p = 0.082). In a subgroup analysis that included only patients at < 60 years of age, the CR rate in the decitabine priming group was significantly higher than in the chemotherapy group (65.5 vs. 31.0%, p = 0.009). Survival benefit of decitabine priming was apparent in patients at < 60 years of age (22.4 months with 95% CI of 6.7-38.1 vs. 14.7 months with 95% CI of 11.4-18.0 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.028), patients with intermediate and unfavorable karyotypes (22.4 months with 95% CI of 15.1-29.7 vs. 11.9 months with 95% CI of 4.0-19.8 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.042), and patients with mutated splicing factor genes (35.3 months with 95% CI of 21.4-49.2 vs. 17.8 months with 95% CI of 13.8-21.8 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.039). Grade 3-4 hematological and non

  16. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  17. Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ki Woong; Lim, Do Hoon; Yi, Eun Sang; Choi, Young Bae; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Ji Hye; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Joung, Yoo Sook; Shin, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in improving the survival of patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors while reducing the risks of late adverse effects from radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods For young children (< 3 years old), tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was administered after six cycles of induction chemotherapy. RT was deferred until after 3 years of age unless the tumor showed relapse or progression. For older patients (> 3 years old), RT including reduced-dose craniospinal RT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) was administered either after two cycles of induction chemotherapy or after surgery, and tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was administered after six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Results A total of 13 patients (five young and eight older) were enrolled from November 2004 to June 2012. Eight patients, including all five young patients, had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Six patients (four young and two older) experienced progression before initiation of RT, and seven were able to proceed to HDCT/auto-SCT without progression during induction treatment. Three of six patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent HDCT/auto-SCT as salvage treatment. All five young patients died from disease progression. However, four of the eight older patients remain progression-freewith a median follow-up period of 64 months (range, 39 to 108 months). Treatment-related late toxicities were acceptable. Conclusion The required dose of craniospinal RT might be reduced in older patients if the intensity of chemotherapy is increased. However, early administration of RT should be considered to prevent early progression in young patients. PMID:27034140

  18. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Gould, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare malignancy affecting the pediatric population. Intravenous chemotherapy is the longstanding delivery method, although intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy is gaining popularity given the reduced side effects compared with systemic chemotherapy administration. Given the sensitivity of the target organ, patient age, and secondary tumor susceptibility, a premium has been placed on minimizing procedural related radiation exposure. To reduce patient x-ray dose during the IA infusion procedure, customized surgical methods and fluoroscopic techniques were employed. The routine fluoroscopic settings were changed from the standard 7.5 pulses/s and dose level to the detector of 36 nGy/pulse, to a pulse rate of 4 pulses/s and detector dose to 23 nGy/pulse. The angiographic dose indicators (reference point air kerma (Ka) and fluoroscopy time) for a cohort of 10 consecutive patients (12 eyes, 30 infusions) were analyzed. An additional four cases (five eyes, five infusions) were analyzed using dosimeters placed at anatomic locations to reflect scalp, eye, and thyroid dose. The mean Ka per treated eye was 20.1±11.9 mGy with a mean fluoroscopic time of 8.5±4.6 min. Dosimetric measurements demonstrated minimal dose to the lens (0.18±0.10 mGy). Measured entrance skin doses varied from 0.7 to 7.0 mGy and were 73.4±19.7% less than the indicated Ka value. Ophthalmic arterial melphalan infusion is a safe and effective means to treat RB. Modification to contemporary fluoroscopic systems combined with parsimonious fluoroscopy can minimize radiation exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. No Salvage Using High-Dose Chemotherapy Plus/Minus Reirradiation for Relapsing Previously Irradiated Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Massimino, Maura Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Biassoni, Veronica; Luksch, Roberto; Collini, Paola; Solero, Carlo N.; Simonetti, Fabio; Pignoli, Emanuele; Cefalo, Graziella; Poggi, Geraldina; Modena, Piergiorgio Ph.D.; Mariani, Luigi; Potepan, Paolo; Podda, Marta; Casanova, Michela; Pecori, Emilia; Acerno, Stefania; Ferrari, Andrea; Terenziani, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Myeloablative regimens were frequently used for medulloblastoma relapsing after craniospinal irradiation (CSI): in 1997-2002, we used repeated surgery, standard-dose and myeloablative chemotherapy, and reirradiation. Methods and Materials: In 10 patients, reinduction included sequential high-dose etoposide, high-dose cyclophosphamide/vincristine, and high-dose carboplatin/vincristine, then two myeloablative courses with high-dose thiotepa ({+-} carboplatin); 6 other patients received two of four courses of cisplatin/etoposide. Hematopoietic precursor mobilization followed high-dose etoposide or high-dose cyclophosphamide or cisplatin/etoposide therapy. After the overall chemotherapy program, reirradiation was prescribed when possible. Results: Seventeen patients were treated: previous treatment included CSI of 19.5-36 Gy with posterior fossa/tumor boost and chemotherapy in 16 patients. Fifteen patients were in their first and 2 in their second and third relapses, respectively. First progression-free survival had lasted a median of 26 months. Relapse sites included leptomeninges in 9 patients, spine in 4 patients, posterior fossa in 3 patients, and brain in 1 patient. Three patients underwent complete resection of recurrence, and 10 underwent reirradiation. Twelve of 14 patients with assessable tumor had an objective response after reinduction; 2 experienced progression and were not given the myeloablative courses. Remission lasted a median of 16 months. Additional relapses appeared in 13 patients continuing the treatment. Fifteen patients died of progression and 1 died of pneumonia 13 months after relapse. The only survivor at 93 months had a single spinal metastasis that was excised and irradiated. Survival for the series as a whole was 11-93 months, with a median of 41 months. Conclusions: Despite responses being obtained and ample use of surgery and reirradiation, second-line therapy with myeloablative schedules was not curative, barring a few

  20. A prospective study on the efficacy of two-dose influenza vaccinations in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukinari; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Nomura, Tetsuhiko; Chayahara, Naoko; Toyoda, Masanori; Minami, Yosuke; Kiyota, Naomi; Mukohara, Toru; Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Minami, Hironobu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk of acquiring influenza infections. Two-dose vaccination is a proposed strategy for increasing vaccination efficacy; however, this has yet to be confirmed in this population. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy and safety of this strategy. We conducted a multicentre prospective study on a two-dose vaccination regimen in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Second vaccinations were performed in patients who did not respond to all three viral strains after the first vaccination. Serum haemagglutination inhibition titres were measured to determine the patients' immunological response, 2 weeks prior to the first vaccination, 3-5 weeks after each vaccination, and at the end of the influenza season. We enrolled 109 patients, including 70 with solid tumours, 36 with haematological malignancies, and 3 with both cancer types. Among the total patients, the proportion of patients with protective titres against the three viral strains increased significantly from 3 to 27% (P < 0.01) following vaccination. Among the 79 patients who received a second vaccination, the proportion of those with protective titres against the individual strains increased by 10% (H1N1), 8% (H3N2), and 3% (B) compared with after the first vaccination. Serious adverse events were not observed. We recommend influenza vaccinations for cancer patients, including those receiving chemotherapy. Also, the additional benefit of the second vaccination may be limited. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection before and after chemotherapy with two praziquantel doses in a community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Aline F; Favre, Tereza C; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Pereira, Ana P B; Zani, Luciana C; Felipe, Katariny T; Domingues, Ana Lúcia C; Carvalho, Omar S; Barbosa, Constança S; Pieri, Otávio S

    2010-07-01

    Praziquantel chemotherapy has been the focus of the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Brazil for the past two decades. Nevertheless, information on the impact of selective chemotherapy against Schistosoma mansoni infection under the conditions confronted by the health teams in endemic municipalities remains scarce. This paper compares the spatial pattern of infection before and after treatment with either a 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg dose of praziquantel by determining the intensity of spatial cluster among patients at 180 and 360 days after treatment. The spatial-temporal distribution of egg-positive patients was analysed in a Geographic Information System using the kernel smoothing technique. While all patients became egg-negative after 21 days, 17.9% and 30.9% reverted to an egg-positive condition after 180 and 360 days, respectively. Both the prevalence and intensity of infection after treatment were significantly lower in the 60 mg/kg than in the 40 mg/kg treatment group. The higher intensity of the kernel in the 40 mg/kg group compared to the 60 mg/kg group, at both 180 and 360 days, reflects the higher number of reverted cases in the lower dose group. Auxiliary, preventive measures to control transmission should be integrated with chemotherapy to achieve a more enduring impact.

  2. Use of high-dose chemotherapy in front-line therapy of childhood malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica

    2006-05-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common cancer in pediatric patients and the main cause from death of malignant tumors in this age group. High-grade or malignant glioma, among which anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma are the most prevalent histotypes, represent 10% of pediatric brain tumors and, taken as a whole, are the second most frequent malignant histotype after medulloblastoma. Apart from complete excision followed by full-dose local radiotherapy, chemotherapy appears to provide some benefit to the final outcome. Different trials have explored the role of high-dose chemotherapy that, theoretically, could give an advantage to these patients by overcoming the blood-brain barrier, cell chemoresistance and inducing a wider number of responses. However, it is still doubtful if more responses translate into better outcome and it is not fully understood which patients can experience a true benefit from this treatment strategy. New protocols under evaluation include new agents with specific biological targets, multiple cycles of high-dose chemotherapy, and vaccination, as an immunotherapeutic approach.

  3. Predictors of adherence to different types and doses of supervised exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Gelmon, Karen; Mackey, John R; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Reid, Robert D; Proulx, Carolyn; Trinh, Linda; Dolan, Lianne B; Wooding, Evyanne; Vallerand, James R; McKenzie, Donald C

    2014-07-06

    Exercise is beneficial for breast cancer patients during chemotherapy but adherence to different types and doses of exercise is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of adherence to different types and doses of exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Breast cancer patients in Edmonton, Vancouver, and Ottawa, Canada receiving chemotherapy (N = 301) were randomized to a standard dose of 25-30 minutes of aerobic exercise (STAN), a higher dose of 50-60 minutes of aerobic exercise (HIGH), or a higher dose of 50-60 minutes of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB). Predictors included demographic, medical, fitness, and quality of life variables. Exercise adherence was measured as the percentage of supervised exercise sessions completed. Overall adherence to the supervised exercise sessions was 73% (SD = 24%). In a multivariate regression model, six independent predictors explained 26.4% (p < 0.001) of the variance in exercise adherence. Higher exercise adherence was achieved by breast cancer patients in Vancouver (p < 0.001), with fewer endocrine symptoms (p = 0.009), randomized to STAN (p = 0.009), with fewer exercise limitations (p = 0.009), receiving shorter chemotherapy protocols (p = 0.015), and with higher VO2peak (p = 0.017). Disease stage (p for interaction = 0.015) and body mass index (p for interaction = 0.030) interacted with group assignment to predict adherence. For disease stage, patients with stage I/IIa disease adhered equally well to all three exercise interventions whereas patients with stage IIb/III disease adhered better to the STAN intervention than the two higher dose exercise interventions. For body mass index, healthy weight patients adhered equally well to all three exercise interventions whereas overweight patients adhered best to STAN and worst to COMB; and obese patients adhered best to STAN and worst to HIGH

  4. Predictors of adherence to different types and doses of supervised exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is beneficial for breast cancer patients during chemotherapy but adherence to different types and doses of exercise is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of adherence to different types and doses of exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Methods Breast cancer patients in Edmonton, Vancouver, and Ottawa, Canada receiving chemotherapy (N = 301) were randomized to a standard dose of 25–30 minutes of aerobic exercise (STAN), a higher dose of 50–60 minutes of aerobic exercise (HIGH), or a higher dose of 50–60 minutes of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB). Predictors included demographic, medical, fitness, and quality of life variables. Exercise adherence was measured as the percentage of supervised exercise sessions completed. Results Overall adherence to the supervised exercise sessions was 73% (SD = 24%). In a multivariate regression model, six independent predictors explained 26.4% (p < 0.001) of the variance in exercise adherence. Higher exercise adherence was achieved by breast cancer patients in Vancouver (p < 0.001), with fewer endocrine symptoms (p = 0.009), randomized to STAN (p = 0.009), with fewer exercise limitations (p = 0.009), receiving shorter chemotherapy protocols (p = 0.015), and with higher VO2peak (p = 0.017). Disease stage (p for interaction = 0.015) and body mass index (p for interaction = 0.030) interacted with group assignment to predict adherence. For disease stage, patients with stage I/IIa disease adhered equally well to all three exercise interventions whereas patients with stage IIb/III disease adhered better to the STAN intervention than the two higher dose exercise interventions. For body mass index, healthy weight patients adhered equally well to all three exercise interventions whereas overweight patients adhered best to STAN and worst to COMB; and obese patients adhered best

  5. Impressive Response to Dose-Dense Chemotherapy in a Patient with NUT Midline Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maur, Michela; Toss, Angela; Dominici, Massimo; Frassoldati, Antonio; Corradini, Paolo; Maiorana, Antonio; Fontana, Annalisa; Conte, Pierfranco

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: NUT midline carcinoma Symptoms: Fatigue • fever • pain Medication: Romidepsin Clinical Procedure: Chemotherapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, highly lethal malignancy that results from a chromosome translocation and mostly arises in the midline organs. To date, no treatment has been established. Most patients receive combinations of chemotherapy regimens and radiation, and occasionally subsequent resection; nevertheless, patients have an average survival hardly exceeding 7 months. Case Report: A 21-year-old patient was admitted to our division with a large mediastinal mass with lung nodules, multiple vertebral metastases, and massive nodal involvement. In a few days, the patient developed a superior vena cava syndrome and an acute respiratory failure. Due to the rapid course of the disease, based on preliminary histology of poorly differentiated carcinoma, a dose-dense biweekly chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin was started. In the meantime, the diagnosis of NMC was confirmed. A surprising clinical benefit was obtained after the first cycle of chemotherapy, and after 6 cycles a PET-CT scan showed a very good response. At this point, radiotherapy was started but the disease progressed outside of the radiation field. The patient entered into a compassionate use protocol with Romidepsin, but a PET/CT scan after the first course showed disease progression with peritoneal and retroperitoneal carcinosis. A treatment with Pemetrexed was then started but the patient eventually died with rapid progressive disease. Conclusions: Our case history adds some interesting findings to available knowledge: NMC can be chemosensitive and radiosensitive. This opens the possibility to study more aggressive treatments, including high-dose consolidation chemotherapy and to evaluate the role of biological agents as maintenance treatments. PMID:26140332

  6. Chemotherapy Dose Adjustment for Obese Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Survey on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Labopin, Myriam; Moukhtari, Leila; Ciceri, Fabio; Esteve, Jordi; Giebel, Sebastian; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Schmid, Christopher; Shimoni, Avichai; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Background. Appropriate chemotherapy dosing for obese patients with malignant diseases is a significant challenge because limiting chemotherapy doses in these patients may negatively influence outcome. There is a paucity of information addressing high-dose chemotherapy in obese patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods. The Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) designed an electronic survey to assess current practice of dose adjustment of chemotherapy in obese patients undergoing HSCT. Results. A total of 56 EBMT centers from 27 countries responded to the online survey. Overall, 45 centers declared that they routinely adjust chemotherapy doses for obese patients (80.5%), and only 11 (19.5%) declared they do not adjust dose. Among the former group, most used body mass index as the parameter for defining obesity (28 centers, 62%). The method for determining the weight for chemotherapy calculation was actual body weight (ABW) in 16 centers, ideal body weight (IBW) in 10 centers, IBW plus 25% of the difference between IBW and ABW in 16 centers, and other methods for the rest. Among centers that used dose adjustment, 44% also capped the dose at 2 m2 for a chemotherapy dose based on body surface area (BSA), whereas 56% did not cap. Interestingly, most of the centers (9 of 11) that did not adjust dose for weight also did not cap the BSA at 2 m2. Conclusion. This EBMT survey revealed large diversity among transplant centers regarding dose-adjustment practice for high-dose conditioning chemotherapy. Our next step is to analyze outcomes of transplantation according to dose-adjustment practice and, subsequently, to formulate a methodology for future prospective studies. PMID:25480827

  7. Chemotherapy dose adjustment for obese patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a survey on behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shem-Tov, Noga; Labopin, Myriam; Moukhtari, Leila; Ciceri, Fabio; Esteve, Jordi; Giebel, Sebastian; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Schmid, Christopher; Shimoni, Avichai; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate chemotherapy dosing for obese patients with malignant diseases is a significant challenge because limiting chemotherapy doses in these patients may negatively influence outcome. There is a paucity of information addressing high-dose chemotherapy in obese patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) designed an electronic survey to assess current practice of dose adjustment of chemotherapy in obese patients undergoing HSCT. A total of 56 EBMT centers from 27 countries responded to the online survey. Overall, 45 centers declared that they routinely adjust chemotherapy doses for obese patients (80.5%), and only 11 (19.5%) declared they do not adjust dose. Among the former group, most used body mass index as the parameter for defining obesity (28 centers, 62%). The method for determining the weight for chemotherapy calculation was actual body weight (ABW) in 16 centers, ideal body weight (IBW) in 10 centers, IBW plus 25% of the difference between IBW and ABW in 16 centers, and other methods for the rest. Among centers that used dose adjustment, 44% also capped the dose at 2 m(2) for a chemotherapy dose based on body surface area (BSA), whereas 56% did not cap. Interestingly, most of the centers (9 of 11) that did not adjust dose for weight also did not cap the BSA at 2 m(2). This EBMT survey revealed large diversity among transplant centers regarding dose-adjustment practice for high-dose conditioning chemotherapy. Our next step is to analyze outcomes of transplantation according to dose-adjustment practice and, subsequently, to formulate a methodology for future prospective studies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Treatment of small cell carcinoma of lung with combined high dose mediastinal irradiation, whole brain prophylaxis and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Natale, R.B.; Hilaris, B.S.; Wittes, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    Survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of lung, treated on a new combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy protocol, compares favorably with other regimens in the literature and our own previous combined approaches. Radiation, given after induction chemotherapy, consisted of whole brain prophylaxis in all 44 evaluable patients. Patients with limited disease were also treated to the primary and mediastinum to a high dose (5000 rad equivalent) using multiple fields. The new chemotherapy regimen consisted of induction with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine alternated with cis-platinum and VP-16 (an epipodophyllotoxin) for two cycles, followed by consolidation with low dose cyclophosphamide and vincristine concurrent with irradiation. Patients with limited disease who achieved less than complete response, and all patients with extensive disease were not continued on maintenance chemotherapy. Out of 24 evaluable patients with limited disease, there was 73% survival at 1 year by life-table analysis, measured from treatment initiation. After induction, 16/24 of these limited disease patients were CR (complete responders): 20/24 were CR at completion of their irradiation. Out of 20 evaluable patients with extensive disease, there was 59% survival at 1 year by life-table analysis. Only 4/44 (9%) brain parenchymal relapses occurred, one at 3 months and one at 6 months after local failure and two in patients who did not become CRs, implicating a possible re-seeding mechanism. Five patients had central nervous system relapses outside of brain parenchyma (spinal epidural and leptomeningeal); in three patients this was the initial site of failure. Significant complications included leukopenia (50%) and thrombocytopenia (24%) primarily during induction, and chronic pulmonary fibrosis (25%), possibly contributing to two deaths.

  9. Prognostic significance of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients receiving pasteurized autografts

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Min Wook; Kang, Yong Koo; Yoo, Chang-Young; Cha, Sung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background Among various reconstruction methods after wide excision for osteosarcoma, pasteurized autograft is often preferred. While the whole area of the tumor can be assessed for chemotherapy-induced necrosis, one of the important prognostic factors, in other reconstructive techniques, only a portion removed from a wide-resection specimen is available when using pasteurized autograft method. The assessment, therefore, may be unreliable. We analyzed the prognostic significance of the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients who underwent reconstruction with pasteurized autografts. Patients and methods We reviewed the records of osteosarcoma patients who underwent treatment in our institution from 1998 to 2013. Cases of reconstruction with pasteurized autografts were defined as the patient group, and the same number of patients who underwent other reconstruction methods served as controls. Chemotherapy-induced necrosis was evaluated for removed extra-osseous and curetted intramedullary tumor tissues. Results A total of 22 patients were identified; the median age was 15.5 years, and there were 12 males. The most common tumor location was the distal femur. The most common histological subtype was osteoblastic. Median size was 8.1 cm. Disease status was stage IIB in 13 patients and IIA in 9. Median follow-up was 76 months. No differences between the patient and control groups were observed in potential prognostic factors, overall survival, metastasis-free survival, or recurrence-free survival. Univariate analyses demonstrated that histological response was a significant prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival and also significant for recurrence-free survival. Conclusion Chemotherapy-induced necrosis grading, using only available tumor tissues, could be a prognostic factor for osteosarcoma patients receiving pasteurized autografts for reconstructive surgery. PMID:28196121

  10. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R. )

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm[sup 3] dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Dose-Dense Chemotherapy in Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Luisa; Ben-Aharon, Irit; Vidal, Liat; Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Leibovici, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Background Dose-dense chemotherapy has become a mainstay regimen in the adjuvant setting for women with high-risk breast cancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing data from randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy and toxicity of the dose-dense chemotherapy approach in nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods Randomized controlled trials that compared a dose-dense chemotherapy protocol with a standard chemotherapy schedule in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting in adult women older than 18 years with breast cancer were identified by searching The Cochrane Cancer Network register of trials, The Cochrane Library, and LILACS and MEDLINE databases (from January 1966 to January 2010). Hazard ratios (HRs) of death and recurrence and relative risks of adverse events were estimated and pooled. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were classified into two categories based on trial methodology. Three trials enrolling 3337 patients compared dose-dense chemotherapy with a conventional chemotherapy schedule (similar agents). Patients who received dose-dense chemotherapy had better overall survival (HR of death = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72 to 0.98, P = .03) and better disease-free survival (HR of recurrence or death = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.94, P = .005) than those on the conventional schedule. No benefit was observed in patients with hormone receptor–positive tumors. Seven trials enrolling 8652 patients compared dose-dense chemotherapy with regimens that use standard intervals but with different agents and/or dosages in the treatment arms. Similar results were obtained for these trials with respect to overall survival (HR of death = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.96, P = .01) and disease-free survival (HR of recurrence or death = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.88, P < .001). The rate of nonhematological adverse events was higher in the dose-dense chemotherapy arms than in the

  12. Impact of Chemotherapy Dosing on Ovarian Cancer Survival According to Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Lee, Valerie S; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Powell, C Bethan; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-09-01

    Optimal chemotherapy dosing in obese patients remains uncertain, with variation in practice. Dose reduction strategies are often used to avoid chemotoxicity, but recent American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend full dose. To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on chemotherapy dosing and of dose reduction on ovarian cancer survival. Cohort study in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) health care setting of patients with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancers diagnosed from January 2000 through March 2013. Analyses focused on 806 patients receiving adjuvant first-line therapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel with curative intent. Overall and ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Deaths were identified through the KPNC Mortality Linkage System, with median follow-up of 52.5 months. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated from proportional hazards regression, accounting for prognostic variables including age at diagnosis, race, stage, grade, histologic type, chemotoxic effects, comorbidities, cancer antigen 125 levels, and BMI at diagnosis. The strongest predictor of dose reduction was a high BMI. Compared with normal-weight women, obese class III women received 38% and 45% lower doses in milligrams per kilogram of body weight of paclitaxel and carboplatin, respectively (P < .001 for each agent). They also received lower relative dose intensity (RDI) for each agent and the combined regimen, calculated as average RDI (ARDI). Mean ARDI was 73.7% for obese class III women and 88.2% for normal-weight women (P < .001). Lower ARDI (<70%) was associated with worse overall (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.10-2.37]) and ovarian cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.12-2.55]). Women who were obese at diagnosis appeared to have better survival. In multivariable-adjusted analyses considering joint effects by BMI and ARDI, compared with women with normal weight and no dose reduction, normal-weight women with dose reduction (ARDI < 85

  13. High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell rescue in blastoid natural killer cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mukai, H Y; Kojima, H; Suzukawa, K; Hori, M; Komeno, T; Hasegawa, Y; Ninomiya, H; Mori, N; Nagasawa, T

    1999-02-01

    A 25-year-old man was referred because of skin rash, lymphadenopathy and anemia. Laboratory examinations revealed severe anemia (Hb, 4.8 g/dl) and elevated levels of GOT, GPT, LDH and soluble interleukin-2 receptor. Work-up studies disclosed the involvement of lymphoma cells in lymph nodes, skin, bilateral kidneys and bone marrow. Lymph node biopsy revealed diffuse proliferation of medium- to large-sized lymphoblastic cells. Bone marrow aspiration showed massive infiltration of large blastic cells with no cytoplasmic granules. The lymphoma cells in bone marrow and lymph node showed surface CD3-, cytoplasmic CD3epsilon+, CD4+, CD8-, CD56+, CD57-, CD16- and CD43 (MT-1)+ phenotype. Analyses of T cell receptor beta and gamma genes showed germ line configurations. EBER-1 was not detectable in the lymphoma cells. He was diagnosed as having blastoid natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma. In spite of several courses of combination chemotherapy, the lymphoma was progressive. He was then treated with high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell rescue, achieving remission which has now lasted for more than 12 months. We consider that blastoid NK cell lymphoma is an extremely aggressive subtype of CD56-positive lymphomas, and high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell rescue should be included for the choice of the treatment.

  14. Nail alterations as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of low-dose metronomic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    KIBATA, KAYOKO; TAMAKI, TAKESHI; INAGAKI, NORIKO; OGATA, MAKOTO; SHIMIZU, TOSHIKI; NOMURA, SHOSAKU

    2013-01-01

    Docetaxel is a well-known causative agent of nail alterations. The aim of this study was to reveal the impact of nail alterations associated with low-dose metronomic (LDM) docetaxel chemotherapy on the survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Clinical information, survival data and nail alterations in patients treated with LDM docetaxel chemotherapy (docetaxel 15 mg/m2 per week) were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-nine patients were included in this study. Various nail alterations were observed in 17 of the 49 patients (34.7%). Onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis were observed in 22.4% and 10.2% of patients, respectively. The number of docetaxel administration cycles was correlated with the incidence and severity of nail alterations. Univariate and multivariate analysis clearly demonstrated that the occurrence of nail alterations was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival. Nail alterations associated with treatment may act as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of low-dose metronomic docetaxel chemotherapy. PMID:23599750

  15. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: implication of high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, N; Savani, BN

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare and distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Decisions regarding the initial therapeutic approach are influenced by age and risk of therapy-related neurotoxicity. Despite several albeit small phase II studies, and the acknowledged need for larger prospective trials, there is supporting evidence to consider auto-SCT following induction chemotherapy in patients with good performance status. The international extranodal lymphoma study group is conducting a randomized phase II study comparing consolidative radiation therapy to high-dose therapy. Novel therapeutic options including early aggressive approach with upfront auto-SCT and strategies to prevent relapse following transplantation is an area of focus. PMID:22002486

  16. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: implication of high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N; Savani, B N

    2012-10-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare and distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Decisions regarding the initial therapeutic approach are influenced by age and risk of therapy-related neurotoxicity. Despite several albeit small phase II studies, and the acknowledged need for larger prospective trials, there is supporting evidence to consider auto-SCT following induction chemotherapy in patients with good performance status. The international extranodal lymphoma study group is conducting a randomized phase II study comparing consolidative radiation therapy to high-dose therapy. Novel therapeutic options including early aggressive approach with upfront auto-SCT and strategies to prevent relapse following transplantation is an area of focus.

  17. Health economic impact of high-dose versus standard-dose cytarabine induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Fedele, P L; Avery, S; Patil, S; Spencer, A; Haas, M; Wei, A

    2014-08-01

    Induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is one of the most resource-intensive cancer therapies delivered in hospitals. To assess the health resource impact of different chemotherapy approaches for AML commonly used in Australia. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in 63 patients aged 18-55 years with AML given induction with either 7 + 3 (cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) days 1-7 and idarubicin 12 mg/m(2) days 1-3) or HiDAC-3 (high-dose cytarabine 3 g/m(2) twice daily days 1, 3, 5 and 7 and idarubicin 12 mg/m(2) days 1-3) chemotherapy. Average costs of hospitalisation, pathology, radiology, chemotherapy and ancillary drugs were calculated and compared with current Victorian casemix funding. Two consolidation approaches, HiDAC (cytarabine 3 g/m(2) twice daily days 1, 3, 5 and 7) × either three or four cycles (following 7 + 3) and IcE (idarubicin 12,mg/m(2) days 1-2, cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) × 5 days and etoposide 75 mg/m(2) × 5 days) × 2 cycles (following HiDAC-3) were modelled, using a policy of discharge following completion of chemotherapy with outpatient monitoring. The cost (in AUD) of induction was similar between 7 + 3 ($58,037) and HiDAC-3 ($56,902), with bed day costs accounting for 61-62% of the total expense. Blood bank costs ranked second, accounting for 15%. Accumulated costs for HiDAC consolidation were $44,289 for a three-cycle protocol and $59,052 for four cycles ($14,763 per cycle) versus $31,456 for two cycles of IcE consolidation ($15,728 per cycle). Overall, the classical 7 + 3 → HiDAC approach ($102,326/$117,089 for three or four consolidation cycles) incurs a greater cost than a HiDAC-3 → IcE × 2 approach ($88,358). For patients requiring complete hospitalisation until neutrophil recovery, the estimated costs of treatment will be even higher, ranging between $122,282 for HiDAC-3 → IcE × 2, $153,212 for 7 + 3 → HiDAC × 3 and $184,937 for 7 + 3 → HiDAC × 4. State-based casemix funding for non-complicated AML therapy is

  18. Effect of Tailored Dose-Dense Chemotherapy vs Standard 3-Weekly Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Recurrence-Free Survival Among Women With High-Risk Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Foukakis, Theodoros; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Bengtsson, Nils-Olof; Brandberg, Yvonne; Wallberg, Birgitta; Fornander, Tommy; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Schmatloch, Sabine; Singer, Christian F; Steger, Günther; Egle, Daniel; Karlsson, Eva; Carlsson, Lena; Loibl, Sibylle; Untch, Michael; Hellström, Mats; Johansson, Hemming; Anderson, Harald; Malmström, Per; Gnant, Michael; Greil, Richard; Möbus, Volker; Bergh, Jonas

    2016-11-08

    Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy. To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule. A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial of women aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011. Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks. The primary end point was breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects. Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97% with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (≥1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P = .06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7% vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0

  19. Selective diethylcarbamazine chemotherapy for control of Bancroftian filariasis in two communities of Tanzania: compared efficacy of a standard dose treatment and two semi-annual single dose treatments.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, P E; Meyrowitsch, D W; Makunde, W H; Magnussen, P

    1995-09-01

    The efficacy of two strategies for control of Bancroftian filariasis using selective rather than community-wide diethylcarbamazine (DEC) chemotherapy was evaluated and compared in two endemic communities of north-eastern Tanzania, with pretreatment microfilariae (mf) prevalences of 22% and 38%, and geometric mean intensities (GMIs) of 668 mf/ml and 735 mf/ml of blood. All mf-positive cases in the first community were offered treatment with 6 mg of DEC/kg of body weight a day for 12 days (group 1), and those in the second community were offered treatment with two doses of 6 mg of DEC/kg of body weight at an interval of six months (group 2). The effect of treatment was followed both among those treated and at the community level. In treated individuals, there was a rapid decrease in the mf load that was significantly greater among those receiving the 12-day standard dose. One year after the start of treatment, the mf clearance rates were 59% and 39% and the GMIs were reduced by 99% and 97% among treated individuals in groups 1 and 2, respectively. However, at the community level, the mf prevalences were 16.3% and 27.9% (reduced by 27% and 26%) and the GMIs were 129 mf/ml and 224 mf/ml (reduced by 81% and 70%) one year after the start of treatment with the two regimens, respectively, suggesting that transmission continued at a significant level in the villages after treatment. The limitations of selective chemotherapy are discussed, and it is argued that strategies based on mass DEC chemotherapy would be more effective in reducing the microfilarial load in the community and thereby in reducing transmission.

  20. High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Older Patients with Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lahoud, Oscar B.; Sauter, Craig S.; Hamlin, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HDT/ASCT) can improve survival in patients with lymphoma. Limited experience is available on the safety and efficacy of HDT/ASCT in elderly patients. In this article, we review the published data on the role of HDT/ASCT in management of lymphoma in older patients. Based on available data, evaluation of comorbidities, functional status, and comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) will help identify those who can benefit most from this intervention. Prospective clinical trials focusing on HDT/ASCT in older patients with lymphoma are needed to establish optimal management protocols in this select population. PMID:26201264

  1. Evaluating the efficacies of Maximum Tolerated Dose and metronomic chemotherapies: A mathematical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraldello, Rafael T.; Martins, Marcelo L.; Mancera, Paulo F. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a mathematical model based on partial differential equations that is applied to understand tumor development and its response to chemotherapy. Our primary aim is to evaluate comparatively the efficacies of two chemotherapeutic protocols, Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and metronomic, as well as two methods of drug delivery. Concerning therapeutic outcomes, the metronomic protocol proves more effective in prolonging the patient's life than MTD. Moreover, a uniform drug delivery method combined with the metronomic protocol is the most efficient strategy to reduce tumor density.

  2. Development of an oral solid dispersion formulation for use in low-dose metronomic chemotherapy of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Moes, Johannes; Koolen, Stijn; Huitema, Alwin; Schellens, Jan; Beijnen, Jos; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2013-01-01

    For the clinical development of low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy of paclitaxel, oral administration is vital. However, the development of an oral formulation is difficult due to paclitaxel's low oral bioavailability, caused by its low permeability and low solubility. We increased the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel by combining a pharmacokinetic booster, ritonavir, with a new oral solid dispersion formulation of paclitaxel. The combined use of Hansen solubility parameters and dissolution experiments resulted in the development of a solid dispersion formulation containing 1/11 w/w paclitaxel, 9/11 w/w polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, and 1/11 w/w sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Analysis of the solid dispersion formulation by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) confirmed the amorphous nature of paclitaxel and the fine dispersion of paclitaxel in the matrix of PVP-K30 and SLS. Furthermore, in vitro tests showed a major increase in the apparent solubility and dissolution rate of paclitaxel. To test the clinical significance of these findings, the solid dispersion formulation of paclitaxel (ModraPac001 10mg capsule) was compared to the paclitaxel premix solution in four patients with advanced cancer. Although the mean systemic exposure to paclitaxel after oral administration of the solid dispersion formulation was slightly lower compared to the paclitaxel premix solution (190±63.1ng/mLh for vs. 247±100ng/mLh), the systemic exposure to paclitaxel is clinically relevant [1,2]. In addition to this, the favorable pharmaceutical characteristics, for example, neutral taste, dosing accuracy, and the 2-year ambient shelf life, make the ModraPac001 10mg capsule an attractive candidate for oral paclitaxel chemotherapy. Currently, the ModraPac001 formulation is applied in the first clinical trial with oral LDM chemotherapy of paclitaxel.

  3. The use of low-dose metronomic chemotherapy in dogs-insight into a modern cancer field.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, T B; Henriques, J; Marconato, L; Queiroga, F L

    2017-03-20

    The era of chemotherapy, which started in the middle of the last century, has been ruled by the routine use of dose-intense protocols, based on the "maximum-tolerated dose" concept. By promoting a balance between patient's quality of life and the goal of rapidly killing as many tumour cells as possible, these protocols still play a prominent role in veterinary oncology. However, with the opening of a new millennium, metronomic chemotherapy (MC) started to be considered a possible alternative to traditional dose-intense chemotherapy. Characterized by a long-term daily administration of lower doses of cytotoxic drugs, this new modality stands out for its unique combination of effects, namely on neovascularization, immune response and tumour dormancy. This article reviews the rationale for treatment with MC, its mechanism of action and the main studies conducted in veterinary medicine, and discusses the key challenges yet to be solved.

  4. Response of osteosarcoma to preoperative intravenous high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mail, J.T.; Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, L.D.; Provisor, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The histologic response of an osteosarcoma to preamputation high-dose methotrexate therapy can be used to determine the optimum maintenance chemotherapy regimen to be administered after amputation. This study evaluates computed tomography (CT) as a method of assessing the response of the tumor to the methotrexate therapy. Nine patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of an extremity had a CT scan of the tumor at initial presentation. This was compared with a second CT scan after four courses of high-dose intravenous methotrexate. Each set of scans was evaluated for changes in bony destruction, soft-tissue mass, pattern of calcification, and extent of tumor involvement of the marrow cavity. These findings were correlated with the histologic response of the tumor as measured by the degree of tumor necrosis. The changes seen on CT correlated well with the degree of the histologic response in seven of the nine patients.

  5. Marked transient hypercholesterolemia caused by low-dose mitotane as adjuvant chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hayato; Nohara, Atsushi; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Inazu, Akihiro; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of marked transient hypercholesterolemia in a man receiving low-dose mitotane as adjuvant chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma.A 58-year-old man without any clinical symptoms or history of hypercholesterolemia was admitted to our hospital to treat an adrenocortical carcinoma detected on general screening using computed tomography. He reported no chest symptom and did not exhibit any established risk factors for coronary artery disease, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension or relevant family history, with the exception of current smoking, on admission. A stress electrocardiogram showed negative findings. The left adrenal tumor as well as left kidney, spleen and distal portion of the pancreas were subsequently resected using radical surgery. The histopathological findings confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma. After the operation, treatment with low-dose mitotane (1g/day) was introduced as adjuvant chemotherapy. Interestingly, the patient developed marked hyper-LDL cholesterolemia at a level equivalent to that of familial hypercholesterolemia (LDL cholesterol level ~ 300 mg/dL) following the introduction of mitotane, without evidence of primary or secondary hypercholesterolemia due to other causes. A coronary angiogram performed to assess the new-onset angina revealed three-vessel disease, which was later revascularized via percutaneous coronary intervention eight months after the start of mitotane therapy. The cholesterol level normalized with the suspension of mitotane. This case suggests that mitotane can cause severe hypercholesterolemia, potentially resulting in coronary atherosclerosis.

  6. Definitive high-dose radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Eun Seok; Yeo, Seung-Gu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Standard management for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) involves preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and radical surgery. However, this level of treatment may be unnecessary for a subgroup of LARC patients. Previous reports have shown that approximately 20% of LARC patients experience a complete tumor response to preoperative CRT. Post-CRT nonoperative management of these patients may prevent morbidities associated with radical surgery. To our knowledge, this case report firstly presents the favorable long-term outcomes of a LARC patient who underwent definitive aim CRT. Methods: The patient was 73 years’ old, and staging workups revealed T3N2bM0 rectal adenocarcinoma. He agreed to receive CRT, but refused surgery. A radiotherapy (RT) dose of 64.8 Gy was prescribed, which was higher than conventional (50.4 Gy) preoperative aim RT. The regimen of concurrent chemotherapy was the same as that used in preoperative aim CRT: 2 cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. Results: Three months after CRT completion, a complete tumor response was identified clinically. Colonoscopic biopsy after 1 year showed no tumor cells. This patient is alive after 4 years with no evidence of recurrence or severe toxicity. Conclusion: The long-term outcomes of this case indicate the feasibility of definitive high-dose RT with concurrent chemotherapy for LARC. PMID:27749573

  7. The Role of High-Dose Chemotherapy Supported by Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Anna Liza; Tariman, Joseph D.; Enecio, Toreend; Estrella, Stella Marie

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells originating from the B-cell line, is associated with deleterious complications and poor outcomes. The failure of conventional combination chemotherapies to improve the overall survival of patients with MM has led to the use of high-dose chemotherapy supported by stem cell transplantation (SCT). Although several novel therapies have emerged since the late 1990s, their survival benefits are undetermined. High-dose chemotherapy with SCT provides better response rates compared to conventional chemotherapy and yields a trend toward greater survival benefits, especially with the use of a tandem (two successive) transplantation strategy. This article discusses standard SCT in patients with MM and some of the new transplantation strategies, including tandem autologous SCTs and reduced-intensity nonmyeloablative allogeneic SCT, and their implications for nursing. PMID:17723970

  8. Improved immunogenicity of high-dose influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose influenza vaccine in adult oncology patients younger than 65 years receiving chemotherapy: A pilot randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jamshed, Saad; Walsh, Edward E; Dimitroff, Lynda J; Santelli, Jeanine Seguin; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-01-27

    Patients undergoing chemotherapy often fail to develop robust responses to influenza vaccination. Compared to standard-dose influenza vaccine (SD), high-dose influenza vaccine (HD) has shown improved immunogenicity and protection against influenza illness in adults 65 years and older. This study compared the immunogenicity and tolerability of HD to SD in adults younger than 65 years of age receiving chemotherapy. This double-blind study randomized patients receiving chemotherapy to vaccination with either SD or HD influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition assays (HAI) were performed prior to and 4 weeks after vaccination. HAI were summarized as geometric mean titers (GMT), seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates. A total of 105 subjects were enrolled in the trial (51 received SD and 54 received HD). Subjects were well matched for demographic and medical conditions. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no SAEs. Of the 100 subjects with evaluable data, seroconversion rates for all 3 influenza antigens & post-vaccination GMTs for H3N2 & B strains were significantly improved with HD compared to SD. Seroprotection was excellent and equivalent in both groups. Trivalent high-dose influenza vaccine can be safely administered to patients receiving chemotherapy with improved immunogenicity and seroconversion compared to standard-dose vaccine. Post-vaccination seroprotection rates were similar in both groups. A larger study is needed to show clinical benefits with HD in this population. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01666782. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of Radiobiologic Parameters and Equivalent Radiation Dose of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy in Malignant Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Bleddyn . E-mail: b.jones.1@bham.ac.uk; Sanghera, Paul

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the radiobiologic parameters for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: The biologic effective dose concept is used to estimate the {alpha}/{beta} ratio and K (dose equivalent for tumor repopulation/d) for high-grade glioma patients treated in a randomized fractionation trial. The equivalent radiation dose of temozolomide (Temodar) chemotherapy was estimated from another randomized study. The method assumes that the radiotherapy biologic effective dose is proportional to the adjusted radiotherapy survival duration of high-grade glioma patients. Results: The median tumor {alpha}/{beta} and K estimate is 9.32 Gy and 0.23 Gy/d, respectively. Using the published surviving fraction after 2-Gy exposure (SF{sub 2}) data, and the above {alpha}/{beta} ratio, the estimated median {alpha} value was 0.077 Gy{sup -1}, {beta} was 0.009 Gy{sup -2}, and the cellular doubling time was 39.5 days. The median equivalent biologic effective dose of temozolomide was 11.03 Gy{sub 9.3} (equivalent to a radiation dose of 9.1 Gy given in 2-Gy fractions). Random sampling trial simulations based on a cure threshold of 70 Gy in high-grade gliomas have shown the potential increase in tumor cure with dose escalation. Partial elimination of hypoxic cells (by chemical hypoxic cell sensitizers or carbon ion therapy) has suggested that considerable gains in tumor control, which are further supplemented by temozolomide, are achievable. Conclusion: The radiobiologic parameters for human high-grade gliomas can be estimated from clinical trials and could be used to inform future clinical trials, particularly combined modality treatments with newer forms of radiotherapy. Other incurable cancers should be studied using similar radiobiologic analysis.

  10. Use of concept of chemotherapy-equivalent biologically effective dose to provide quantitative evaluation of contribution of chemotherapy to local tumor control in chemoradiotherapy cervical cancer trials.

    PubMed

    Plataniotis, George A; Dale, Roger G

    2008-12-01

    To express the magnitude of the contribution of chemotherapy to local tumor control in chemoradiotherapy cervical cancer trials in terms of the concept of the biologically effective dose. The local control rates of both arms of each study (radiotherapy vs. radiotherapy plus chemotherapy) reported from randomized controlled trials of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer were reviewed and expressed using the Poisson model for tumor control probability (TCP) as TCP = exp(-exp E), where E is the logarithm of cell kill. By combining the two TCP values from each study, we calculated the chemotherapy-related log cell kill as Ec = ln[(lnTCP(Radiotherapy))/(lnTCP(Chemoradiotherapy))]. Assuming a range of radiosensitivities (alpha = 0.1-0.5 Gy(-1)) and taking the calculated log cell kill, we calculated the chemotherapy-BED, and using the linear quadratic model, the number of 2-Gy fractions corresponding to each BED. The effect of a range of tumor volumes and radiosensitivities (alpha Gy(-1)) on the TCP was also explored. The chemotherapy-equivalent number of 2-Gy fractions range was 0.2-4 and was greater in tumors with lower radiosensitivity. In those tumors with intermediate radiosensitivity (alpha = 0.3 Gy(-1)), the equivalent number of 2-Gy fractions was 0.6-1.3, corresponding to 120-260 cGy of extra dose. The opportunities for clinically detectable improvement are only available in tumors with intermediate radiosensitivity with alpha = 0.22-0.28 Gy(-1). The dependence of TCP on the tumor volume decreases as the radiosensitivity increases. The results of our study have shown that the contribution of chemotherapy to the TCP in cervical cancer is expected to be clinically detectable in larger and less-radiosensitive tumors.

  11. Use of Concept of Chemotherapy-Equivalent Biologically Effective Dose to Provide Quantitative Evaluation of Contribution of Chemotherapy to Local Tumor Control in Chemoradiotherapy Cervical Cancer Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Plataniotis, George A. Dale, Roger G.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To express the magnitude of the contribution of chemotherapy to local tumor control in chemoradiotherapy cervical cancer trials in terms of the concept of the biologically effective dose. Methods and Materials: The local control rates of both arms of each study (radiotherapy vs. radiotherapy plus chemotherapy) reported from randomized controlled trials of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer were reviewed and expressed using the Poisson model for tumor control probability (TCP) as TCP = exp(-exp E), where E is the logarithm of cell kill. By combining the two TCP values from each study, we calculated the chemotherapy-related log cell kill as Ec = ln[(lnTCP{sub Radiotherapy})/(lnTCP{sub Chemoradiotherapy})]. Assuming a range of radiosensitivities ({alpha} = 0.1-0.5 Gy{sup -1}) and taking the calculated log cell kill, we calculated the chemotherapy-BED, and using the linear quadratic model, the number of 2-Gy fractions corresponding to each BED. The effect of a range of tumor volumes and radiosensitivities ({alpha} Gy{sup -1}) on the TCP was also explored. Results: The chemotherapy-equivalent number of 2-Gy fractions range was 0.2-4 and was greater in tumors with lower radiosensitivity. In those tumors with intermediate radiosensitivity ({alpha} = 0.3 Gy{sup -1}), the equivalent number of 2-Gy fractions was 0.6-1.3, corresponding to 120-260 cGy of extra dose. The opportunities for clinically detectable improvement are only available in tumors with intermediate radiosensitivity with {alpha} = 0.22-0.28 Gy{sup -1}. The dependence of TCP on the tumor volume decreases as the radiosensitivity increases. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the contribution of chemotherapy to the TCP in cervical cancer is expected to be clinically detectable in larger and less-radiosensitive tumors.

  12. Amisulpride in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Summers, Yvonne; Daugaard, Gedske; Christensen, Thomas B; Holmskov, Karin; Taylor, Paul D; Fox, Gabriel M; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiemetic effect of the dopamine D2- and dopamine D3-receptor antagonist, amisulpride, in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This dose-finding, non-comparative study investigated the antiemetic effect and safety of increasing doses (2.5, 7.5 and 20 mg) of amisulpride against acute nausea and vomiting in the period 0-24 h after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The 20 mg dose was also investigated in combination with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The primary parameter was complete response (0-24 h), defined as no emesis and no need for rescue antiemetics. Secondary parameters were number of emetic episodes, severity of nausea and time to first emetic episode and start of nausea. A total of 51 patients were enrolled and evaluable. None of the 10 patients in the 2.5 and 7.5 mg groups obtained a CR. In the 20 mg monotherapy cohort, two of the 18 subjects (11%) had a CR, 3/18 (17%) had no emesis and 12/18 (67%) had no significant nausea. Seven subjects (39%) had no nausea at all (a VAS score < 5 mm). In the combination (ondansetron plus amisulpride) cohort, 19/23 (83%; 90% confidence interval: 65-94%) had a CR and 14/23 (61%) had no nausea at all. Amisulpride has antiemetic effect against cisplatin-induced acute nausea and vomiting. The effect against nausea is of particular interest. Randomised studies are warranted to further explore the effect and safety of amisulpride.

  13. Consolidation Radiotherapy in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Impact on Outcome of Different Fields and Doses in Patients in Complete Remission After Upfront Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreri, Andres Jose Maria; Verona, Chiara; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Chiara, Anna; Perna, Lucia; Villa, Eugenio; Reni, Michele

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Avoidance radiotherapy or reduction of irradiation doses in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in complete remission (CR) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy has been proposed to minimize the neurotoxicity risk. Nevertheless, no study has focused on the survival impact of radiation parameters, as far as we know, and the optimal radiation schedule remains to be defined. Methods and Materials: The impact on outcome and neurologic performance of different radiation fields and doses was assessed in 33 patients with PCNSL who achieved CR after MTX-containing chemotherapy and were referred to consolidation whole-brain irradiation (WBRT). Patterns of relapse were analyzed on computed tomography-guided treatment planning, and neurologic impairment was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination. Results: At a median follow-up of 50 months, 21 patients are relapse-free (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 51%). WBRT doses {>=}40 Gy were not associated with improved disease control in comparison with a WBRT dose of 30 to 36 Gy (relapse rate, 46% vs. 30%; 5-year FFS, 51% vs. 50%; p = 0.26). Disease control was not significantly different between patients irradiated to the tumor bed with 45 to 54 Gy or with 36 to 44 Gy, with a 5-year FFS of 35% and 44% (p = 0.43), respectively. Twenty patients are alive (5-year overall survival, 54%); WB and tumor bed doses did not have an impact on survival. Impairment as assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination was significantly more common in patients treated with a WBRT dose {>=}40 Gy. Conclusion: Consolidation with WBRT 36 Gy is advisable in patients with PCNSL in CR after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy. Higher doses do not change the outcome and could increase the risk of neurotoxicity.

  14. Consolidation radiotherapy in primary central nervous system lymphomas: impact on outcome of different fields and doses in patients in complete remission after upfront chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Andrés José María; Verona, Chiara; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Chiara, Anna; Perna, Lucia; Villa, Eugenio; Reni, Michele

    2011-05-01

    Avoidance radiotherapy or reduction of irradiation doses in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in complete remission (CR) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy has been proposed to minimize the neurotoxicity risk. Nevertheless, no study has focused on the survival impact of radiation parameters, as far as we know, and the optimal radiation schedule remains to be defined. The impact on outcome and neurologic performance of different radiation fields and doses was assessed in 33 patients with PCNSL who achieved CR after MTX-containing chemotherapy and were referred to consolidation whole-brain irradiation (WBRT). Patterns of relapse were analyzed on computed tomography-guided treatment planning, and neurologic impairment was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination. At a median follow-up of 50 months, 21 patients are relapse-free (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 51%). WBRT doses ≥ 40 Gy were not associated with improved disease control in comparison with a WBRT dose of 30 to 36 Gy (relapse rate, 46% vs. 30%; 5-year FFS, 51% vs. 50%; p = 0.26). Disease control was not significantly different between patients irradiated to the tumor bed with 45 to 54 Gy or with 36 to 44 Gy, with a 5-year FFS of 35% and 44% (p = 0.43), respectively. Twenty patients are alive (5-year overall survival, 54%); WB and tumor bed doses did not have an impact on survival. Impairment as assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination was significantly more common in patients treated with a WBRT dose ≥ 40 Gy. Consolidation with WBRT 36 Gy is advisable in patients with PCNSL in CR after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy. Higher doses do not change the outcome and could increase the risk of neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Dose Ifosfamide Chemotherapy in a Series of Patients Affected by Myxoid Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Elena; Provenzano, Salvatore; Bertulli, Rossella; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Morosi, Carlo; Collini, Paola; Gronchi, Alessandro; Casali, Paolo G.; Sanfilippo, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Background To report on the activity of high-dose prolonged-infusion ifosfamide (HDIFX) chemotherapy in a retrospective series of patients affected by myxoid liposarcoma treated at Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori in Milan, Italy. Patients and Methods Patients with an advanced myxoid liposarcoma treated with HDIFX (14 g/sqm, i.v., prolonged infusion of 14 days every 28 days) as a single agent between May 2002 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. All pathologic diagnoses were centrally reviewed and molecularly confirmed. Response was evaluated by RECIST, and survival functions were computed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Eleven patients with advanced myxoid liposarcoma were treated with HDIFX (male/female = 9/2, median age 33 years, range 31–75). Among these, 1/11 received HDIFX in first line, 5/11 in second line, 3/11 in third line, and 2/11 in fourth line for a median course number of 3 (range 2–7). No RECIST objective responses were observed. Overall median progression-free survival was 1,9 months. Median overall survival was 37 months. At a median follow-up of 115 months, 1 patient is alive. Conclusions In this series of patients affected by advanced myxoid liposarcoma, chemotherapy with HDIFX was essentially inactive. PMID:28947876

  16. Cerebral toxoplasmosis after tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Voegele, Laura; Cheerva, Alexandra C; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well-recognized life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This report describes a pediatric patient with stage 4 neuroblastoma who developed cerebral toxoplasmosis after tandem high-dose chemotherapy with autologous HCT. Toxoplasmosis is rare in patients undergoing autologous HCT; however, tandem autologous HCT is more immunosuppressive than a single autologous HCT. Toxoplasmosis is a potential complication in autologous as well as allogeneic transplants, and should be considered in any post-HCT patient with neurological dysfunction. Rapid diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial treatment are crucial to avoid morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of toxoplasma serology should be standard in all patients undergoing tandem autologous HCT and seropositive patients should be started on appropriate prophylactic therapy.

  17. Continuous infusion of low-dose doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitoxantrone in cancer chemotherapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Greidanus, J; Willemse, P H; Uges, D R; Oremus, E T; De Langen, Z J; De Vries, E G

    1988-12-09

    With the recent development of reliable portable pumps and safe venous access systems, continuous infusion of chemotherapeutic agents on an out-patient basis has become feasible. Advantages of continuous infusion are the long-term exposure of tumour cells to the drug and the fact that most toxic effects are reduced for doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitoxantrone due to elimination of the high peak plasma levels. Preliminary data for doxorubicin suggest that its antitumour activity is maintained. Pharmacokinetic studies with epirubicin and mitoxantrone showed a linear relationship between drug dose infused and the steady-state plasma level for these drugs. The area under the curve for leukocytes drug level was higher during continuous infusion than after an equitoxic bolus injection of epirubicin and mitoxantrone. Well-randomized clinical trials will be necessary to investigate the role of continuous infusion of antracyclines and mitoxantrone in cancer chemotherapy in the future.

  18. Modification of the effects of continuous low dose rate irradiation by concurrent chemotherapy infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, K.K.; Rayner, P.A.; Lam, K.N.

    1984-08-01

    The combined effects of continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) and concurrent infusion of bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, cis-platinum, 5-fluorouracil, actinomycin D, and mitomycin C were studied in the SCC VII/SF tumor, a squamous cell carcinoma and the jejunal crypt cells in the mouse. For the SCC VII/SF tumor, enhanced cell killing was seen with each of the six drugs when infused concurrently with CLDRI; the greatest enhancement was seen with mitomycin C and cis-platinum. For the jejunal crypt cells, enhanced cell killing was seen primarily with bleomycin. The authors results suggest a therapeutic gain with concurrent CLDRI and chemotherapy infusion for five of the six chemotherapeutic drugs studied with the exception of bleomycin.

  19. Dose-Dense Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Docetaxel as Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Sabet Rasekh, Parisa; Nasrollahi, Fatemeh; Sabet Rasekh, Parto; Akbari Tirabad, Zahra; Moein, Hamid Reza; Ghaffari Pour, Taban; Hajian, Parastoo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Adding taxanes to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy has shown significant improvement particularly in node-positive patients, but optimal dose and schedule remain undetermined. Objectives. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer. Methods. All Patients first received 4 cycles of epirubicin (100 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2) at 2-week interval then followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m2) at 2-week interval for 4 cycles, with daily Pegfilgrastim (G-CSF) that was administered in all patients on days 3–10 after each cycle of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide infusion. Results. Fifty-eight patients with axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the study, of whom 42 (72.4%) completed the regimen. There were two toxicity-related deaths, one patient due to grade 4 febrile neutropenia and the other due to congestive heart failure. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were 13.8% and 5.1%. The most common grade 3/4 nonhematological complications were as follows: skin-nail disorders (48.3%), hand-foot syndrome (34.4%), paresthesia (38%), arthralgia (27.5%), and paresis (24.1%). Conclusions. Dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel with G-CSF support are not feasible, and it is not recommended for further investigation. PMID:24187626

  20. Phase II trial of dose-dense chemotherapy followed by dose-intense erlotinib for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    PETTY, W. JEFFREY; LAUDADIO, JENNIFER; BRAUTNICK, LYNSAY; LOVATO, JAMES; DOTSON, TRAVIS; STREER, NATHAN P.; WEAVER, KATHRYN E.; MILLER, ANTONIUS A.

    2013-01-01

    This phase II study investigated dose-intense erlotinib maintenance after dose-dense chemotherapy for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and examined two cell cycle biomarkers. Patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer received docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 and pegfilgrastim on day 2 every 14 days for four cycles. Patients then received erlotinib with initial doses based on smoking status. Doses were increased in 75 mg increments every two weeks depending on toxicities until each patient's maximal tolerable dose (MTD) was achieved. Cyclin D1 and D3 biomarkers were measured by immunohistochemistry. The objectives of the study were to evaluate time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) for the entire population and biomarker subgroups. Forty-five patients were enrolled. Intra-patient erlotinib MTD ranged from 0 to 525 mg. Median MTD achieved in smokers was higher than in non-smokers (300 vs. 150 mg; P=0.019). TTP for the entire cohort was not significantly improved compared to historical controls. Patients with high cyclin D1 expressing tumors demonstrated improved TTP on erlotinib (8.2 vs. 4.7 months; hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.6–0.6; P=0.003) and improved OS (20.5 vs. 8.0 months; hazard ratio 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2–6.3; P=0.016). Intratumoral cyclin D3 expression did not impact clinical outcomes. Current smokers but not former smokers exhibit a higher erlotinib MTD. High cyclin D1 expression was associated with favorable TTP and OS. PMID:24100924

  1. Subgroup effects in a randomised trial of different types and doses of exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Courneya, K S; McKenzie, D C; Mackey, J R; Gelmon, K; Friedenreich, C M; Yasui, Y; Reid, R D; Vallerand, J R; Adams, S C; Proulx, C; Dolan, L B; Wooding, E; Segal, R J

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Trial tested different types and doses of exercise in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Here, we explore potential moderators of the exercise training responses. Methods: Breast cancer patients initiating chemotherapy (N=301) were randomly assigned to three times a week, supervised exercise of a standard dose of 25–30 min of aerobic exercise, a higher dose of 50–60 min of aerobic exercise, or a higher dose of 50–60 min of combined aerobic and resistance exercise. Outcomes were patient-reported symptoms and health-related fitness. Moderators were baseline demographic, exercise/fitness, and cancer variables. Results: Body mass index moderated the effects of the exercise interventions on bodily pain (P for interaction=0.038), endocrine symptoms (P for interaction=0.029), taxane/neuropathy symptoms (P for interaction=0.013), aerobic fitness (P for interaction=0.041), muscular strength (P for interaction=0.007), and fat mass (P for interaction=0.005). In general, healthy weight patients responded better to the higher-dose exercise interventions than overweight/obese patients. Menopausal status, age, and baseline fitness moderated the effects on patient-reported symptoms. Premenopausal, younger, and fitter patients achieved greater benefits from the higher-dose exercise interventions. Conclusions: Healthy weight, fitter, and premenopausal/younger breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are more likely to benefit from higher-dose exercise interventions. PMID:25144625

  2. Profile of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) fixed dose combination and its potential in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Netupitant, is a new NK-1 receptor antagonist with a high binding affinity, a long half-life of 90 hours, is metabolized by CYP3A4, and is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. NEPA is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron which has recently been employed in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC and HEC). The clinical trials demonstrated that NEPA (300 mg of netupitant plus 0.50 mg of palonosetron) significantly improved the prevention of CINV compared to the use of palonosetron alone in patients receiving either HEC or MEC. The clinical efficacy was maintained over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. NEPA (Akynzeo®) has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25552904

  3. Profile of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) fixed dose combination and its potential in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Netupitant, is a new NK-1 receptor antagonist with a high binding affinity, a long half-life of 90 hours, is metabolized by CYP3A4, and is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. NEPA is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron which has recently been employed in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC and HEC). The clinical trials demonstrated that NEPA (300 mg of netupitant plus 0.50 mg of palonosetron) significantly improved the prevention of CINV compared to the use of palonosetron alone in patients receiving either HEC or MEC. The clinical efficacy was maintained over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. NEPA (Akynzeo(®)) has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Low-dose pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) as an alternative therapy for ovarian cancer in an octogenarian patient.

    PubMed

    Giger-Pabst, Urs; Solass, Wiebke; Buerkle, Bernd; Reymond, Marc-André; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2015-04-01

    Octogenarians with ovarian cancer limited to the abdomen may not be willing or able to undergo systemic chemotherapy. Low-dose pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) with cisplatin and doxorubicin is a form of intra-abdominal chemotherapy which can be applied repeatedly and potentially prevents from the systemic side-effects of chemotherapy. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed ovarian cancer who refused to undergo systemic chemotherapy. She was treated with eight courses q 28-104 days of low-dose PIPAC with cisplatin at 7.5 mg/m(2) and doxorubicin at 1.5 mg/m(2) at 12 mmHg and 37 °C for 30 min. Objective tumor response was noted, defined as tumor regression on histology, and stable disease noted by peritoneal carcinomatosis index on repeated video-laparoscopy and abdominal computed tomographic scan. The treatment was well-tolerated with no Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) CTCAE >2. With a follow-up of 15 months, the patient is alive and clinically stable. The quality of life measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 demonstrated improvement over 5-6 months (global physical score, global health score, global quality of live) without cumulative increase of gastrointestinal toxicity. Low-dose PIPAC is a new form of intraperitoneal chemotherapy which may be applied repeatedly in octogenarian patients. PIPAC may be an alternative and well-tolerated treatment for selected octogenarian patients with ovarian cancer limited to the abdomen who cannot be treated with systemic chemotherapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Two fractions of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the management of cervix cancer: clinical experience with and without chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sood, Brij M; Gorla, Giridhar; Gupta, Sajel; Garg, Madhur; Deore, Shivaji; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Fields, Abbie L; Goldberg, Gary L; Anderson, Patrick S; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, high-dose-rate brachytherapy has become popular in the management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix, because it eliminates many of the problems associated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy. However, the optimum time-dose-fractionation remains controversial. Two fractions of high-dose-rate brachytherapy are convenient for patients, but most radiation oncologists in the United States do not use them, because of fear that they could lead to excessive rectal or bladder toxicity. Here we present our experience, which suggests that a two-fraction regimen is indeed safe and effective. We treated 49 patients with Stages I-III biopsy-proven carcinoma of the uterine cervix by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), plus two fractions of high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 43 patients (88%) and nonsquamous in 6 (12%). The median size of the primary tumor was 6 cm (range: 3-10 cm). Each patient received EBRT to the pelvis to a median dose of 45 Gy (range: 41.4-50.4 Gy), followed by a parametrial boost when indicated. Thirty patients (61%) also received irradiation to the para-aortic lymph nodes to a dose of 45 Gy. After EBRT, each patient underwent two applications of high-dose-rate brachytherapy, 1 week apart. The dose delivered to point A was 9 Gy per application for 49 applications (50%) and 9.4 Gy for 43 applications (44%), and it varied from 7 to 11 Gy for the rest (6%). The total dose to the rectum from both high-dose-rate brachytherapy applications ranged from 4.7 to 11.7 Gy (median: 7.1 Gy), and the total dose to the bladder from 3.8 to 15.5 Gy (median: 10.5 Gy). Twenty-five of the 49 patients (51%) received concomitant chemotherapy (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days) during the first and fourth weeks of EBRT and once after the second high-dose-rate brachytherapy application. Chemotherapy was not assigned in a randomized fashion. The use of chemotherapy increased during the time period spanned by this study as

  6. Prognostic significance of GRP78 expression patterns in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Mauricio Z; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Vassallo, José; Pinto, Glauce A; Soares, Fernando A; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between GRP78 expression and breast cancer recurrence and survival in patients treated with anthracyclines in the adjuvant setting. GRP78 expression was assessed in 106 stage II/III breast cancer patients. Tissue microarray was used to perform immunohistochemistry and to determine the GRP78 expression in endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane of breast tumors. Four distinct scenarios (low and high thresholds) were developed. For high thresholds, 16% and 40% of our cases were GRP78-positive for endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane, respectively. For low thresholds, 74% and 87% of our cases were GRP78-positive for endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane, respectively. In the endoplasmic reticulum high-threshold scenario, GRP78 positive was found to be significantly frequent in T3 tumors (p=0.02), and inversely related to ERBB2 overexpression (p=0.03). There was a lower proportion of GRP78-positive cases among women between 50 and 65 years of age (p=0.02). In the endoplasmic reticulum low-threshold scenario, the proportion of GRP78-positive cases was significantly higher in women younger than 50 years and in those who were premenopausal (p=0.04). No statistically significant difference was found in survival probabilities among the scenarios examined. In our cohort, GRP78 overexpression was not a predictor of overall or disease-free survival of patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. [Significance of vitamin K (VK) administration in patients under chemotherapy during postoperative fasting period].

    PubMed

    Ojiro, M; Takenoshita, M; Toshinaga, T; Shimazu, H

    1992-01-01

    Recently coagulopathy caused by vitamin K (VK) deficiency following antibiotic therapy in malnourished patients has been reported. We studied on the same problem particularly in patients under chemotherapy during postoperative fasting period. For this purpose, prothrombin time (PT), vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (Factor II (F-II), VII (F-VII) and protein C), PIVKA-II (PK-II) and plasma level of VK in two groups of patients with or without VK administration were measured in esophageal cancer patients. In the group with VK, VK2 were given intravenously everyday. In the group without VK, PT prolonged and F-II decreased from the seventh postoperative day, especially on the 14th day significantly. Although F-VII and protein C decreased on the first day and returned subsequently on the seventh day, no significance was observed between two groups. PK-II increased clearly in the group without VK from the seventh day, whereas no significant changes were observed in the group with VK. The plasma level of VK1 decreased in both groups, but VK2, especially MK-4, was high in the group with VK.

  8. An open-label, randomized, multicenter dose-finding study of once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim in Chinese breast cancer patients receiving TAC chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Li, Chanjuan; Xia, Jielai

    2015-05-01

    A chemotherapy regimen of docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been accepted as a standard care because of their superior clinical benefit in early-stage breast cancer patients, but with a higher risk of neutropenia. Pegfilgrastim is a once-per-cycle therapy for prophylactic neutrophil support and neutropenia prevention. There was still a lack of direct evidences for finding an optimal fixed dose of pegfilgrastim in Chinese breast cancer patients receiving TAC regimen. An open-label, randomized, phase II study was designed to compare the effects of pegfilgrastim with filgrastim. Eighteen centers in China enrolled 171 eligible female breast cancer patients with cycles of TAC chemotherapy treatment, randomized into four arms, received a single subcutaneous injection of pegfilgrastim (60, 100 or 120 µg/kg) per chemotherapy cycle or daily subcutaneous injections of filgrastim 5 µg/kg 24 h after chemotherapy. Efficacy and safety were analyzed. In ITT population, the mean duration of grade 3+ neutropenia (neutrophil count <1.0 × 10(9)/l) was 2.09, 1.53 and 1.73 days in patients who received pegfilgrastim 60, 100 and 120 µg/kg/cycle, respectively, and 1.69 days in patients who received 5 µg/kg/day filgrastim (P = 0.043). The incidence of grade 3+ neutropenia was 76, 83 and 74 % for doses of pegfilgrastim and 90 % for filgrastim (P = 0.409). The results for febrile neutropenia, time to neutrophil recovery and neutrophil profile were also not significantly different between arms. The safety profiles of pegfilgrastim and filgrastim were similar. A single dose of 100 µg/kg once-per-cycle administration of pegfilgrastim provided neutrophil support and a safety profile comparable to daily subcutaneous injections of filgrastim in Chinese breast cancer patients receiving TAC chemotherapy.

  9. A randomized phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of NEPA, a fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron, for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aapro, M.; Rugo, H.; Rossi, G.; Rizzi, G.; Borroni, M. E.; Bondarenko, I.; Sarosiek, T.; Oprean, C.; Cardona-Huerta, S.; Lorusso, V.; Karthaus, M.; Schwartzberg, L.; Grunberg, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents that target multiple molecular pathways involved in emesis to maximize prevention and control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). NEPA is a new oral fixed-dose combination of 300 mg netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA) and 0.50 mg palonosetron (PALO), a pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, which targets dual antiemetic pathways. Patients and methods This multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel group phase III study (NCT01339260) in 1455 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving moderately emetogenic (anthracycline–cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy evaluated the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose of NEPA versus a single oral dose (0.50 mg) of PALO. All patients also received oral dexamethasone (DEX) on day 1 only (12 mg in the NEPA arm and 20 mg in the PALO arm). The primary efficacy end point was complete response (CR: no emesis, no rescue medication) during the delayed (25–120 h) phase in cycle 1. Results The percentage of patients with CR during the delayed phase was significantly higher in the NEPA group compared with the PALO group (76.9% versus 69.5%; P = 0.001), as were the percentages in the overall (0–120 h) (74.3% versus 66.6%; P = 0.001) and acute (0–24 h) (88.4% versus 85.0%; P = 0.047) phases. NEPA was also superior to PALO during the delayed and overall phases for all secondary efficacy end points of no emesis, no significant nausea and complete protection (CR plus no significant nausea). NEPA was well tolerated with a similar safety profile as PALO. Conclusions NEPA plus a single dose of DEX was superior to PALO plus DEX in preventing CINV following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in acute, delayed and overall phases of observation. As a fixed-dose antiemetic drug combination, NEPA along with a single dose of DEX on day 1 offers guideline-based prophylaxis with a convenient, single-day treatment. PMID

  10. Role of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in primary systemic amyloidosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Kumar, Ambuj; Behera, Madhusmita; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2009-08-01

    Significant uncertainty exists regarding the efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for the treatment of patients with primary systemic (AL) amyloidosis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of AHCT versus conventional chemotherapy (CC) in patients with AL amyloidosis using methodology recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. A comprehensive literature search yielded 820 studies. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT), 2 other controlled studies, and 9 single-arm trials. The 1 RCT and 2 controlled studies compared AHCT and CC, and 9 single-arm studies assessed the efficacy of AHCT without a control. The pooled hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) in the 3 controlled studies was 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 2.91) favoring CC. The pooled proportion for mortality in the single-arm studies (n = 7) was 0.35 (95% CI = 0.25 to 0.46). The pooled odds ratio for complete hematologic response (CHR) from 2 controlled studies was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.25 to 1.64), indicating no difference between AHCT and CC. In the single-arm studies, the pooled proportion for CHR was 0.35 (95% CI = 0.26 to 0.44), and the pooled proportion for treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 0.12 (95% CI = 0.09 to 0.14). In the controlled studies, there was no heterogeneity for any outcome; however, in the single-arm studies, there was a significant heterogeneity for the outcomes of OS, CHR, renal response, and partial hematologic response. Our findings indicate that AHCT does not appear to be superior to CC in improving OS in patients with AL amyloidosis. But the quality of our evidence is low, indicating a need for well-designed and adequately powered RCTs to better address the role of AHCT in AL amyloidosis.

  11. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue in the primary treatment of metastatic and pelvic osteosarcoma: final results of the ISG/SSG II study.

    PubMed

    Boye, Kjetil; Del Prever, Adalberto Brach; Eriksson, Mikael; Saeter, Gunnar; Tienghi, Amelia; Lindholm, Paula; Fagioli, Franca; Skjeldal, Sigmund; Ferrari, Stefano; Hall, Kirsten Sundby

    2014-05-01

    Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma at diagnosis or axial primary tumors have a poor prognosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of intensified treatment with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell rescue in this group. From May 1996 to August 2004, 71 patients were included in a Scandinavian-Italian single arm phase II study. Preoperative chemotherapy included methotrexate, doxorubicin, cisplatin and ifosfamide, and postoperative treatment consisted of two cycles of doxorubicin, one cycle of cyclophosphamide and etoposide and two courses of high-dose etoposide and carboplatin with stem cell rescue. Twenty-nine patients (43%) received two courses and 10 patients (15%) received one course of HDCT. HDCT was associated with significant toxicity, but no treatment-related deaths were recorded. Fourteen patients (20%) had disease progression before completion of the study protocol, and only 29/71 patients (41%) received the full planned treatment. Median event-free survival (EFS) was 18 months, and estimated 5-year EFS was 27%. Median overall survival (OS) was 34 months, and estimated 5-year OS was 31%. When patients who did not receive HDCT due to disease progression were excluded, there was no difference in EFS (P = 0.72) or OS (P = 0.49) between patients who did or did not receive HDCT. The administration of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue was feasible, but associated with significant toxicity. Patient outcome seemed comparable to previous studies using conventional chemotherapy. We conclude that HDCT with carboplatin and etoposide should not be further explored as a treatment strategy in high-risk osteosarcoma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of exercise dose and type on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Reid, Robert D; Jespersen, Diana; Cook, Diane; Proulx, Carolyn; Trinh, Linda; Dolan, Lianne B; Wooding, Evyanne; Forbes, Cynthia C; McKenzie, Donald C

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effects of different doses and types of exercise on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A multicenter trial in Canada randomized 301 breast cancer patients between 2008 and 2011 to thrice weekly, supervised exercise during chemotherapy consisting of either a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise (STAN; n = 96), a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise (HIGH; n = 101), or a combined dose of 50-60 min of aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB; n = 104). The secondary sleep outcomes in the trial were assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at baseline, twice during chemotherapy, and postchemotherapy. We analyzed the global PSQI and the component scores. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated that the HIGH group was statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.90; 95 % CI -0.05 to -1.76; p = 0.039) as well as subjective sleep quality (p = 0.028) and sleep latency (p = 0.049). The COMB group was borderline statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.76; 95 % CI +0.11 to -1.62; p = 0.085) as well as sleep duration (p = 0.051); and statistically superior for sleep efficiency (p = 0.040), and percentage of poor sleepers (p = 0.045). Compared to a standard volume of aerobic exercise, higher volumes of both aerobic and combined exercise improved some aspects of sleep quality during breast cancer chemotherapy. Exercise may be an attractive option to manage sleep dysfunction in cancer patients during chemotherapy.

  13. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in metronomic chemotherapy using irinotecan and/or bevacizumab for colon carcinoma: Study of their clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, HIDETSUGU; OGATA, YUTAKA; AKAGI, YOSHITO; ISHIBASHI, NOBUYA; SHIROUZU, KAZUO

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the antitumor efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy using irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with or without bevacizumab against colon cancer, and the significance of circulating endothelial cell (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) as a surrogate marker for metronomic chemotherapy. KM12SM cells were implanted into the subcutis of nude mouse. After confirming that the implanted tumors had grown 5 mm in size, group A received an intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg CPT-11 every two weeks for 4 weeks [conventional maximum-tolerated dose (MTD)], group B received 10 mg/kg twice weekly (metronomic), group C received 10 mg/kg twice weekly combined with 5 mg/kg bevacizumab twice weekly (metronomic + anti-angiogenic), and the control group received 0.2 ml of PBS every week. Serial changes of CECs and CEPs in peripheral blood and microvessel density (MVD) in the tumor tissues were evaluated. The results showed that the antitumor activity in group B and in group C was significantly higher than that in group A. A significant inhibition in CEPs on day 15 in the metronomic therapy groups B and C was noted when compared to that in the control group, while there was no significant difference in CECs and CEPs between the groups on days 4 and 8. The MVD on day 15 in metronomic groups was significantly lower than that in group A. In conclusion, metronomic chemotherapy of CPT-11 with or without bevacizumab for colon cancer was more effective than the MTD therapy via anti-angiogenic effects. Sequential measurement of CEPs may be a predictive factor for the efficacy and a decisive factor for the optimal dose of metronomic therapy in colon cancer. PMID:22977546

  14. High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation changes prognosis of IgD multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Maisnar, V; Hájek, R; Scudla, V; Gregora, E; Büchler, T; Tichý, M; Kotoucek, P; Kafková, A; Forraiová, L; Minarík, J; Radocha, J; Bláha, V; Malý, J

    2008-01-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare plasma cell disorder constituting less than 2% of all MM cases. Survival of patients with IgD MM is generally shorter than that of patients with other types of monoclonal (M-) protein. We have retrospectively analyzed patients with IgD MM participating in clinical trials of the Czech Myeloma Group. Twenty-six IgD MM patients treated between 1996 and 2006 were identified, 14 (54%) men and 12 (46%) women. The median age was 61 years (range: 37-79 years). Ten of 26 patients (39%) were treated with first-line high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) using melphalan 200 mg/m(2) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Thirteen of 26 patients (50%) received conventional chemotherapy (CHT), mostly melphalan and prednisone or a vincristine/doxorubicin/dexamethasone (VAD) regimen. Treatment responses were evaluable for 23 of 26 (89%) patients. All HDCT patients had treatment responses, including seven patients (70%) with complete responses and three patients (30%) with partial responses. The median progression-free survival was 18 months for HDCT patients and 20 months for CHT patients. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 34 months. The median OS for the HDCT group has not yet been reached (70% of the patients are still alive). In contrast, the median OS for CHT patients was only 16 months. The difference in OS between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.005). In conclusion, the overall response rate for patients with IgD MM aged 65 years or less treated with HDCT and ASCT is similar to that seen in other MM types.

  15. Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for High-Grade Gliomas in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to investigate the outcome of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) for high-grade gliomas (HGGs), we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with HGGs (16 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 7 other HGGs) between 2006 and 2015. Gross or near total resection was possible in 11 patients. Front-line treatment after surgery was radiotherapy (RT) in 14 patients and chemotherapy in the remaining 16 patients including 3 patients less than 3 years of age. Eight of 12 patients who remained progression free and 5 of the remaining 18 patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT with carboplatin + thiotepa + etoposide (CTE) regimen and 11 of them proceeded to the second HDCT/auto-SCT with cyclophosphamide + melphalan (CyM) regimen. One patient died from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) during the second HDCT/auto-SCT; otherwise, toxicities were manageable. Four patients in complete response (CR) and 3 of 7 patients in partial response (PR) or second PR at the first HDCT/auto-SCT remained event free: however, 2 patients with progressive tumor experienced progression again. The probabilities of 3-year overall survival (OS) after the first HDCT/auto-SCT in 11 patients in CR, PR, or second PR was 58.2% ± 16.9%. Tumor status at the first HDCT/auto-SCT was the only significant factor for outcome after HDCT/auto-SCT. There was no difference in survival between glioblastoma and other HGGs. This study suggests that the outcome of HGGs in children and adolescents after HDCT/auto-SCT is encouraging if the patient could achieve CR or PR before HDCT/auto-SCT. PMID:28049229

  16. Efficacy and safety of single-dose fosaprepitant in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H.; Yoshizawa, H.; Yoshimori, K.; Katakami, N.; Katsumata, N.; Kawahara, M.; Eguchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-dose fosaprepitant in combination with intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone. Patients and methods Patients receiving chemotherapy including cisplatin (≥70 mg/m2) were eligible. A total of 347 patients (21% had received cisplatin with vomiting) were enrolled in this trial to receive the fosaprepitant regimen (fosaprepitant 150 mg, intravenous, on day 1 in combination with granisetron, 40 μg/kg, intravenous, on day 1 and dexamethasone, intravenous, on days 1–3) or the control regimen (placebo plus intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone). The primary end point was the percentage of patients who had a complete response (no emesis and no rescue therapy) over the entire treatment course (0–120 h). Results The percentage of patients with a complete response was significantly higher in the fosaprepitant group than in the control group (64% versus 47%, P = 0.0015). The fosaprepitant regimen was more effective than the control regimen in both the acute (0–24 h postchemotherapy) phase (94% versus 81%, P = 0.0006) and the delayed (24–120 h postchemotherapy) phase (65% versus 49%, P = 0.0025). Conclusions Single-dose fosaprepitant used in combination with granisetron and dexamethasone was well-tolerated and effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including high-dose cisplatin. PMID:23117073

  17. High-dose therapy autotransplantation/intensification vs continued standard chemotherapy in multiple myeloma in first remission. Results of a non-randomized study from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Bladé, J; Esteve, J; Rives, S; Martínez, C; Rovira, M; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Marín, P; Carreras, E; Montserrat, E

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) responding to initial chemotherapy who received intensification with high-dose therapy/autotransplantation (HDT) as compared to that of those who were continued on standard chemotherapy. From 1 January 1990 to 30 June 1998, 64 patients with MM who were younger than 65 years achieved a response to initial chemotherapy. Due to referral reasons, patients preference or inclusion in trials, 31 patients received HDT as early intensification while 33 were continued on standard chemotherapy. The presenting features were similar in both groups, except for the median age, which was lower in the HDT group (53 vs 58 years, P = 0.007). Complete response negative immunofixation - (CR) was achieved in 12 of 31 (39%) patients intensified with HDT and in two of 33 (6%) patients who were continued on conventional chemotherapy (P = 0.002). Event-free survival (EFS) was significantly longer in the HDT group (median, 43 vs 21 months; P = 0.007). Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between groups (median, 62 vs 38 months; P = 0.21). However, patients in the HDT group who achieved CR had an EFS (median, 51 vs 31 months; P = 0.03) as well as an OS (median, not reached vs 50 months; P = 0.0006) significantly longer than those achieving a lower degree of response. In conclusion, this non-randomized study shows that early HDT increases CR rate and prolongs EFS. In addition, these results highlight CR as a crucial step for achieving long-lasting disease control and prolonged survival in patients with MM.

  18. Prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index in esophageal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, M; Migita, K; Matsumoto, S; Wakatsuki, K; Ito, M; Nakade, H; Kunishige, T; Kitano, M; Kanehiro, H

    2017-08-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important issues faced by cancer patients. Several studies have shown that a low preoperative nutritional status is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with various types of cancer, including esophageal cancer (EC). Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and/or radiotherapy have been accepted as the standard treatment for resectable advanced EC. However, NAC has the potential to deteriorate the nutritional status of a patient. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the nutritional status for EC patients who underwent NAC. We retrospectively reviewed 66 squamous cell EC patients who underwent NAC consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil followed by subtotal esophagectomy at Nara Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and August 2015. To assess the patients' nutritional status, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) before commencing NAC and prior to the operation was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dl) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (per mm3). The cutoff value of the PNI was set at 45. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). The mean pre-NAC and preoperative PNI were 50.2 ± 5.7 and 48.1 ± 4.7, respectively (P = 0.005). The PNI decreased following NAC in 44 (66.7%) patients. Before initiating NAC, 9 (13.6%) patients had a low PNI, and 12 (18.2%) patients had a low PNI prior to the operation. The pre-NAC PNI and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with the OS (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively) and RFS (P = 0.036 and P = 0.005, respectively) rates. The multivariable analysis identified the preoperative PNI as an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and RFS, although the pre-NAC PNI was not an independent predictor. Our results suggest that the preoperative PNI is a useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of EC patients

  19. Obese non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients tolerate full uncapped doses of chemotherapy with no increase in toxicity, and a similar survival to that seen in nonobese patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Henry; Jackson, Sharon; McLay, Jessica; Knox, Angela; Lee, Jae; Wang, Sarah; Issa, Samar

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk of treatment-related toxicities and long-term survival between obese and nonobese patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma when treated with full uncapped doses of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy. A total of 133 patients and 733 cycles of chemotherapy were analyzed. Obese patients did not experience an increased risk of acute treatment-related toxicities (adjusted odds ratio 0.825, p = 0.197), or delayed toxicities (adjusted odds ratio 0.819, p = 0.779). In the subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients (n = 109), treatment response rate was similar between the two body mass index (BMI) groups, and obese patients tended to have superior overall and progression-free survivals, albeit not statistically significant. Full uncapped doses of R-CHOP chemotherapy administered to obese patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are safe, well tolerated, and do not lead to inferior treatment response or long-term outcomes.

  20. Adoptive Cellular Therapy Targeting Recurrent Pediatric Brain Cancers During Hematopoietic Recovery from High-Dose Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (MB/PNETs), will still die from recurrent disease. Furthermore, survivors are often left with...REMATCH: ”Recurrent Medulloblastoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Adoptive T Cell Therapy during Recovery from Myeloablative Chemotherapy and...Recurrent Medulloblastoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Adoptive T Cell Therapy during Recovery from Myeloablative Chemotherapy and Hematopoietic

  1. Metronomic chemotherapy: an attractive alternative to maximum tolerated dose therapy that can activate anti-tumor immunity and minimize therapeutic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

    2015-03-28

    The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed 'metronomic' chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. Here we present evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic.

  2. Metronomic chemotherapy: An attractive alternative to maximum tolerated dose therapy that can activate anti-tumor immunity and minimize therapeutic resistance

    DOE PAGES

    Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J.; Klement, Giannoula Lakka

    2014-12-23

    The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed ‘metronomic’ chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. In this paper, we presentmore » evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic.« less

  3. Metronomic chemotherapy: An attractive alternative to maximum tolerated dose therapy that can activate anti-tumor immunity and minimize therapeutic resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J.; Klement, Giannoula Lakka

    2014-12-23

    The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed ‘metronomic’ chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. In this paper, we present evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic.

  4. [A case of unresectable advanced gastric cancer responding remarkably to combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low-dose cisplatin].

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, K; Iwamoto, M; Hoshiko, M; Kawabata, S; Fujii, T; Morimatsu, M; Takeda, J; Kakegawa, T

    1995-11-01

    A 62-year-old male patient complaining epigastralgia was diagnosed as having Borrmann type 2 gastric concer (por). The primary lesion was unresectable, so the patient was treated by combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low-dose cisplatin for 4 weeks, which resulted in the disappearance of primary tumor and a remarkable reduction of metastatic lymph nodes. The patient has a good quality of life without any sign of recurrence now.

  5. Obesity and dose individualization in cancer chemotherapy: the role of body surface area and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Rodrigo Doyle

    2005-01-01

    It is generally accepted that anti-neoplastic chemotherapy dose should be calculated according to body surface area (BSA). This approach does not account for the presence of obesity. Hence, patients with the same BSA will receive the same chemotherapy dose, regardless the presence of obesity. Since this may cause of toxicity in some obese patients, practice of limit BSA is usual. Currently, the body mass index (BMI) is largely used as a marker of obesity and both BSA and BMI include only height (h) and weight(w) in their formula. We put forward the hypothesis that the BMI should also be taken in account for calculation of chemotherapy dose for obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m2). In this article, we present a correction to BSA (CBSA) based on the BMI to be tested in obese patients. Our main result is given by the equationCBSA=K(alpha1h(alpha2+2kappa)w(alpha3-kappa)),whereand kappa, alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 are constants. We show examples of how to calculate the CBSA. This simple strategy may limit drug exposition and maintain greater efficacy than a fixed limitation of BSA.

  6. Types of chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  7. EMP combination chemotherapy and low-dose monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Tadaichi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Hamamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kyoichi; Takeuchi, Takumi; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2002-02-01

    Many chemotherapeutic regimens combined with estramustine phosphate (EMP) have been elaborated for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer over 30 years. However, older EMP-based combination chemotherapies with vinblastine, vinorelbine, doxorubicin or cyclophosphamide showed relatively low PSA response rate (25-58%) accompanied with high toxicities. On the other hand, newly developed EMP-based combination regimens with etoposide, pacitaxel, carboplatin or docetaxel demonstrated promising PSA response rate (43-77%) with moderate to severe toxicity in the rate of thromboembolic event (5-18%) and of neutropenia (9-41%). Treatment-related death was less in the latter combination group (5/615, 0.8%) than that in the former group (3/234, 1.3%). Of note, in the docetaxel combination with EMP, PSA response rate is as high as 77% with high rate (41%) of neutropenia but no treatment-related death was observed. Docetaxel combination with EMP seems to be the best regimen, though not completely justified by randomized trials, to be selected in the modern era, which will be followed by paclitaxel, carboplatin and EMP combination with PSA response rate of 71%. In addition, an interim report in 83 patients was presented. They were not consecutively enrolled but were treated on low-dose EMP monotherapy for previously untreated advanced prostate cancer in Department of Urology of Tokyo University and our 21 affiliated hospitals. Overall PSA response rate was as high as 93.4% out of 76 assessable patients. However, overall toxicity rate was abnormally high (39.5%) with drug discontinuation rate of 32.1%. The reason of low drug compliance may be attributed to gastrointestinal symptoms. To overcome the low drug compliance, appropriate patients for EMP administration should be selected by using gene analysis on the basis of sophisticated tailor-made medicine.

  8. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue for children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Bilgehan; Kremer, Leontien C M; van Dalen, Elvira C

    2015-10-05

    Despite the development of new treatment options, the prognosis of high-risk neuroblastoma patients is still poor; more than half of patients experience disease recurrence. High-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell rescue (i.e. myeloablative therapy) might improve survival. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. Primary objectiveTo compare the efficacy, that is event-free and overall survival, of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow or stem cell rescue with conventional therapy in children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Secondary objectivesTo determine adverse effects (e.g. veno-occlusive disease of the liver) and late effects (e.g. endocrine disorders or secondary malignancies) related to the procedure and possible effects of these procedures on quality of life. We searched the electronic databases The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, issue 11), MEDLINE/PubMed (1966 to December 2014) and EMBASE/Ovid (1980 to December 2014). In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles and the conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) (from 2002 to 2014), American Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (ASPHO) (from 2002 to 2014), Advances in Neuroblastoma Research (ANR) (from 2002 to 2014) and American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) (from 2008 to 2014). We searched for ongoing trials by scanning the ISRCTN register (www.isrct.com) and the National Institute of Health Register (www.clinicaltrials.gov). Both registers were screened in April 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of myeloablative therapy with conventional therapy in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Two authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. If appropriate, we pooled studies. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for dichotomous

  9. [Superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using low dose CBDCA and Pirarubicin with concurrent radiotherapy for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuyuki; Shiba, Hiromi; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kunimoto, Yasuomi; Tanimoto, Shunji; Higami, Yumiko; Kitano, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    To study the effects of superselective intraarterial chemotherapy with low-dose CBDCA, Pirarubicin, and concurrent radiotherapy on head and neck cancer, we compared primary cancer response and histopathological effective grades in 66 patients (more than T2) divided into radical and preoperative radiotherapy groups. The radical group (n=33) showed a 75.7% response in primary cancer, i.e. 54.5% complete remission and 21.2% partial remission. The preoperative group (n = 33) showed 39.4% complete remission when the histopathological effective grade was higher, and 57.6% partial remission when the grade was lower. Cancer response was better in the oral cavity, mesopharynx, and hypopharynx than in the parasinus. In the preoperative group, 5-year overall survival was 84.4% when the effective grade was higher, and 29.4% when the grade was lower. Survival differed significantly (P<0.01) between higher and lower grades. Additional postoperative therapy is thus essential in patients with lower grades of histopathological effectiveness.

  10. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included seven trials (1814 participants) in this review; six were conducted during one course of treatment (chemotherapy or HSCT). Overall the methodological quality of studies was low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Five studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (four studies; 1170 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.13; moderate-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 951 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence). Three studies reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant. There was no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 230 participants; mean difference −0.17, 95% CI −0.51 to 0.17; low quality evidence). One study (855 participants) showed no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between high-dose and standard-dose groups, or between low-dose and high-dose groups (849 participants). Three studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a low-dose and a standard-dose platelet transfusion policy (three studies; 1059 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.92; low-quality evidence

  11. High-dose 8% capsaicin patch in treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona; Krzyzewski, Roger M; Kucharz, Jakub; Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna; Kleja, Justyna; Woron, Jarosław; Strzepek, Katarzyna; Kazior, Lucyna; Wordliczek, Jerzy; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2017-08-17

    High-dose capsaicin patch is effective in treatment of neuropathic pain in HIV-associated neuropathy and diabetic neuropathy. There are no studies assessing effectiveness of high-dose capsaicin patch in treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We sought to determine the effectiveness of treatment of pain associated with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with high-dose capsaicin patch. Our study group consisted of 18 patients with clinically confirmed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Baseline characteristic including underling disease, received cumulative dose of neurotoxic agent, neuropathic symptoms, prior treatment and initial pain level were recorded. Pain was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale prior to treatment with high-dose capsaicin and after 1.8 day and after 8 and 12 weeks after introducing treatment. Patients were divided into two groups accordingly to the amount of neurotoxic agent that caused neuropathy (high sensitivity and low sensitivity group). Most frequent symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy were: pain (88.89%), paresthesis (100%), sock and gloves sensation (100%) and hypoesthesis (100%). Initial pain level was 7.45 ± 1.14. Mean cumulative dose of oxaliplatin after which patients developed symptoms was 648.07 mg/m(2). Mean pain level after 12 weeks of treatment was 0.20 ± 0.41. When examined according to high and low sensitivity to neurotoxic agent patients with low sensitivity had higher pain reduction, especially after 8 days after introducing treatment (69.55 ± 12.09 vs. 49.40 ± 20.34%; p = 0.02) and after 12 weeks (96.96 ± 5.56 vs. 83.93 ± 18.59%; p = 0.04). High-dose capsaicin patch is an effective treatment for pain associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin. Patients with lower sensitivity to neurotoxic agents have better response to treatment and pain reduction.

  12. Short duration, high dose, alternating chemotherapy in metastatic neuroblastoma. (ENSG 3C induction regimen). The European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, C. R.; Zucker, J. M.; Hartmann, O.; Pritchard, J.; Broadbent, V.; Morris-Jones, P.; Breatnach, F.; Craft, A. E.; Pearson, A. D.; Wallendszus, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one children, aged from 15 months to 13 years 5 months with metastatic neuroblastoma presenting sequentially at the participating institutions received four 3 to 4 weekly courses of high dose multiagent chemotherapy. High dose cisplatin (200 mg m-2) combined with etoposide (500 mg m-2), HIPE, was alternated with ifosfamide (9 g m-2), vincristine (1.5 mg m-2), and adriamycin (60 mg m-1), IVAd. Disease status was re-evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after the fourth course and the response classified according to the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC). The overall response rate in evaluable patients was 55% and response rates by site were: bone marrow 67% (complete response 47%); bone scan 68%; primary tumour 61%, and urinary catecholamine metabolites (VMA/HVA) 95%. Serial 51Cr EDTA renal clearance studies showed a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline in 40% of patients but in only seven cases to below 50% of the pretreatment value. There was no instance of renal failure during induction, though two patients developed severe renal failure following 'megatherapy' given to consolidate remission. Serial audiometry showed a significant decline in hearing at frequencies above 2,000 Hz in 37% of children but at or below 2,000 Hz in only 17%. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were severe and intravenous antibiotics were required after 30% of courses. Each of two treatment-related deaths occurred during pancytopenia following courses of IVAd. Complete, or greater than 90%, removal of primary site tumour was possible in 70% of cases following this induction regimen and 75% of patients proceeded to elective megatherapy within a median time of 24 weeks after diagnosis. This short intensive induction programme is highly effective at achieving cytoreduction, enabling early surgery and early megatherapy procedures. It is, however, too early to draw firm conclusions about the impact of this approach to treatment on the cure rate. PMID:2386751

  13. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sunil; Chadha, Awalpreet S.; Suh, Yelin; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Rao, Arvind; Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E.; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Beddar, Sam; Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B.; Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P = .03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P = .05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS. PMID:26972648

  14. Decreased dose density of standard chemotherapy does not compromise survival for ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Molckovsky, A; Vijay, S M; Hopman, W M; Bryson, P; Jeffrey, J F; Biagi, J J

    2008-01-01

    For women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, the standard practice of surgery followed by adjuvant platinum-taxane combination chemotherapy, with cycles administered every 3 weeks, is based on randomized control trials. However, a substantial number of patients require delays or reductions on this schedule. The Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario (CCSEO) has historically administered chemotherapy every 4 weeks. We analyzed survival outcomes of our cohort. All ovarian cancer patients treated with chemotherapy at the CCSEO from 1995 to end-2002 were included in this study. Overall survival and progression-free survival were calculated from initiation of chemotherapy using the Kaplan-Meier technique and log-rank tests. Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for age and disease stage. A total of 171 patients were treated with chemotherapy (cisplatin-paclitaxel or carboplatin-paclitaxel), of which 144 received chemotherapy every 4 weeks and 27 every 3 weeks. Median progression-free survival was 19.2 months for the group treated every 4 weeks vs 13.2 months for the 3-weekly group. Median overall survival was 36.5 months compared to 27.1 months, respectively. Trends favored treatment every 4 weeks. In early-stage disease, 5-year overall survival was 74% and 5-year progression-free survival was 68%. Administration of platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy every 4 weeks did not reduce survival of ovarian cancer patients. Importantly, median survival is favorable compared to results from landmark trials where patients were treated every 3 weeks. These results suggest that decreasing the frequency of chemotherapy cycles does not decrease survival. Prospective trials would be required to compare quality of life and cost-effectiveness.

  15. Parathyroid hormone linked to a collagen binding domain promotes hair growth in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Seymour, Andrew; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a major source of psychological stress in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, and it can influence treatment decisions. Although there is currently no therapy for alopecia, a fusion protein of parathyroid hormone and collagen binding domain (PTH-CBD) has shown promise in animal models. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are dose-dependent effects of PTH-CBD on chemotherapy-induced alopecia in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were waxed to synchronize hair follicles; treated on day 7 with vehicle or PTH-CBD (100, 320, and 1000 mcg/kg subcutaneous injection); and treated on day 9 with vehicle or cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Mice were photographed every 3-4 days and killed on day 63 for histological analysis. Photographs were quantified by gray scale analysis to assess hair content. Mice not receiving chemotherapy showed regrowth of hair 2 weeks after waxing and normal histology after 2 months. Mice receiving chemotherapy alone showed marked hair loss after chemotherapy, which was sustained for 10 days and was followed by rapid regrowth of a normal coat. Histological analysis revealed rapid cycling dystrophic anagen/catagen follicles. Animals receiving chemotherapy and PTH-CBD showed decreased hair loss and more rapid regrowth of hair than that seen with chemotherapy alone (increased hair growth by gray scale analysis, P<0.05), and the effects were dose dependent. Histologically, hair follicles in animals receiving the highest dose of PTH-CBD were in a quiescent phase, similar to that in mice that did not receive chemotherapy. Single-dose subcutaneous administration of PTH-CBD showed dose-dependent effects in minimizing hair loss and speeding up recovery from chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  16. Mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells by chemotherapy and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for hematologic support after high-dose intensification for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Elias, A D; Ayash, L; Anderson, K C; Hunt, M; Wheeler, C; Schwartz, G; Tepler, I; Mazanet, R; Lynch, C; Pap, S

    1992-06-01

    marrow support, time to engraftment, antibiotic days, transfusion requirements, and lengths of hospital stay were all significantly improved for the patients receiving PBPCs. Thus, autologous PBPCs can be efficiently collected during mobilization by chemotherapy and GM-CSF and are an attractive alternative to marrow for hematopoietic support after high-dose therapy. The enhanced speed of recovery may reduce the morbidity, mortality, and cost of high-dose treatment. Furthermore, PBPC support may enhance the effectiveness of high-dose therapy by facilitating multiple courses of therapy.

  17. Review of oral fixed-dose combination netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Vito; Karthaus, Meinolf; Aapro, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the combination of a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist (RA) and a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, together with corticosteroids, in order to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with anthracycline-cyclophosphamide and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and it is to be considered with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) is a fixed-dose combination of netupitant, a novel, highly selective NK1 RA, and palonosetron, a new-generation 5-HT3 RA, targeting two major emetic pathways in a single oral capsule. In clinical trials, NEPA administered on day 1 together with dexamethasone was highly effective and well tolerated in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with solid tumors undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. NEPA offers maximal convenience, and as a simple guideline-based regimen, has the potential to improve adherence to guidelines.

  18. Early response to high-dose methotrexate, vincristine, and procarbazine chemotherapy-adapted strategy for primary CNS lymphoma: no consolidation therapy for patients achieving early complete response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Se Hoon; Chang, Jong Hee; Suh, Chang-Ok; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Yundeok; Hwang, Doh Yu; Jang, Ji Eun; Hyun, Shin Young; Cheong, June-Won; Min, Yoo Hong; Kim, Jin Seok

    2014-02-01

    Optimal treatment strategies for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) have not been established. In this study, we investigated the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of high-dose methotrexate, vincristine, and procarbazine (MVP) chemotherapy followed by an interim response-adapted intensification strategy in immunocompetent patients with PCNSL. We evaluated the evidence of infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in both brain tumor tissue and whole blood. Forty patients were retrospectively reviewed. Ten (25 %) patients who achieved complete response (CR) in the interim analysis did not receive any additional consolidation treatment after completion of planned high-dose MVP chemotherapy. Additional radiotherapy (n = 9) or autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) (n = 7) was performed in patients who did not achieve CR in the interim analysis. The median age was 55 years. The overall CR rate was 62.5 % (n = 25), and the objective response rate was 75.0 %. Two-year overall survival (OS) was 59.8 %, and 2-year progression-free survival was 47.1 %. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 47.5 and 32.5 % of patients, respectively. Treatment-related mortality was 15.0 % (n = 6), and four patients developed delayed neurotoxicity. There was no evidence of EBV-encoded RNA expression in brain tumor tissue. Ten (29.4 %) of 34 patients showed detectable EBV-DNA in whole blood. Poor performance status and EBV-DNA positivity in whole blood were significantly associated with inferior OS (p = 0.032, p = 0.023, respectively). We suggest that high-dose MVP chemotherapy followed by an early response-adapted intensification strategy may be effective and minimize the number of patients who receive radiotherapy or ASCT in the early course of treatment.

  19. Reduced Dose Intensity of Chemotherapy may not Lead to Inferior Palliation in Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder: An Experience from a Regional Cancer Centre in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aparna; Nath, Partha; Biswas, Jaydip

    2015-09-01

    To assess impact of relative total dose intensity (RTDI) on clinical benefit among patients with locally advanced carcinoma gall bladder receiving gemcitabine-cisplatin (GemCis). Comparison of clinical benefit among patients receiving variable RTDI was the primary objective. The secondary objective was an impact of RTDI on chemotherapy toxicity. One-hundred twenty-one patients with locally advanced inoperable carcinoma gall bladder undergoing chemotherapy with three weekly gemcitabine-cisplatin chemotherapies (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 8, cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) on day 1) were studied. Clinical benefit and treatment toxicity was assessed. Total dose of chemotherapy and relative total dose intensity, the proportion of planned dose actually received was calculated. RTDI of at least 50 % conferred substantial clinical benefit compared to lower RTDI (75.49 vs. 21.05 %). RTDI above 50-59 % did not improve clinical benefit; two-tailed p values of RTDI >60 % vs. RTDI >50 % and RTDI >70 % vs. RTDI >50 % were 1.000 and 0.4266, respectively. Subsequent extended cholecystectomy rates did not significantly improve among patients who received RTDI greater than 50-59 %; two-tailed p values of RTDI >60 % vs. RTDI >50 % and RTDI >70 % vs. >50 % were 0.0920 and 0.5648, respectively. Significantly higher neutropenia and anemia of at least grade 2 occurred with RTDI >70 % vs. RTDI 50-59 %; two-tailed p values 0.0019 and 0.0048, respectively. Relative total dose intensity of chemotherapy higher than 60 % among patients with inoperable locally advanced carcinoma gall bladder conferred no significant improvement in clinical benefit and subsequent rates of extended cholecystectomy. Higher RTDI however led to significantly increased toxicity among these patients.

  20. High dose lansoprazole combined with metronomic chemotherapy: a phase I/II study in companion animals with spontaneously occurring tumors.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Buglioni, Sabrina; Carocci, Francesca; Francesco, Menicagli; Vincenzi, Bruno; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Fais, Stefano

    2014-08-21

    The treatment of human cancer has been seriously hampered for decades by resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. A very efficient mechanism of tumor resistance to drugs is the proton pumps-mediated acidification of tumor microenvironment. Metronomic chemotherapy has shown efficacy in adjuvant fashion as well as in the treatment of pets with advanced disease. Moreover, we have shown in veterinary clinical settings that pre-treatment with proton-pumps inhibitors (PPI) increases tumor responsiveness to chemotherapeutics. In this study pet with spontaneously occurring cancer have been recruited to be treated by a combination of metronomic chemotherapy and high dose PPIs and their responses have been matched to those of a historical control of ten patients treated with metronomic chemotherapy alone. Single arm, non randomized phase II open study, with historical control group, evaluating safety and efficacy of the combination of metronomic chemotherapy and alkalization. Twenty-four companion animals (22 dogs and 2 cats) were treated adding to their metronomic chemotherapy protocol the pump inhibitor lansoprazole at high dose, and a water alkalizer. Their responses have been evaluated by clinical and instrumental evaluation and matched to those of the control group. The protocol was overall well tolerated, with only two dogs experiencing side effects due to gastric hypochlorhydria consisting with vomiting and or diarrhea. In terms of overall response, in the alkalized cohort, 18 out of 24 had partial or complete responses (75%), two patients had a stable disease and the remaining patients experienced no response or progressive disease. On the other hand, only one patient in the control group experienced a complete response (10%) and three other experienced short lived responses. Median time to terminal event was 34 weeks for the experimental group versus 2 weeks in the controls (p= 0.042). Patient alkalization has shown to be well tolerated and to increase tumor response

  1. High-dose Chemotherapy and the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer: Selecting the Regimen and the Source of Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Fields; Agaliotis; Janssen; Perkins; Ballester; Hiemenz; Zorsky; Elfenbein

    1994-05-01

    High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell rescue has been associated with an increased overall response rate and improved progression-free survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer when compared retrospectively to standard therapy. The optimal source of stem cells - peripheral blood or autologous bone marrow - has not been determined. We present results from two high-dose regimens - ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) or mitoxantrone and thiotepa (MITT) followed by autologous stem cell rescue - and analyze the outcomes for patients based on the regimen used and the source of stem cells. Disease responsiveness at the time of high-dose therapy is the most important factor for determining outcome. The source of stem cells did not affect progression-free survival for either group.

  2. Radiation dose reduction for patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma with complete response after initial induction chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Bi, Xi-wen; Xia, Zhong-jun; Huang, Hui-qiang; Jiang, Wen-qi; Zhang, Yu-jing

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that radiotherapy (RT) dose less than 50 Gy resulted in inferior outcomes for early stage extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). Nowadays, induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by RT consolidation is often used. For patients who get complete response (CR) after CT, whether RT dose can be safely reduced or not remains unknown. This retrospective study compared the survival outcomes between patients who received higher dose (>50 Gy) and lower dose (≤50 Gy) RT after CR was attained by CT. One hundred and forty four patients of early stage ENKTL got CR after induction CT and received RT consolidation. Thirty-one patients received lower dose RT (median 46 Gy, range, 36–50 Gy), and 113 patients received higher dose RT (median 56 Gy, range, 52–66 Gy). In univariate survival analysis, age >60, local tumor invasion, and non-asparaginase-based CT were associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). However, there were no differences in PFS and OS between patients treated with higher and lower dose RT, which was confirmed in the multivariate survival analysis. Furthermore, reduced dose RT did not affect local control rate. Most common RT-related side effects were grade 1/2 mucositis and dermatitis, and the incidence rate of grade 3 mucositis or dermatitis was lower in patients treated with reduced dose RT (9.7% vs 15.0% for mucositis, and 6.5% vs 17.7% for dermatitis). In conclusion, this study found that RT dose could be safely reduced without compromising survival outcomes and further improved RT-related side effects. Prospective randomized controlled trials are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:27713641

  3. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain capillary permeability following high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: a positron emission tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P.C.; Dhawan, V.; Strother, S.C.; Sidtis, J.J.; Evans, A.C.; Allen, J.C.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rate constants and blood-to-brain transport of rubidium were estimated using positron emission tomography in an adolescent patient with a brain tumor, before and after chemotherapy with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Widespread depression of cerebral glucose metabolism was apparent 24 hours after drug administration, which may reflect reduced glucose phosphorylation, and the influx rate constant for /sup 82/Rb was increased, indicating a drug-induced alteration in blood-brain barrier function. Associated changes in neuropsychological performance, electroencephalogram, and plasma amino acid concentration were identified in the absence of evidence of systemic methotrexate toxicity, suggesting primary methotrexate neurotoxicity.

  4. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue for children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Bilgehan; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Caron, Huib N; van Dalen, Elvira C

    2013-08-22

    Despite the development of new treatment options, the prognosis of high-risk neuroblastoma patients is still poor; more than half of patients experience disease recurrence. High-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell rescue (i.e. myeloablative therapy) might improve survival. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of myeloablative therapy with conventional therapy in children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Secondary objectives were to determine possible effects of these interventions on adverse events, late effects and quality of life. We searched the electronic databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 6), MEDLINE/PubMed (1966 to June 2012) and EMBASE/Ovid (1980 to June 2012). In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles and the conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) (from 2002 to 2011), American Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (ASPHO) (from 2002 to 2012), Advances in Neuroblastoma Research (ANR) (from 2002 to 2012) and American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) (from 2008 to 2012). We searched for ongoing trials by scanning the ISRCTN register and the National Institute of Health Register (http://www.controlled-trials.com; both screened July 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of myeloablative therapy with conventional therapy in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Two authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. If appropriate, we pooled studies. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for dichotomous outcomes. For the assessment of survival data, we calculated the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. We used Parmar's method if hazard ratios were not reported in the study. We used a random-effects model. We identified three RCTs including 739 children. They all used an age of one year as the cut

  5. A comparative study of high-dose hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and transarterial chemoembolization using doxorubicin for intractable, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Jin Dong; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang Hyub; Woo, Hyun Young; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Hwang, Jae Seok; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Young Seok; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Um, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has long been used as a palliative therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). High-dose hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) has showed favorable outcomes in patients with intractable, advanced HCC. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of high-dose HAIC and conventional TACE using doxorubicin for advanced HCC. Methods The high-dose HAIC group comprised 36 patients who were enrolled prospectively from six institutions. The enrollment criteria were good liver function, main portal vein invasion (including vascular shunt), infiltrative type, bilobar involvement, and/or refractory to prior conventional treatment (TACE, radiofrequency ablation, or percutaneous ethanol injection), and documented progressive disease. Patients received 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2 on days 1~3) and cisplatin (60 mg/m2 on day 2 every 4 weeks) via an implantable port system. In the TACE group, 31 patients with characteristics similar to those in the high-dose HAIC group were recruited retrospectively from a single center. Patients underwent a transarterial infusion of doxorubicin every 4~8 weeks. Results Overall, 6 patients (8.9%) achieved a partial response and 20 patients (29.8%) had stable disease. The objective response rate (complete response+partial response) was significantly better in the high-dose HAIC group than in the TACE group (16.7% vs. 0%, P=0.030). Overall survival was longer in the high-dose HAIC group than in the TACE group (median survival, 193 vs. 119 days; P=0.026). There were no serious adverse effects in the high-dose HAIC group, while hepatic complications occurred more often in the TACE group. Conclusions High-dose HAIC appears to improve the tumor response and survival outcome compared to conventional TACE using doxorubicin in patients with intractable, advanced HCC. PMID:21415578

  6. Randomized Trial Comparing R-CHOP Versus High-Dose Sequential Chemotherapy in High-Risk Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Cortelazzo, Sergio; Tarella, Corrado; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Ladetto, Marco; Barbui, Anna Maria; Rossi, Andrea; Gritti, Giuseppe; Corradini, Paolo; Di Nicola, Massimo; Patti, Caterina; Mulé, Antonino; Zanni, Manuela; Zoli, Valerio; Billio, Atto; Piccin, Andrea; Negri, Giovanni; Castellino, Claudia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Benedetti, Fabio; La Nasa, Giorgio; Gini, Guido; Trentin, Livio; Frezzato, Maurizio; Flenghi, Leonardo; Falorio, Simona; Chilosi, Marco; Bruna, Riccardo; Tabanelli, Valentina; Pileri, Stefano; Masciulli, Arianna; Delaini, Federica; Boschini, Cristina; Rambaldi, Alessandro

    2016-11-20

    Purpose The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as first-line treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas is still a matter of debate. To address this point, we designed a randomized phase III trial to compare rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP)-14 (eight cycles) with rituximab plus high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with ASCT. Patients and Methods From June 2005 to June 2011, 246 high-risk patients with a high-intermediate (56%) or high (44%) International Prognostic Index score were randomly assigned to the R-CHOP or R-HDS arm, and 235 were analyzed by intent to treat. The primary efficacy end point of the study was 3-year event-free survival, and results were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Results Clinical response (complete response, 78% v 76%; partial response, 5% v 9%) and failures (no response, 15% v 11%; and early treatment-related mortality, 2% v 3%) were similar after R-CHOP versus R-HDS, respectively. After a median follow-up of 5 years, the 3-year event-free survival was 62% versus 65% ( P = .83). At 3 years, compared with the R-CHOP arm, the R-HDS arm had better disease-free survival (79% v 91%, respectively; P = .034), but this subsequently vanished because of late-occurring treatment-related deaths. No difference was detected in terms of progression-free survival (65% v 75%, respectively; P = .12), or overall survival (74% v 77%, respectively; P = .64). Significantly higher hematologic toxicity ( P < .001) and more infectious complications ( P < .001) were observed in the R-HDS arm. Conclusion In this study, front-line intensive R-HDS chemotherapy with ASCT did not improve the outcome of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

  7. Clinical analysis and prognostic significance of L-asparaginase containing multidrug chemotherapy regimen in incipient peripheral T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Guoli; Zhou, De; Zhou, Meng; Bao, Changqian; He, Donghua; Li, Li; Zhu, Jingjing; He, Jinsong; Shi, Jimin; Zheng, Weiyan; Cai, Zhen; Huang, He; Ye, Xiujin; Xie, Wanzhuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effects and adverse reactions, and analyze the clinical significance of L-asparaginase (L-ASP) containing multidrug chemotherapy regimen in incipient peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 102 patients with incipient PTCL who received L-ASP containing multidrug chemotherapy regimens or not in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2013. Complete remission (CR) rate, partial remission (PR) rate, overall remission (OR) rate, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse reactions were compared. Results: Patients who received L-ASP containing multidrug chemotherapy (L-ASP group) had higher OR rate than those who received L-ASP-free ones (non L-ASP group) (83.3% vs 61.7%, P=0.016), particularly those at phase III/IV (82.4% vs 54.0%, P=0.007) and with an international prognostic index (IPI) score of ≥2 (82.1% vs 50.0%, P=0.006). The median survival time (OS) was 10.5 months (range, 1-47months) in L-ASP group, while 13 months (range, 0.3-68 months) in non L-ASP group, and they had no statistically significance (P=0.754). Similarly, the progression free survival time(PFS)was 10 months (range, 1-47 months) in L-ASP group,while 11 months (range, 0.3-68 months) in non L-ASP group, also had no statistically significance (P=0.414). The 3-year OS rate of L-ASP group and non L-ASP group were 48.9% and 65.0% , respectively (P=0.974) and the 3-year PFS rate of L-ASP group and non L-ASP group were 40.8% and 61.0%, respectively (P=0.479). They all had no statistically significance. The L-ASP group had more adverse reactions than the non L-ASP group, though most of them were mild and could be improved by symptomatic and supportive care. Conclusion: L-ASP containing multidrug chemotherapy regimen in incipient PTCL showed a better short-term effect and controllable adverse reactions. A large prospective clinical trial of use L-ASP in first-line treatment of PTCL is worthy of

  8. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric; Palmer, Joycelynne; Stein, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to

  9. Sleep Measured by Polysomnography in Patients Receiving High-Dose Chemotherapy for Multiple Myeloma Prior to Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Enderlin, Carol A.; Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Davila, David; Richards, Kathy; Jegley, Susan M.; Kennedy, Robert; Goodwin, Julia A.; McNatt, Paula; Stewart, Carol B.; Lockhart, Kim; Reed, Patty J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the objective sleep of patients receiving chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) prior to stem cell transplantation. Design A descriptive study with repeated measures. Setting An international referral center in an urban area of the southern United States. Sample A convenience sample of a subset of 12 patients with MM, recruited from a randomized, controlled trial. Methods Objective sleep was assessed using two nights of polysomnography, one obtained before and one after a second cycle of high-dose chemotherapy prior to stem cell transplantation. Demographic and clinical data were obtained through a retrospective chart review. Main Research Variables Objective sleep including sleep characteristics, sleep-related respiratory events, and periodic limb movements (PLMs) of sleep. Findings Sleep was characterized by a relatively short sleep time, excessive time spent awake after the onset of sleep, and poor sleep efficiency (objective sleep quality). Patients spent more than the expected percent of time in non–rapid eye movement sleep and less in rapid eye movement sleep. Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation nadirs reflected episodes of low arterial oxygen saturation. PLMs during sleep were in the mildly elevated range. Conclusions Findings suggest that patients had poor sleep efficiency (objective sleep quality) and were slightly better sleepers after receiving a second cycle of high-dose chemotherapy. A number of patients also demonstrated obstructive sleep apnea and frequent PLMs. Implications for Nursing Findings support the need for additional investigation of sleep in patients with MM, particularly poor sleep efficiency and PLMs. Improving sleep may improve quality of life by decreasing associated symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and depression. Knowledge Translation Oncology nurses should consider assessing patients with MM for insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, and a history of jerking or

  10. Metformin decreases the dose of chemotherapy for prolonging tumor remission in mouse xenografts involving multiple cancer cell types.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Hirsch, Heather A; Struhl, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Metformin, the first-line drug for treating diabetes, selectively kills the chemotherapy resistant subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSC) in genetically distinct types of breast cancer cell lines. In mouse xenografts, injection of metformin and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin near the tumor is more effective than either drug alone in blocking tumor growth and preventing relapse. Here, we show that metformin is equally effective when given orally together with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and doxorubicin, indicating that metformin works together with a variety of standard chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, metformin has comparable effects on tumor regression and preventing relapse when combined with a four-fold reduced dose of doxorubicin that is not effective as a monotherapy. Finally, the combination of metformin and doxorubicin prevents relapse in xenografts generated with prostate and lung cancer cell lines. These observations provide further evidence for the CSC hypothesis for cancer relapse, an experimental rationale for using metformin as part of combinatorial therapy in a variety of clinical settings, and for reducing the chemotherapy dose in cancer patients.

  11. Evolving concepts in the management of drug resistant ovarian cancer: dose dense chemotherapy and the reversal of clinical platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Pinato, David J; Graham, Janet; Gabra, Hani; Sharma, Rohini

    2013-04-01

    Despite the initially high response rate to standard front-line debulking surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, the relapse rate in ovarian cancer is high and many patients will recur within 6 months of completing platinum based treatment. These patients may still require further chemotherapy despite being considered "platinum resistant". In this setting, response rates to conventionally scheduled second line platinum and non-platinum agents is low, ranging between 5% and 15%. There is an emerging body of evidence that in this scenario, chemotherapeutic activity can be enhanced using unconventionally scheduled "dose-dense" platinum and non-platinum based regimens with improved response rates of up to 65%. Randomised studies to evaluate the impact of this approach on survival in recurrent, platinum resistant disease are urgently required to confirm the promising phase II findings if there is to be a change in the standard of care of patients with platinum resistant disease. In this review we discuss the evolving strategies to overcome resistance in patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer with a particular focus on alterations in dose schedule as a means of reversing platinum resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Concurrent High-Dose Cisplatin Chemotherapy and Conformal Radiotherapy on Cervical Esophageal Cancer Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shaohui; Lockwood, Gina; Brierley, James; Cummings, Bernard; Kim, John; Wong, Rebecca; Bayley, Andrew; Ringash, Jolie

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a change in treatment policy to conformal, elective nodal radiotherapy and concurrent high-dose cisplatin improved survival for cervical esophageal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All cervical esophageal cancer patients treated between 1997 and 2005 were restaged (1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria). Patients treated before 2001 (previous cohort [PC]) were compared with those treated from 2001 onward (recent cohort [RC]). The PC institutional chemoradiotherapy protocol was 54 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks, with 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1-4 and either mitomycin C (10 mg/m{sup 2}) or cisplatin (75 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. The RC institutional chemoradiotherapy protocol was conformal radiotherapy, 70 Gy in 35 fractions within 7 weeks, to the primary tumor and elective nodes, with high-dose cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1, 22, and 43. Results: The median follow-up was 3.1 years (PC, 8.1 and RC, 2.3). Of 71 patients (25 women and 46 men), 21 of 29 in the PC and 29 of 42 in the RC were treated curatively (curative subgroup, n = 50). Between the two groups, no differences in overall survival or locoregional relapse-free survival were seen. The overall survival rate at 2 and 5 years was 35% (range, 24-47%) and 21% (range, 12-32%) in the whole group and 46% (range 32-60%) and 28% (range, 15-42%) in the curative group, respectively. In the curative group, no statistically significant prognostic factors were found. Trends toward better locoregional relapse-free survival were seen in women (2-year rate, 73% vs. for men, 36%; p = 0.08) and in patients aged >64 years (2-year rate, 68% vs. age {<=}64 years, 34%; p = 0.10). Conclusion: No survival improvement could be demonstrated after changing the treatment policy to high-dose cisplatin-based, conventionally fractionated conformal chemoradiotherapy. Female gender and older age might predict for better outcomes.

  13. Circulating progenitors following high-dose sequential (HDS) chemotherapy with G-CSF: short intervals between drug courses severely impair progenitor mobilization.

    PubMed

    Tarella, C; Caracciolo, D; Gavarotti, P; Bondesan, P; Cherasco, C; Omedè, P; Bregni, M; Siena, S; Gianni, A M; Pileri, A

    1995-08-01

    Sequential administration of high-dose chemotherapy courses possibly allows extensive in vivo purging before circulating progenitor collection for autograft. To evaluate whether progenitor cell mobilization was negatively affected by repeated high-dose chemotherapy courses, we studied 23 lymphoma patients undergoing the HDS regimen. The scheme includes the sequential administration of cyclophosphamide (CY) given at 7 g/m2 and etoposide (VP16) given at 2 g/m2, each followed by G-CSF (filgrastim) at 5 micrograms/kg/day. Eleven patients received the standard HDS sequence, with a short interval between first and second myelotoxic courses of less than 45 days (median: 30 days); the remaining 12 patients received a modified HDS where the interval between first and second high-dose course was protracted over 2 months (median: 70 days); in this latter group, 2 to 4 conventional debulking courses were delivered prior to HDS. In patients receiving the standard HDS, progenitor mobilization following the first course was consistently high (median circulating CFU-GM/ml peak value: 29,022); however, significantly lower values were observed at the second course (median CFU-GM/ml peak value 3757, P = 0.002). Circulating BFU-E and CD34+ cell values paralleled those of CFU-GM. No significant difference was observed in progenitor mobilization following either course in patients receiving HDS with extended interval (median circulating CFU-GM/ml peak value: 14,363 vs 9208, at first and second course respectively, P = 0.27). Eleven patients had their progenitor cells harvested following the second delayed course and 2-4 leucaphereses allowed very satisfactory harvests in all of them (CFU-GM/kg ranging from 39-340 x 10(4)).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Significant survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced high-risk nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhong-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Lin, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Bin-Bin; Chen, Kai-Hua; Zhong, Qiu-Lu; Nong, Si-Kai; Li, Ling; Qu, Song; Su, Fang; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to define high-risk patients who may benefit from additional adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after concurrent chemotherapy in combination with intensity-modulated radiotherapy among patients with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A cohort of 511 NPC patients who received concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with or without AC between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively analysed. One hundred seventy-seven patients received CCRT alone, whereas 334 received CCRT + AC. The survival analysis showed that ages >45 years old, T3-T4 stages, N2-N3 disease and serum albumin levels ≤42 g/L were significant independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Using these four risk factors, a prognostic model for OS was created as follows: (1) low-risk group: 0–1 risk factors; and (2) high-risk group: 2–4 risk factors. In the CCRT alone and CCRT + AC groups, significant differences in survival were found between the high- and low-risk groups. Patients in the high-risk group exhibited improved OS due to the addition of AC to CCRT, but no survival benefits were found in the low-risk group. In conclusion, high-risk patients may benefit from the addition of AC to CCRT regarding OS. PMID:28150694

  15. Measuring Clinically Significant Chemotherapy-Related Toxicities Using Medicare Claims From Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Elizabeth B.; Herndon, James E.; Weeks, Jane C.; Henderson, I. Craig; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Schilsky, Richard L.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Because the elderly are underrepresented on clinical trials, physicians have few sources of information to estimate the risks (ie, toxicities) and benefits of chemotherapy administration to the elderly. Objective Our goal was to determine whether the standard measures of toxicity used in clinical trials could be captured from observational Medicare claims data. Methods We identified 175 elderly clinical trial patients treated on 2 Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trials (9344, adjuvant breast study and 9730, advanced lung cancer study) and merged participants’ CALGB data with their Medicare data. From CALGB data, we identified the most frequent Extended Clinical Toxicity Critieria grade III/IV toxicities. We reviewed diagnostic and procedure codes from Medicare manuals, developed algorithms to measure the toxicities, and then finalized the algorithms after empiric review of patients’ codes. We compared results of Medicare algorithms to gold standard CALGB toxicity information to calculate test characteristics. Results CALGB data documented that 15 grade III/IV chemotherapy-related toxicities occurred in ≥3% of the 175 patients: white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelets, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, sensory neuropathy, motor neuropathy, motor or sensory neuropathy, dyspnea, hyperglycemia, infection, and malaise. Vomiting was the only toxicity identified by the Medicare-based algorithm with a sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operator curve of ≥80%. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study suggest that Medicare diagnostic and procedure codes may be of only limited value in measuring clinically significant chemotherapy-related toxicities in elderly Medicare beneficiaries. Future research includes confirming these findings in a larger and more diverse sample. PMID:18388845

  16. Clinical significance of plasmacytosis in the day+14 bone marrow of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing induction chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Al‐Shughair, Nada; Al‐Dawsari, Ghuzayel; Gyger, Martin; Mohamed, Gamal; Roberts, George

    2007-01-01

    Background The design of chemotherapy‐induction regimens for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is directed towards the early elimination of bone marrow (BM) leukaemic blast cells (LBCs). Patients with AML after induction show LBC reduction in a hypoplastic BM and also demonstrate a varying number of residual BM plasma cells (PCs). Aim To relate PC number to several blood and BM parameters as well as clinical features such as infection and survival. Methods On the 14th day after the start of chemotherapy (D+14) BM samples were examined for residual PCs in 60 adult (⩾15 years) patients undergoing AML‐induction chemotherapy, and the proportion of PCs was related to blood and BM parameters including French–American–British (FAB) subtype, other inflammatory cells, antecedent infection, attainment of complete remission and 36‐month survival. Results Median PC proportion of 11.3% (range 0.1–48.7%) in D+14 BM aspirates and 10.7% (0.6–41%) in trephine biopsies was observed. Their number showed a direct relationship with residual BM lymphocytes (r = 0.368; p = 0.025). Higher numbers of residual PCs also reflected the presence of infection before diagnosis and coincident with treatment (p = 0.039). Although we could not demonstrate an association between PC numbers and 36‐month survival, PC numbers were significantly higher in patients with residual leukaemia at D>14 (p = 0.007). Conclusion D+14 BM PC number reflects the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy and the presence of antecedent inflammation or infection. PMID:16731597

  17. Phase I dose escalation of doxorubicin chemotherapy in tumor-bearing equidae.

    PubMed

    Théon, A P; Pusterla, N; Magdesian, K G; Wilson, W D

    2013-01-01

    There is no information on the use of doxorubicin in horses with tumors. To determine dose-limiting toxicosis (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of doxorubicin in tumor-bearing horses. Seventeen horses with 34 localized or multicentric advanced tumors. Two-stage dose-ranging design involving intrapatient and interpatient dose escalation. Treatment protocol included 6 treatment cycles given at 3-week intervals with dosages ranging from 40 to 85 mg/m(2). Clinical signs, hematologic, and nonhematologic changes were evaluated. Total doses ranged from 1,127 to 2,900 mg in 12 horses that completed the assigned treatment protocols. The MTD was 75 mg/m(2). Hypersensitivity reactions and neutropenia were dose limiting. Hypersensitivity was dose-dependent but schedule invariant. Neutropenia was dose- and cycle-dependent but dose-escalation schedule invariant. Cardiotoxicity was not observed. The recommended dosage of doxorubicin to treat horses is 70 mg/m(2) given at 3-week intervals as single agent. Adjunctive treatment with antihistamines and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended to control hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Phase I lead-in and subsequent randomized trial assessing safety and modulation of regulatory T cell numbers following a maximally tolerated dose doxorubicin and metronomic dose cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy protocol in tumour-bearing dogs.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R M; Kurzman, I D; Biller, B J; Guth, A; Vail, D M

    2015-11-01

    Maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and metronomic dose chemotherapeutic approaches alter the immune system and the angiogenic process in different yet potentially complementary ways. A combination of MTD doxorubicin (MTD-DOX) and metronomic cyclophosphamide (mCTX) protocol was evaluated for safety and effect on circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells. We found that mCTX can be safely administered with MTD-DOX in tumour-bearing dogs. Both combination DOX/mCTX and single-agent DOX resulted in significant depletions of circulating lymphocytes throughout the chemotherapy cycle without apparent selectivity for Tregs. The indiscriminant lymphocyte depletions were similar between dogs randomized to receive DOX and dogs randomized to receive DOX/mCTX, suggesting this effect is because of DOX alone. These findings may have implications as to the therapeutic benefit (or lack thereof) of concurrent combination MTD and metronomic protocols. Future investigations are required to determine the effects and indeed the efficacy of concurrent versus sequential applications of MTD and metronomic chemotherapy protocols.

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Might Increase Pneumonitis Risk Relative to Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients Receiving Combined Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: A Modeling Study of Dose Dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelius, Ivan S.; Westerly, David C.; Cannon, George M.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Sugie, Chikao; Bentzen, Soren M.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To model the possible interaction between cytotoxic chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution with respect to the risk of radiation pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 non-small-cell lung cancer patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy at the University of Wisconsin were selected for the present modeling study. Three treatment plans were considered: the delivered tomotherapy plans; a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan; and a fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan. The IMRT and 3D-CRT plans were generated specifically for the present study. The plans were optimized without adjusting for the chemotherapy effect. The effect of chemotherapy was modeled as an independent cell killing process by considering a uniform chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose added to all voxels of the organ at risk. The risk of radiation pneumonitis was estimated for all plans using the Lyman and the critical volume models. Results: For radiotherapy alone, the critical volume model predicts that the two IMRT plans are associated with a lower risk of radiation pneumonitis than the 3D-CRT plan. However, when the chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose exceeds a certain threshold, the radiation pneumonitis risk after IMRT is greater than after 3D-CRT. This threshold dose is in the range estimated from clinical chemoradiotherapy data sets. Conclusions: Cytotoxic chemotherapy might affect the relative merit of competing radiotherapy plans. More work is needed to improve our understanding of the interaction between chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution in clinical settings.

  20. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for choriocarcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eiko; Niimi, Kaoru; Fujikake, Kayo; Nishida, Tetsuya; Murata, Makoto; Mitsuma, Ayako; Ando, Yuichi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2016-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and one of the curable types of gynecological cancer. However, 10% of choriocarcinoma patients have a poor prognosis, particularly when they have metastasis, apart from pulmonary metastasis, or do not go into remission by the second chemotherapeutic regimen. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old patient who had choriocarcinoma with metastases to the lungs, liver and kidneys. The 5th and 6th regimens with cisplatin for choriocarcinoma failed and the patient developed brain metastases. She was then treated with four cycles of high-dose ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE) with blood progenitor cell support after confirming the effectiveness of ICE at normal doses. The serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was 140,009 mIU/ml at the start of high-dose ICE and the patient tolerated this regimen well. However, the beneficial effect was decreasing with each successive course of treatment, with the lowest level of hCG at 103 mIU/ml after the fourth course. The patient did not achieve complete remission and succumbed to the disease 4 months after the last chemotherapy. The findings of the present case and a review of the related literature suggest that high-dose ICE with stem cell rescue may be considered as a viable treatment option for a multi-drug resistant choriocarcinoma or GTN. PMID:27900108

  1. Concurrent high-dose radiotherapy with low-dose chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer of the superior sulcus.

    PubMed

    Kappers, Ingrid; Klomp, Houke M; Koolen, Mia G J; Uitterhoeve, Lon J; Kloek, Jaap J; Belderbos, José S A; Burgers, Jacobus A; Koning, Caro C E

    2011-11-01

    In the treatment of patients with tumours of the sulcus superior (SST), achieving local control is essential because residual or recurrent disease is associated with severe locoregional problems. This study evaluates the efficacy of concurrent daily low-dose cisplatin (6 mg/m(2)) and high-dose radiotherapy (66 Gy) followed by surgical resection in selected patients. Clinical charts, imaging and pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Forty-nine patients with stage II/III SST were treated with concurrent high-dose radiotherapy and low-dose chemotherapy (CRT). Mean follow-up was 49 months (range 2-152). Nineteen patients underwent additional resection after CRT. In 53% a pathological complete response (pCR) was observed (10/19 pts). Acute severe toxicity occurred in 49% (9/19 pts). Late severe toxicity occurred in 3 patients. The 2- and 5-year overall survival was 74% and 33%, respectively. Local tumour control was 100%. Thirty patients received CRT only. Acute severe toxicity occurred in 23% (7/30 pts). Treatment-related mortality was 2%. The 2- and 5-year overall survival was 31% and 18%, respectively. Locoregional disease-free survival was 48% at 5 years. Concurrent high-dose (66 Gy) radiotherapy and daily low-dose cisplatin was associated with a high pCR rate. Excellent local control was achieved after additional resection in selected patients. However, the occurrence of severe toxicity in long-term survivors after concurrent chemoradiation followed by surgery must be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by focal, reduced-dose irradiation for pediatric primary central nervous system germinomas.

    PubMed

    Douglas, James G; Rockhill, Jason K; Olson, James M; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Geyer, J Russell

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively one institution's experience treating pediatric central nervous system (CNS) pure germinomas with platinum-based chemotherapy followed by focal, reduced-dose irradiation. Eight patients were identified with localized, pure CNS germinomas from 1993 to 2004 at the authors' institution. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 7-19). The median follow-up was 40 months (range 8-141). The tumor location was suprasellar in four, the pineal region in three, and the third ventricle in one. Irradiation was started a median of 20 weeks (range 17-22) from diagnosis and consisted of conformal fields to the primary site as determined by the initial diagnostic MR plus a 1.5- to 2-cm margin. Six of the eight patients received a dose of 3,060 cGy; two patients received 3,600 cGy. The 5-year actuarial event free survival was 71% (56-86%, 95% CI). Two patients suffered marginal (at field edge) failures and both were salvaged using reinduction platinum-based chemotherapy followed by cranial spinal irradiation and a boost to the primary tumor. The 5-year actuarial overall survival was 100%. There were no spinal failures. These data suggest that a reduction in both volume and dose (30.6-36 Gy) retains the excellent survival rates for patients with localized, pure germinomas of the CNS. A higher rate of ventricular relapse rate is observed, although salvage of those patients is feasible.

  3. The Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel Added to Combination Chemotherapy of Carboplatin and Gemcitabine or Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Shoji; Iwasa, Norihiro; Kurosaki, Akira; Nishikawa, Tadaaki; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Kosei; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    Paclitaxel is known to produce the "platelet-sparing effect" that prevents the carboplatin-induced decrease in platelet count. We conducted a pilot study to assess whether the addition of low-dose paclitaxel to carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy prevents thrombocytopenia. Patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer received intravenous (IV) paclitaxel at 60 mg/m(2) followed by IV carboplatin at an area under the curve of 6 and IV pegylated liposomal doxorubicin at 30 mg/m(2) on day 1 in a 28-day cycle (DC-LOP) or IV gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle (GC-LOP). During May 2011 to December 2011, 7 patients received 29 cycles of DC-LOP; during January 2012 to May 2013, 15 patients received 88 cycles of GC-LOP. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 2 (33%) of 6 and 9 (56%) of 16 patients in the DC-LOP and GC-LOP groups, respectively. No grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicity was observed. Only one patient who received GC-LOP had grade 2 sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. Paclitaxel-related toxicities, including muscle pain, arthralgia, and peripheral neuropathy, were consistently rare and mild. The response rates of DC-LOP and GC-LOP were 33% (0, complete response; 2, partial response; 3, stable disease; 1, progression disease) and 50% (2, complete response; 6, partial response; 7, stable disease; 1, progression disease), respectively. Although low-dose paclitaxel addition did not alleviate thrombocytopenia in the setting of this pilot study, the results do not deny the existence of the "platelet-sparing effect" by low-dose paclitaxel. Further investigation of the carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy including a drug with mild hematological toxicity is warranted.

  4. The prognostic and predictive significance of PARP-1 in locally advanced breast cancer of Egyptian patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aiad, Hayam A; Kandil, Mona A H; El-Tahmody, Mohammed A; Abulkheir, Iman L; Abulkasem, Fatma M; Elmansori, Asma A; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A

    2015-09-01

    PARP-1 is a chromatin-associated enzyme that has a role in DNA repair and cell death. PARP-1 inhibitors are suggested therapy specifically for BRCA deficient breast carcinoma; however, their efficacy in sporadic breast cancer is under investigations. This study aimed to evaluate the PARP-1 in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) cases to determine its predictive significance for outcome and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). This retrospective study was conducted on 84 LABC cases. Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear PARP-1 (nPARP-1) and cytoplasmic PARP-1 (cPARP-1) was evaluated in pretreatment needle core biopsies (NCBs). Results were correlated with clinicopathologic features, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and response to NCT in postoperative specimens. High nPARP-1expression was observed in 64/84 (76%) of cases and was significantly associated with a lower lymph node stage (P=0.04). High cPARP-1 was observed in 40/84 (48%) of cases and it was significantly associated with lower lymph node stage (P=0.022) and lower tumor grade (P=0.050). High nPARP-1 expression was significantly associated with high cPARP-1 expression (P=0.005). Low cPARP-1 expression was associated with no response to chemotherapy in tumor site (P=0.021). According to the univariate survival analysis, high nPARP-1 and high cPARP-1 were significantly associated to longer OS (P=0.017 and P=0.019, respectively). High nPARP-1 but not cPARP-1 showed trend toward improved OS in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (P=0.053). PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression is a marker of good prognosis and is predictive of response to NCT in LABC.

  5. Comparison between 5-day aprepitant and single-dose fosaprepitant meglumine for preventing nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yosuke; Hayashi, Takahiro; Ito, Kaori; Suzuki, Eri; Mine, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Oya, Miyuki; Matsuda, Hidezo; Isaji, Ami; Nakanishi, Toru; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Uyama, Ichiro; Kawada, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shigeki

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to compare the preventive effect of 5-day administration of aprepitant with single administration of fosaprepitant meglumine against nausea and vomiting symptoms due to highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens comprising cisplatin (CDDP). Subjects were inpatients who underwent chemotherapy for gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, or head and neck cancer with a regimen comprising 60 mg/m(2) or higher dose of CDDP. In this randomised, open-label, controlled study, the subjects were assigned to a group given aprepitant for 5 days or a group given a single administration of fosaprepitant meglumine. The nausea and vomiting symptoms that emerged within 7 days after the first CDDP administration were investigated with a questionnaire form; the results were compared between the two groups. Risk factors affecting nausea and vomiting symptoms were also investigated. Of the 101 patients enrolled, 93 patients were included (48 in the 5-day aprepitant group and 45 in the single fosaprepitant meglumine group). No significant intergroup differences in the complete response rate or the complete control rate were found over the entire period. The nausea score tended to increase from day 3 in both groups, but no significant intergroup difference was observed. Furthermore, the investigation of risk factors affecting moderate or severe nausea symptoms indicated that the fosaprepitant meglumine administration was not a risk factor. Single administration of fosaprepitant meglumine was not inferior to 5-day administration of aprepitant for preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting symptoms occurring after administration of CDDP (60 mg/m(2) or higher).

  6. Consensus Recommendations from the Spanish Germ Cell Cancer Group on the Use of High-dose Chemotherapy in Germ Cell Cancer.

    PubMed

    González-Billalabeitia, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Juan Manuel; Maroto, Pablo; Aparicio, Jorge; Arranz, Jose Angel; Esteban, Emilio; Gironés, Regina; López-Brea, Marta; Mendez-Vidal, María José; Pinto, Alvaro; Sastre, Javier; de Prado, Diego Soto; Terrasa, Josefa; Vázquez, Sergio; Powles, Thomas; Beyer, Jörg; Castellano, Daniel; Del Muro, Xavier García

    2016-07-18

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) has been studied in several clinical scenarios in advanced germ cell cancer (GCC). To establish a clinical practice guideline for HDCT use in the treatment of GCC patients. An expert panel reviewed information available from the literature. The panel addressed relevant issues concerning and related to HDCT. The guideline was externally reviewed by two international experts. The efficacy of HDCT has been demonstrated in selected GCC patients. The most conclusive evidence comes from retrospective analyses that need to be interpreted with caution. HDCT can cure a significant proportion of heavily treated GCC patients. When indicated, sequential HDCT with regimens containing carboplatin and etoposide, as well as peripheral stem-cell support, is recommended. There is no conclusive evidence to recommend HDCT as first-line therapy. According to a multinational retrospective pooled analysis, HDCT might be superior to conventional CT as first salvage treatment in selected patients. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials addressing the value of HDCT in GCC patients who experience failure on first-line cisplatin-based CT. In patients who progress on conventional-dose salvage CT, HDCT should be considered. Treatment of these patients at experienced centers is strongly recommended. It has been demonstrated that HDCT cures selected GCC patients who experience disease progression on conventional rescue regimens. The panel recommends the inclusion of GCC patients in randomized clinical trials including HDCT. This consensus establishes clinical practice guidelines for the use and study of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with germ cell cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. High-dose parenteral ascorbate enhanced chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer and reduced toxicity of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Chapman, Julia; Levine, Mark; Polireddy, Kishore; Drisko, Jeanne; Chen, Qi

    2014-02-05

    Ascorbate (vitamin C) was an early, unorthodox therapy for cancer, with an outstanding safety profile and anecdotal clinical benefit. Because oral ascorbate was ineffective in two cancer clinical trials, ascorbate was abandoned by conventional oncology but continued to be used in complementary and alternative medicine. Recent studies provide rationale for reexamining ascorbate treatment. Because of marked pharmacokinetic differences, intravenous, but not oral, ascorbate produces millimolar concentrations both in blood and in tissues, killing cancer cells without harming normal tissues. In the interstitial fluid surrounding tumor cells, millimolar concentrations of ascorbate exert local pro-oxidant effects by mediating hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation, which kills cancer cells. We investigated downstream mechanisms of ascorbate-induced cell death. Data show that millimolar ascorbate, acting as a pro-oxidant, induced DNA damage and depleted cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), activated the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, and resulted in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition and death in ovarian cancer cells. The combination of parenteral ascorbate with the conventional chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel synergistically inhibited ovarian cancer in mouse models and reduced chemotherapy-associated toxicity in patients with ovarian cancer. On the basis of its potential benefit and minimal toxicity, examination of intravenous ascorbate in combination with standard chemotherapy is justified in larger clinical trials.

  8. Retrospective analysis of relative dose intensity in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving CHOP-based chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lodovico; Mo, May; Abella, Esteban; Saven, Alan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate primary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim, a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, on maintaining relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-rituximab (CHOP-R). This retrospective analysis pooled data from pegfilgrastim NHL clinical trials. Patients received up to 6 cycles of CHOP/CHOP-R every 2 (Q2W) or 3 (Q3W) weeks. RDI and the patient incidence of dose delay, reduction, discontinuation, and adverse events leading to dose alteration/discontinuation were summarized overall and by age group (below 65, 65 to 75, and above 75 y) and treatment schedule. RDI during treatment exposure and RDI adjusted by the planned 6 cycles of treatment were calculated. The adjusted RDI was also evaluated with multiple regression analysis. Mean RDI during treatment exposure was 93% and 94% in overall patients in the Q2W and Q3W regimens, respectively. Mean adjusted RDI was 88% and 80%, respectively. The incidence of patients with RDI>85% was lower in older patients (65 y and above). In older patients, the incidence of dose reduction and discontinuation were higher regardless of treatment schedule, whereas dose delay was higher in the Q2W regimen. Multiple regression analysis identified age and cancer stage as potential factors associated with RDI. Adverse events leading to dose alteration/discontinuation were spread across hematological and nonhematological toxicities; older patients had a higher incidence of these adverse events. Pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis maintained RDI in NHL patients receiving CHOP/CHOP-R during treatment. Adjusted RDI was lower in elderly patients because of early termination of chemotherapy.

  9. A case series of low dose bevacizumab and chemotherapy in heavily pretreated patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy prolongs progression free survival in the first line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but its cost/effectiveness is debated. We assessed the safety and activity of a lower dose of bevacizumab in pretreated advanced stage EOC. Methods We treated 15 patients, mostly with platinum resistant EOC, who had received a median of four prior cytotoxic regimens, with bevacizumab 5–7.5 mg/kg q21 days in combination with either carboplatin (n = 8), oral cyclofosfamide (n = 5) or weekly paclitaxel (n = 2). Bevacizumab was administered until disease progression. Tumor response was assessed by CA125 and fusion 18 F-FDG PET/contrast enhanced CT. Results The median number of bevacizumab cycles was 21 (range 3–59). The median baseline CA125 was 272 U/ml and decreased to 15.2 U/ml at nadir. Tumor response was 4 complete response (CR) (26.7%) and 7 partial response (PR) (46.7%) by chemotherapy (CT), with an overall response rate of 73.4% (95% CI, 51.0 – 95.8) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), and 6 CR (40%) and 4 PR (26.7%) by PET, for an overall metabolic response rate of 67% (95%CI, 42.8 – 90.6) according to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST). Median progression free survival (PFS) was 21 months and median overall survival (OS) was 24 months. Grade 3 adverse events related to bevacizumab were hypertension (n = 2), proteinuria (n = 1) and epistaxis (n = 5). Treatment was delayed in five patients for nasal bleeding or uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusions Low-dose bevacizumab and chemotherapy was well tolerated and active in a heavily pretreated population of advanced EOC. Further studies should assess the activity of low dose bevacizumab in EOC. PMID:22732001

  10. Extended Course and Increased Dose of Initial Chemotherapy for Extranodal Nasal Type Natural Killer/T (NK/T)-Cell Lymphoma in Patients <60 Years Old: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Wanggang; Liu, Jie; Cao, Xingmei; He, Aili; Chen, Yinxia; Gu, Liufang; Lei, Bo; Zhang, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) of the nasal type is highly invasive and relatively resistant to chemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an extended chemotherapy regimen with increased dose intensity. Material/Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of 69 patients <60 years old with an ECOG score 0–2 treated for ENKTL at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University between January 2004 and December 2013. The outcomes were compared between patients who received >8 courses of high-intensity chemotherapy (n=37) vs. 6–8 courses (n=18) and <6 courses (n=14) of conventional chemotherapy. Regimens included improved CHOP, CHOP-E, EPOCH, MAED, MMED, SMILE, and Hyper-CVAD with an increased dose intensity in the >8 courses group. Results The mean follow-up was 52 months (8 to 82 months). Remission rate did not differ significantly when compared among the 3 groups after 3 courses of chemotherapy (83.8%, 77.8%, and 78.6%, respectively, overall P=0.834), but the 5-year overall survival (OS) differed significantly (63.5%, 45.1%, and 22.9%, respectively, overall P=0.030), as did progression-free survival (PFS) (59.1%, 36.0%, and 15.1%, respectively, overall P=0.020), disease-free survival (DFS) (54.1%, 35.5%, and 12.9%, respectively, overall P=0.022), and total relapse rate throughout follow-up (37.04%, 50.0%, and 88.89%, respectively, overall P=0.027). There were no differences in adverse effects among the 3 groups. Conclusions These results suggest improved OS, PFS, DFS, and relapse rate in young patients with ENKTL receiving >8 courses of high-intensity chemotherapy. PMID:27843135

  11. Single-dose fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: results of a randomized, double-blind phase III trial†

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C.; Jordan, K.; Green, S. A.; Camacho, E.; Khanani, S.; Beckford-Brathwaite, E.; Vallejos, W.; Liang, L. W.; Noga, S. J.; Rapoport, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish the role of antiemetic therapy with neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists (RAs) in nonanthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC)-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens, this study evaluated single-dose intravenous (i.v.) fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with non-AC MEC. Patients and methods In this international, phase III, double-blind trial, adult cancer subjects scheduled to receive ≥1 non-AC MEC on day 1 were randomized to a regimen comprising single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant 150 mg or placebo along with ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1; control regimen recipients received ondansetron on days 2 and 3. Primary end points were the proportion of subjects achieving a complete response (CR; no vomiting and no use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (25–120 h after MEC initiation) and safety. Secondary end points included CR in the overall and acute phases (0–120 and 0–24 h after MEC initiation, respectively) and no vomiting in the overall phase. Nausea and the Functional Living Index-Emesis were assessed as exploratory end points. Results The fosaprepitant regimen improved CR significantly in the delayed (78.9% versus 68.5%; P < 0.001) and overall (77.1% versus 66.9%; P < 0.001) phases, but not in the acute phase (93.2% versus 91.0%; P = 0.184), versus control. In the overall phase, the proportion of subjects with no vomiting (82.7% versus 72.9%; P < 0.001) and no significant nausea (83.2% versus 77.9%; P = 0.030) was also significantly improved with the fosaprepitant regimen. The fosaprepitant regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusion Single-dose fosaprepitant added to a 5-HT3 RA and dexamethasone was well tolerated and demonstrated superior control of CINV (primary end point achieved) associated with non-AC MEC. This is the first study to evaluate NK1 RA therapy as an i.v. formulation in a well-defined non-AC MEC population. Clinical

  12. Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges prevent oral mucositis in patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Tilak, TVSVGK; Bakhshi, Sameer; Raina, Vinod; Kumar, Lalit; Chaudhary, Surendra Pal; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Gupta, Ritu; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral mucositis is a common inflammatory complication in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and radiation followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lactobacillus brevis CD2 has been proven efficacious in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Methods This phase II study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of L. brevis CD2 lozenges in preventing oral mucositis in patients undergoing HSCT. Eligible patients received four to six lozenges of L. brevis CD2 per day, beginning from 4 to 7 days before initiation of chemotherapy and continuing until resolution of mucositis or till day +24. Results Of 31 patients enrolled, 7 (22.6%) patients did not develop any mucositis, 6 (19.4%) patients developed grade 1, 12 (38.7%) patients developed grade 2, 4 (12.9%) and 2 (6.5%) patients developed grade 3 and grade 4 mucositis, respectively. Median time to onset and for resolution of mucositis were 6 days and 8 days, respectively. No adverse events were reported with usage of study drug. However, one patient died of Klebsiella sepsis. Conclusion Promising results from the study encourage the use of L. brevis CD2 lozenges as a supportive care treatment option; however, a randomised, double-blind, multicentric trial in a larger population is warranted. Trials registration number NCT01480011 at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (Registered on Nov 04, 2011). PMID:28848667

  13. Tolerability of piperacillin/tazobactam in children and adolescents after high dose radio-/chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, W; Bönig, H; Burdach, S; Göbel, U

    1998-01-01

    The combination of piperacillin with tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) extends the activity of piperacillin against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. The broad-spectrum of this formulation, together with its low degree of organ toxicity observed in adults, makes PIP/TAZ a tempting choice for children with radio-/chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, the use of PIP/TAZ is not yet approved for children under 12 years of age. The tolerability of PIP/TAZ was assessed in 19 children and adolescents between 2 and 18 years of age who developed a fever during aplasia after high dose radio-/chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HD-SCT) for primary multifocal or relapsed solid tumours. Treatment with PIP/TAZ was initiated on average 3 days after HD-SCT, and the treatment was continued for approximately 10 days. Both clinical observation and laboratory studies showed no relevant alterations that would have been attributable to PIP/TAZ treatment. These results indicate that PIP/TAZ appears to be well tolerated in children during the acute phase of HD-SCT.

  14. [Trial of home anti-cancer chemotherapy with infusion of 5-FU and low-dose cisplatin].

    PubMed

    Muto, A; Ashino, Y; Ito, H; Kanno, A; Moriyama, A; Hiraga, M

    1996-12-01

    We tried home anti-cancer chemotherapy for patients with advanced or recurrent cancer of the digestive system, using two disposable balloon pumps connected to an implantable drug delivery system via central venous line. There were 33 patients under 75 years old, including 20 cases of gastric cancer, 9 cases of colorectal cancer, 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 2 cases of esophageal cancer enrolled in this study. The protocol was combined chemotherapy with continuous intravenous infusion of 5-FU (300 mg/body/day) and low-dose intravenous injection of cisplatin (5 mg/body/day) in 10-day courses for two weeks, and it was repeated 3 times for 6 weeks. Because of side effects such as nausea, vomiting and bone marrow suppression, treatment was discontinued in 12 cases with peritoneal cancer infiltration. In two of 10 with estimable disease, the reduction of the metastatic lymph node was observed, but no effect was shown in the colorectal metastatic liver tumor. Thanks to the portability of the pump with this method, the patient need not undergo hospitalization. Moreover, there is no renal dysfunction or other major side effects, quality of life is not compromised and a return to family and social life is possible. Thus, if the patient cannot take the oral nutrition, it is easy to start home hyper-alimentation.

  15. The chemotherapy of onchocerciasis. XIX: The clinical and laboratory tolerance of high dose ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Awadzi, K; Opoku, N O; Addy, E T; Quartey, B T

    1995-06-01

    Ivermectin is the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis. However at the recommended dose of 150 micrograms/kg, it neither kills nor permanently sterilises the adult worms. We investigated whether high doses given with and without a preceding 150 micrograms/kg 'clearing' dose would be tolerable as well as effective against the adult worms. Seventy-five healthy males with moderate to heavy infections with Onchocerca volvulus were enrolled in a double-blind trial to receive one of the following treatment regimens: 150 micrograms/kg followed by placebo (9 patients); 400 micrograms/kg with (9 patients) or without (16 patients) a clearing dose; 600 micrograms/kg with (8 patients) or without (16 patients) a clearing dose and 800 micrograms/kg with (8 patients) or without (9 patients) a clearing dose. Detailed examinations were conducted before and at various times after treatment. A preliminary report on the clinical and laboratory safety as at 30 days is presented. All the regimens were well tolerated. No clinical or laboratory drug related effects were observed. The overall severity of the Mazzotti reaction was similar in all groups. Ocular reactions were minimal and there were no changes in ocular function or in fluorescein angiograms. The groups were similar in the extent of microfilaricidal activity; there was however a suggestion that microfilariae were killed more rapidly at 400 micrograms/kg and 600 micrograms/kg but not at 800 micrograms/kg. This needs further study. Single doses of ivermectin up to 800 micrograms/kg are well tolerated; no special precautions for treatment monitoring are required and a 'clearing' dose is not necessary.

  16. Significance of R1 Resection for Advanced Colorectal Liver Metastases in the Era of Modern Effective Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Christophe; Adam, Jean-Philippe; Denost, Quentin; Smith, Denis; Saric, Jean; Chiche, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    The prognosis impact of positive margins after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in patients treated with modern effective chemotherapy has not been elucidated. The objective was to compare oncologic outcomes after R0 and R1 resections in the era of modern effective chemotherapy. Between 1999 and 2010, all consecutive patients undergoing liver resection for CLM were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with extrahepatic metastases, macroscopic residual tumor, treated with combined radiofrequency, or not treated with chemotherapy were excluded. Survival and recurrence after R0 (tumor-free margin >0 mm) and R1 resections were analyzed. Among 466 patients undergoing hepatectomy for CLM, 191 were eligible. Of them, 164 (86 %) received preoperative chemotherapy and 105 (55 %) received postoperative chemotherapy. R1 resection (10 %) was comparable in patients treated or not by preoperative chemotherapy. R1 status was associated with more intrahepatic recurrences. Overall survival (OS) (44 vs. 61 %; p = 0.047) and disease-free survival (DFS) (8 vs. 26 %; p = 0.082) were lower in patients after R1 compared to R0 resection (32 months of median follow-up). Preoperative chemotherapy and major hepatectomy were prognostic factors of survival, whereas postoperative chemotherapy was a protective factor from recurrences. In patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, OS and DFS were similar between R1 and R0 resections (40 vs. 55 %, p = 0.104 and 9 vs. 22 %, p = 0.174, respectively). In the era of modern effective chemotherapy, R1 resection leads to more intrahepatic recurrences but did not affect OS in selected patient responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy protects from recurrences whatever the margin resection status.

  17. Randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study evaluating aprepitant single dose plus palonosetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Jon D; Jaskiewicz, Adam D; Song, Juhee

    2008-05-01

    The combination of palonosetron and aprepitant is safe and effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis (CIE). The purpose of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of 1-day versus 3-day aprepitant in the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in patients who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. This study was institutional review board-approved and informed consent was obtained before this study was begun. This was a pilot, single-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated 3 different treatment arms. All groups received palonosetron 0.25 mg intravenously on Day 1 and dexamethasone on Days 1-4. Arm A received aprepitant 125 mg orally on Day 1 followed by 80 mg on Days 2-3. Arm B received aprepitant 125 mg orally on Day 1 and placebo on Days 2-3. Arm C received placebos on Days 1-3. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the proportion of patients with acute and delayed emesis within each group. Seventy-five patients were included in the analysis. The study commenced with 3 groups; however, an interim analysis displayed unacceptable emesis events in Arm C, and this group was terminated. There were no significant differences between Arms A and B for emesis, nausea, or the use of breakthrough antiemetics. In Arms A and B, 93% of patients were emesis-free from Days 1-5 compared with only 50% in Arm C. From this pilot study of patients who were receiving palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone for highly emetogenic chemotherapy, a single dose of aprepitant displayed similar effectiveness compared with 3-day aprepitant.

  18. High-dose chemotherapy and immunotherapy in adult Burkitt lymphoma: comparison of results in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and noninfected patients.

    PubMed

    Oriol, Albert; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Bergua, Juan; Giménez Mesa, Eduardo; Grande, Carlos; Esteve, Jordi; Brunet, Salut; Moreno, Maria-Jose; Escoda, Lourdes; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus-Maria; Hoelzer, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    It has been recognized that cure is possible for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) if appropriate chemotherapy is used. The introduction of rituximab in BL therapeutic schemes has been scarcely explored. The outcome and toxicity of HIV-positive patients with BL treated in a rituximab and intensive chemotherapy-based trial was evaluated. Thirty-six consecutive patients, 15 to 55 years of age, diagnosed with advanced stage BL were recruited from July 2003 to August 2006, stratified according to HIV infection status and treated with 6 cycles of intensive chemotherapy including 8 doses of rituximab. Nineteen of the patients (53%) were HIV-infected. Their clinical characteristics were comparable to those of the HIV-negative patients. Complete remission (CR) rates were 88% and 84%, respectively, for HIV-negative and -positive patients. Twenty-seven patients (82% and 68%, respectively, for HIV-negative and -positive patients) completed the 6 protocol scheduled cycles. HIV-infected patients presented higher incidences of grade 3-4 mucositis (27% vs 7% of cycles, P = .0005) and severe infectious episodes (26% vs 8%, P = .0025). However, there were no statistically significant differences in 2-year overall survival (82%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 65%-99% and 73%, 95% CI, 54%-92%, respectively) or 2-year disease-free survival (93%, 95% CI, 82%-99% and 87%, 95% CI 72%-99%, respectively). Intensive immunochemotherapy can be administered safely to patients with HIV infection. Despite a higher incidence of severe mucositis and infections the remission and survival rates are comparable to those observed in HIV-negative patients. (Copyright) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  19. HIGH-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY WITH BLOOD OR BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS FOR RHABDOMYOSARCOMA

    PubMed Central

    Stiff, Patrick J.; Agovi, Manza-A.; Antman, Karen H.; Blaise, Didier; Camitta, Bruce M.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Childs, Richard W.; Edwards, John R; Gale, Robert Peter; Hale, Gregory A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Arora, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children, is cured with conventional therapy in 70%. However, 5 year survival for those who relapse is about 30% and drops to about 15% for those with unfavorable histologies (alveolar/undifferentiated subtypes). We describe outcomes of 62 subjects receiving autologous blood/bone marrow transplants for RMS between 1989 and 2003 and reported to CIBMTR. Histological subtype was confirmed by reviewing pathology reports. Transplant-related mortality (TRM), progression-free survival (PFS) and survival were evaluated. Overall 73% of subjects were < 20 years; 39% had cancer bulk >5cm, 63% had metastasis at diagnosis, 55% had unfavorable histologies, 92% had cancer responsive to chemotherapy pretransplant and 67% were in 1st remission. The 1-year TRM was 5% (95% CI, 1–12%) and the 5 year PFS and survival were 29% (95% CI, 18–41%) and 32% (95% CI, 21–44%) respectively. There was only a 4% relapse rate after the first year. There were no differences in 5 year PFS or survival based on histological subtype, transplant in 1st remission vs. relapse (36% vs. 29%; p=0.5), or transplantation for poor-risk histologies in 1st remission vs. relapse (34% vs. 33%; p=0.9). Our data indicate that autotransplants for RMS disease are typically done in patients with disease responsive to chemotherapy pretransplant, with approximately one-third long-term survivors. Despite high risk factors, we also found a low TRM, perhaps reflecting the migration from marrow to blood stem cells as the graft source. Even when performed after relapse for alveolar/undifferentiated histologies, long-term survivals were seen seemingly better than results with conventional therapies. PMID:19961947

  20. The chemotherapy of onchocerciasis X. An assessment of four single dose treatment regimes of MK-933 (ivermectin) in human onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Awadzi, K; Dadzie, K Y; Shulz-Key, H; Haddock, D R; Gilles, H M; Aziz, M A

    1985-02-01

    Nineteen patients from an area of vector control in the savanna region of Northern Ghana, all with moderate to heavy infections with Onchocerca volvulus and some with ocular involvement, were treated with 50, 100, 150 or 200 micrograms kg-1 of ivermectin. Detailed monitoring of clinical and ocular reactions and of alterations in skin microfilarial counts and laboratory indices were carried out during the first 28 days. Microfilarial counts in skin snips and detailed ocular examinations were then repeated at intervals over a period of nine months. Ivermectin slowly eliminated microfilariae from the skin and eye without serious adverse clinical or ocular reactions in all treated groups. There was little difference in efficacy between doses of 100, 150 and 200 micrograms kg-1, and these were more effective than the 50 micrograms kg-1 dose. Very low levels of skin microfilariae were maintained for nine months. Microfilariae were not eliminated from the eye for at least three months. The drug was neither macrofilaricidal nor embryotoxic. However, it produced a dose-dependent stimulation of embryogenesis manifest at one month and succeeded by a suppression of embryogenesis at three months after therapy. In areas where transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted, ivermectin may need not be given more often than once a year. The efficacy of the drug on single dosage and the mild adverse reactions produced, if confirmed in subsequent controlled studies, would greatly simplify the treatment of onchocerciasis and would reintroduce new concepts of the role of chemotherapy in the control of onchocerciasis.

  1. Treatment of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma with an alternating chemotherapy regimen based on high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Fietz, T; Knauf, W U; Hänel, M; Franke, A; Freund, M; Thiel, E

    2009-05-01

    Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphomas (MLCL) differ from other diffuse large cell lymphomas, leading to a description as a separate entity in the current World Health Organization classification. Dose intensification improves long-term results, but no standard therapy has been established so far. We investigated the use of a high-dose methotrexate-based alternating chemotherapy regimen (B-ALL protocol of the German ALL study group) followed by consolidative mediastinal radiotherapy first as a single-center trial, then later as a prospective multicenter trial in 44 patients with a median age of 33 years. Response rates exceeded 90% with an overall survival rate of 80% in the single-center group (8.6 years median follow-up) and 82% in the multicenter group (2.5 years follow-up).Short-term toxicity was manageable, but required hospitalization: the rates of grade 3 or 4 toxicity were 20% (for mucositis), 42% (for neutropenia), 29% (for thrombocytopenia), and 9% (for neutropenic fever). No relapse occurred more than 2 years after diagnosis and initiation of treatment, but unfortunately, no patient with overt progression or relapse within these 2 years could be salvaged. Future directions in the treatment of MLCL will not focus on further dose intensification, but rather on the incorporation of (radio)immunotherapy as a therapeutic tool and gene expression profiling as well as positron emission tomography-computed tomography as stratifying tools.

  2. Repeated high-dose chemotherapy followed by purged autologous bone marrow transplantation as consolidation therapy in metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, O; Benhamou, E; Beaujean, F; Kalifa, C; Lejars, O; Patte, C; Behard, C; Flamant, F; Thyss, A; Deville, A

    1987-08-01

    Among 62 children over 1 year of age at diagnosis, who were treated for stage IV neuroblastoma, 33 entered complete remission (CR) or good partial remission (GPR) after conventional therapy and received high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with in vitro purged autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) as consolidation therapy. The HDC was a combination of carmustine (BCNU), teniposide (VM-26), and melphalan. Thirty-three patients received one course of this regimen, and 18 received two courses. At present, 16 of the 33 grafted patients are alive in continuous CR, with a median follow-up of 28 months. Toxicity of this regimen was tolerable, principally marked by bone marrow depression and gastrointestinal (GI) tract complications. Four complication-related deaths were observed. Relapse post-ABMT occurred most often in the bone marrow. Under this treatment, actuarial disease-free survival is improved compared with that observed under conventional therapy.

  3. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, M. J.; Coppin, C. M.; Murray, N.; Nevill, T. J.; Reece, D. E.; Klingemann, H. G.; Shepherd, J. D.; Nantel, S. H.; Sutherland, H. J.; Phillips, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (six with extreme burden disease at presentation in whom partial remission had been achieved with initial induction therapy, and 15 with recurrent disease after induction therapy) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The first six received etoposide 3.0 g m-2, ifosfamide 6.0 g m-2 and carboplatin 1.2 g m-2 (Regimen 1), and the subsequent 15 received etoposide 2.4 g m2 (continuous infusion), cyclophosphamide 7.2 g m-2 and carboplatin 0.8 g m-2 (Regimen 2) followed by infusion of previously stored autologous marrow. Regimen 1 was associated with considerable renal toxicity and mucositis, whereas Regimen 2 was relatively well tolerated. Two patients died as a consequence of the treatment: one of candidemia and one of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Only one of 17 patients who were autografted in or approaching marker remission subsequently developed disease progression (event-free survival 82%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55% to 94%), whereas all four patients who had progressive disease at autografting subsequently developed further disease progression and died. Fourteen patients remain well and free of disease 0.5 to 6.5 years (median 3.3) post-BMT (event-free survival 67%, 95% CI 43% to 83%). A strategy of prompt reinduction followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous BMT at the first sign of failure of standard therapy may allow cure to be a realistic expectation. PMID:8394733

  4. Mutation of Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase significantly enhances molecular chemotherapy of human glioma.

    PubMed

    Kaliberov, S A; Market, J M; Gillespie, G Y; Krendelchtchikova, V; Della Manna, D; Sellers, J C; Kaliberova, L N; Black, M E; Buchsbaum, D J

    2007-07-01

    Combined treatment using adenoviral (Ad)-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and radiation therapy has the potential to become a powerful method of cancer therapy. We have developed an Ad vector encoding a mutant bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) gene (AdbCD-D314A), which has a higher affinity for cytosine than wild-type bCD (bCDwt). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo of the combination of AdbCD-D314A with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ionizing radiation against human glioma. The present study demonstrates that AdbCD-D314A infection resulted in increased 5-FC-mediated cell killing, compared with AdbCDwt. Furthermore, a significant increase in cytotoxicity following AdbCD-D314A and radiation treatment of glioma cells in vitro was demonstrated as compared to AdbCDwt. Animal studies showed significant inhibition of subcutaneous or intracranial tumor growth of D54MG glioma xenografts by the combination of AdbCD-D314A/5-FC with ionizing radiation as compared with either agent alone, and with AdbCDwt/5-FC plus radiation. The results suggest that the combination of AdbCD-D314A/5-FC with radiation produces markedly increased cytotoxic effects in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that combined treatment with this novel mutant enzyme/prodrug therapy and radiotherapy provides a promising approach for cancer therapy.

  5. Application of mathematical model to multiple-dose experimental chemotherapy for fatal murine pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Hishikawa, T; Kusunoki, T; Tsuchiya, K; Uzuka, Y; Sakamoto, T; Nagatake, T; Matsumoto, K

    1991-01-01

    Two beta-lactam antibiotics, cefazolin and cefmenoxime, were administered for 7 days to mice with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae by using dosage regimens that would simulate multiple dosing in usual clinical treatments at dosing intervals of 8 or 12 h. Viable numbers of the bacteria in the lungs were measured at 12- or 24-h intervals. The mathematical model established in a previous single-dose study was applied in this study to explain the time courses of the changes in bacterial count over 7 days. However, because the error in viable count measurements was larger than that in the previous study, the time course of the changes in mean viable count was not regular and the viable count reduction rate changed during multiple dosing, and therefore it was difficult to explain the time course by repeated application of the mathematical model described previously. This study suggests that the changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters during multiple dosing need to be considered. PMID:1929244

  6. A randomized trial of amifostine in patients with high-dose VIC chemotherapy plus autologous blood stem cell transplanation

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, J T; Vangerow, A von; Fels, L M; Knop, S; Stolte, H; Kanz, L; Bokemeyer, C

    2001-01-01

    This pilot study evaluates the degree of side effects during high-dose chemotherapy (HD-VIC) plus autologous bone marrow transplant (HDCT) and its possible prevention by the cytoprotective thiol-derivate amifostine. Additionally, the in-patient medical costs of both treatment arms were compared. 40 patients with solid tumours were randomized to receive HD-VIC chemotherapy with or without amifostine (910 mg/m2 at day 1–3) given as a short infusion prior to carboplatin and ifosfamide. Patients were stratified according to pretreatment. HDCT consisted of an 18 h infusion of carboplatin (500 mg/m2/d over 18 h), ifosfamide (4 g/m2/d over 4 h) and etoposide (500 mg/m2/d) all given for 3 consecutive days. All patients received prophylactic application of G-CSF (5 μg kg−1 subcutaneously) to ameliorate neutropenia after treatment. Patients were monitored for nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal side effects, haematopoietic recovery, as well as frequency of fever and infections. The median fall of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 10% from baseline in the amifostine group (105 to 95 ml min−1) and 37% in the control patient group (107 to 67 ml min−1) (P< 0.01). Amifostine-treated patients revealed a less pronounced increase in albumine and low molecular weight protein urinary excretion. Stomatitis grade III/IV occurred in 25% without versus 0% of patients with amifostine (P = 0.01). Acute nausea/vomiting was frequently observed immediately during or after the application of amifostine despite intensive antiemetic prophylaxis consisting of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists/dexamethasone/trifluorpromazine. However, delayed emesis occurred more often in the control patients. Engraftment of neutrophil (> 500 μl−1) and thrombocytes (> 25 000 μl−1)were observed at days 9 versus 10 and 10 versus 12, respectively, both slightly in favour of the amifostine arm. In addition, a lower number of days with fever and a shortened duration of hospital stay were observed in the

  7. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost.

  8. Long-term remission in mantle cell lymphoma following high-dose sequential chemotherapy and in vivo rituximab-purged stem cell autografting (R-HDS regimen).

    PubMed

    Gianni, Alessandro M; Magni, Michele; Martelli, Maurizio; Di Nicola, Massimo; Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Pilotti, Silvana; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Cortelazzo, Sergio; Patti, Caterina; Parvis, Guido; Benedetti, Fabio; Capria, Saveria; Corradini, Paolo; Tarella, Corrado; Barbui, Tiziano

    2003-07-15

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is rarely cured with standard-dose chemotherapy. From January 1997 to February 2000, 28 previously untreated advanced-stage MCL patients younger than 61 years of age were treated at 9 Italian hematologic departments with 3 cycles of standard-dose debulking chemotherapy followed by a high-dose rituximab-supplemented sequence (R-HDS) including intravenous administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide, high-dose cytarabine, high-dose melphalan, and high-dose mitoxantrone plus melphalan. Study end points included toxicity, clinical and molecular response rates, long-term event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates, as well as the ability to harvest tumor-free peripheral blood stem cells. Optimal amounts of polymerase chain reaction-negative (PCR-negative) CD34+ cells were collected from all 20 informative patients. One patient died of toxicity. All 27 patients assessable for response achieved a complete response (CR), of which 24 remain in continuous complete remission (CCR) after a median follow-up of 35 months. Three patients had transient evidence of PCR-detectable disease in the bone marrow. The OS and EFS rates at 54 months were 89% and 79%, respectively. These results compare with the 42% OS rate and the 18% EFS rate observed in 35 age-matched historic controls treated with standard-dose chemotherapy at the participating centers. The use of rituximab in combination with high-dose chemotherapy represents a very effective in vivo purging method. The R-HDS regimen can be safely applied in a multicenter hematology setting and leads to long-term EFS and OS in the majority of patients with an otherwise incurable disease.

  9. High-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing the radiotherapy dose can result in improved local control for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can thereby improve survival. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can expose tumors to a high dose of radiation in a short period of time, but the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine (NVB) and carboplatin (CBP) chemotherapy for the treatment of local advanced NSCLC. Methods Untreated patients with unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC or patients with a recurrence of NSCLC received accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The total dose was greater than or equal to 60 Gy. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy was conducted once daily at 3 Gy/fraction with 5 fractions per week, and the radiotherapy was completed in 5 weeks. In addition to radiotherapy, the patients also received at least 1 cycle of a concurrent two-drug chemotherapy regimen of NVB and CBP. Results A total of 26 patients (19 previously untreated cases and 7 cases of recurrent disease) received 60Gy-75Gy radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent evaluations for toxicity and preliminary therapeutic efficacy. There were no treatment-related deaths within the entire patient group. The major acute adverse reactions were radiation esophagitis (88.5%) and radiation pneumonitis (42.3%). The percentages of grade III acute radiation esophagitis and grade III radiation pneumonitis were 15.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Hematological toxicities were common and did not significantly affect the implementation of chemoradiotherapy after supportive treatment. Two patients received high dose of 75 Gy had grade III late esophageal toxicity, and none had grade IV and above. Grade III and above late lung toxicity did not occur

  10. High-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-E; Lin, Qiang; Meng, Fan-Jie; Chen, Xue-Ji; Ren, Xiao-Cang; Cao, Bin; Wang, Na; Zong, Jie; Peng, Yu; Ku, Ya-Jun; Chen, Yan

    2013-08-11

    Increasing the radiotherapy dose can result in improved local control for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can thereby improve survival. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can expose tumors to a high dose of radiation in a short period of time, but the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine (NVB) and carboplatin (CBP) chemotherapy for the treatment of local advanced NSCLC. Untreated patients with unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC or patients with a recurrence of NSCLC received accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The total dose was greater than or equal to 60 Gy. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy was conducted once daily at 3 Gy/fraction with 5 fractions per week, and the radiotherapy was completed in 5 weeks. In addition to radiotherapy, the patients also received at least 1 cycle of a concurrent two-drug chemotherapy regimen of NVB and CBP. A total of 26 patients (19 previously untreated cases and 7 cases of recurrent disease) received 60Gy-75Gy radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent evaluations for toxicity and preliminary therapeutic efficacy. There were no treatment-related deaths within the entire patient group. The major acute adverse reactions were radiation esophagitis (88.5%) and radiation pneumonitis (42.3%). The percentages of grade III acute radiation esophagitis and grade III radiation pneumonitis were 15.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Hematological toxicities were common and did not significantly affect the implementation of chemoradiotherapy after supportive treatment. Two patients received high dose of 75 Gy had grade III late esophageal toxicity, and none had grade IV and above. Grade III and above late lung toxicity did not occur. High-dose accelerated

  11. Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Treated with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) used as a prognostic marker for predicting response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with a new diagnosis of EOC receiving postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy were identified. The PNI was calculated as 10 × serum albumin value (g/dl) + 0.005 × peripheral lymphocyte count (per mm3). Patients were divided into a platinum-resistant (P-R) group and a platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to the chemotherapeutic response. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the optimal cut-off value for PNI to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. A total of 344 patients were enrolled. Area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of PIN < 45 to predict platinum resistance were: 0.688, 62.50%, and 83.47%, respectively. Patients with a lower PNI (< 45) had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PNI showed a significant association with PFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.890, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.396-2.560; p < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.747, 95% CI 1.293-2.360; p < 0.001). Our results suggest that PNI assessment could assist the identification of patients with a poor prognosis and has potential clinical value in predicting platinum resistance in patients with EOC. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Dose-adjusted Chemotherapy for Untreated c-MYC-positive Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, adult patients with newly diagnosed Burkitt lymphoma or c-MYC-positive DLBCL will be separated into low-risk and high-risk groups; those in the low-risk group will be treated with at least three cycles of dose-adjusted EPOCH-R

  13. Dose escalation study of proton beam therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hideyuki; Fuji, Hiroshi; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Yamashita, Haruo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Murayama, Shigeyuki

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the recommended dose (RD) of proton beam therapy (PBT) for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We tested two prescribed doses of PBT: 66 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) in 33 fractions and 74 Gy (RBE) in 37 fractions in arms 1 and 2, respectively. The planning target volume (PTV) included the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes with adequate margins. Concurrent chemotherapy included intravenous cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) , day 1) and oral S-1 (80, 100 or 120 mg based on body surface area, days 1-14), repeated as four cycles every 4 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as grade 3 or severe toxicities related to PBT during days 1-90. Each dose level was performed in three patients, and then escalated to the next level if no DLT occurred. When one patient developed a DLT, three additional patients were enrolled. Overall, nine patients (five men, four women; median age, 72 years) were enrolled, including six in arm 1 and three in arm 2. The median follow-up time was 43 months, and the median progression-free survival was 15 months. In arm 1, grade 3 infection occurred in one of six patients, but no other DLT was reported. Similarly, no DLT occurred in arm 2. However, one patient in arm 2 developed grade 3 esophageal fistula at 9 months after the initiation of PBT. Therefore, we determined that 66 Gy (RBE) is the RD from a clinical viewpoints. (Clinical trial registration no. UMIN000005585).

  14. Risk of a Second Kidney Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer: Role of Chemotherapy and Radiation Dose to Kidneys.

    PubMed

    de Vathaire, Florent; Scwhartz, Boris; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Escudier, Bernard; Hawkins, Mike; Diallo, Ibrahima; Haddy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Kidney carcinoma is a rare second malignancy following childhood cancer. We sought to quantify risk and assess risk factors for kidney carcinoma following treatment for childhood cancer. We evaluated a cohort of 4,350 patients who were 5-year cancer survivors and had been treated for cancer as children in France and the United Kingdom. Patients were treated between 1943 and 1985, and were followed for an average of 27 years. Radiation dose to the kidneys during treatment was estimated with dedicated software, regardless of the site of childhood cancer. Kidney carcinoma developed in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of kidney carcinoma was 0.62% (95% CI 0.27%-1.45%) at 40 years after diagnosis, which was 13.3-fold higher (95% CI 7.1-22.3) than in the general population. The absolute excess risk strongly increased with longer duration of followup (p <0.0001). Compared to the general population, the incidence of kidney carcinoma was 5.7-fold higher (95% CI 1.4-14.7) if radiotherapy was not performed or less than 1 Gy had been absorbed by the kidney but 66.3-fold higher (95% CI 23.8-142.5) if the radiation dose to the kidneys was 10 to 19 Gy and 14.5-fold higher (95% CI 0.8-63.9) for larger radiation doses to the kidney. Treatment with chemotherapy increased the risk of kidney carcinoma (RR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.7) but we were unable to identify a specific drug or drug category responsible for this effect. Moderate radiation dose to the kidneys during childhood cancer treatment increases the risk of a second kidney carcinoma. This incidence will be further increased when childhood cancer survivors reach old age. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of endocrine responsiveness on high-risk breast cancer treated with dose-intensive chemotherapy: results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 15-95 after prolonged follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Colleoni, M.; Sun, Z.; Martinelli, G.; Basser, R. L.; Coates, A. S.; Gelber, R. D.; Green, M. D.; Peccatori, F.; Cinieri, S.; Aebi, S.; Viale, G.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The role of adjuvant dose-intensive chemotherapy and its efficacy according to baseline features has not yet been established. Patients and methods: Three hundred and forty-four patients were randomized to receive seven courses of standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT) or three cycles of dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (epirubicin 200 mg/m2 plus cyclophosphamide 4 mg/m2 with filgrastim and progenitor cell support). All patients were assigned tamoxifen at the completion of chemotherapy. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). This paper updates the results and explores patterns of recurrence according to predicting baseline features. Results: At 8.3-years median follow-up, patients assigned DI-EC had a significantly better DFS compared with those assigned SD-CT [8-year DFS percent 47% and 37%, respectively, hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.58–1.00; P = 0.05]. Only patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease benefited from the DI-EC (HR 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.39, 0.95; P = 0.03). Conclusions: After prolonged follow-up, DI-EC significantly improved DFS, but the effect was observed only in patients with ER-positive disease, leading to the hypothesis that efficacy of DI-EC may relate to its endocrine effects. Further studies designed to confirm the importance of endocrine responsiveness in patients treated with dose-intensive chemotherapy are encouraged. PMID:19468030

  16. Comparison of fluorouracil with additional levamisole, higher-dose folinic acid, or both, as adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: a randomised trial. QUASAR Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    2000-05-06

    Standard adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer consists of fluorouracil with folinic acid or levamisole. The large QUASAR randomised trial aimed to investigate (in a two x two design) whether use of a higher dose of folinic acid or addition of levamisole to fluorouracil and folinic acid improved survival. Patients with colorectal cancer, without evident residual disease, were randomly assigned fluorouracil (370 mg/m2) with high-dose (175 mg) or low-dose (25 mg) L-folinic acid and either active or placebo levamisole. The fluorouracil and folinic acid could be given either as six 5-day courses with 4 weeks between the start of the courses or as 30 once-weekly doses. Levamisole (50 mg) or placebo was given three times daily for 3 days repeated every 2 weeks for 12 courses. The primary endpoint was mortality from any cause. Analyses were by intention to treat. Between 1994 and 1997, 4,927 patients were enrolled. 1,776 had recurrences and 1,576 died. Survival was similar with high-dose and low-dose folinic acid (70.1% vs 71.0% at 3 years; p=0-43), as were 3-year recurrence rates (36.0% vs 35.8%; p=0.94). Survival was worse with levamisole than with placebo (69.4% vs 71.5% at 3 years; p=0.06), and there were more recurrences with the active drug (37.0% vs 34.9% at 3 years; p=0.16). The inclusion of levamisole in chemotherapy regimens for colorectal cancer does not delay recurrence or improve survival. Higher-dose folinic acid produced no extra benefit in these regimens over that from low-dose folinic acid. Trials of chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy will show whether these four treatments are equally effective or equally ineffective.

  17. Dosing of chemotherapy in obese and cachectic patients: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Anglada-Martínez, Helena; Riu-Viladoms, Gisela; do Pazo-Oubiña, Fernando; Molas-Ferrer, Gloria; Mangues-Bafalluy, Irene; Codina-Jané, Carles; Creus-Baró, Natàlia

    2014-06-01

    It is not unusual to find obese and cachectic patients in the hematology oncology setting. However, information on dosage in these groups is scarce. The objectives of our study were to explore the dosing strategies applied in the treatment of obese and cachectic cancer patients and to determine whether these strategies are applied in clinical trials. Members of the Spanish Group for the Development of Hematology-Oncology Pharmacy (GEDEFO). We invited all cancer hospital pharmacists to participate in a survey. Descriptive statistics of the dosing strategies approaches. We invited 159 eligible hospitals to participate, and 38 responded to the survey. A total of 50 surveys were received: different strategies were applied by different physicians from the same hospital and by hematology and oncology departments. Body mass index was used to define obesity and cachexia in 40 and 30 % of the cases, respectively. Capping the body surface area (BSA) was the approach most commonly followed (64.1 %) in obese patients, whereas no specific approach was adopted in cachectic patients. In hematology patients, the BSA calculation was based on ideal body weight or adjusted body weight in 16.0 % of cases (n = 2) and 50.0 % of cases (n = 6), respectively; in oncology patients, use of adjusted or ideal body weight was negligible. Actual body weight was the main approach in obese patients (35 surveys) and cachectic patients (48 surveys). Creatinine clearance was assessed mainly using the Cockcroft and Gault equation (around 76.0 % of responses). As for clinical trials, 64.1 % of the respondents (n = 25 hospitals) considered the criteria from each clinical trial individually. Dose adjustments are more frequent in obese patients than in cachectic patients. In cancer oncology patients, dose is adjusted mainly by hematology and hematopoietic cell transplant teams. Capping BSA is the most frequent strategy, followed by calculating actual body weight.

  18. Cardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with breast cancer undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Yokozawa, T; Sawada, J; Takaue, Y; Togitani, K; Kawahigashi, N; Narabayashi, M; Takeyama, K; Tanosaki, R; Mineishi, S; Kobayashi, Y; Watanabe, T; Adachi, I; Tobinai, K

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac toxicities in 39 consecutive patients with breast cancer receiving high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell transplantation were reviewed. All 39 patients received various anthracycline-containing regimens in adjuvant settings and/or for metastatic disease before HDC. As a cytoreductive regimen, all received cyclophosphamide 2000 mg/m2 and thiotepa 200 mg/m2 for 3 consecutive days. No immediate fatal toxicities were observed, but one patient developed chronic congestive heart failure and two had transient left ventricular dysfunction. Pericardial effusion was observed in another three patients. ST-T abnormalities during HDC were observed in two patients and arrhythmias were observed in nine, four of which occurred during stem cell infusion (SCI). There were three atrial arrhythmias, two ventricular arrhythmias, and four atrioventricular (AV)-block episodes. Two patients developed advanced and complete AV-block with an asystolic pause. Notably, three patients experienced AV-block with uncontrolled vomiting. No relationship was observed between the cumulative dose of anthracycline and cardiac toxicities during HDC. These results suggest that abnormalities in the conduction system during HDC may be more frequent than previously reported. Vagal reflex secondary to emesis may play an important role in the development of AV-block. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 185-189.

  19. Pharmacogenetic warfarin dose refinements remain significantly influenced by genetic factors after one week of therapy.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; Lenzini, Petra A; Wadelius, Mia; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Kimmel, Stephen E; Ridker, Paul M; Eriksson, Niclas; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Pirmohamed, Munir; Limdi, Nita A; Pendleton, Robert C; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Burmester, James K; Kurnik, Daniel; Stein, C Michael; Caldwell, Michael D; Eby, Charles S; Rane, Anders; Lindh, Jonatan D; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Ho-Sook; Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Glynn, Robert J; Kronquist, Kathryn E; Carlquist, John F; Grice, Gloria R; Barrack, Robert L; Li, Juan; Gage, Brian F

    2012-02-01

    By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once international normalised ratio (INR) response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6-11 after therapy initiation. An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centres on three continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6-11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that "effective" dose constituted a treatment response index . Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R(2) was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R(2)= 69.1% (p<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week. In conclusion, a pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.

  20. Pharmacogenetic Warfarin Dose Refinements Remain Significantly Influenced by Genetic Factors after One Week of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Benjamin D.; Lenzini, Petra A.; Wadelius, Mia; Jorgensen, Andrea L.; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Eriksson, Niclas; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Limdi, Nita A.; Pendleton, Robert C.; McMillin, Gwendolyn A.; Burmester, James K.; Kurnik, Daniel; Stein, C. Michael; Caldwell, Michael D.; Eby, Charles S.; Rane, Anders; Lindh, Jonatan D.; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Ho-Sook; Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Glynn, Robert J.; Kronquist, Kathryn E.; Carlquist, John F.; Grice, Gloria R.; Barrack, Robert L.; Li, Juan; Gage, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once INR response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6–11 after therapy initiation. Materials and Methods An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centers on 3 continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6–11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that “effective” dose constituted a treatment response index. Results Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R2 was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R2= 69.1% (P<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week. Conclusions A pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy. PMID:22186998

  1. The prognostic significance of optimal debulking in the setting of a complete clinical response for advanced ovarian carcinoma patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abaid, Lisa N; Goldstein, Bram H; Lopez, Katrina L; Micha, John P; Brown, John V; Rettenmaier, Mark A; Markman, Maurie

    2011-05-01

    We investigated if optimal surgical debulking increases tumor responsiveness to maintenance chemotherapy and improves survival in advanced ovarian cancer patients who previously attained a clinical complete response (CCR) to primary chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 75 advanced ovarian cancer patients, of whom 43 and 32 underwent optimal versus suboptimal cytoreduction, respectively. All patients exhibited a CCR following 6 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin and subsequently received maintenance chemotherapy (paclitaxel 135 mg/m(2); q21 days). The median progression free survival (PFS) for the optimally debulked patients was 35 months, compared to 20 months for the suboptimal population (P = 0.003). Moreover, a Cox model analysis revealed that an increased number of maintenance chemotherapy cycles and optimal surgical reduction significantly correlated with favorable patient PFS (P < 0.001). In regard to overall survival (OS), the patients who had optimal cytoreductive surgery exhibited improved OS results compared to the sub-optimal surgery group (42 vs. 27 months; P < 0.001). However, a Cox model analysis indicated that a greater number of maintenance chemotherapy cycles was a surrogate marker for improved OS (P < 0.001), but surgery type was not (P > 0.05). Duration of overall patient follow-up exceeds 41 months. In advanced ovarian cancer patients who achieve a CCR following induction chemotherapy, optimal cytoreduction may confer a greater clinical benefit from a maintenance approach compared to suboptimal cytoreduction.

  2. Prognosticating metastatic osteosarcoma treated with uniform chemotherapy protocol without high dose methotrexate and delayed metastasectomy: a single center experience of 102 patients.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, V; Rastogi, S; Khan, S A; Sharma, M C; Agarwala, S; Vishnubhatla, S; Bakhshi, S

    2016-09-01

    Data on prognostic factors in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma treated with uniform chemotherapy protocol are lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze demographic data, treatment outcome and prognostic factors for patients with metastatic osteosarcoma at our center treated with a uniform chemotherapy protocol without high dose methotrexate. This is a single-institutional data review of patients treated between June 2003 and December 2012 with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, local site surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and metastasectomy at completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. 102 patients of metastatic osteosarcoma were treated with a median age of 18 years (range 8-48 years), male to female ratio of 3.3:1 and median symptom duration of 4 months. EFS and OS at 5 years were 12.7 ± 0.1 and 28.1 ± 0.1 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.001) and number of metastasis >3 (p = 0.04) were predictive of lower EFS, whereas elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.01), number of metastasis >3 (p = 0.05), and margin positivity (p < 0.001) were predictive of lower OS. This is the largest data on metastatic osteosarcoma treated with a uniform chemotherapy protocol without high dose methotrexate. The data showed prognostic factors similar to what have been observed previously such as elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and >3 metastatic lesions in lung predicting inferior outcome. Notably our survival was comparable to data from other studies despite our practice of delaying metastasectomy to completion of chemotherapy rather than performing the same along with local site surgery.

  3. Radiotherapy after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue: Quality assessment of Head Start III.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenneth K; All, Sean; Waxer, Jonathan; Olch, Arthur J; Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Dhall, Girish; Davidson, Tom Belle; Zaky, Wafik; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2017-10-01

    The use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in Head Start III is a potentially curative approach for the management of young children with central nervous system neoplasms. We report the potential influence of quality and timing of radiation therapy on the survival of patients treated on the study. Between 2003 and 2009, 220 children with newly diagnosed central nervous system neoplasms were enrolled on the study. Radiation therapy was indicated following AuHCR for children between 6 and 10 years old or those younger than 6 years with residual tumor preconsolidation. Records were received for 42 patients and reviewed to determine adherence to protocol treatment volume and dose guidelines. Of these patients, seven were irradiated prior to consolidation, and additional four patients who initially avoided radiation therapy after AuHCR were subsequently treated at relapse. Of the 31 patients who were fully evaluable, 2 refused radiation therapy until recurrence and 4 progressed between recovery from AuHCR and radiation therapy. Of the remaining 25 patients, 8 had violations in their indication, dose, or treatment volume. All violations occurred in patients under 6 years of age. Two patients could have avoided radiation therapy. There were 6 violations in the 23 patients who received radiation therapy for guideline indications. All protocol violations occurred in patients under 6 years of age and were associated with decreased overall survival as was the time to start radiotherapy of greater than 11 weeks. When indicated, starting radiation therapy soon after neutrophil and platelet recovery may improve the outcome for these high-risk children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High-Dose Intravenous Vitamin C Combined with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Phase I-II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, L. John; Robitaille, Line; Zakarian, Robert; Melnychuk, David; Kavan, Petr; Agulnik, Jason; Cohen, Victor; Small, David; Miller, Wilson H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biological and some clinical evidence suggest that high-dose intravenous vitamin C (IVC) could increase the effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy. IVC is widely used by integrative and complementary cancer therapists, but rigorous data are lacking as to its safety and which cancers and chemotherapy regimens would be the most promising to investigate in detail. Methods and Findings We carried out a phase I-II safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and efficacy trial of IVC combined with chemotherapy in patients whose treating oncologist judged that standard-of-care or off-label chemotherapy offered less than a 33% likelihood of a meaningful response. We documented adverse events and toxicity associated with IVC infusions, determined pre- and post-chemotherapy vitamin C and oxalic acid pharmacokinetic profiles, and monitored objective clinical responses, mood and quality of life. Fourteen patients were enrolled. IVC was safe and generally well tolerated, although some patients experienced transient adverse events during or after IVC infusions. The pre- and post-chemotherapy pharmacokinetic profiles suggested that tissue uptake of vitamin C increases after chemotherapy, with no increase in urinary oxalic acid excretion. Three patients with different types of cancer experienced unexpected transient stable disease, increased energy and functional improvement. Conclusions Despite IVC’s biological and clinical plausibility, career cancer investigators currently ignore it while integrative cancer therapists use it widely but without reporting the kind of clinical data that is normally gathered in cancer drug development. The present study neither proves nor disproves IVC’s value in cancer therapy, but it provides practical information, and indicates a feasible way to evaluate this plausible but unproven therapy in an academic environment that is currently uninterested in it. If carried out in sufficient numbers, simple studies like this one could identify

  5. Mixed Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Presenting as Metastatic Pure Choriocarcinoma Involving Multiple Lung Metastases That Was Effectively Treated with High-dose Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Nam Su; Park, Hee Sook

    2009-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma in the testis is very rare, and it represents less than 1% (0.3%) of all the testicular germ cell tumors. It is a particularly aggressive variant of non-seminoma tumor, which is characterized by a high serum β-HCG level and multiple lung metastases. The optimal management for this disease remains undefined. We report here on a case of choriocarcinoma with multiple lung metastases, and the patient has achieved continuous remission for 2 years after combination chemotherapy of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) and sequential high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral stem cell rescue. PMID:20057969

  6. Long-term neuropsychological follow-up of young children with medulloblastoma treated with sequential high-dose chemotherapy and irradiation sparing approach.

    PubMed

    Fay-McClymont, Taryn B; Ploetz, Danielle M; Mabbott, Don; Walsh, Karin; Smith, Amy; Chi, Susan N; Wells, Elizabeth; Madden, Jennifer; Margol, Ashley; Finlay, Jonathan; Kieran, Mark W; Strother, Douglas; Dhall, Girish; Packer, Roger J; Foreman, Nicholas K; Bouffet, E; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie

    2017-04-12

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) strategies were developed in brain tumor protocols for young children to prevent neuropsychological (NP) impairments associated with radiotherapy. However, comprehensive NP evaluations of these children treated with such strategies remain limited. We examined the long-term neurocognitive outcomes of young children (<6 years) with medulloblastoma, treated similarly, with a HDC strategy "according to" the chemotherapy regimen of the protocol CCG 99703. This retrospective study included young children less than 6 years of age at diagnosis of medulloblastoma treated from 1998 to 2011 at 7 North American institutions. Twenty-four patients who had at least one NP assessment post-treatment are the focus of the current study. Of 24 patients in this review, 15 (63%) were male and the mean age at diagnosis was 29.4 months (SD = 13.5). Posterior fossa syndrome (PFs) was reported in five patients (21%). Nine (37.5%) received radiotherapy (5 focal, 4 craniospinal). On average, children were assessed 3.5 years (SD = 1.8) post-diagnosis, and full-scale intellectual quotient (FSIQ) scores ranged from 56 to 119 ([Formula: see text]= 92; SD = 16.8). The majority of children (74%) had low-average to average NP functioning. Very young children treated with radiotherapy, who needed hearing support or with PFs had worse neurocognitive outcomes. Clinically significant deficits (<10th percentile) in at least one area of NP functioning were found in 25% of the children. NP data obtained from this sample of survivors of medulloblastoma in early childhood, all treated with sequential HDC and 1/3 with radiotherapy, describe NP functioning within average normal limits overall. However, almost 25% of children had significant deficits in specific domains.

  7. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for primary central nervous system lymphoma: a multi-centre retrospective analysis from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kassam, S; Chernucha, E; O'Neill, A; Hemmaway, C; Cummins, T; Montoto, S; Lennard, A; Adams, G; Linton, K; McKay, P; Davies, D; Rowntree, C; Easdale, S; Eyre, T A; Marcus, R; Cwynarski, K; Fox, C P

    2017-09-01

    The prognosis of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has improved in recent years. This has partly been achieved by remission induction protocols incorporating high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and rituximab. Given the high rates of relapse, consolidation therapy is usually considered in first response. Whole brain radiotherapy may prolong PFS but appears to confer no long-term survival advantage and is associated with significant neurocognitive dysfunction. Attempts to improve efficacy and reduce neurotoxicity of consolidation therapy have included thiotepa-based high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (HDC-ASCT). This multi-centre, retrospective study reports the outcome of 70 patients undergoing HDC-ASCT for PCNSL in the United Kingdom. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years and all patients received HD-MTX-containing induction regimens. All patients underwent HDC-ASCT in first response. The rate of complete response increased from 50% before HDC-ASCT to 77% following HDC-ASCT. Treatment-related mortality was 6%. At a median follow-up of 12 months from HDC-ASCT, the estimated 1- and 2-year PFS rates were 71.5% and overall survival 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. These data are comparable to published studies of HDC-ASCT for PCNSL, supporting its feasibility and efficacy.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tierens, Anne; Caers, Jo; Binsfeld, Marilene; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Trøseid, Anne-Marie Siebke; Wang, Junbai; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Hetland, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients) or placebo (21 patients). Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021. PMID:25664323

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-based mushroom extract AndoSan in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized, double blinded clinical study.

    PubMed

    Tangen, Jon-Magnus; Tierens, Anne; Caers, Jo; Binsfeld, Marilene; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Trøseid, Anne-Marie Siebke; Wang, Junbai; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Hetland, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients) or placebo (21 patients). Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  10. Response of extensive breast cancer skin metastases to rechallenge with trastuzumab together with low-dose chemotherapy and insulin.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Laura; Schiavone, Paola; Calvani, Nicola; Fedele, Palma; Goldhirsch, Aron; Cinieri, Saverio

    2016-11-11

    Cutaneous metastasis occurs in about 29% of breast cancer patients and has a deep impact on patient quality of life. A 60-year-old woman with cutaneous metastases from heavily pretreated HER2-positive breast cancer received CMFVP (oral cyclophosphamide 100 mg daily; oral prednisone 12.5 mg daily for 2 weeks, then 7.5 mg daily; intravenous weekly methotrexate 25 mg/m2, 5-5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 and vincristine 0.5 mg) with weekly trastuzumab and subcutaneous insulin until disease progression. From March 2009 to November 2009 the patient was treated with the described regimen. At the best response, we observed the disappearance of some lesions and cessation of bleeding and thoracic pain. Time to progression was 8 months. Our patient had clinical benefit from reintroduction of trastuzumab, low-dose chemotherapy and insulin. The explanation of this prolonged response is only speculative and requires further clinical confirmation in the treatment strategy of HER2-positive breast cancer.

  11. Ifosfamide/etoposide alternating with high-dose methotrexate: evaluation of a chemotherapy regimen for poor-risk osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Michelagnoli, M P; Lewis, I J; Gattamaneni, H R; Bailey, C C; Lashford, L S

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen patients with relapsed osteosarcoma were treated with an intensive combination chemotherapy schedule. Ifosfamide 2.5 g m−2 daily and etoposide 150 mg m−2 daily coincidentally for 3 days and high-dose methotrexate 8 g m−2 (with folinic acid rescue) on days 10–14 in a planned 21-day cycle. Feasibility, toxicity and response to this alternative combination for the treatment of relapsed osteosarcoma was assessed. There were 98 evaluable cycles for toxicity and tolerability. The majority of cycles were well tolerated. Haematological toxicity of grade 3/4 (common toxicity criteria) was seen in all courses. Renal tubular loss of electrolytes, particularly magnesium, occurred in 71% of cycles. Thirteen per cent of cycles were repeated within 21 days and 61% within 28 days. In the thirteen patients evaluable for response, a partial response rate of 31% was seen after two cycles. However, patients with stable disease continued on therapy, and an overall consequent response rate of 62% was observed. Four patients were alive with no evidence of disease at 8–74 months. Three are alive with disease (at 8–19 months). There were six deaths, all disease related. This regimen exhibits an encouraging response rate in a group of children with poor prognosis disease, with a tolerable toxicity profile. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098754

  12. High-dose chemotherapy as salvage treatment in germ-cell cancer: when, in whom and how.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Anja; Beyer, Jörg

    2016-09-27

    Over the past two decades, the use of well-validated, guideline-based strategies resulted in high cure rates in patients with germ-cell cancer (GCC) often despite widespread metastatic disease at initial presentation. Yet, about 30 % of patients diagnosed with metastatic disease corresponding to about 5-10 % of GCC patients overall will experience disease progression or recurrence at some time point of their disease with the need for salvage treatment. Salvage treatment is more complex and less well validated than first-line treatment: Its rare patient cohorts are more heterogeneous and prognostic factors impact more compared to other treatment scenarios. In patients with metastatic GCC, there are several scenarios in which first-line treatment strategies can fail (Fig. 1). Prior to initiation of any salvage treatment, several considerations have to be made, which will be addressed in this review: verification that first-line treatment has indeed failed, estimation of the adequacy and the effectiveness of first-line treatment, search for metastatic sites and extent of disease recurrence, assessment of known prognostic factors and finally the choice of the optimal salvage strategy taking into account the aforementioned variables. High-dose chemotherapy will be a rational choice for many patients in need of salvage treatment, but careful patient selection will be required to avoid overtreatment and unnecessary long-term toxicity.

  13. Reduced nutritional status among multiple myeloma patients during treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Per Ole; Wisløff, Finn; Gulbrandsen, Nina

    2010-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) ranks among the most frequent blood cancers in adults. Optimal treatment consists of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reduced before, during, and after therapy. Several HRQoL items are associated with nutritional health, e.g., nausea/vomiting, appetite loss and fatigue. It is unknown whether nutritional status in MM is affected by treatment. Hence we assessed nutritional status before, during and (1/2) year after treatment-start. We applied anthropometry (height, weight, hand-grip strength, triceps skinfold) and plasma concentrations of biomarkers to assess nutritional status. HRQoL was determined with the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The anthropometrical parameters all decreased (p<0.05) during treatment, but were restored at the end of the observation period. Albumin and the fat-soluble vitamins D and E followed a similar pattern, whereas transferrin and vitamin A were unchanged (p>0.05). Interestingly, markers of thyroid function declined and remained low (p<0.05) even 6 months after start of therapy. Nutrition-associated symptoms used as markers of HRQoL worsened during therapy, but returned to pre-therapy levels. Intensive therapy in MM is associated with a decline in both nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant Ovarian Suppression, High-dose Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for Premenopausal Patients with High-risk Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Rosselli, Michele; Bratta, Massimo; Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Fumagalli, Luca A; Rea, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    Premenopausal patients with breast cancer and more than 10 positive axillary nodes (BC>10) have a poor prognosis: In these patients the best adjuvant therapy (CT) has not yet been established. Forty-two BC>10 received, in sequence, the following adjuvant treatments: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) analog for 5 years; anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy; radiation therapy; platinum-based high-dose CT, with autologous bone marrow transplantation; immunotherapy with interleukin 2 (IL2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA); anastrazole given 5 years to estrogen receptor-positive patients. Primary endpoints of the study were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall (OS) survival. A secondary endpoint was toxicity. The median age of patients was 41 years, and the mean number of positive axillary nodes was 14. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 57% and 29% of patients respectively, while 14% of patients had triple-negative disease. With a median follow-up of 120 months for patients remaining alive at the end of study, median DFS and OS, had not yet been reached. The 20-year DFS and OS rates were 63.8%, and 81.6%, respectively. One to two years after the end of the therapy, three patients had had four full-term pregnancies. Treatment with LH-RH analog, high-dose CT, peripheral blood progenitor cells and IL2 with RA for patients with BC>10 is feasible, has moderate toxicity, while preserving ovarian function, seems to improve the expected DFS and OS for these high-risk patients. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Phase II study of dose-intense chemotherapy with sequential topoisomerase-targeting regimens with irinotecan/oxaliplatin followed by etoposide/carboplatin in chemotherapy naive patients with extensive small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Joanne; Reddy, Vishnu; Cantor, Alan; Miley, Debi; Robert, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Topoisomerase inhibitors are active agents in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and preclinical models indicate that sequential administration of a topoisomerase I inhibitor followed by a topoisomerase II inhibitor can result in enhanced cytotoxicity. In this phase II study, patients with extensive SCLC were treated with two sequential topoisomerase-based regimens: irinotecan (150 mg/m(2))/oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) [regimen A] on day 1 followed by etoposide (100 mg/m(2)×3)/carboplatin (AUC 6) [regimen B] on day 15. Regimen A was repeated 3 weeks later. The primary objective was objective response rate. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity, and exploratory correlative analysis of the tumor expression of the excision repair cross complementing (ERCC1) and topoisomerase II-α. Patients received a maximum of 5 cycles of sequential therapy of regimen A→B. The overall response rate was 96%, the 6-month PFS was 76.9%, the median PFS was 8.95 months, and OS was 12.9 months in 26 evaluable patients. Grade 4 neutropenia (23%) and thrombocytopenia (58%) were observed with regimen B; and grade 2/3 nausea-vomiting (54%) and diarrhea (46%) with regimen A. Seven patients required dose reductions in regimen A and 19 patients in regimen B. The dose intensity, delivered during the first three cycles was 89%. No significant correlations were observed between the tumor expression of the ERCC1 and topoisomerase II-α and clinical outcomes (PFS or OS). Although cross-study comparisons are difficult to make, our data suggests that sequential topoisomerase-targeting regimens may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy in newly diagnosed SCLC patients (Clinical Trial Registration Number, 9 NCT00240097; Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00240097). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Metronomic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2009-08-01

    Chemotherapy drugs are usually administered at doses that are high enough to result in an obligatory break period to allow for the observation of potential side effects and institution of supportive care, if required. In recent years, efforts to administer chemotherapy on a more continuous basis, with a much shorter break period, or none at all, have received increased interest, and the practice has come to be known as metronomic chemotherapy. The basis for success with this currently investigational approach may be rooted in continuous drug exposure to susceptible cancer cells, inhibition of tumor blood vessel growth-a process known as tumor angiogenesis, and/or alterations in tumor immunology. Increased benefit also appears to occur when metronomic chemotherapy is used in combination with newer, targeted antiangiogenic agents, and therefore represents a promising approach to combination therapy, particularly as targeted oncology drugs make their way into veterinary oncology applications. There is still much to be learned in this field, especially with regard to optimization of the proper drugs, dose, schedule, and tumor applications. However, the low cost, ease of administration, and acceptable toxicity profiles potentially associated with this therapeutic strategy make metronomic chemotherapy protocols attractive and suitable to veterinary applications. Preliminary clinical trial results have now been reported in both human and veterinary medicine, including adjuvant treatment of canine splenic hemangiosarcoma and incompletely resected soft tissue sarcoma, and, further, more powerful studies are currently ongoing.

  17. Prophylactic ciprofloxacin treatment prevented high mortality, and modified systemic and intestinal immune function in tumour-bearing rats receiving dose-intensive CPT-11 chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xue, H; Field, C J; Sawyer, M B; Dieleman, L A; Baracos, V E

    2009-05-19

    Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality from dose-intensive cancer chemotherapy. In spite of the importance of intestinal bacteria translocation in these infections, information about the effect of high-dose chemotherapy on gut mucosal immunity is minimal. We studied prophylactic ciprofloxacin (Cipro) treatment on irinotecan (CPT-11) toxicity and host immunity in rats bearing Ward colon tumour. Cipro abolished chemotherapy-related mortality, which was 45% in animals that were not treated with Cipro. Although Cipro reduced body weight loss and muscle wasting, it was unable to prevent severe late-onset diarrhoea. Seven days after CPT-11, splenocytes were unable to proliferate (stimulation index=0.10+/-0.02) and produce proliferative and inflammatory cytokines (i.e., Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) IL-1beta, IL-6) on mitogen stimulation in vitro (P<0.05 vs controls), whereas mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells showed a hyper-proliferative response and a hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mitogen stimulation. This suggests compartmentalised effects by CPT-11 chemotherapy on systemic and intestinal immunity. Cipro normalised the hyper-responsiveness of MLN cells, and in the spleen, it partially restored the proliferative response and normalised depressed production of IL-1beta and IL-6. Taken together, Cipro prevented infectious challenges associated with immune hypo-responsiveness in systemic immune compartments, and it may also alleviate excessive pro-inflammatory responses mediating local gut injury.

  18. Relationship of gonadal activity and chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Crawford, J.D.

    1988-04-08

    The authors tested the hypothesis that chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage is proportional to the degree of gonadal activity during treatment. Thirty studies that evaluated gonadal function after cyclophosphamide therapy for renal disease or combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease or acute lymphocytic leukemia provided data for analysis. Data were stratified according to sex, illness, chemotherapeutic regimen and dose, and pubertal stage at the time of treatment. Chemotherapy-induced damage was more likely to occur in patients who were treated when sexually mature compared with those who were treated when prepubertal. Males were significantly more frequently affected than females when treated for renal disease of Hodgkin's disease. Chemotherapy-induced damage was also more likely to occur when patients were treated with large doses of alkylating agents. These data suggest that chemotherapy-induced damage is proportional to gonadal activity. Further efforts are needed to test whether induced gonadal quiescence during chemotherapy will reduce the strikingly high incidence of gonadal failure following chemotherapy.

  19. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration.

  20. Determination of hydroxyl radical production in aqueous solutions irradiated to clinically significant doses

    SciTech Connect

    Sagone, A.L. Jr.; Democko, C.; Clark, L.; Kartha, M.

    1983-02-01

    Decarboxylation of /sup 14/C-carboxylbenzoic acid in aqueous solutions after low-dose irradiation has been used to determine the relative magnitude of oxidation reactions and estimate the hydroxyl radicals produced. The G CO/sub 2/ values determined from these measurements of 0.4 to 1.0 mM solutions of benzoic acid after x-ray doses of 1000 rads ranged from 0.72 to 0.77, in excellent agreement with values reported by authors using much higher doses of radiation. Superoxide dismutase and catalase, known scavengers of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, did not show impairment of the oxidation of benzoic acid. On the other hand, biologically significant concentrations of phenol and mannitol appear to impair the radiation-induced oxidation of benzoic acid, indicating that the process is secondary to a reaction with OH . . We found that serum and glucose, common cell media contents, are potent OH . scavengers. These observations indicate that the oxidation of benzoic acid can be as a reliable method to estimate OH . with radiation doses of clinically significant magnitudes. In addition, these results suggest that the radiation induced by OH . in cell systems can be significantly modified by the type of buffer used.

  1. Optimal radiation dose for patients with one to three lymph node positive breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery and anthracycline plus taxane-based chemotherapy: A retrospective multicenter analysis (KROG 1418)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haeyoung; Park, Won; Il Yu, Jeong; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Keun Seok; Kang, Han-Sung; Park, In Hae; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Kyubo; Park, Kyung Ran; Kim, Yong Bae; Ahn, Sung Ja; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hee; Chun, Mison; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong-Young

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study was performed to determine optimal radiation dose in pN1 breast cancer patients who received breast conserving surgery (BCS) and anthracycline plus taxane (AT)-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods Retrospective chart reviews were performed in 1,147 patients who were treated between January 2006 and December 2010. The impact of radiation dose on treatment outcomes was evaluated. Results Median follow-up time was 66 months. The 5-year rate of disease-free survival (DFS) was 93.2%. Larger tumor size (> 20 mm), positive lymphovascular invasion, high histologic grade, and high ratio of positive nodes (> 0.1) were significantly associated with inferior DFS. By using the 4 factors related to DFS, patients were categorized into high-risk (with ≥ 3 factors) and low-risk (with < 3 factors) groups. In the high-risk group, higher radiation dose (> 60.3 GyEQD2) was significantly associated with better DFS than the lower dose (≤ 60.3 GyEQD2). However, the radiation dose did not impact DFS in the low-risk group. Conclusions Dosing of radiation affects the outcome of post-BCS radiotherapy in pN1 breast cancer. Doses of over 60.3 GyEQD2 were associated with better outcome in the high-risk patients. PMID:27793036

  2. A randomized, multicenter, phase II/III study to determine the optimal dose and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegteograstim (GCPGC) on chemotherapy-induced neutropenia compared to pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients: KCSG PC10-09.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Moon Hee; Han, Hye Sook; Lim, Joo Han; Park, Keon Uk; Park, In Hae; Cho, Eun Kyung; Yoon, So Young; Kim, Jee Hyun; Choi, In Sil; Park, Jae Hoo; Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Hee-Jun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Kim, Si-Young; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah

    2016-04-01

    Pegylated granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is frequently used to prevent febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients undergoing chemotherapy with a high risk of myelosuppression. This phase II/III study was conducted to determine the adequate dose of pegteograstim, a new formulation of pegylated G-CSF, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegteograstim compared to pegfilgrastim. In the phase II part, 60 breast cancer patients who were undergoing DA (docetaxel and doxorubicin) or TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy were randomly selected to receive a single subcutaneous injection of 3.6 or 6.0 mg pegteograstim on day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle. The phase III part was seamlessly started to compare the dose of pegteograstim at selected in phase II with 6.0 mg pegfilgrastim in 117 breast cancer patients. The primary endpoint of both the phase II and III parts was the duration of grade 4 neutropenia in the chemotherapy cycle 1. The mean duration of grade 4 neutropenia for the 3.6 mg pegteograstim (n = 33) was similar to that for the 6.0 mg pegteograstim (n = 26) (1.97 ± 1.79 days vs. 1.54 ± 0.95 days, p = 0.33). The 6.0 mg pegteograstim was selected to be compared with the 6.0 mg pegfilgrastim in the phase III part. In the phase III part, the primary analysis revealed that the efficacy of pegteograstim (n = 56) was non-inferior to that of pegfilgrastim (n = 59) [duration of grade 4 neutropenia, 1.64 ± 1.18 days vs. 1.80 ± 1.05 days; difference, -0.15 ± 1.11 (p = 0.36, 97.5 % confidence intervals = 0.57 and 0.26)]. The time to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery of pegteograstim (≥2000/μL) was significantly shorter than that of pegfilgrastim (8.85 ± 1.45 days vs. 9.83 ± 1.20 days, p < 0.0001). Other secondary endpoints showed no significant difference between the two groups. The safety profiles of the two groups did not differ significantly. Pegteograstim was shown to be as effective as pegfilgrastim in the

  3. Risk factors in germ cell tumour patients with relapse or progressive disease after first-line chemotherapy: evaluation of a prognostic score for survival after high-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sammler, C; Beyer, J; Bokemeyer, C; Hartmann, J T; Rick, O

    2008-01-01

    To retrospectively re-evaluate a published prognostic score for response to salvage treatment in patients with germ-cell tumours relapsing or progressing after cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. From a database of 257 germ cell tumour (GCT) patients treated with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) we identified 176 patients (67%) with relapse or progression after first-line conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT). Patients were retrospectively grouped according to a published prognostic score defined by Fossa and colleagues [Fossa SD, Stenning SP, Gerl A, et al. Prognostic factors in patients progressing after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Br J Cancer 1999; 80:1392-9]. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) after HDCT were retrospectively evaluated in each prognostic group. After a median follow-up of 9 years the OS probability for all 176 patients was 38% and the EFS probability was 35%. The respective survival probability at 5 years in 100/176 (57%) good prognosis patients and 76/176 (43%) poor prognosis patients were 47% versus 28% for OS (p<0.001) and 41% versus 26% for EFS (p<0.005). Whereas survival probabilities did not differ in good prognosis patients, OS and EFS in poor prognosis patients were substantially better in the current series of patients treated with HDCT compared to the ones reported by Fossa treated with CDCT. This retrospective analysis confirms the impact of prognostic factors on the results of salvage treatment in patients with GCT and suggests a clinical benefit for patients with poor prognosis features receiving a single course of HDCT.

  4. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals shift in patient faecal microbiota during high-dose chemotherapy as conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Montassier, Emmanuel; Batard, Eric; Massart, Sébastien; Gastinne, Thomas; Carton, Thomas; Caillon, Jocelyne; Le Fresne, Sophie; Caroff, Nathalie; Hardouin, Jean Benoit; Moreau, Philippe; Potel, Gilles; Le Vacon, Françoise; de La Cochetière, Marie France

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances are a side-effect frequently associated with haematological malignancies due to the intensive cytotoxic treatment given in connection with bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, intestinal microbiota changes during chemotherapy remain poorly described, probably due to the use of culture-based and low-resolution molecular methods in previous studies. The objective of our study was to apply a next generation DNA sequencing technology to analyse chemotherapy-induced changes in faecal microbiota. We included eight patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing one course of BMT conditioning chemotherapy. We collected a prechemotherapy faecal sample, the day before chemotherapy was initiated, and a postchemotherapy sample, collected 1 week after the initiation of chemotherapy. Total DNA was extracted from faecal samples, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography based on amplification of the V6 to V8 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene, using PCR primers targeting the V5 and V6 hypervariable 16S rRNA gene regions were performed. Raw sequence data were screened, trimmed, and filtered using the QIIME pipeline. We observed a steep reduction in alpha diversity and significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in response to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was associated with a drastic drop in Faecalibacterium and accompanied by an increase of Escherichia. The chemotherapy-induced shift in the intestinal microbiota could induce severe side effects in immunocompromised cancer patients. Our study is a first step in identifying patients at risk for gastrointestinal disturbances and to promote strategies to prevent this drastic shift in intestinal microbiota.

  5. Intensified chemotherapy and dose-reduced involved-field radiotherapy in patients with early unfavorable Hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of the German Hodgkin Study Group HD11 trial.

    PubMed

    Eich, Hans Theodor; Diehl, Volker; Görgen, Helen; Pabst, Thomas; Markova, Jana; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony; Dörken, Bernd; Rank, Andreas; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiegel, Thomas; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Greil, Richard; Willich, Normann; Schmidberger, Heinz; Döhner, Hartmut; Borchmann, Peter; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Engert, Andreas

    2010-09-20

    Combined-modality treatment consisting of four to six cycles of chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) is the standard of care for patients with early unfavorable Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). It is unclear whether treatment results can be improved with more intensive chemotherapy and which radiation dose needs to be applied. Patients age 16 to 75 years with newly diagnosed early unfavorable HL were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following treatment arms: four cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) + 30 Gy of IFRT; four cycles of ABVD + 20 Gy of IFRT; four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP(baseline)) + 30 Gy of IFRT; or four cycles of BEACOPP(baseline) + 20 Gy of IFRT. With a total of 1,395 patients included, the freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) at 5 years was 85.0%, overall survival was 94.5%, and progression-free survival was 86.0%. BEACOPP(baseline) was more effective than ABVD when followed by 20 Gy of IFRT (5-year FFTF difference, 5.7%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 11.3%). However, there was no difference between BEACOPP(baseline) and ABVD when followed by 30 Gy of IFRT (5-year FFTF difference, 1.6%; 95% CI, -3.6% to 6.9%). Similar results were observed for the radiotherapy question; after four cycles of BEACOPP(baseline), 20 Gy was not inferior to 30 Gy (5-year FFTF difference, -0.8%; 95% CI, -5.8% to 4.2%), whereas inferiority of 20 Gy cannot be excluded after four cycles of ABVD (5-year FFTF difference, -4.7%; 95% CI, -10.3% to 0.8%). Treatment-related toxicity occurred more often in the arms with more intensive therapy. Moderate dose escalation using BEACOPP(baseline) did not significantly improve outcome in early unfavorable HL. Four cycles of ABVD should be followed by 30 Gy of IFRT.

  6. SU-E-T-287: Dose Verification On the Variation of Target Volume and Organ at Risk in Preradiation Chemotherapy IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X; Kong, L; Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, Z

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the target volume and organ at risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with preradiation chemotherapy based on CT scanned during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and recalculate the dose distribution. Methods: Seven patients with NPC and preradiation chemotherapy, treated with IMRT (35 to 37 fractions) were reviewed. Repeat CT scanning was required to all of the patients during the radiotherapy, and the number of repeat CTs varies from 2 to 6. The plan CT and repeat CT were generated by different CT scanner. To ensure crespectively on the same IMPT plan. The real dose distribution was calculated by deformable registration and weighted method in Raystation (v 4.5.1). The fraction of each dose is based on radiotherapy record. The volumetric and dose differences among these images were calculated for nascIpharyngeal tumor and retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (GTV-NX), neck lymph nodes(GTV-ND), and parotid glands. Results: The volume variation in GTV-NX from CT1 to CT2 was 1.15±3.79%, and in GTV-LN −0.23±4.93%. The volume variation in left parotid from CT1 to CT2 was −6.79±11.91%, and in right parotid −3.92±8.80%. In patient 2, the left parotid volume were decreased remarkably, as a Result, the V30 and V40 of it were increased as well. Conclusion: The target volume of patients with NPC varied lightly during IMRT. It shows that preradiation chemotherapy can control the target volume variation and perform a good dose repeatability. Also, the decreasing volume of parotid in some patient might increase the dose of it, which might course potential complications.

  7. High-dose methotrexate-based immuno-chemotherapy for elderly primary CNS lymphoma patients (PRIMAIN study).

    PubMed

    Fritsch, K; Kasenda, B; Schorb, E; Hau, P; Bloehdorn, J; Möhle, R; Löw, S; Binder, M; Atta, J; Keller, U; Wolf, H-H; Krause, S W; Heß, G; Naumann, R; Sasse, S; Hirt, C; Lamprecht, M; Martens, U; Morgner, A; Panse, J; Frickhofen, N; Röth, A; Hader, C; Deckert, M; Fricker, H; Ihorst, G; Finke, J; Illerhaus, G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate immuno-chemotherapy for elderly immuno-competent patients (⩾65 years) with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma, we conducted a multicentre single-arm trial. One cycle consisted of rituximab (375 mg/m(2), days 1, 15, 29), high-dose methotrexate (3 g/m(2) days 2, 16, 30), procarbazine (60 mg/m(2) days 2-11) and lomustine (110 mg/m(2), day 2)-R-MPL protocol. Owing to infectious complications, we omitted lomustine during the study and consecutive patients were treated with the R-MP protocol. Three cycles were scheduled and repeated on day 43. Subsequently, patients commenced 4 weekly maintenance treatment with procarbazine (100 mg for 5 days). Primary end point was complete remission (CR) after 3 cycles. We included 107 patients (69 treated with R-MPL and 38 with R-MP). In all, 38/107 patients achieved CR (35.5%) and 15 (14.0%) achieved partial remission. R-MP was associated with a lower CR rate (31.6%) compared with R-MPL (37.7%), but respective 2-year progression-free survival (All 37.3%; R-MP 34.9%; R-MPL 38.8%) and overall survival (All 47.0%; R-MP 47.7%; R-MPL 46.0%) rates were similar. R-MP was associated with less ⩾grade 3 toxicities compared with R-MPL (71.1% vs 87.0%). R-MP is more feasible while still associated with similar efficacy compared with R-MPL and warrants further improvement in future studies.

  8. High-dose methotrexate-based immuno-chemotherapy for elderly primary CNS lymphoma patients (PRIMAIN study)

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, K; Kasenda, B; Schorb, E; Hau, P; Bloehdorn, J; Möhle, R; Löw, S; Binder, M; Atta, J; Keller, U; Wolf, H-H; Krause, S W; Heß, G; Naumann, R; Sasse, S; Hirt, C; Lamprecht, M; Martens, U; Morgner, A; Panse, J; Frickhofen, N; Röth, A; Hader, C; Deckert, M; Fricker, H; Ihorst, G; Finke, J; Illerhaus, G

    2017-01-01

    To investigate immuno-chemotherapy for elderly immuno-competent patients (⩾65 years) with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma, we conducted a multicentre single-arm trial. One cycle consisted of rituximab (375 mg/m2, days 1, 15, 29), high-dose methotrexate (3 g/m2 days 2, 16, 30), procarbazine (60 mg/m2 days 2–11) and lomustine (110 mg/m2, day 2)—R-MPL protocol. Owing to infectious complications, we omitted lomustine during the study and consecutive patients were treated with the R-MP protocol. Three cycles were scheduled and repeated on day 43. Subsequently, patients commenced 4 weekly maintenance treatment with procarbazine (100 mg for 5 days). Primary end point was complete remission (CR) after 3 cycles. We included 107 patients (69 treated with R-MPL and 38 with R-MP). In all, 38/107 patients achieved CR (35.5%) and 15 (14.0%) achieved partial remission. R-MP was associated with a lower CR rate (31.6%) compared with R-MPL (37.7%), but respective 2-year progression-free survival (All 37.3% R-MP 34.9% R-MPL 38.8%) and overall survival (All 47.0% R-MP 47.7% R-MPL 46.0%) rates were similar. R-MP was associated with less ⩾grade 3 toxicities compared with R-MPL (71.1% vs 87.0%). R-MP is more feasible while still associated with similar efficacy compared with R-MPL and warrants further improvement in future studies. PMID:27843136

  9. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the GEL-TAMO experience.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Caballero, M D; Gutiérrez, A; Marín, J; Lahuerta, J J; Sureda, A; Carreras, E; León, A; Arranz, R; Fernández de Sevilla, A; Zuazu, J; García-Laraña, J; Rifon, J; Varela, R; Gandarillas, M; SanMiguel, J; Conde, E

    2003-12-01

    T-cell immunophenotype constitutes an unfavorable prognostic factor in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue (HDC/ASCT) is the best salvage therapy for patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas. However, results with this therapy in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) are not well defined. From January 1990 to December 1999, 115 patients with PTCL underwent HDC/ASCT inside the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea (GEL-TAMO) registry. At diagnosis the median age was 41 years and 60% of patients presented with two or three risk factors from the adjusted International Prognostic Index (a-IPI). Thirty-two per cent of patients were transplanted in first complete response (CR), 62% in chemosensitive disease and 5% in refractory disease. Eighty-six per cent of the patients attained a CR and 5% a partial response (PR). With a median follow-up of 37 months (range 1-133), overall survival (OS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 56%, 51% and 60%, respectively; for the 37 patients transplanted in first CR, OS and DFS at 5 years were 80% and 79%, respectively. Lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), a-IPI and disease status pre-transplant were associated with outcome. More than half of patients with chemosensitive disease who were transplanted are expected to be alive at 5 years. We confirm the utility of the pre-transplant IPI system in predicting outcome. Salvage treatment results with HDC/ASCT in PTCL are similar to those found in corresponding aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

  10. [Clinical significance of the relationship between expression of survivin and effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Fuzhong, Tong; Nan, Lu; Jiajia, Guo; Miao, Liu; Deqi, Yang

    2008-08-01

    Explore the relationship between the expression intensity of survivin and the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin plus paclitaxel was administered to 76 patients in locally advanced breast cancer (including 25 cases of stage IIa, 26 of stage IIb, 16 of stage IIIa, and 9 of stage IIIb), the mean age is 52.8(33-79)years old. All patients were female. They were treated with epirubicin 60 mg/m(2), on day 1, by i. v. followed paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) by 3 hours continues infusion on day 2 and every 3 weeks repeatedly. Premedication of dexamethasone, ondansetron, diphenhydramine and cimetidine were administered to prevent gastroenteric and allergic reactions before chemotherapy. Four cycles were used. The expression of survivin in breast cancer tissue was detected with SDS-PAGE, western-immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and then that were immunological stained by anti survivin monoclonal antibody, and also the results were analyzed for the relationship between the expressed intensity of survivin and the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Nineteen out of 76 patients had a clinical complete response, 36 had clinical partial response, and 21 had no change. The response rate was 72.37%(55/76). We found survivin could be differently expressed in 76 patients with SDS-PAGE, western-immunoblotting and IHC and then immune stain by anti survivin monoclonal antibody. Forty six patients were low expressed of survivin and 9 patients were high expressed in all response patients. Eight patients were low expressed, only 1 patient was high expressed of survivin in 9 patients had pCR. But no finding the relationship between the expression of survivin and TNM stage, ER, PgR, HER-2. The patients have high response rate of low expression of survivin after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TE regimen in locally advanced breast cancer patients. This

  11. Anticancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Despite troubled beginnings, anticancer chemotherapy has made significant contribution to the control of cancer in man, particularly within the last two decades. Early conceptual observations awakened the scientific community to the potentials of cancer chemotherapy. There are now more than 50 agents that are active in causing regression of clinical cancer. Chemotherapy's major conceptual contributions are two-fold. First, there is now proof that patients with overt metastatic disease can be cured, and second, to provide a strategy for control of occult metastases. In man, chemotherapy has resulted in normal life expectancy for some patients who have several types of metastatic cancers, including choriocarcinoma, Burkitt's lymphomas, Wilm's tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkins disease, diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and others. Anticancer chemotherapy in Veterinary medicine has evolved from the use of single agents, which produce only limited remissions, to the concept of combination chemotherapy. Three basic principles underline the design of combination chemotherapy protocols; the fraction of tumor cell killed by one drug is independent of the fraction killed by another drug; drugs with different mechanisms of action should be chosen so that the antitumor effects will be additive; and since different classes of drugs have different toxicities the toxic effects will not be additive.

  12. Does the Addition of Involved Field Radiotherapy to High-Dose Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation Improve Outcomes for Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Shannon; Flowers, Christopher; Xu Zhiheng; Esiashvili, Natia

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of adding involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-two patients with relapsed/refractory HL undergoing HDCT and SCT from 1995 to 2008 were analyzed in a case-control design. Forty-six HL patients treated with IFRT within 2 months of SCT were matched to 46 HL patients who did not receive IFRT based on age, stage at relapse, timing of relapse, histology, and year of SCT. All were evaluated for response, survival, and toxicity with a median followup of 63.5 months. Results: There was a trend for better disease control in patients receiving IFRT. Specifically, 10/46 IFRT patients (22%) relapsed/progressed after SCT compared with 17/46 control patients (37%). Of the failures after IFRT, 70% were inside the radiation field, all in sites of bulky disease. In patients with nonbulky disease, IFRT also resulted in significantly improved outcomes (failure rate 6% vs. 33%, respectively). When stratified by disease bulk, the use of IFRT was found to significantly improve DFS (p = 0.032), but did not affect OS. In addition, IFRT and nonbulky disease were found to be positive prognostic indicators for DFS with hazard ratios of 0.357 (p = 0.032) and 0.383 (p = 0.034), respectively. Grade IV/V toxicities were significantly higher in the IFRT vs. non-IFRT group (28% vs. 2%; p < 0.001), observed only in patients receiving a busulfan-based conditioning regimen. Conclusion: Patients with refractory or relapsed HL undergoing HDCT and SCT have a high risk of relapse in sites of prior disease involvement, especially in sites of bulky disease. The use of IFRT is associated with a lower risk of disease progression in these sites; however bulky disease sites are still difficult to control. Toxicity risk is significant, particularly when busulfan-based conditioning is combined with IFRT, and alternative

  13. Does the addition of involved field radiotherapy to high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation improve outcomes for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Kahn, Shannon; Flowers, Christopher; Xu, Zhiheng; Esiashvili, Natia

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the value of adding involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Ninety-two patients with relapsed/refractory HL undergoing HDCT and SCT from 1995 to 2008 were analyzed in a case-control design. Forty-six HL patients treated with IFRT within 2 months of SCT were matched to 46 HL patients who did not receive IFRT based on age, stage at relapse, timing of relapse, histology, and year of SCT. All were evaluated for response, survival, and toxicity with a median followup of 63.5 months. There was a trend for better disease control in patients receiving IFRT. Specifically, 10/46 IFRT patients (22%) relapsed/progressed after SCT compared with 17/46 control patients (37%). Of the failures after IFRT, 70% were inside the radiation field, all in sites of bulky disease. In patients with nonbulky disease, IFRT also resulted in significantly improved outcomes (failure rate 6% vs. 33%, respectively). When stratified by disease bulk, the use of IFRT was found to significantly improve DFS (p=0.032), but did not affect OS. In addition, IFRT and nonbulky disease were found to be positive prognostic indicators for DFS with hazard ratios of 0.357 (p=0.032) and 0.383 (p=0.034), respectively. Grade IV/V toxicities were significantly higher in the IFRT vs. non-IFRT group (28% vs. 2%; p<0.001), observed only in patients receiving a busulfan-based conditioning regimen. Patients with refractory or relapsed HL undergoing HDCT and SCT have a high risk of relapse in sites of prior disease involvement, especially in sites of bulky disease. The use of IFRT is associated with a lower risk of disease progression in these sites; however bulky disease sites are still difficult to control. Toxicity risk is significant, particularly when busulfan-based conditioning is combined with IFRT, and alternative chemotherapy conditioning regimens should be considered

  14. Long-term survival with paclitaxel and gemcitabine for germ cell tumors after progression following high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplant.

    PubMed

    Mulherin, Brian P; Brames, Mary J; Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2015-08-01

    Germ cell tumor patients progressing after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) have a dismal prognosis. A prior retrospective study of paclitaxel and gemcitabine enrolled 32 patients. All failed first-line chemotherapy and salvage therapy with HDCT. We now present long-term results. Eligible patients received BEP or similar first-line chemotherapy and subsequent HDCT. They were treated with paclitaxel (100 mg/m) on days 1, 8, and 15 and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles. Ten of 32 (31%) had an objective response (4 partial remissions and 6 complete responses). Four patients (12.5% of total) have enjoyed long-term survival; 3 are continuously disease free for 64, 94, and 122 months. None of these 3 received subsequent chemotherapy or surgery. A fourth patient relapsed after 72 months, and has now reachieved remission for 36+ months after treatment with the same regimen. These patients had 2, 2, 2, and 4 prior therapies, respectively, and a rising serum human chorionic gonadotropin (69 and 138 mIU/mL), α-fetoprotein (525 ng/mL), or increasing intrathoracic metastases. Longest prior response ranged from 5 to 24 months. Paclitaxel and gemcitabine salvage chemotherapy can offer long-term survival and probable cure in relapsed/refractory germ cell tumor patients after HDCT. This is an appropriate regimen in a taxane-naive and gemcitabine-naive patient population. This is the first example of a nonplatinum curative chemotherapy regimen in patients progressing after HDCT.

  15. Metronomic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects and chemoresistance are major hurdles in chemotherapy and to avoid these problems caused by traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, a new modality of drug administration called “metronomic chemotherapy” has emerged. Such regimen involves the frequent administration of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at very low doses to target activated endothelial cells in tumors, the advantages of which include minimal adverse effects and a rare chance of developing acquired drug resistance. Previously it was thought that they act by targeting angiogenesis, but recently additional mechanisms have been discovered which has established metronomic chemotherapy as a type of multi-targeted therapy. The knowledge gained from the preclinical studies of metronomic chemotherapy, along with clinical experience, will help to design better therapeutic protocols against cancer. Detailed pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies on tumor endothelial cells and large multi-centered clinical trials, integrating bio-marker analyzes, are needed to investigate and validate the best treatment combinations for each tumor type and patient population. PMID:25210398

  16. B- and T-lymphocyte number and function in HIV(+)/HIV(-) lymphoma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Diego; Re, Alessandro; Chiarini, Marco; Sottini, Alessandra; Serana, Federico; Giustini, Viviana; Roccaro, Aldo M; Cattaneo, Chiara; Caimi, Luigi; Rossi, Giuseppe; Imberti, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Combination of anti-retroviral therapy, high-dose chemotherapy (HCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has led to an improved survival of HIV(+) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. We compared T- and B-cell subset recovery and related capability to respond to in-vitro stimulation, as well as T-cell repertoire modifications of HIV(+) and HIV(-) NHL patients undergoing HCT and ASCT as first-line consolidation or salvage treatment, using sequential blood samples obtained before and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after ASCT. B lymphocyte recovery occurred earlier, reaching higher levels in HIV(+) patients as compared to HIV(-) patients and healthy controls; in particular, immature and naïve B cells were significantly higher in HIV(+) patients who had received rituximab in the pre-ASCT period. These lymphocytes equally responded to in-vitro stimulation. Newly produced T cells similarly increased in HIV(+) and HIV(-) NHL patients, but their levels remained constantly lower than in healthy controls. T lymphocytes showed a reduced proliferative capacity, but their repertoire was reassorted by the treatment. The functional and numeric B-cell recovery and the qualitative modifications of T-cell receptor repertoire may explain, at least in part, the success of this aggressive therapeutic approach in HIV(+) patients.

  17. The effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maaskant, J M; De Boer, J P; Dalesio, O; Holtkamp, M J; Lucas, C

    2009-09-01

    Immuno-compromised patients are at high risk for all kind of infections. Unfortunately, they need central venous catheters (CVCs), which are associated with infectious complications. In this study we examined the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs to prevent catheter-related infections in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation. This historical cohort study evaluated 139 patients of whom 70 patients were provided with non-impregnated CVCs and 69 patients with impregnated CVCs. Patients were treated for different diagnoses. The median number of days a CVC stayed in situ was 18 in the non-impregnated group and 16 in the impregnated group. The median duration of neutropenia of patients with non-impregnated CVCs was 9 days compared with 7 days of patients with impregnated CVCs. We found less catheter colonization (CC) in patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine CVCs (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.96; P = 0.03). Catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI) were also diminished, but this result was not statistically significant (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02-1.15; P = 0.06). The reduction in CC and CR-BSI did not diminish the incidence of fever. We conclude that the use of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs provide an important improvement in the attempt to reduce CC and CR-BSI.

  18. B- and T-lymphocyte number and function in HIV+/HIV− lymphoma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Diego; Re, Alessandro; Chiarini, Marco; Sottini, Alessandra; Serana, Federico; Giustini, Viviana; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Cattaneo, Chiara; Caimi, Luigi; Rossi, Giuseppe; Imberti, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Combination of anti-retroviral therapy, high-dose chemotherapy (HCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has led to an improved survival of HIV+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. We compared T- and B-cell subset recovery and related capability to respond to in-vitro stimulation, as well as T-cell repertoire modifications of HIV+ and HIV− NHL patients undergoing HCT and ASCT as first-line consolidation or salvage treatment, using sequential blood samples obtained before and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after ASCT. B lymphocyte recovery occurred earlier, reaching higher levels in HIV+ patients as compared to HIV− patients and healthy controls; in particular, immature and naïve B cells were significantly higher in HIV+ patients who had received rituximab in the pre-ASCT period. These lymphocytes equally responded to in-vitro stimulation. Newly produced T cells similarly increased in HIV+ and HIV− NHL patients, but their levels remained constantly lower than in healthy controls. T lymphocytes showed a reduced proliferative capacity, but their repertoire was reassorted by the treatment. The functional and numeric B-cell recovery and the qualitative modifications of T-cell receptor repertoire may explain, at least in part, the success of this aggressive therapeutic approach in HIV+ patients. PMID:27905485

  19. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, George; Oberije, Cary; Senan, Suresh; Tsujino, Kayoko; Wiersma, Terry; Moreno-Jimenez, Marta; Kim, Tae Hyun; Marks, Lawrence B.; Rengan, Ramesh; De Petris, Luigi; Ramella, Sara; DeRuyck, Kim; De Dios, Núria Rodriguez; Warner, Andrew; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Palma, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  20. Parathyroid hormone linked to a collagen binding domain (PTH-CBD) promotes hair growth in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in a dose-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Seymour, Andrew; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a major source of psychological stress in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, and can influence treatment decisions. While there is currently no therapy, PTH-CBD, a fusion protein of parathyroid hormone and collagen binding domain, has shown promise in animal models. Objective To determine if there are dose-dependent effects of PTH-CBD on chemotherapy-induced alopecia in a mouse model. Methods C57BL/6J mice were waxed to synchronize hair follicles; treated on day 7 with vehicle or PTH-CBD (100, 320 and 1000 mcg/kg subcutaneous injection); treated on day 9 with vehicle or cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg i.p.). Mice were photographed every 3–4 days and sacrificed on day 63 for histological analysis. Photographs were quantified by grey scale analysis to assess hair content. Results Mice not receiving chemotherapy showed regrowth of hair 2 weeks following waxing, and normal histology after 2 months. Mice receiving chemotherapy alone showed marked hair loss after chemotherapy, which was sustained for 10 days and was followed by rapid regrowth of a normal coat. Histology revealed rapid cycling dystrophic anagen/catagen follicles. Animals receiving chemotherapy and PTH-CBD showed decreased hair loss and more rapid regrowth of hair than that seen with chemotherapy alone (increased hair growth by grey scale analysis, p<0.05), and the effects were dose dependent. Histologically, hair follicles in animals receiving the highest dose of PTH-CBD were in a quiescent phase, similar to mice which did not receive chemotherapy. Conclusions Single dose subcutaneous administration of PTH-CBD showed dose-dependent effects in minimizing hair loss and speeding recovery from chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:24710191

  1. High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Stem-Cell Support As Adjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: Overview of 15 Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Donald A.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Lei, Xiudong; Caputo, Jean; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Peters, William P.; Leonard, Robert C.; Barlow, William E.; Tallman, Martin S.; Bergh, Jonas; Nitz, Ulrike A.; Gianni, Alessandro M.; Basser, Russell L.; Zander, Axel R.; Coombes, R. Charles; Roché, Henri; Tokuda, Yutaka; de Vries, Elisabeth G.E.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Crown, John P.; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Bregni, Marco; Demirer, Taner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHST) for high-risk primary breast cancer has not been shown to prolong survival. Individual trials have had limited power to show overall benefit or benefits within subsets. Methods We assembled individual patient data from 15 randomized trials that compared HDC versus control therapy without stem-cell support. Prospectively defined primary end points were relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We compared the effect of HDC versus control by using log-rank tests and proportional hazards regression, and we adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. Subset analyses were by age, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, histology, hormone receptor (HmR) status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Results Of 6,210 total patients (n = 3,118, HDC; n = 3,092 control), the median age was 46 years; 69% were premenopausal, 29% were postmenopausal, and 2% were unknown menopausal status; 49.5% were HmR positive; 33.5% were HmR negative, and 17% were unknown HmR status. The median follow-up was 6 years. After analysis was adjusted for covariates, HDC was found to prolong relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.93; P < .001) but not overall survival (OS; HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.02; P = .13). For OS, no covariates had statistically significant interactions with treatment effect, and no subsets evinced a significant effect of HDC. Younger patients had a significantly better RFS on HDC than did older patients. Conclusion Adjuvant HDC with AHST prolonged RFS in high-risk primary breast cancer compared with control, but this did not translate into a significant OS benefit. Whether HDC benefits patients in the context of targeted therapies is unknown. PMID:21768471

  2. The comparative effects of povidone-iodine and normal saline mouthwashes on oral mucositis in patients after high-dose chemotherapy and APBSCT--results of a randomized multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Vokurka, Samuel; Bystrická, Eva; Koza, Vladimír; Scudlová, Jana; Pavlicová, Vladislava; Valentová, Dana; Bocková, Jana; Misaniová, Lubica

    2005-07-01

    Antimicrobial solutions are widely used in the nursing care of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM). There is little evidence, however, supporting their use for reducing mucosal damage. In our study, 132 patients were randomized to use normal saline (n=65) or povidone-iodine diluted 1:100 (n=67) mouthwashes for OM prophylaxis and treatment after high-dose chemotherapy comprising BEAM or HD-L-PAM followed by autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. The study groups were well balanced in respect of age, sex, chemotherapy and the number of CD34+ cells in the graft. No significant difference was found between the groups in respect of OM characteristics, fever of unknown origin (FUO) and other infections. The antimicrobial solution was less tolerable for patients. OM occurred significantly more often in females than in males (86% vs 60%, P=0.0016) and was worse and of longer duration. The mechanical effect of mouthwashes might have a certain importance in FUO prevention. When indicating oral rinses, the patient's individual preference and tolerance of solutions offered should be considered.

  3. Toxic effect of chemotherapy dosing using actual body weight in obese versus normal-weight patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hourdequin, K C; Schpero, W L; McKenna, D R; Piazik, B L; Larson, R J

    2013-12-01

    Many oncologists reduce chemotherapy doses in obese patients due to fear of excess toxic effect from very large weight-based calculations. While recent guidelines advise against this practice, quantitative summarization of the supporting evidence is not available. We systematically identified studies that compared toxic effect or survival outcomes between obese and normal-weight adults receiving chemotherapy dosed by actual body weight (ABW). We pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. Of 5490 records screened, 12 studies representing 9314 relevant patients met inclusion criteria. The large majority of reported toxic effect and survival outcomes did not statistically differ between obese and normal-weight subjects. Exceptions included five studies in which one or more toxic effect or survival outcomes statistically favored obese patients, and one study that statistically favored normal-weight patients. Pooling usable data, rates of toxic effects were similar or lower in obese patients (grade 3/4 hematologic toxic effect: OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.98, 4 studies; grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxic effect: OR 0.98, CI 0.76-1.26, 3 subgroups; any grade 3/4 toxic effect: OR 0.75, CI 0.65-0.87, three studies). Obese patients receiving chemotherapy based on ABW experience similar or lower rates of toxic effects compared with normal-weight patients, and survival outcomes do not differ.

  4. Quality of life and quality-adjusted survival (Q-TWiST) in patients receiving dose-intensive or standard dose chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, J; Zahrieh, D; Zhang, J J; Martinelli, G; Basser, R; Hürny, C; Forbes, J F; Aebi, S; Yeo, W; Thürlimann, B; Green, M D; Colleoni, M; Gelber, R D; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Price, K N; Goldhirsch, A; Coates, A S

    2008-01-15

    Quality of life (QL) is an important consideration when comparing adjuvant therapies for early breast cancer, especially if they differ substantially in toxicity. We evaluated QL and Q-TWiST among patients randomised to adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) or standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT). We estimated the duration of chemotherapy toxicity (TOX), time without disease symptoms and toxicity (TWiST), and time following relapse (REL). Patients scored QL indicators. Mean durations for the three transition times were weighted with patient reported utilities to obtain mean Q-TWiST. Patients receiving DI-EC reported worse QL during TOX, especially treatment burden (month 3: P<0.01), but a faster recovery 3 months following chemotherapy than patients receiving SD-CT, for example, less coping effort (P<0.01). Average Q-TWiST was 1.8 months longer for patients receiving DI-EC (95% CI, -2.5 to 6.1). Q-TWiST favoured DI-EC for most values of utilities attached to TOX and REL. Despite greater initial toxicity, quality-adjusted survival was similar or better with dose-intensive treatment as compared to standard treatment. Thus, QL considerations should not be prohibitive if future intensive therapies show superior efficacy.

  5. Salvage therapy with high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplant in patients with primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Yaman; Siddiqui, Bilal K; Brames, Mary J; Abonour, Rafat; Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2013-01-01

    Salvage therapy with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and bone marrow transplant (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) has curative potential in patients with recurrent germ cell tumor. However, patients with primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (PMNSGCTs) have had poor results with any form of salvage chemotherapy including HDCT. We switched from BMT to PBSCT in 1996. One hundred sixteen of 184 patients (63%) with recurrent or refractory germ cell tumors treated from 1996 to 2004 were alive and continuously disease-free. PMNSGCTs were excluded from that study because of poor results in the patient population with HDCT and BMTs. In 2006, we resumed treating patients with recurrent PMNSGCT with 2 consecutive courses of HDCT consisting of carboplatin 700 mg/m(2) × 3 plus etoposide 750 mg/m(2) × 3 and each followed by an infusion of autologous peripheral-blood hematopoietic stem cells with a second course 3 to 4 weeks later. Twelve patients were treated: 11 as initial salvage chemotherapy and 1 as fourth-line therapy. Eight of the 12 patients had major thoracic resections at the time of the relapse after initial chemotherapy. Three of the 12 patients achieved complete remission (CR; 10, 15, and 50 months' duration). One patient remains continuously with no evidence of disease (NED) at 50 months. An additional patient is currently NED at 52 months with HDCT and subsequent surgery. Median survival for the 12 patients was 11 months (range, 4-52 months). Results with tandem transplant for recurrent PMNSGCT remain poor compared to primary testis cancer, but durable CR and probable cure can be achieved in a small subset of patients with PMNSGCT. In our opinion, salvage surgical resection if anatomically feasible is the preferred option for patients with PMNSGT progressing after initial chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Results of a prospective dose intensity and neutropenia prophylaxis evaluation programme (DIEPP) in cancer patients at risk of febrile neutropenia due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mądry, Radosław; Popławska, Lidia; Haslbauer, Ferdinand; Šafanda, Martin; Ghizdavescu, Doru; Benkovicova, Jana; Csőszi, Tibor; Mihaylov, Georgi; Niepel, Daniela; Jaeger, Christine; Frkanova, Iveta; Macovei, Alina; Staudigl, Christine

    2016-04-01

    To describe the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and use of pegfilgrastim in cancer patients with high overall risk of FN and to investigate the relationship between granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) guideline adherence and chemotherapy delivery in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Austria. Dose Intensity Evaluation Program and Prophylaxis (DIEPP) was a multicentre, prospective, and observational study of adult patients with breast cancer, lymphoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, and ovarian cancer, who received chemotherapy with pegfilgrastim support and who had an overall risk of FN ≥ 20 %. Physicians assessed patient risk factors and reported their reasons for administering pegfilgrastim. Patients were enrolled from 113 centres in CEE and Austria between August 2010 and July 2013, and data were analysed from 1072 patients. The most common tumour types were breast cancer (50 %) and lymphoma (24 %). FN incidence was 5 % overall. FN occurred in 3 % of patients (28/875) who received pegfilgrastim as primary prophylaxis (PP) and 13 % of patients (19/142) who received it as secondary prophylaxis (SP); 79 % of FN events in SP patients occurred in the first cycle before pegfilgrastim was administered. The three most frequently chosen reasons for using pegfilgrastim were planned chemotherapy with high FN risk, female gender, and advanced disease. Overall, 40 % of patients received > 90 % of their planned chemotherapy dose within 3 days of the planned schedule. FN incidence was relatively low with pegfilgrastim PP in patients with a physician-assessed overall FN risk of ≥ 20 %. The most important reasons for pegfilgrastim use were consistent with the investigators' risk assessment and international guidelines.

  7. Higher stem cell dose infusion after intensive chemotherapy does not improve symptom burden in older patients with multiple myeloma and amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nina; Shi, Qiuling; Williams, Loretta A.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Wang, Xin Shelley; Reuben, James M.; Dougherty, Patrick M.; Bashir, Qaiser; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Giralt, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with high symptom burden, particularly for older patients and those with amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. Symptom burden peaks during leukopenia. We hypothesized that higher doses of CD34+ stem cells would be associated with an improved symptom outcome. Patients undergoing ASCT for MM who were ≥60 years old or had AL amyloidosis were randomized to receive either a standard (4–6×106 cells/kg) or high dose (10–15×106 cells/kg) of CD34+ cells after melphalan 200 mg/m2. Symptom burden was assessed via the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory MM module (MDASI-MM). Eighty patients were enrolled. Median CD34+ cell doses were 5.1×106 cells/kg (standard dose) and 10.5×106 cells/kg (high dose). The most severe symptoms during the first week were fatigue, lack of appetite, drowsiness, disturbed sleep, and pain. The AUC for the mean composite severity score of these symptoms was similar between treatment arms (P = .819). Median times to neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet engraftment were also similar between groups. IL-6 increased similarly for both groups throughout the ASCT course. Infusion of higher autologous stem cell dose after high-dose chemotherapy does not yield a difference in symptom burden or engraftment time in the first few weeks post-ASCT. PMID:26253006

  8. Double epigenetic modulation of high-dose chemotherapy with azacitidine and vorinostat for patients with refractory or poor-risk relapsed lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Yago; Valdez, Benigno C; Thall, Peter F; Jones, Roy B; Wei, Wei; Myers, Alan; Hosing, Chitra; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Gulbis, Alison; Anderlini, Paolo; Shah, Nina; Bashir, Qaiser; Alousi, Amin; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fanale, Michelle; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Pinnix, Chelsea; Champlin, Richard; Andersson, Borje S

    2016-09-01

    More active high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) regimens are needed for refractory lymphomas. The authors previously combined infusional gemcitabine with busulfan and melphalan (Gem/Bu/Mel) pursuing DNA damage repair inhibition. Subsequently, they combined Gem/Bu/Mel with vorinostat, which facilitates chemotherapy access to DNA. The resulting regimen was safe and synergistic. However, vorinostat induced DNA methyltransferase up-regulation, which could be preclinically abrogated by azacitidine, increasing tumor-cell kill. Those observations led to a clinical combination of azacitidine with vorinostat/Gem/Bu/Mel. Patients ages 12 to 65 years with refractory or poor-risk relapsed lymphomas were eligible. They received intravenous azacitidine on days -11 through -3 at doses from 15 to 35 mg/m(2) daily (dose levels 1-3), followed by oral vorinostat (1000 mg once daily on days -11 through -3), gemcitabine (2775 mg/m(2) over 4.5 × 2), busulfan (at an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 4000 daily × 4), and melphalan (60 mg/m(2) × 2). Patients who had tumors that were positive for CD20 (cluster of differentiation 20; B-lymphocyte antigen) received rituximab on day -9. In total, 60 patients were enrolled, including 26 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (10 double hit/double expressors), 21 with Hodgkin lymphoma, 8 with T-cell lymphoma, and 5 with other B-cell lymphomas. The median patient age was 41 years (range, 16-65 years), patients had received a median of 3 prior lines of chemotherapy (range, 2-7 lines of chemotherapy); and 32% of tumors were positive on positron emission tomography studies at the time of HDC. Two patients died from treatment complications (respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia and sepsis, respectively). The maximum tolerated dose of azacitidine was encountered at dose level 1 (15 mg/m(2) daily). The toxicity profile (mainly mucositis and dermatitis) was manageable and was identical to that of vorinostat

  9. Double Epigenetic Modulation of High-Dose Chemotherapy With Azacitidine and Vorinostat for Patients With Refractory or Poor-Risk Relapsed Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Yago; Valdez, Benigno C.; Thall, Peter F.; Jones, Roy B.; Wei, Wei; Myers, Alan; Hosing, Chitra; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Gulbis, Alison; Anderlini, Paolo; Shah, Nina; Bashir, Qaiser; Alousi, Amin; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fanale, Michelle; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Pinnix, Chelsea; Champlin, Richard; Andersson, Borje S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND More active high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) regimens are needed for refractory lymphomas. The authors previously combined infusional gemcitabine with busulfan and melphalan (Gem/Bu/Mel) pursuing DNA damage repair inhibition. Subsequently, they combined Gem/Bu/Mel with vorinostat, which facilitates chemotherapy access to DNA. The resulting regimen was safe and synergistic. However, vorinostat induced DNA methyltransferase up-regulation, which could be preclinically abrogated by azacitidine, increasing tumor-cell kill. Those observations led to a clinical combination of azacitidine with vorinostat/Gem/Bu/Mel. METHODS Patients ages 12 to 65 years with refractory or poor-risk relapsed lymphomas were eligible. They received intravenous azacitidine on days −11 through −3 at doses from 15 to 35 mg/m2 daily (dose levels 1–3), followed by oral vorinostat (1000 mg once daily on days −11 through −3), gemcitabine (2775 mg/m2 over 4.5 × 2), busulfan (at an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 4000 daily × 4), and melphalan (60 mg/m2 × 2). Patients who had tumors that were positive for CD20 (cluster of differentiation 20; B-lymphocyte antigen) received rituximab on day −9. RESULTS In total, 60 patients were enrolled, including 26 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (10 double hit/double expressors), 21 with Hodgkin lymphoma, 8 with T-cell lymphoma, and 5 with other B-cell lymphomas. The median patient age was 41 years (range, 16–65 years), patients had received a median of 3 prior lines of chemotherapy (range, 2–7 lines of chemotherapy); and 32% of tumors were positive on positron emission tomography studies at the time of HDC. Two patients died from treatment complications (respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia and sepsis, respectively). The maximum tolerated dose of azacitidine was encountered at dose level 1 (15 mg/m2 daily). The toxicity profile (mainly mucositis and dermatitis) was manageable and was identical to that

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair pathway are significantly associated with outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao; Wang, Shiming; Hong, Xuan; Li, Xiaoying; Zhao, Xueying; Huai, Cong; Chen, Hongyan; Gao, Zhiqiang; Qian, Ji; Wang, Jiucun; Han, Baohui; Bai, Chunxue; Li, Qiang; Wu, Junjie; Lu, Daru

    2017-09-18

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway plays critical roles in repairing DNA disorders caused by platinum. To comprehensively understand the association between variants of NER and clinical outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy, 173 SNPs in 27 genes were selected to evaluate association with toxicities and efficiency in 1004 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The results showed that consecutive significant signals were observed in XPA, RPA1, POLD1, POLD3. Further subgroup analysis showed that GTF2H4 presented consecutive significant signals in clinical benefit among adenocarcimoma. In squamous cell carcinoma, rs4150558, rs2290280, rs8067195 were significantly associated with anemia, rs3786136 was significantly related to thrombocytopenia, ERCC5 presented consecutive significant signals in response rate. In patients receiving TP regimen, significant association presented in neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity. Association with anemia and neutropenia were found in GP regimen. rs4150558 showed significant association with anemia in NP regimen. In patients > 58, ERCC5 showed consecutive significant signals in gastrointestinal toxicity. Survival analysis showed SNPs in POLD2, XPA, ERCC6 and POLE were significantly associated with progression free survival, SNPs in GTF2H4, ERCC6, GTF2HA, MAT1, POLD1 were significantly associated with overall survival. This study suggests SNPs in NER pathway could be potential predictors for clinical outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy among NSCLC.

  11. Dose-Intensified Compared With Standard Chemotherapy for Nonmetastatic Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Granowetter, Linda; Womer, Richard; Devidas, Meenakshi; Krailo, Mark; Wang, Chenguang; Bernstein, Mark; Marina, Neyssa; Leavey, Patrick; Gebhardt, Mark; Healey, John; Shamberger, Robert Cooper; Goorin, Allen; Miser, James; Meyer, James; Arndt, Carola A.S.; Sailer, Scott; Marcus, Karen; Perlman, Elizabeth; Dickman, Paul; Grier, Holcombe E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is a group of malignant tumors of soft tissue and bone sharing a chromosomal translocation affecting the EWS locus. The Intergroup INT-0091 demonstrated the superiority of a regimen of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (VDC), and dactinomycin alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) over VDC for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone. The goal of this study was to determine whether a dose-intensified regimen of VDC alternating with IE would further improve the outcome for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue. Methods Patients with previously untreated, nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue were eligible. They were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of VDC/IE over 48 weeks or a dose-intensified regimen of VDC/IE over 30 weeks. Results Four hundred seventy-eight patients met eligibility requirements: 231 patients received the standard regimen; 247 patients received the intensified regimen. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates for all eligible patients were 71.1% (95% CI, 67.7% to 75.0%) and 78.6% (95% CI, 74.6% to 82.1%), respectively. There was no significant difference (P = .57) in EFS between patients treated with the standard (5-year EFS, 72.1%; 95% CI, 65.8% to 77.5%) or intensified regimen (5-year EFS, 70.1%; 63.9% to 75%). Patients with soft tissue tumors accounted for 20% of the study population; there was no difference in outcome between patients with soft tissue and bone primary sites. Conclusion Dose escalation of alkylating agents as tested in this trial did not improve the outcome for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue. PMID:19349548

  12. Dose-intensified compared with standard chemotherapy for nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: a Children's Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Granowetter, Linda; Womer, Richard; Devidas, Meenakshi; Krailo, Mark; Wang, Chenguang; Bernstein, Mark; Marina, Neyssa; Leavey, Patrick; Gebhardt, Mark; Healey, John; Shamberger, Robert Cooper; Goorin, Allen; Miser, James; Meyer, James; Arndt, Carola A S; Sailer, Scott; Marcus, Karen; Perlman, Elizabeth; Dickman, Paul; Grier, Holcombe E

    2009-05-20

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is a group of malignant tumors of soft tissue and bone sharing a chromosomal translocation affecting the EWS locus. The Intergroup INT-0091 demonstrated the superiority of a regimen of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (VDC), and dactinomycin alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) over VDC for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone. The goal of this study was to determine whether a dose-intensified regimen of VDC alternating with IE would further improve the outcome for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue. Patients with previously untreated, nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue were eligible. They were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of VDC/IE over 48 weeks or a dose-intensified regimen of VDC/IE over 30 weeks. Four hundred seventy-eight patients met eligibility requirements: 231 patients received the standard regimen; 247 patients received the intensified regimen. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates for all eligible patients were 71.1% (95% CI, 67.7% to 75.0%) and 78.6% (95% CI, 74.6% to 82.1%), respectively. There was no significant difference (P = .57) in EFS between patients treated with the standard (5-year EFS, 72.1%; 95% CI, 65.8% to 77.5%) or intensified regimen (5-year EFS, 70.1%; 63.9% to 75%). Patients with soft tissue tumors accounted for 20% of the study population; there was no difference in outcome between patients with soft tissue and bone primary sites. Dose escalation of alkylating agents as tested in this trial did not improve the outcome for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue.

  13. Effect of the dose per body weight of conditioning chemotherapy on severity of mucositis and risk of relapse after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciano J; Micallef, Ivana N; Inwards, David J; Johnston, Patrick B; Porrata, Luis F; Litzow, Mark R; Ansell, Stephen M

    2008-10-01

    High-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is considered standard therapy in patients with chemosensitive relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). BCNU (carmustine), etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) is a widely used standard DLBCL conditioning regimen. The practice of basing chemotherapy doses on body surface area (BSA) is empirical and the best biometric parameter to dose chemotherapy is unknown. Weight-based dosing has been suggested to better predict toxicity of the conditioning regimen. We correlated the dose/weight ratio with toxicity and overall outcome in a uniform cohort of 80 consecutive patients receiving HSC transplant for relapsed DLBCL at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN following BSA-dosed BEAM conditioning chemotherapy. Melphalan dose was used as surrogate for the entire regimen. Median age at the time of transplant was 62 (26-77) years; 65% were males. The median melphalan dose was 3.2 mg/kg (range 2.2-4.5). Patients who received >3.6 mg/kg of melphalan were more likely to have grade 3 or 4 mucositis (44.4% vs. 9.8%, P = 0.001) and prolonged hospitalization (median 13 vs. 7 d; P = 0.04). Dose/weight ratio did not correlate with cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.3) or survival (P = 0.8). Transplant physicians should consider limiting the dose of BEAM to the equivalent of 3.6 mg/kg of melphalan.

  14. Clinical significance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β gene expression in stage II/III gastric cancer with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Akio; Oshima, Takashi; Yoshihara, Kazue; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Aoyama, Toru; Suganuma, Nobuyasu; Yamamoto, Naoto; Sato, Tsutomu; Cho, Haruhiko; Shiozawa, Manabu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Rino, Yasushi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Imada, Toshio; Masuda, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    Overall survival remains unsatisfactory in stage II/III gastric cancer, even after curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) is associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. The present study therefore investigated the association of PDGFR-β gene expression with patient outcome in 134 stage II/III gastric cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. Relative PDGFR-β gene expression was measured in surgical cancer tissue and adjacent normal mucosa specimens by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The PDGFR-β gene expression levels were found to be significantly higher in the cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal mucosa. A high level of PDGFR-β gene expression was associated with a significantly poorer 5-year overall survival rate compared with a low level of PDGFR-β expression. Upon multivariate analysis, PDGFR-β gene expression was found to be an independent predictor of survival. Overall, the study indicates that PDGFR-β overexpression in gastric cancer tissues is a useful independent predictor of outcome in patients with stage II/III gastric cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1.

  15. Impact of high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT for positive interim [18F] FDG-PET diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Roland, V; Bodet-Milin, C; Moreau, A; Gastinne, T; Mahé, B; Dubruille, V; Maisonneuve, H; Juge-Morineau, N; Moreau, P; Jardel, H; Planche, L; Mohty, M; Moreau, P; Harousseau, J-L; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Le Gouill, S

    2011-03-01

    [(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasingly used for response assessment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A positive interim FDG-PET was shown to be associated with an unfavorable outcome in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. For positive interim FDG-PET patients, the question of increasing the intensity of treatment using high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT (HDC-ASCT) remains unanswered. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic value of FDG-PET in 42 DLBCL patients who were systematically evaluated at time of diagnosis, before and after HDC-ASCT. Of note, HDC-ASCT was part of the initial treatment strategy, while FDG-PET results did not influence the treatment approach. Results and outcome were analyzed according to FDG-PET results before and after HDC-ASCT. Patients were classified into three groups according to FDG-PET results before and after HDC-ASCT: those who were negative before and after (-/-; n=25), positive before and negative after (+/-; n=9) or positive before and after (+/+; n=8). The median follow-up was 34.5 (range, 19-74) months. The median EFS was significantly lower for the +/+ group (27.4 months) as compared with other groups (median not reached; P=0.0001). More importantly, there was no difference in term of EFS between the -/- group compared with the +/- group. These results suggest that HDC-ASCT can significantly improve the bad prognosis, otherwise indicated by a positive interim FDG-PET.

  16. Predictive significance of DNA damage and repair biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: An exploratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ercolani, Cristiana; Pizzuti, Laura; Lauro, Luigi Di; Sergi, Domenico; Sperati, Francesca; Terrenato, Irene; Dattilo, Rosanna; Botti, Claudio; Fabi, Alessandra; Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Mentuccia, Lucia; Marinelli, Camilla; Iezzi, Laura; Gamucci, Teresa; Natoli, Clara; Vitale, Ilio; Barba, Maddalena; Mottolese, Marcella; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Response of cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage is regulated by the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways. We investigated the association between phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks that trigger the ATM-Chk2 cascade, and phosphorylated Chk1 (pChk1), with pathological complete response (pCR) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. γ-H2AX and pChk1 were retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of pretreatment biopsies related to 66 patients. In fifty-three tumors hormone receptor status was negative in both the diagnostic biopsies and residual cancers, whereas in 13 cases there was a slight hormone receptor expression that changed after chemotherapy. Internal validation was carried out. In the entire cohort elevated levels of γ-H2AX, but not pChk1, were associated with reduced pCR rate (p = 0.009). The association tested significant in both uni- and multivariate logistic regression models (OR 4.51, 95% CI: 1.39–14.66, p = 0.012, and OR 5.07, 95% CI: 1.28–20.09, p = 0.021, respectively). Internal validation supported the predictive value of the model. The predictive ability of γ-H2AX was further confirmed in the multivariate model after exclusion of tumors that underwent changes in hormone receptor status during chemotherapy (OR 7.07, 95% CI: 1.39–36.02, p = 0.018). Finally, in residual diseases a significant decrease of γ-H2AX levels was observed (p < 0.001). Overall, γ-H2AX showed ability to predict pCR in TNBC and deserves larger, prospective studies. PMID:26544894

  17. Predictive significance of DNA damage and repair biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: An exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Vici, Patrizia; Di Benedetto, Anna; Ercolani, Cristiana; Pizzuti, Laura; Di Lauro, Luigi; Sergi, Domenico; Sperati, Francesca; Terrenato, Irene; Dattilo, Rosanna; Botti, Claudio; Fabi, Alessandra; Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Mentuccia, Lucia; Marinelli, Camilla; Iezzi, Laura; Gamucci, Teresa; Natoli, Clara; Vitale, Ilio; Barba, Maddalena; Mottolese, Marcella; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2015-12-15

    Response of cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage is regulated by the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways. We investigated the association between phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks that trigger the ATM-Chk2 cascade, and phosphorylated Chk1 (pChk1), with pathological complete response (pCR) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. γ-H2AX and pChk1 were retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of pretreatment biopsies related to 66 patients. In fifty-three tumors hormone receptor status was negative in both the diagnostic biopsies and residual cancers, whereas in 13 cases there was a slight hormone receptor expression that changed after chemotherapy. Internal validation was carried out. In the entire cohort elevated levels of γ-H2AX, but not pChk1, were associated with reduced pCR rate (p = 0.009). The association tested significant in both uni- and multivariate logistic regression models (OR 4.51, 95% CI: 1.39-14.66, p = 0.012, and OR 5.07, 95% CI: 1.28-20.09, p = 0.021, respectively). Internal validation supported the predictive value of the model. The predictive ability of γ-H2AX was further confirmed in the multivariate model after exclusion of tumors that underwent changes in hormone receptor status during chemotherapy (OR 7.07, 95% CI: 1.39-36.02, p = 0.018). Finally, in residual diseases a significant decrease of γ-H2AX levels was observed (p < 0.001). Overall, γ-H2AX showed ability to predict pCR in TNBC and deserves larger, prospective studies.

  18. Significance of TP53 mutations as predictive markers of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Rousseau, Vanessa; Sun, Haiji; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Filipits, Martin; Pirker, Robert; Popper, Helmut; Mendiboure, Jean; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Soria, Jean Charles; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Dunant, Ariane; Hainaut, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have evaluated the predictive value of mutations in TP53, encoding the tumour suppressor p53, in the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT), a randomized trial of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy against observation. TP53 (exons 4-8) was sequenced in 524 archived specimens of IALT patients with a median follow-up of 7.5 years. Predictive analyses were based on Cox models adjusted for clinical and pathological variables. P-values ≤ 0.01 were considered as significant. Mutations were detected in 221 patients (42%) and had no predictive value for the effect of chemotherapy (interaction between TP53 and treatment: p = 0.17 for Overall Survival (OS); p = 0.06 for Disease-Free Interval, (DFS)). However, among patients with mutations, outcome appeared worse in treatment compared to observation arms (HR for OS = 1.36 (95% CI [0.97-1.31), p = 0.08; DFS = 1.40 (95% CI [1.01-1.95]), p = 0.04). When grouping mutations into classes according to predicted effects on protein structure, the tendency towards worse outcomes was restricted to "structure" mutations affecting residues of the hydrophobic core that are not located at the p53 protein-DNA interface (HR for death in this class vs wild-type T53 = 1.66; 95% CI [1.10-2.52], p = 0.02). Overall, TP53 mutations are not significant predictors of outcome in this trial of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, although a specific class of structural mutations may be associated with a tendency towards worse outcomes upon treatment. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of totally implantable central venous access ports for high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: results of a monocentre series of 376 patients.

    PubMed

    Biffi, R; Pozzi, S; Agazzi, A; Pace, U; Floridi, A; Cenciarelli, S; Peveri, V; Cocquio, A; Andreoni, B; Martinelli, G

    2004-02-01

    The complication rate of central venous totally implantable access ports (TIAP), used for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation support, has not been fully investigated to date, due to the almost exclusive use of externalised, tunnelled devices in this clinical setting. During a 66-month period (from 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2002), 376 patients suffering from breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoma or multiple myeloma were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation at the European Institute of Oncology (Milan, Italy). A single type of port was used, constructed from titanium and silicone rubber, connected to a 7.8 F polyurethane catheter (Port-A-Cath; SIMS Deltec, Inc., St Paul, MN, USA) inserted into the subclavian vein. They were followed prospectively for device-related complications until the device was removed, the patient died or the study was closed (30 June 2002). No TIAP-related deaths were observed in this series. Seven pneumothoraxes (1.8%) occurred as a complication of TIAP placement, one patient only (0.2%) requiring a tube thoracostomy. Port pocket infection occurred twice in this series (0.53%, 0.01 episodes/1000 days of use), whereas three patients suffered from port-related bacteraemia (0.8%, 0.016/1000 days of use). Infections were successfully treated with antibiotics; all three cases had the ports removed at programme completion. Four cases of deep vein thrombosis were detected (1.06%, 0.022/1000 days of use); low molecular weight heparin was given, followed by oral anticoagulants. Finally, one case of extravasation occurred (0.26%, 0.005/1000 days of use), requiring port removal and local medical therapy. The use of TIAPs has resulted in a safe and effective option for high-dose chemotherapy deliverance and stem cell transplantation, in spite of inducing severe neutropenia and increasing the risk of sepsis in this category of oncology patient.

  20. Intracavitary chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Markman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling has suggested, and clinical investigations have confirmed, that intracavitary drug administration can result in a much greater drug exposure for the cavity into which the agent is instilled compared to the plasma. Both the safety and the efficacy of several agents administered individually or in combination have now been demonstrated. Several malignancies, in particular ovarian carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma, which remain confined to body cavities for much of their natural history, might be most rationally treated by the intracavitary treatment approach. Early clinical trials have demonstrated significant activity of intracavitary chemotherapy in both of these malignancies. Optimal drugs and dosages as well as appropriate scheduling for the various tumors involving body cavities remain to be defined. Whether or not combination intracavitary chemotherapy will significantly improve survival of patients with malignant disease confined to body cavities must await carefully controlled clinical trials comparing this treatment approach to standard systemically administered chemotherapy. 144 references.

  1. High-dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Saudi Children Less Than 3 Years of Age With Embryonal Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Musa; Al-Dandan, Sadeq; Bayoumi, Yasser; Alharbi, Talal; Alsudairy, Reem; Alomari, Ali; Aljamaan, Khalid; Musleh, Othman; Alharbi, Qasim; Jarrar, Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDC/ASCR) has been used in children under the age of 3 years with embryonal brain tumors to avoid or delay the use of radiation. We reviewed the medical records of 10 Saudi children less than 3 years of age with embryonal brain tumors who underwent HDC/ASCR. All 10 patients underwent surgical resection followed by 3 to 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and 1 to 3 cycles of HDC/ASCR using carboplatin and thiotepa. Isotretinoin was used as a maintenance therapy in 4 patients. Five patients had medulloblastoma, 3 had atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, 1 had an embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes, and 1 had pineoblastoma. The median age of the patients was 1.9 years. A total of 19 HDC/ASCR procedures were performed. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered to 5 patients after HDC/ASCR and as a salvage therapy in 1 patient. The progression-free survival rate was 50% at 1 year and at 2 years, with a median follow-up of 24 months. All 5 patients with medulloblastoma are still alive without evidence of disease, but the other patients died secondary to tumor progression. This experience suggests that strategies combining myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue appear to be feasible for children with embryonal brain tumors in the Middle East.

  2. High dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: Emerging questions, newer agents, and changing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saad

    2017-06-13

    Primary treatment for adult and pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) using current multiagent anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy will cure approximately >70% of the patients; >95% for early stage with a favorable risk profile and 70-75% with advanced stage and high risk features. Managing refractory and relapsed disease, however, remains a challenge. High dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage 40-70% of patients with relapsed or refractory HL. Two randomized trials in relapsed and refractory patients showed superior progression free survival. This presentation addresses some of the salient differences and changes in the management that have evolved over the last decade and have either already affected, or are likely to affect the outcome of HDC auto-SCT. The following will discussed. 1. Historic trials and other emerging issues impacting the outcome of HDC auto-SCT. 2. Changes in the primary treatment and response adapted therapy. 3. Evaluation and validation of prognostic factors at the time of first failure. 4. Selection of salvage chemotherapy. 5. Conditioning regimens. 6. Consolidation after HDC auto-SCT. 7. Management of failures of HDC auto-SCT. 8. Availability of financial resources in various healthcare systems. Enrolment in clinical trials should be encouraged. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up of Dose-Adapted and Reduced-Field Radiotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy for Central Nervous System Germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Ashley W.; Issa Laack, Nadia N.; Buckner, Jan C.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Wetmore, Cynthia J.; Brown, Paul D.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To update our institutional experience with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and minimized radiotherapy vs. radiation monotherapy for intracranial germinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of 59 patients with diagnosis of primary intracranial germinoma between 1977 and 2007. Treatment was irradiation alone or neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and local irradiation (initial tumor plus margin) for patients with localized complete response and reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation for others. Results: For the chemoradiotherapy group (n = 28), median follow-up was 7 years. No patient died. The freedom from progression (FFP) rate was 88% at 5 years and 80% at 10 years. In 4 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 6.8 years after diagnosis. All were young male patients who received 30.6 Gy to local fields after complete response to chemotherapy. The FFP rate was 88% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p = .06). For the radiotherapy-alone group (n = 31), median follow-up was 15 years. Overall and disease-free survival rates were 93% and 93% at 5 years and 90% and 87% at 15 years. In 5 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 4.9 years after diagnosis. Most patients in this group were young men 18 to 23 years of age with suprasellar primary disease treated with about 50 Gy to local fields. The FFP rate was 44% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p < .01). Conclusions: The addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to local-field radiotherapy reduced central nervous system cancer recurrence when high-risk patients were excluded by thorough pretreatment staging. There was trend toward improved central nervous system tumor control when larger fields (whole brain, whole ventricle, or craniospinal axis) were used.

  4. Clinical significance of pretherapeutic Ki67 as a predictive parameter for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: is it equally useful across tumor subtypes?

    PubMed

    Sueta, Aiko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoko; Inao, Toko; Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Murakami, Keiichi; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2014-05-01

    Ki67 has been identified as a prognostic and predictive marker for breast cancer and it was suggested that it may contribute to pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It is unclear whether expression of Ki67 is particularly helpful for prediction of pCR across tumor subtypes. Pretherapeutic Ki67 was evaluated in a series of 121 breast cancer core biopsies. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we used postoperative specimens to evaluate the pCR status. Several parameters predictive of pCR were identified using logistic regression analysis. We investigated subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, in which predicting pCR with Ki67 might be feasible. Ki67 was found to be an independent predictor of pCR in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 3.62; 95% CI, 1.21-10.8). When stratified by ER, the above significance was exclusive to ER-positive tumors (OR, 6.24; 95% CI, 1.40-27.7). Using an receiver-operating characteristic curve, we obtained moderate discriminative accuracy with an area under the curve of 0.7752 for Ki67 prediction of pCR in ER-positive tumors. In subgroup analysis, patients with high Ki67 showed significantly improved pCR rate in luminal-type disease, with a median Ki67 value of 43% in the patients who achieved pCR, versus 29% for those without pCR (P = .018), whereas no associations were observed in other subtypes. Our results suggest that stratification according to Ki67 levels might improve predictive significance of the response in hormone-responsive breast cancer. Even in these subtypes assumed to be less chemosensitive, some patients with highly proliferative tumors derive a significant benefit from chemotherapy, and consequently it is important to identify them. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimising antiemesis in cancer chemotherapy: efficacy of continuous versus intermittent infusion of high dose metoclopramide in emesis induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, P S; Allan, S G; Cornbleet, M A; MacPherson, J S; Smyth, J F; Leonard, R C

    1986-01-01

    Thirty three untreated patients being given cisplatin received metoclopramide (7 mg/kg) for antiemesis by either continuous or intermittent infusion in a random order. Each patient received intravenous dexamethasone in addition. High pressure liquid chromatography was used to measure plasma concentrations of metoclopramide. The two regimens were evaluated for antiemetic efficacy and the incidence of side effects. The intermittent metoclopramide regimen resulted in peak and trough plasma concentrations of metoclopramide with accumulation at eight hours, while the loading dose and continuous infusion resulted in mean plasma concentrations greater than 0.85 micrograms/ml (2.8 mumol/l) throughout the eight hour period. The continuous infusion was associated with a significant improvement in nausea and vomiting and reduction in diarrhoea. Major control of emesis (two episodes or fewer) was achieved in 27 patients receiving continuous metoclopramide compared with 18 receiving intermittent metoclopramide. PMID:3790968

  6. Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Response Assessment Before High-Dose Chemotherapy for Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dahabreh, Issa J.; Nihashi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better define the prognostic ability of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) following salvage chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods. We searched PubMed (from inception to January 31, 2010), bibliographies, and review articles without language restriction. Two assessors independently assessed study characteristics, quality, and results. We performed a meta-analysis to determine prognostic accuracy. Results. Twelve studies including 630 patients were eligible. The most commonly evaluated histologies were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 313) and HL (n = 187), which were typically treated with various salvage and high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Studies typically employed nonstandardized protocols and diagnostic criteria. The prognostic accuracy was heterogeneous across the included studies. 18F-FDG PET had a summary sensitivity of 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56–0.81) and specificity of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73–0.87). The summary estimates were stable in sensitivity analyses. In four studies that performed direct comparisons between PET and conventional restaging modalities, PET had a superior accuracy for predicting treatment outcomes. Subgroup and metaregression analyses did not identify any particular factor to explain the observed heterogeneity. Conclusion. 18F-FDG PET performed after salvage therapy appears to be an appropriate test to predict treatment failure in patients with refractory or relapsed lymphoma who receive high-dose chemotherapy. Some evidence suggests PET is superior to conventional restaging for this purpose. Given the methodological limitations in the primary studies, prospective studies with standardized methodologies are needed to confirm and refine these promising results. PMID:20587551

  7. Potential Increased Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality With Significant Dose Fractionation in the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Little, Mark P.; Cornett, R. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Risks of noncancer causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease, associated with exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation, are well known. Recent studies have reported excess risk in workers who are occupationally exposed to low doses at a low dose rate, but the risks of moderately fractionated exposures, such as occur during diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. The Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study includes 63,707 tuberculosis patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic procedures in 1930–1952 and followed-up for death from noncancer causes in 1950–1987. We used a Poisson regression to estimate excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy of cumulative radiation dose to the lung (mean dose = 0.79 Gy; range, 0–11.60). The risk of death from noncancer causes was significantly lower in these subjects compared with the Canadian general population (P < 0.001). We estimated small, nonsignificant increases in the risk of death from noncancer causes with dose. We estimated an ERR/Gy of 0.176 (95% confidence interval: 0.011, 0.393) (n = 5,818 deaths) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for dose fractionation. A significant (P = 0.022) inverse dose fractionation effect in dose trends of IHD was observed, with the highest estimate of ERR/Gy for those with the fewest fluoroscopic procedures per year. Radiation-related risks of IHD decreased significantly with increasing time since first exposure and age at first exposure (both P < 0.05). This is the largest study of patients exposed to moderately fractionated low-to-moderate doses of radiation, and it provides additional evidence of increased radiation-associated risks of death from IHD, in particular, significantly increased radiation risks from doses similar to those from diagnostic radiation procedures. The novel finding of a significant inverse dose-fractionation association in IHD mortality requires further investigation. PMID:24145888

  8. Treatment of metastatic Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone: evaluation of increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy--a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Miser, James S; Goldsby, Robert E; Chen, Zhengjia; Krailo, Mark D; Tarbell, Nancy J; Link, Michael P; Fryer, Christopher J H; Pritchard, Douglas J; Gebhardt, Mark C; Dickman, Paul S; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Meyers, Paul A; Donaldson, Sarah S; Moore, Sheila G; Rausen, Aaron R; Vietti, Teresa J; Grier, Holcombe E

    2007-12-01

    The outcome for patients with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs) of bone with metastases at diagnosis remains poor despite new approaches to treatment. We evaluated whether a dose-intensity chemotherapy regimen improved survival for patients with ESFTs of bone with metastases at diagnosis. We entered 60 patients with metastatic ESFTs of bone onto a single arm trial of a new intensive therapy. Treatment consisted of 51-weeks of chemotherapy and local control of the primary with radiation, surgery, or both. The chemotherapeutic protocol included two alternating blocks: one with vincristine (2 mg/m(2)), doxorubicin (90 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (2,200 mg/m(2)); and the second with ifosfamide (2,800 mg/m(2)/day x 5 days) and etoposide (100 mg/m(2)/day x 5 days). Of the 60 patients with metastatic ESFTs of bone enrolled onto this single arm trial, 12 had metastasis to lung only, 7 to bone marrow or bone only, 38 to multiple sites, 2 in other sites and 3 not specified. There were three toxic deaths. Six patients (6-year cumulative incidence: 9%) developed second malignant neoplasms and died. The 6-year overall event-free survival (EFS) was 28% (standard error (SE) 6%) and survival (S) was 29% (SE 6%). An intensified treatment regimen using higher doses of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and doxorubicin increased toxicity and risk of second malignancy without improving EFS and S. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Low-dose radiotherapy as a chemo-potentiator of a chemotherapy regimen with pemetrexed for recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer: a prospective phase II study.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Giovanna; Valentini, Vincenzo; Meduri, Bruno; Margaritora, Stefano; Balducci, Mario; Micciché, Francesco; Nardone, Luigia; De Rose, Fiorenza; Cesario, Alfredo; Larici, Anna Rita; Maggi, Fabio; Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-11-01

    Low-dose radiotherapy (LDR) (<50 cGy) induces enhanced cell killing in vitro via the hyper-radiation sensitivity phenomenon. Aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a palliative regimen combining pemetrexed and LDR (as a chemopotentiator) on patients affected by recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligible patients had an ECOG performance status ≤2, one prior chemotherapy regimen for advanced NSCLC, adequate organ function, measurable lesions. Patients received pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2) IV) and concurrent LDR (40 cGy bid on days 1 and 2) delivered to target pulmonary or metastatic disease. This cycle was repeated fourfold every 21 days. The accrual was determined by the single proportion powered analysis (α=0.05, power=0.8) with H0 ("bad" response probability, 9% according to literature) and H1 ("good" response probability, 35% ongoing study); 19 is the number required. Nineteen patients with stage III and IV disease were enrolled. Only one patient experienced neutropenia grade 4. All patients are evaluable for clinical response of irradiated lesion: overall response rate was 42%. Low-dose radiotherapy combined with pemetrexed has a similar toxicity profile to chemotherapy alone. The response rate of this novel approach is encouraging, since it was higher than what was reported for pemetrexed alone (42% versus 9.1%). Additional scientific investigation of this new treatment paradigm is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective treatment of stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma with high dose-rate vaginal apex radiation (192Ir) and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Turner, B C; Knisely, J P; Kacinski, B M; Haffty, B G; Gumbs, A A; Roberts, K B; Frank, A H; Peschel, R E; Rutherford, T J; Edraki, B; Kohorn, E I; Chambers, S K; Schwartz, P E; Wilson, L D

    1998-01-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a morphologically distinct variant of endometrial carcinoma that is associated with a poor prognosis, high recurrence rate, frequent clinical understaging, and poor response to salvage treatment. We retrospectively analyzed local control, actuarial overall survival (OS), actuarial disease-free survival (DFS), salvage rate, and complications for patients with Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (1988) Stage I UPSC. This retrospective analysis describes 38 patients with FIGO Stage I UPSC who were treated with the combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO), with or without a surgical staging procedure. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with a combination of low dose-rate (LDR) uterine/vaginal brachytherapy using 226Ra or 137Cs and conventional whole-abdomen radiation therapy (WART) or whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Of 20 patients (10%) in this treatment group, 2 received cisplatin chemotherapy. Eighteen patients were treated with high dose-rate (HDR) vaginal apex brachytherapy using 192Ir with an afterloading device and cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) chemotherapy (5 of 18 patients). Only 6 of 20 UPSC patients treated with combination LDR uterine/vaginal brachytherapy and conventional external beam radiotherapy underwent complete surgical staging, consisting of TAH/BSO, pelvic/para-aortic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, and peritoneal fluid analysis, compared to 15 of 18 patients treated with HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy. The 5-year actuarial OS for patients with complete surgical staging and adjuvant radiation/chemotherapy treatment was 100% vs. 61% for patients without complete staging (p = 0.002). The 5-year actuarial OS for all Stage I UPSC patients treated with postoperative HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy and systemic chemotherapy was 94% (18 patients). The 5-year actuarial OS for

  11. Strategies to eradicate minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Krug, L M; Grant, S C; Miller, V A; Ng, K K; Kris, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the last 25 years, treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Standard chemotherapy regimens can yield 80% to 90% response rates and some cures when combined with thoracic irradiation in limited-stage patients. Nonetheless, small cell lung cancer has a high relapse rate due to drug resistance; this has resulted in poor survival for most patients. Attacking this problem requires a unique approach to eliminate resistant disease remaining after induction therapy. This review will focus on three potential strategies: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

  12. Large dose means significant effect--dose and effect relationship of Chi-Dan-Tui-Huang decoction on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced cholestatic hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanling; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Jiabo; Wen, Ruiqing; Jia, Lei; Zhu, Yun; Li, Ruisheng; Wang, Ruilin; Li, Jianyu; Wang, Lifu; Li, Yonggang; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2015-04-02

    Large dose application of traditional Chinese medicines has attracted more and more attentions in recent years. However, the scientific connotation of large dose application has not been clarified so far. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Chi-Dan-Tui-Huang decoction (CDTHD) against Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) induced acute cholestatic hepatitis in rats and explore the dose-effect relationship of CDTHD as a reference for clinical application. The administration of CDTHD at a series of doses was performed twice each day for 5 days. The acute cholestasic hepatitis models were induced by intragastric administration of ANIT on the third day of CDTHD administration. Then, the protective effects on cholestatic hepatitis were investigated by examining the following parameters: body weights of rats, morphological and histopathological liver changes, the levels of serum biomarkers including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Furthermore, the dose-effect relationship was investigated with the application of correspondence analysis. In the tested range of doses, CDTHD at the maximum tolerance dose did not show any toxicity as time went on. The efficacy result showed that CDTHD from 21.6 g/kg⋅d to 86.4 g/kg⋅d exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect against ANIT-induced acute cholestatic hepatitis. It alleviated liver injury and reversed adverse biochemical and histopathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondence analysis showed that Radix Paeoniae Rubra in CDTHD was the main effective component and CDTHD could enhance the integrated efficacy in dose-dependent manner. CDTHD is beneficial to liver protection in a dose-dependent manner. Especially large dose demonstrates potent efficacy and Radix Paeoniae Rubra in the formula contributes the main effect on ANIT-induced acute cholestatic hepatitis

  13. Intensified High-Dose Chemoradiotherapy With Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-Safety and Toxicity Results Within a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Poettgen, Christoph; Eberhardt, Wilfried E.; Gauler, Thomas; Krbek, Thomas; Berkovic, Katharina; Abu Jawad, Jehad; Korfee, Soenke; Teschler, Helmut; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze the toxicity profile of an intensified definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) schedule in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (Stage IIIA N2/selected IIIB) treated within a prospective multicenter trial. Patients and Methods: After mediastinoscopy and routine staging procedures, three cycles of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 1 and 8; paclitaxel 175 mg/m{sup 2} Day 1, every 21 days) were planned, followed by concurrent CRT (accelerated-hyperfractionated regimen, 45 Gy, 2 x 1.5 Gy/d, cisplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 64 and 71, vinorelbine 20 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 64 and 71). At 45 Gy, a multidisciplinary panel decision was made regarding operability. Inoperable patients received definitive radiotherapy (total dose 65 or 71 Gy, depending on the mean lung dose) with additional concurrent chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, Day 85; vinorelbine 15 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 85 and 92). Results: A total of 28 patients (23 men and 5 women; median age, 58 years; range 41-73; Stage IIIA in 3 and Stage IIIB in 25) were judged ineligible for surgery by the multidisciplinary panel and underwent definitive CRT (75% of the patients received 71 Gy). The maximum toxicity (Grade 3 or greater) during induction chemotherapy included leukopenia (11%) and anemia (4%). During concurrent CRT, leukopenia (Grade 3 or greater) was observed in 39% of the patients. The maximal nonhematologic toxicity during concurrent CRT included esophagitis (Grade 3 or greater) in 18% and pneumonitis (Grade 3 or greater) in 4% of the patients. At 3 years, the locoregional control rate was 52% (95% confidence interval, 29-75%) and the overall survival rate was 31% (95% confidence interval, 12-50%). Conclusion: This intensified treatment protocol with induction chemotherapy and concurrent CRT, including hyperfractionated-accelerated RT, showed only moderate toxicity and proved feasible. This treatment represents the definitive CRT arm of our ongoing

  14. Significant effects of mild endogenous hormonal changes in humans: considerations for low-dose testing.

    PubMed

    Brucker-Davis, F; Thayer, K; Colborn, T

    2001-03-01

    We review the significant and adverse health effects that can occur with relatively small endogenous hormonal changes in pubertal and adult humans. We discuss the effects of hormonal changes that occur within normal physiologic ranges--such as the rising levels of estrogen in peripuberty, which cause growth spurts at low levels and then the fusion of epiphyses at higher levels--and the hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and their relation to genital phenotypic changes and intercurrent disease evolution. We turn next to adaptive changes in gonadal and other functions during aging, exercise, stress, starvation, and chronic diseases, which can serve as models for the effects of exogenous, hormonally active compounds. Then we review the states of borderline hormonal imbalances such as subclinical (having few or very mild symptoms, if any) hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, glucose intolerance, and other endocrine conditions. Finally, we review the deleterious systemic effects of gonadal imbalance. Information stemming from clinical observations leads to the concept of "no threshold" within the endocrine system and thus illustrates the importance of considering low-dose testing for chemicals that interfere with hormonal activity. We also urge attention to more sensitive, less visible end points such as osteoporosis, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, or cognitive changes.

  15. High-dose sequential chemotherapy (HDS) versus PEB chemotherapy as first-line treatment of patients with poor prognosis germ-cell tumors: mature results of an Italian randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Necchi, A; Mariani, L; Di Nicola, M; Lo Vullo, S; Nicolai, N; Giannatempo, P; Raggi, D; Farè, E; Magni, M; Piva, L; Matteucci, P; Catanzaro, M; Biasoni, D; Torelli, T; Stagni, S; Bengala, C; Barone, C; Schiavetto, I; Siena, S; Carlo-Stella, C; Pizzocaro, G; Salvioni, R; Gianni, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem-cell rescue held promise for patients with advanced and poor prognosis germ-cell tumors (GCT). We started a randomized phase II trial to assess the efficacy of sequential HDCT compared with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (PEB). Patients were randomly assigned to receive four cycles of PEB every 3 weeks or two cycles of PEB followed by a high-dose sequence (HDS) comprising HD-cyclophosphamide (7.0 g/m(2)), 2 courses of cisplatin and HD-etoposide (2.4 g/m(2)) with stem-cell support, and a single course of HD-carboplatin [area under the curve (AUC) 27 mg/ml × min] with autologous stem-cell transplant. Postchemotherapy surgery was planned on responding residual disease in both arms. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The study was designed to detect a 30% improvement of 5-year PFS (from 40% to 70%), with 80% power and two-sided α at 5%. From December 1996 to March 2007, 85 patients were randomized: 43 in PEB and 42 in HDS arm. Median follow-up was 114.2 months [interquartile range (IQR): 87.7-165.8]. Complete or partial response with normal markers (PRm-) were obtained in 28 (65.1%) and 29 (69.1%) patients, respectively. Five-year PFS was 55.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.8-72.8] and 54.8% (95% CI 41.6%-72.1%) in PEB and HDS arm, respectively (log-rank test P = 0.726). Five-year overall survival was 62.8% (95% CI 49.9-79.0) and 59.3% (95% CI 46.1-76.3). One toxic death (PEB arm) was recorded. The study failed to meet the primary end point. Furthermore, survival estimates of conventional-dose chemotherapy higher than expected should be accounted for and will likely limit further improvements in the first-line setting. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02161692. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Chemotherapy-Related Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Taillibert, Sophie; Le Rhun, Emilie; Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-09-01

    Chemotherapy may have detrimental effects on either the central or peripheral nervous system. Central nervous system neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy manifests as a wide range of clinical syndromes including acute, subacute, and chronic encephalopathies, posterior reversible encephalopathy, acute cerebellar dysfunction, chronic cognitive impairment, myelopathy, meningitis, and neurovascular syndromes. These clinical entities vary by causative agent, degree of severity, evolution, and timing of occurrence. In the peripheral nervous system, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and myopathy are the two main complications of chemotherapy. CIPN is the most common complication, and the majority manifest as a dose-dependent length-dependent sensory axonopathy. In severe cases of CIPN, the dose of chemotherapy is reduced, the administration delayed, or the treatment discontinued. Few treatments are available for CIPN and based on meta-analysis, duloxetine is the preferred symptomatic treatment. Myopathy due to corticosteroid use is the most frequent cause of muscle disorders in patients with cancer.

  17. Salvage chemoimmunotherapy with rituximab, ifosfamide and etoposide (R-IE regimen) in patients with primary CNS lymphoma relapsed or refractory to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mappa, Silvia; Marturano, Emerenziana; Licata, Giada; Frezzato, Maurizio; Frungillo, Niccolò; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Stelitano, Caterina; Ferrari, Antonella; Sorarù, Mariella; Vianello, Fabrizio; Baldini, Luca; Proserpio, Ilaria; Foppoli, Marco; Assanelli, Andrea; Reni, Michele; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2013-09-01

    Despite a high proportion of patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) experiences failure after/during first-line treatment, a few studies focused on salvage therapy are available, often with disappointing results. Herein, we report feasibility and activity of a combination of rituximab, ifosfamide and etoposide (R-IE regimen) in a multicentre series of patients with PCNSL relapsed or refractory to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy. We considered consecutive HIV-negative patients ≤75 years old with failed PCNSL treated with R-IE regimen (rituximab 375 mg/m(2) , day 0; ifosfamide 2 g/m(2) /day, days1-3; etoposide 250 mg/m(2) , day 1; four courses). Twenty-two patients (median age 60 years; range 39-72; male/female ratio: 1:4) received R-IE as second-line (n = 18) or third-line (n = 4) treatment. Eleven patients had refractory PCNSL, and 11 had relapsing disease. Twelve patients had been previously irradiated. Sixty (68%) of the 88 planned courses were actually delivered; only one patient interrupted R-IE because of toxicity. Grade 4 hematological toxicity was manageable; a single case of grade 4 non-hematological toxicity (transient hepatotoxicity) was recorded. Response was complete in six patients and partial in three (overall response rate = 41%; 95%CI: 21-61%). Seven patients were successfully referred to autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection; four responders were consolidated with high-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous stem cell transplant. At a median follow-up of 24 months, eight responders did not experience relapse, two of them died of neurological impairment while in remission. Six patients are alive, with a 2-year survival after relapse of 25 ± 9%. We concluded that R-IE is a feasible and active combination for patients with relapsed/refractory PCNSL. This regimen allows stem cell collection and successful consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplant.

  18. Ultrasonography Significantly Overestimates Stone Size When Compared to Low-dose, Noncontrast Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Kevan M; Eisner, Brian; Larson, Troy; Hernandez, Natalia; Han, Jullet; Pais, Vernon M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the differences between low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) and renal ultrasound (US) in the identification and measurement of urinary calculi. A retrospective review was conducted at 3 institutions of patients evaluated for flank pain with both renal US and NCCT, within 1 day of one another, from 2012 to 2015. Stone presence and size were compared between imaging modalities. Stone size was determined by largest measured diameter. Stones were grouped into size categories (≤5 mm, 5.1-10 mm, and >10 mm) based on NCCT and compared with US. Statistical analysis was performed using 2-sided t tests. One hundred fifty-five patients received both a renal US and NCCT within 1 day. In 79 patients (51.0%), both US and NCCT identified a stone for size comparison. Fifty-eight patients (37.4%) had a stone visualized on NCCT but not on US, and 2 patients (1.3%) had a stone documented on US but not seen on NCCT. The average NCCT size of the stones missed on US was 4.5 mm. When comparing the average largest stone diameter for US (9.1 mm) vs NCCT (6.9 mm), US overestimated stone size by 2.2 mm (P < .001). US overestimated stone size by 84.6% for stones ≤5 mm, 27.1% for stones 5.1-10 mm, and 3.0% for stones >10 mm. US significantly overestimated stone size and this was most pronounced for small (≤5 mm) stones. The potential for systematic overestimation of stone size with standard US techniques should be taken into consideration when evaluating endourologic treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing the response to high dose methotrexate-based vincristine and procarbazine combination chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang Hyun; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Zoon

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated objective response rate to high dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based combination chemotherapy in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and sought to identify factors that influence response to HDMTX-based combination therapy. Prospective observational analysis was performed on 52 PCNSL patients. All patients received HDMTX (3.5 g/m(2)) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2)/day) for one day during weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, and procarbazine (100 mg/m(2)/day) for one week during weeks 1, 5, and 9. Forty-one patients (78.8%) achieved complete or partial remission. Higher objective response rates were observed for patients with: 1) age < 60 yr; 2) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of < 2; 3) low risk status as defined by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group; 4) p53 positivity; 5) XBP-1 negativity; 6) MUM-1 negativity; and 7) homogenous gadolinium enhancement in MR images. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance score of < 2, low risk, negativity for XBP-1, homogenous gadolinium enhancement by MRI, and response to chemotherapy were associated with longer overall survival. In particular, it is interesting to note that patients with a PCNSL that is homogeneously enhanced by gadolinium have a higher objective response rate, and a longer progression-free survival and overall survival.

  20. The role of high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation in peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a review of the literature and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yared, Jean; Kimball, Amy

    2013-02-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that carries, except for ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a poor prognosis. Only a third of patients live 5years past diagnosis. The incidence of PTCL has been increasing during the last two decades. In recent years, there was a rising interest in PTCL manifested by the abundance of publications dedicated exclusively to this disease. The international T-cell lymphoma project was formed with an aim of unifying efforts towards a better understanding of the diagnosis and management of this disease. Given the poor outcomes of PTCL patients, high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) have been used in the up-front and salvage settings, with different success rates. However, there are no prospective randomized controlled trials addressing the role of HDT/ASCT in a PTCL-restricted population. This article critically reviews the data available from the retrospective and prospective studies addressing this topic. We will emphasize the favorable prognostic factors of HDT/ASCT such as a solid remission at the time of transplantation, a chemotherapy sensitive disease and a low prognostic index score. As novel agents and new therapeutic strategies are introduced, there is a continued need for prospective randomized trials to define the optimal use of HDT/ASCT in managing PTCL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Influencing the Response to High Dose Methotrexate-based Vincristine and Procarbazine Combination Chemotherapy for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kang Hyun; Lee, Eun Hee

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated objective response rate to high dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based combination chemotherapy in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and sought to identify factors that influence response to HDMTX-based combination therapy. Prospective observational analysis was performed on 52 PCNSL patients. All patients received HDMTX (3.5 g/m2) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m2/day) for one day during weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, and procarbazine (100 mg/m2/day) for one week during weeks 1, 5, and 9. Forty-one patients (78.8%) achieved complete or partial remission. Higher objective response rates were observed for patients with: 1) age < 60 yr; 2) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of < 2; 3) low risk status as defined by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group; 4) p53 positivity; 5) XBP-1 negativity; 6) MUM-1 negativity; and 7) homogenous gadolinium enhancement in MR images. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance score of < 2, low risk, negativity for XBP-1, homogenous gadolinium enhancement by MRI, and response to chemotherapy were associated with longer overall survival. In particular, it is interesting to note that patients with a PCNSL that is homogenously enhanced by gadolinium have a higher objective response rate, and a longer progression-free survival and overall survival. PMID:21468264

  2. Treatment of aggressive multiple myeloma by high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by blood stem cells autologous graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fermand, J.P.; Levy, Y.; Gerota, J.; Benbunan, M.; Cosset, J.M.; Castaigne, S.; Seligmann, M.; Brouet, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with stage III aggressive multiple myeloma, refractory to current chemotherapy in six cases, were treated by high-dose chemotherapy (nitrosourea, etoposide, and melphalan) (HDC) and total body irradiation (TBI), followed by autografting with blood stem cells. These cells were previously collected by leukapheresis performed during hematologic recovery following cytotoxic drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. Seven patients were alive 9 to 17 months after HDC-TBI and graft. One died at day 40 from cerebral bleeding. All living patients achieved a 90% or greater reduction in tumor mass. In two cases, a complete remission (CR) has persisted at a follow-up of 15 and 16 months. Three patients have been well and off therapy with stable minimal residual disease (RD) since 10, 11, and 17 months, respectively. A patient in apparent CR and another with RD have relapsed 9 to 12 months posttreatment. Autologous blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells induced successful and sustained engraftment in all living patients. These results, although still preliminary, indicate that HDC and TBI, followed by blood stem cells autograft, which has both practical and theoretical interest over allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, deserve consideration in selected patients with multiple myeloma.

  3. The photon dose calculation algorithm used in breast radiotherapy has significant impact on the parameters of radiobiological models.

    PubMed

    Petillion, Saskia; Swinnen, Ans; Defraene, Gilles; Verhoeven, Karolien; Weltens, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2014-07-08

    The comparison of the pencil beam dose calculation algorithm with modified Batho heterogeneity correction (PBC-MB) and the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and the mutual comparison of advanced dose calculation algorithms used in breast radiotherapy have focused on the differences between the physical dose distributions. Studies on the radiobiological impact of the algorithm (both on the tumor control and the moderate breast fibrosis prediction) are lacking. We, therefore, investigated the radiobiological impact of the dose calculation algorithm in whole breast radiotherapy. The clinical dose distributions of 30 breast cancer patients, calculated with PBC-MB, were recalculated with fixed monitor units using more advanced algorithms: AAA and Acuros XB. For the latter, both dose reporting modes were used (i.e., dose-to-medium and dose-to-water). Next, the tumor control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of each dose distribution were calculated with the Poisson model and with the relative seriality model, respectively. The endpoint for the NTCP calculation was moderate breast fibrosis five years post treatment. The differences were checked for significance with the paired t-test. The more advanced algorithms predicted a significantly lower TCP and NTCP of moderate breast fibrosis then found during the corresponding clinical follow-up study based on PBC calculations. The differences varied between 1% and 2.1% for the TCP and between 2.9% and 5.5% for the NTCP of moderate breast fibrosis. The significant differences were eliminated by determination of algorithm-specific model parameters using least square fitting. Application of the new parameters on a second group of 30 breast cancer patients proved their appropriateness. In this study, we assessed the impact of the dose calculation algorithms used in whole breast radiotherapy on the parameters of the radiobiological models. The radiobiological impact was eliminated by

  4. Outcome analysis of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in adolescent and young adults with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saad; Rauf, Shahzad M; Elhassan, Tusneem A M; Maghfoor, Irfan

    2016-09-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage many patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We are reporting the outcome of HDC auto-SCT and the impact of 21 prognostic factors in relapsed and refractory adolescent (14-21 years) and young adult (>21-30 years) (AYA) HL patients. We used Fine and Gray's competing risk analysis method and regression model for outcome analysis. From 1996 to 2013, 290 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven HL underwent HDC auto-SCT for relapsed/refractory HL; 216 patients (74.5 %) were AYA at the time of auto-SCT. Male/female were equal, median age at auto-SCT was 22.4 years, and there were 94 adolescent (43.5 %) and 122 young adults (56.5 %). There was refractory disease in 121 (56 %) patients, relapsed in 95 (44 %). Median follow-up was 72.6 months. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated that 5-year overall survival is 62.7 % (adolescents (63.5 %), young adults (62 %)) and event-free survival was 51.3 %. Five-year cumulative incidence of disease-specific death (DS-death) is 33 % and that of DS-event is 45 %. For DS-death, the multivariate analysis identified complete remission (CR) duration of <12 months (hazard ratio (HR) 3.61, P = 0.0009), no CR after salvage (HR: 3.93, P = 0.0002), and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 3.3, P = 0.016) and positive B symptoms (HR 2, P = 0.028) as negative factors. For DS-event, CR duration of <12 months (HR 1.88, P = 0.02), no CR after salvage (HR 3.47, P = 0.000005) and nodular sclerosis pathology (HR 1.88, P = 0.02) were found significant. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated overall survival (OS) at 36 months with 0-2:3:4 factors being 93.6:54:21 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Kaplan-Meier estimated event-free survival (EFS) at 36 months with 0-1:2:3 factors being 84.6:65:31 %, respectively (P value <0.001). Clinically, adolescents have similar outcomes as young adults.

  5. Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for high-risk primary breast cancer: results from the Italian national registry.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Da Prada, Gian Antonio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Rosti, Giovanni; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca; Aieta, Michele; Secondino, Simona; Cinieri, Saverio; Fedele, Roberta; Bengala, Carmelo; Bregni, Marco; Grasso, Donatella; De Giorgi, Ugo; Lanza, Francesco; Castagna, Luca; Bruno, Barbara; Martino, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHPCT) for breast cancer (BC) patients has been an area of intense controversy among the medical oncology community. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity and efficacy of this procedure in a large cohort of high-risk primary BC patients who underwent AHPCT in Italy. A total of 1183 patients receiving HDC for high-risk BC (HRBC) (>3 positive nodes) were identified in the Italian registry. The median age was 46 years, 62% of patients were premenopausal at treatment, 60.1% had endocrine-responsive tumors, and 20.7% had a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumor. The median number of positive lymph nodes (LN) at surgery was 15, with 71.5% of patients having ≥ 10 positive nodes. Seventy-three percent received an alkylating agent-based HDC as a single procedure, whereas 27% received epirubicin or mitoxantrone-containing HDC, usually within a multitransplantation program. The source of stem cells was peripheral blood in the vast majority of patients. Transplantation-related mortality was .8%, whereas late cardiac and secondary tumor-related mortality were around 1%, overall. With a median follow-up of 79 months, median disease-free and overall survival (OS) in the entire population were 101 and 134 months, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that OS was significantly better in patients with endocrine-responsive tumors and in patients receiving multiple transplantation procedures. HER2 status did not affect survival probability. The size of the primary tumor and number of involved LN negatively affected OS. Adjuvant HDC with AHPCT has a low mortality rate and provides impressive long-term survival rates in patients with high-risk primary BC. Our results suggest that this treatment modality should be proposed in selected HRBC patients and further investigated in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and

  6. A Contralateral Esophagus-Sparing Technique to Limit Severe Esophagitis Associated With Concurrent High-Dose Radiation and Chemotherapy in Patients With Thoracic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Halabi, Hani; Paetzold, Peter; Sharp, Gregory C.; Olsen, Christine; Willers, Henning

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Severe (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade 3 or greater) esophagitis generally occurs in 15% to 25% of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CCRT), which may result in treatment breaks that compromise local tumor control and pose a barrier to dose escalation. Here, we report a novel contralateral esophagus-sparing technique (CEST) that uses intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to reduce the incidence of severe esophagitis. Methods and Materials: We reviewed consecutive patients with thoracic malignancies undergoing curative CCRT in whom CEST was used. The esophageal wall contralateral (CE) to the tumor was contoured as an avoidance structure, and IMRT was used to guide a rapid dose falloff gradient beyond the target volume in close proximity to the esophagus. Esophagitis was recorded based on the RTOG acute toxicity grading system. Results: We identified 20 consecutive patients treated with CCRT of at least 63 Gy in whom there was gross tumor within 1 cm of the esophagus. The median radiation dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 63-72.15 Gy). In all patients, ≥99% of the planning and internal target volumes was covered by ≥90% and 100% of prescription dose, respectively. Strikingly, no patient experienced grade ≥3 esophagitis (95% confidence limits, 0%-16%) despite the high total doses delivered. The median maximum dose, V45, and V55 of the CE were 60.7 Gy, 2.1 cc, and 0.4 cc, respectively, indicating effective esophagus cross-section sparing by CEST. Conclusion: We report a simple yet effective method to avoid exposing the entire esophagus cross-section to high doses. By using proposed CE dose constraints of V45 <2.5 cc and V55 <0.5 cc, CEST may improve the esophagus toxicity profile in thoracic cancer patients receiving CCRT even at doses above the standard 60- to 63-Gy levels. Prospective testing of CEST is warranted.

  7. Successful Intrathecal Chemotherapy Combined with Radiotherapy Followed by Pomalidomide and Low-Dose Dexamethasone Maintenance Therapy for a Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yusuke; Tamura, Shinobu; Oiwa, Takehiro; Kobata, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Kodai; Mushino, Toshiki; Murata, Shogo; Hosoi, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Akinori; Hanaoka, Nobuyoshi; Sonoki, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare aggressive variant of plasma cell disorder and frequently presents with extramedullary disease. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with PPCL has an extremely poor prognosis. We describe a 46-year-old man with PPCL treated with a combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone as induction therapy following upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Despite achieving a very good partial response, the patient suffered from an isolated CNS relapse 12 months after allo-SCT. He was immediately started on concurrent intrathecal chemotherapy (IT) and cranial irradiation (RT). Subsequently, pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (Pd) were given as maintenance therapy. He has been without CNS recurrence for more than 18 months. Our case suggests that concurrent IT and RT followed by Pd maintenance therapy may be an effective option to control CNS relapse of PPCL after allo-SCT. PMID:28286633

  8. [A long-surviving case of gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis (P3) responding to short-term high-dose chemotherapy and long-term immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kusama, M; Kimura, K; Suzuki, K; Fukaya, Y; Saitoh, S; Eiraku, H; Kawahara, S; Ueno, M; Kawaguchi, M

    1989-10-01

    A 37-year-old female was admitted to our hospital for further examination of epigastralgia. She was diagnosed as having multiple metastases due to advanced gastric cancer (Borrmann type 3). The operative findings showed bilateral ovarian (Krukenberg), Schnitzler and widespread peritoneal metastases involving the appendix (P3H0N2S2). She underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, and appendectomy with CDDP (100 mg intraperitoneal administration). After operation, CDDP (50 mg/body, twice i.p. and once i.v.) and PSK (3.0 g/day) were administered. She has been followed in our outpatient department for 3 years without any recurrence. The findings suggest that combination therapy using short-term high-dose chemotherapy and long-term immunotherapy can be effective for such cases.

  9. Weekly chemotherapy with radiation versus high-dose cisplatin with radiation as organ preservation for patients with HPV-positive and HPV-negative locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Dobrosotskaya, Irina Y; Bellile, Emily; Spector, Matthew E; Kumar, Bhavna; Feng, Felix; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory T; Prince, Mark E P; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Teknos, Theodoros; Chepeha, Douglas B; Walline, Heather M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Cordell, Kitrina G; Ward, P Daniel; Byrd, Serena; Maxwell, Jessica H; Urba, Susan; Bradford, Carol R; Carey, Thomas E; Worden, Francis P

    2014-05-01

    Optimal treatment for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) is not well defined. Here we retrospectively compare survival and toxicities from 2 different organ preservation protocols. The matched dataset consisted of 35 patients from each trial matched for age, stage, smoking, and tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status. Patients in the University of Michigan Cancer Center (UMCC) trial 9921 were treated with induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by high-dose cisplatin and radiation in responders or surgery in nonresponders. Patients in the UMCC trial 0221 were treated with weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel and radiation. Survival was comparable for both studies and did not differ significantly across each trial after stratifying by HPV status. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were more frequent in UMCC 9921. At 6 months posttreatment, gastrostomy tube (G-tube) dependence was not statistically different. These data suggest that survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced SCCOP are not compromised with weekly chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and such treatment is generally more tolerable. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Randomized trial and pharmacokinetic study of pegfilgrastim versus filgrastim after dose-intensive chemotherapy in young adults and children with sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Fox, Elizabeth; Widemann, Brigitte C; Hawkins, Douglas S; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Dagher, Ramzi; Aikin, Alberta A; Bernstein, Donna; Long, Lauren; Mackall, Crystal; Helman, Lee; Steinberg, Seth M; Balis, Frank M

    2009-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of pegfilgrastim to daily filgrastim in children and young adults with sarcomas treated with dose-intensive combination chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive a single dose of 100 mcg/kg of pegfilgrastim s.c. or 5 mcg/kg/day of filgrastim s.c., daily until neutrophil recovery after two treatment cycles with vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VDC) and two cycles of etoposide and ifosfamide (IE). The duration of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, < or =500/mcL) during cycles 1 to 4 and cycle duration for all cycles were compared. Pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim and filgrastim and CD34+ stem cell mobilization were studied on cycle 1. Growth factor-related toxicity, transfusions, and episodes of fever and neutropenia and infections were collected for cycles 1 to 4. Thirty-four patients (median age, 20 years; range 3.8-25.8) were enrolled, and 32 completed cycles 1 to 4. The median (range) duration of absolute neutrophil count of <500/mcL was 5.5 (3-8) days for pegfilgrastim and 6 (0-9) days for filgrastim (P = 0.76) after VDC, and 1.5 (0-4) days for pegfilgrastim and 3.75 (0-6.5) days for filgrastim (P = 0.11) after IE. More episodes of febrile neutropenia and documented infections occurred on the filgrastim arm. Serum pegfilgrastim concentrations were highly variable. Pegfilgrastim apparent clearance (11 mL/h/kg) was similar to that reported in adults. A single dose per cycle of pegfilgrastim was well tolerated and may be as effective as daily filgrastim based on the duration of severe neutropenia and number of episodes of febrile neutropenia and documented infections after dose-intensive treatment with VDC and IE.

  11. Randomized trial and pharmacokinetic study of pegfilgrastim vs. filgrastim after dose-intensive chemotherapy in young adults and children with sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Elizabeth; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Dagher, Ramzi; Aikin, Alberta A.; Bernstein, Donna; Long, Lauren; Mackall, Crystal; Helman, Lee; Steinberg, Seth M.; Balis, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness, tolerance and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of pegfilgrastim to daily filgrastim in children and young adults with sarcomas treated with dose-intensive combination chemotherapy. Experimental Design Patients were randomized to receive a single dose of 100 mcg/kg of pegfilgrastim subcutaneously or 5 mcg/kg/day of filgrastim subcutaneously, daily until neutrophil recovery after 2 treatment cycles with vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VDC) and 2 cycles of etoposide and ifosfamide (IE). The duration of severe neutropenia (ANC ≤500/mcL) during cycles 1–4 and cycle duration for all cycles were compared. Pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim and filgrastim and CD34+ stem cell mobilization were studied on cycle 1. Growth factor related toxicity, transfusions, and episodes of fever and neutropenia and infections were collected for cycles 1–4. Results Thirty-four patients (median age 20 years, range 3.8–25.8) were enrolled, 32 completed cycles 1–4. The median (range) duration of ANC<500/mcL was 5.5 (3–8) days for pegfilgrastim and 6 (0–9) days for filgrastim (p= 0.76) after VDC, and 1.5 (0–4) days for pegfilgrastim and 3.75 (0–6.5) days for filgrastim (p=0.11) after IE. More episodes of febrile neutropenia and documented infections occurred on the filgrastim arm. Serum pegfilgrastim concentrations were highly variable. Pegfilgrastim apparent clearance (11 ml/h/kg) was similar to that reported in adults. Conclusion A single dose per cycle of pegfilgrastim was well tolerated and may be as effective as daily filgrastim based on the duration of severe neutropenia and number of episodes of febrile neutropenia and documented infections after dose-intensive treatment with VDC and IE. PMID:19920107

  12. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ballester, O F; Tummala, R; Janssen, W E; Fields, K K; Hiemenz, J W; Goldstein, S C; Perkins, J B; Sullivan, D M; Rosen, R; Sackstein, R; Zorsky, P; Saez, R; Elfenbein, G J

    1997-10-01

    Six patients with multiple myeloma and chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dl), including four on dialysis, received high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BUCY) followed by autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after priming with cyclophosphamide, etoposide and G-CSF. Patterns of engraftment and toxicities were not apparently different from those seen in myeloma patients with normal renal function. There was one toxicity-related death, resulting from a massive spontaneous subdural hematoma. One patient died of disease progression 6 months after transplant, while the remaining four patients are alive and free of myeloma progression 6 to 39 months after high-dose therapy. Two of these patients have remained in complete remission for 28 and 39 months. Our experience suggests that high-dose therapy with BUCY and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue is feasible in patients with multiple myeloma and renal failure.

  13. Prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression in biliary tract cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    KIM, KWAN WOO; KWON, HYUK-CHAN; KIM, SUNG-HYUN; OH, SUNG YONG; LEE, SUEE; LEE, JI HYUN; ROH, MYUNG HWAN; KIM, MIN CHAN; KIM, KI HAN; KIM, YOUNG HOON; ROH, YOUNG HOON; JEONG, JIN SOOK; KIM, HYO-JIN

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a relatively uncommon type of cancer, accounting for ∼4% of the malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) predict clinical outcome in BTC patients treated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. TS and TP expression were found to be significantly correlated with cancer location (P=0.044 and 0.031, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that age [hazard ratio (HR)=2.157, P=0.008], stage (HR=2.234, P<0.001), resection margin status (HR=2.748, P=0.004) and TP expression (HR=2.014, P=0.039) were independently associated with overall survival (OS). PMID:24649282

  14. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    .57, p=0.041) Conclusion There was a significantly greater risk of early postoperative recurrence and a shorter period of disease-free survival in Stage III colon cancer patients exhibiting LINE-1 hypomethylation status after being treated with radical resection and FOLFOX chemotherapy. PMID:25919688

  15. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chao-Wen; Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Methylation levels of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) are representative of genome-wide methylation status and crucial in maintaining genomic stability and expression. Their prognostic impact on colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy has not been well established. We evaluated the association between LINE-1 methylation status and clinicopathologic features and postoperative oncological outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients. 129 UICC stage III colon cancer patients who had received radical resection and FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Global methylation was estimated by analyzing tumor LINE-1 methylation status using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. Demographics, clinicopathological data, and postoperative outcomes were recorded by trained abstractors. Outcome measurements included postoperative recurrence and disease-free survival. Univariate, multivariate, and survival analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors of oncological outcomes. The LINE-1 methylation of all 129 patients was measured on a 0-100 scale (mean 63.3; median 63.7, standard deviation 7.1), LINE-1 hypomethylation was more common in patients aged 65 years and above (61.7%±7.6% vs. 64.6±6.4, p=0.019) and those with post-therapeutic recurrence (61.7±7.4 vs 64.3±6.7, p=0.041). Considering risk adjustment, LINE-1 hypomethylation was found to be an independent risk factor of post-therapeutic recurrence (Adjusted OR=14.1, p=0.012). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients in the low methylation group had shorter period of disease free survival (p=0.01). In a stratified analysis that included 48 patients with post-therapeutic recurrence, it was found that those who experienced shorter period of disease free survival (≦6 months) appeared to have lower LINE-1 methylation levels than patients who reported of recurrence after 6 months (56.68±15.75 vs. 63.55±7.57, p=0.041). There was a significantly

  16. Patch testing with budesonide in serial dilutions: the significance of dose, occlusion time and reading time.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide is advocated as a marker molecule for corticosteroid contact allergy. When patch testing corticosteroids, one must consider their sensitizing potential but also their anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the possibility of different time courses for such properties. The dose-response relationship for budesonide was therefore investigated with regard to dose, occlusion time, and reading time. 10 patients were patch tested with budesonide in ethanol in serial dilutions from 2.0% down to 0.0002% with occlusion times of 48, 24, and 5 h. Readings were on D2, D4, and D7. The 48-h occlusion picked up most positive reactors, 8/10. The D4 reading (48-h occlusion) detected most positive reactors, 8/10, and here 0.002% picked up most contact allergies. Late readings favoured high concentrations. The "edge effect" was noted for several concentrations at early readings. Due to the individual corticosteroid reactivity, the dose-response relationship and the time courses of the elicitation and the anti-inflammatory capacity, several features may be explained, i.e., that lower concentrations may detect budesonide allergy better at early readings, that patients with an "edge reaction" can have positive reactions to lower concentrations.

  17. Defining the dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison of 3 mg/m2 with 6 mg/m2 in the NCRI AML17 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Alan; Cavenagh, Jamie; Russell, Nigel; Hills, Robert; Kell, Jonathan; Jones, Gail; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Khwaja, Asim; Thomas, Ian; Clark, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Arecent source data meta-analysis of randomized trials in adults assessing the immunoconjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin combined with standard chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia showed a significant survival benefit in patients without an adverse karyotype. It is not clear whether the optimal dose should be 3 mg/m2 or 6 mg/m2. In this study, we randomized 788 patients to a single dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin 3 mg/m2 or 6 mg/m2 with the first course of induction therapy. We found that the rate of complete remission was higher with 3 mg/m2 [82% vs. 76%; odds ratio 1.46 (1.04–2.06); P=0.03], but this was balanced by a higher rate of complete remission with incomplete peripheral blood count recovery in the 6 mg/m2 treatment (10% vs. 7%) resulting in similar overall response rate [89% vs. 86%; hazard ratio 1.34 (0.88–2.04); P=0.17]. There was no overall difference in relapse or survival at four years between the arms: 46% vs. 54%; hazard ratio 1.17 (0.94–1.45), P=0.5, and 50% versus 47%; hazard ratio 1.10 (0.90–1.34), P=0.3, respectively. The 30- and 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the 6 mg/m2 recipients: 7% versus 3%; hazard ratio 2.07 (1.11–3.87), P=0.02, and 9% versus 5%; hazard ratio 1.99 (1.17–3.39), P=0.01, respectively, which in addition was associated with a higher rate of veno-occlusive disease (5.6% vs. 0.5%; P<0.0001). Our conclusion from this trial is that there is no advantage in using a single dose of 6 mg/m2 of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with induction chemotherapy when compared with a 3 mg/m2 dose, with respect to response, disease-free and overall survival, either overall, or in any disease subgroup. (AML17 was registered as ISRCTN55675535.) PMID:26921360

  18. Dose-rate plays a significant role in synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced damage of rodent testes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heyu; Wang, Ban; Wang, Caixia; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yingxin; Hong, Yunyi; Fu, Shen; Wu, Fan; Ying, Weihai

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has significant potential for applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying SR X-ray-induced tissue damage remain unclear. Previous studies on regular X-ray-induced tissue damage have suggested that dose-rate could affect radiation damage. Because SR X-ray has exceedingly high dose-rate compared to regular X-ray, it remains to be determined if dose-rate may affect SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. We used rodent testes as a model to investigate the role of dose-rate in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. One day after SR X-ray irradiation, we determined the effects of the irradiation of the same dosage at two different dose-rates, 0.11 Gy/s and 1.1 Gy/s, on TUNEL signals, caspase-3 activation and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) of the testes. Compared to those produced by the irradiation at 0.11 Gy/s, irradiation at 1.1 Gy/s produced higher levels of DSBs, TUNEL signals, and caspase-3 activation in the testes. Our study has provided the first evidence suggesting that dose-rate could be a significant factor in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage, which may establish a valuable base for utilizing this factor to manipulate the tissue damage in SR X-ray-based medical applications. PMID:28078052

  19. Dose-rate plays a significant role in synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced damage of rodent testes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heyu; Wang, Ban; Wang, Caixia; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yingxin; Hong, Yunyi; Fu, Shen; Wu, Fan; Ying, Weihai

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has significant potential for applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying SR X-ray-induced tissue damage remain unclear. Previous studies on regular X-ray-induced tissue damage have suggested that dose-rate could affect radiation damage. Because SR X-ray has exceedingly high dose-rate compared to regular X-ray, it remains to be determined if dose-rate may affect SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. We used rodent testes as a model to investigate the role of dose-rate in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. One day after SR X-ray irradiation, we determined the effects of the irradiation of the same dosage at two different dose-rates, 0.11 Gy/s and 1.1 Gy/s, on TUNEL signals, caspase-3 activation and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) of the testes. Compared to those produced by the irradiation at 0.11 Gy/s, irradiation at 1.1 Gy/s produced higher levels of DSBs, TUNEL signals, and caspase-3 activation in the testes. Our study has provided the first evidence suggesting that dose-rate could be a significant factor in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage, which may establish a valuable base for utilizing this factor to manipulate the tissue damage in SR X-ray-based medical applications.

  20. Combination chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine with or without brain irradiation for primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Calderoni, Antonello; Aebi, Stefan

    2002-09-01

    Due to the limited clinical experience there is no standard treatment of primary CNS-lymphomas (PCNSL). Based on the actual data it seems that high-dose methotrexate (HTMRX) and high-dose cytarabine (ARA-C) qualify as treatments of choice for this disease. The role of radiation therapy is still unclear, due to the high long-term toxicity, especially in elderly patients. We treated 14 HIV negative patients with 4-5 cycles of methotrexate (MTX) at 3500 mg/m2 and MTX 15 mg intrathecal weekly or MTX 8000 mg/m2 weekly without intrathecal treatment. Younger patients (<60 y) received 3 weeks after last MTX dose a whole-brain irradiation (45 Gy + 9 Gy boost), older patientsts were not irradiated and continued CT. The following treatment consisted in ARA-C 3000 mg/m2 d1 + 2 every 3 weeks for two cycles. All patients received steroids for two months or until the end of radiotherapy. The overall response rate was 100%, 12/14 CR (86%). Two patients died still on treatment but not due to lymphoma (1 pulmonary embolism, 1 herpes encephalitis). Toxicity was very mild with no grade 3-4 non-haematological toxic events and almost 100% grade 3-4 leucopenia without episodes of neutropenic fever. After a median follow up of 39 months the PFS and OS are 65% (9/14) and 78% (11/14) respectively, and compare well with other trial results.

  1. Prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (PEP-C) oral combination chemotherapy regimen for recurring/refractory lymphoma: low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Morton; Martin, Peter; Ruan, Jia; Furman, Richard; Niesvizky, Ruben; Elstrom, Rebecca; George, Patricia; Kaufman, Thomas P; Leonard, John P

    2008-05-15

    Many patients with recurrent lymphoma are unable to tolerate intensive therapies, or have disease that is refractory. Metronomic chemotherapy offers a novel, potentially less toxic yet effective treatment strategy. An analysis was performed on 75 lymphoma patients who were treated with the PEP-C regimen at a single institution. The program consisted of oral prednisone 20 mg after breakfast, cyclophosphamide 50 mg after lunch, etoposide 50 mg after dinner, and procarbazine 50 mg at bedtime with an oral antiemetic. All medications were administered daily until the white blood cell count fell to less than 3.0 x 10(9)/L, whereupon treatment was withheld until recovery from the nadir. Therapy was then reinstituted on a daily, alternate day, or fractionated weekly basis (eg, 5 of 7 days), depending on patient tolerance. Doses given per day were held constant. Eighty percent of patients had previously received 2 or more treatments. Overall, 69% achieved an objective response after PEP-C treatment, with 36% complete responses and 33% partial responses. Subjects with indolent histologies had superior overall responses, complete responses, and time on therapy relative to those with aggressive histologies. The regimen was generally well tolerated. Metronomic therapy with low-dose oral agents administered in combination for continuous, prolonged periods with minimal drug-free intervals represents a novel, active, easily tolerated approach to management of patients with recurrent lymphoma, particularly those with indolent histologies. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  2. Do selective radiation dose escalation and tumour hypoxia status impact the loco-regional tumour control after radio-chemotherapy of head & neck tumours? The ESCALOX protocol.

    PubMed

    Pigorsch, Steffi U; Wilkens, Jan J; Kampfer, Severin; Kehl, Victoria; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Schläger, Christian; Bier, Henning; Schwaiger, Markus; Combs, Stephanie E

    2017-03-01

    Standard of care primary treatment of carcinoma of locally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer (LAHNSCC) consists of platinum-based concomitant chemo-irradiation. Despite progress in the treatment of LAHNSCC using modern radiotherapy techniques the outcome remains still poor. Using IMRT with SIB the escalation of total dose to the GTV is possible with the aim to improve clinical outcome. This study tests the hypothesis if radiation dose escalation to the GTV improves 2-year-LRC and -OS after concomitant chemo-irradiation. The ESCALOX trial is a prospective randomized phase III study using cisplatin chemo-irradiation and the SIB-IMRT concept in patients with LAHNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx to escalate the total dose to the GTV up to 80.5 Gy. Chemotherapy is planned either in the 1(st) and 5(th) week (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/d d 1-5 and d 29-33) or weekly (cisplatin 40 mg/m(2)/d) during RT. RT is delivered as SIB with total doses of 80.5 Gy/70.0 Gy/56.0 Gy with 2.3 Gy/2.0 Gy and 1.6 Gy in the experimental arm and in the control arm with 70.0 Gy/56.0 Gy with 2.0 Gy and 1.6 Gy. A pre-study with dose escalation up to 77.0 Gy/70.0 Gy/56.0 Gy with 2.2 Gy/2.0 Gy and 1.6 Gy is demanded by the German federal office of radiation protection (BfS). In the translational part of the trial 100 of the randomised patients will be investigated by 18-F-FMiso-PET-CT for the presence and behaviour of tumor hypoxia twice in the week before treatment start. The primary endpoint of the pre-study is acute radiation induced toxicity. Primary endpoint of the main trial is 2-year-LRC. By using the dose escalation up to 80.5 Gy to the GTV of the primary tumor and lymph nodes > 2 cm a LRC benefit of 15% at 2 years should be expected. The ESCALOX trial is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG); Grant No.: MO-363/4-1. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 01212354 , EudraCT-No.: 2010-021139-15.

  3. Doses and risks from uranium are not increased significantly by interactions with natural background photon radiation.

    PubMed

    Tanner, R J; Eakins, J S; Jansen, J T M; Harrison, J D

    2012-08-01

    The impact of depleted uranium (DU) on human health has been the subject of much conjecture. Both the chemical and radiological aspects of its behaviour in the human body have previously been investigated in detail, with the radiological impact being assumed to be linked to the alpha decay of uranium. More recently, it has been proposed that the accumulation in tissue of high-Z materials, such as DU, may give rise to enhanced local energy deposition in the presence of natural background photon radiation due to the high photoelectric interaction cross sections of high-Z atoms. It is speculated that, in addition to producing short-range photoelectrons, these events will be followed by intense Auger and Coster-Kronig electron emission, thereby causing levels of cell damage that are unaccounted for in conventional models of radiological risk. In this study, the physical and biological bases of these claims are investigated. The potential magnitudes of any effect are evaluated and discussed, and compared with the risks from other radiological or chemical hazards. Monte Carlo calculations are performed to estimate likely energy depositions due to the presence of uranium in human tissues in photon fields: whole body doses, organ doses in anthropomorphic phantoms and nano-/micro-dosimetric scenarios are each considered. The proposal is shown generally to be based on sound physics, but overall the impact on human health is expected to be negligible.

  4. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  5. Significant Radiation Dose Reduction in the Hybrid Operating Room Using a Novel X-ray Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    van den Haak, R F F; Hamans, B C; Zuurmond, K; Verhoeven, B A N; Koning, O H J

    2015-10-01

    To prospectively quantify radiation dose change in aortoiliac endovascular procedures in the hybrid operating room (OR) for patients and medical staff with a novel X-ray imaging technology (ClarityIQ technology), and to assess whether procedure or fluoroscopy time or dose of iodinated contrast was affected. A prospective study including 138 patients was performed to compare radiation dose before and after installation of a novel X-ray imaging technology. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was performed in 37 patients and an endovascular procedure for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) in 101. Patient radiation dose in air kerma (AK) and dose area product (DAP), patient demographics, and procedural data were recorded. Staff radiation dose was measured with real time personal dosimetry measurements. In both the EVAR and AIOD groups the reference system, ALX (AlluraXper FD20; Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), was compared with the upgraded X-ray system, CIQ (AlluraClarity FD20; Philips Healthcare). Procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and iodinated contrast dose were recorded. Patient radiation dose reduction in the EVAR group, in median AK, was 56% (ALX = 1,262.5 mGy; CIQ = 556.0 mGy [p < .01]); and in median DAP it was 57% (ALX = 224.4 Gycm(2) and CIQ = 95.8 Gycm(2) [p < .01]). Patient radiation dose reduction in the AIOD group, in median AK, was 76% (ALX = 1,011.0 mGy; CIQ = 248.0 mGy [p < .01]); and in median DAP it was 73% (ALX = 138.1 Gycm(2); CIQ = 38.0 Gycm(2) [p < .01]). Staff dose reduction in the EVAR group was 16% (ALX = 70.1 μSv; CIQ = 59.2 μSv [p = .43]) and in the AIOD group it was 69% (ALX = 96.2 μSv; CIQ = 30.1 μSv [p < .01]). There was no statistically significant difference between patient demographics, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and iodinated contrast medium use in the two treatment groups before and after installation. A novel X-ray imaging technology in the hybrid OR suite resulted in a significant reduction of patient and

  6. Upper hemibody and local chest irradiation as consolidation following response to high-dose induction chemotherapy for small cell bronchogenic carcinoma--a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, B.A.; Richter, M.P.; Catalano, R.B.; Creech, R.B.

    1982-08-01

    Fourteen patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma, five with extensive disease and nine with localized disease, were treated with cyclophosphamide (1.5 g/m2 iv, Days 1 and 22), lomustine (70 mg/m2 orally, Day 1), and methotrexate (15 mg/m2 twice weekly during Weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6). UHBI (600 rads) was given during Week 6 in a single dose and LCI was given during Week 7 (2000 rads/five fractions) to the tumor and mediastinum. Maintenance chemotherapy began in Week 12 with cyclophosphamide (700 mg/m2 iv every 3 weeks) and lomustine (70 mg/m2 orally every 6 weeks). Twelve patients were evaluable for response and toxicity (eight with limited disease). There were three complete response and seven partial responses after induction chemotherapy. After completion of the consolidation radiation therapy, all 12 patients had a response: six complete responses and six partial responses. Acute toxic effects included nausea and vomiting in eight patients, fever in five, and hypotension and angina in one. Subacute toxic effects included nausea, vomiting, and dehydration in two patients who required hospitalization, prolonged aplasia in one, reversible radiation esophagitis in three. Three patients had radiation pneumonitis including one with bilateral diffuse disease that led to death from respiratory failure. Only two of 12 patients received their maintenance therapy on schedule. Treatment failures occurred within the LCI field in seven patients and in distant metastatic sites in six. The median time to first relapse was 7 months and the median survival was 9 months. Because of toxicity, treatment delays, and poor survival in this group of patients, we cannot recommend this combined modality approach.

  7. [High dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support in germ cell tumors: The Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil Series].

    PubMed

    Brito, Margarida; Sanchez, Pedro; Velho, Sónia; Miranda, Nuno; Leal da Costa, Fernando; Ferreira, Isabelina; Teixeira, Gilda; Guimarães, António; Abecasis, Manuel; Passos Coelho, J L

    2011-01-01

    High dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT-ASCT) has been administered to patients with high-risk germ cell tumours (GCT). The role of this treatment for GCT still remains unclear, including the identification of subgroups more likely to benefit from such strategy. A retrospective review was conducted of all male patients with gonadal and extra gonadal GCT treated with HDCT-ASCT between 1996 and 2008 at the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil (IPOLFG). Twenty patients were treated with HDCT-ASCT, 17 with primary testicular tumours, two mediastinal and one retroperitoneal GCT. According to the International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (IGCCCG) classification, at diagnosis three patients had good risk, four intermediate, eight poor but for the patients left the risk group could not be ascertained. In eight patients HDCT-ASCT was used upfront, after induction with first-line conventional chemotherapy, and in the remaining 12 for relapsed GCT. One patient had platinum-resistant and another platinum-refractory disease. Only two patients had Beyer score > 2. All but one patient were treated with ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide). Six patients underwent a second HDCT-ASCT course. The 5-year overall survival and progression free survival were respectively 53% and 44%; both patients with mediastinal GCT are long term survivors. Randomized studies to date have failed to indicate a survival advantage for HDCT-ASCT in GCT. This series is small and heterogeneous which prevents us from drawing conclusions regarding the benefit of this treatment for GCT. However, we could confirm the lack of benefit of HDCT-ASCT for platinum-resistant GCT and to question the absolute contraindication to this therapeutic modality in mediastinal GCT. HDCT-ASCT should therefore be performed exclusively in experienced centers and, preferably, in the setting of clinical trials.

  8. The efficacy of irinotecan, paclitaxel, and oxaliplatin (IPO) in relapsed germ cell tumours with high-dose chemotherapy as consolidation: a non-cisplatin-based induction approach.

    PubMed

    Badreldin, Waleed; Krell, Jonathan; Chowdhury, Simon; Harland, Stephen J; Mazhar, Danish; Harding, Victoria; Frampton, Adam E; Wilson, Peter; Berney, Daniel; Stebbing, Justin; Shamash, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    To determine the outcome of an expanded cohort of patients with relapsed germ cell tumours (GCTs) treated with a salvage chemotherapy regimen consisting of irinotecan, paclitaxel and oxaliplatin (IPO) and assess the role of IPO as an alternative to standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in this setting. The results of 72 consecutive patients were reviewed retrospectively. IPO was used either as a second-line treatment (29 patients), of which 20 patients subsequently received high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT), or third-line (43), of which 32 patients proceeded to HDCT. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates for the whole cohort were 30.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.3-40.5%) and 33.4% (95% CI 20.1-43.8%), respectively. Complete remission was achieved in 3%, marker-negative partial response (PR) in 41%, marker-positive PR in 18%, stable disease in 17% and progressive disease in 20%. In the second-line setting, the 2-year PFS rate was 43.5% (95% CI 21.7-60.8%) and 3-year OS 49.1% (95% CI 24.2-65.1%). In the third-line setting, the 2-year PFS rate was 21.0% (95% CI 9.5-35.4%) and the 3-year OS rate was 23.9% (95% CI 11.7-38.2). According to the current international prognostic factor study group criteria for first relapse for the high- and very high-risk group the 2-year PFS rates were 50% and 30%, respectively. There were two treatment-related deaths from IPO, and four from HDCT. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included neutropenia (35%), thrombocytopaenia (18%), infection (15%), diarrhoea (11%) and lethargy (8%). IPO offers an effective, well-tolerated, non-nephrotoxic alternative to cisplatin-based salvage regimens for patients with relapsed GCTs. It appears particularly useful in high-risk patients and for those in whom cisplatin is ineffective or contra-indicated. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Quality of life-adjusted survival analysis of high-dose therapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation versus sequential chemotherapy for patients with aggressive lymphoma in first complete remission. Groupe d'Etude les Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Mounier, N; Haioun, C; Cole, B F; Gisselbrecht, C; Sebban, C; Morel, P; Marit, G; Bouabdallah, R; Ravoet, C; Salles, G; Reyes, F; Lepage, E

    2000-06-15

    Evaluating high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in term of both duration and quality of life (QOL) presents major interests for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The quality-adjusted time without symptom and toxicity (Q-TWiST) methodology was applied to the LNH87-2 trial comparing HDT with ASCT versus sequential chemotherapy in 541 patients in first complete remission (CR). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) curves were used to estimate duration of 4 health states: acute short-term toxicity (Tox1), secondary toxicity (Tox2), time without symptom and toxicity (TWiST), and relapse (Rel). Areas under survival curves (AUC) were retrospectively weighted according to QOL coefficients. HDT increased, but not significantly, TWiST (+2. 4 months in AUC, P =.17) and decreased Rel (-3 months, P <.01). Survival estimates did not differ between the 2 treatments (AUC 47.7 months for OS, 39.7 months for DFS). High-risk patients treated by HDT versus chemotherapy had a significant benefit in DFS (AUC 28.8 versus 24.9 months, P <.01) but not in OS (AUC 37.3 versus 36 months, P =.27). Sensitivity analysis, performed by varying QOL coefficients, demonstrated significant quality-adjusted survival gain in high-risk patients treated by HDT. In low-risk patients, a diagram provided an aid to clinical decision-making. This analysis supports the use of HDT in these patients with adverse prognostic factors in the first CR, even after adjusting for QOL using the Q-TWiST method. (Blood. 2000;95:3687-3692)

  10. High pathological response rate in locally advanced esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant combined modality therapy: dose finding of a weekly chemotherapy schedule with protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil and dose escalation of cisplatin, docetaxel and concurrent radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pasini, F; de Manzoni, G; Pedrazzani, C; Grandinetti, A; Durante, E; Gabbani, M; Tomezzoli, A; Griso, C; Guglielmi, A; Pelosi, G; Maluta, S; Cetto, G L; Cordiano, C

    2005-07-01

    This phase I study was aimed at defining the toxicity profile and pathological response rate of a neoadjuvant schedule including weekly docetaxel and cisplatin, protracted venous infusion (PVI) of 5-FU and concomitant radiotherapy (RT) in locally advanced esophageal cancer. The schedule consisted of a first phase of chemotherapy alone and a second phase of concurrent chemoradiation. Initial doses were: docetaxel and cisplatin 20 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, 15, 29, 36 and 43 plus 5-FU 150 mg/m2 PVI on days 1-21 and 29-49; RT (40 Gy) started on day 29. In the following steps the doses were escalated up to docetaxel 35 mg/m2 and cisplatin 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, 15, 29, 36, 43, 50 and 57 plus 5-FU 180 mg/m2 PVI on days 1-21 and 150 mg/m2 PVI on days 29-63 concurrently with RT 50 Gy. Forty-seven patients were enrolled and 46 completed the planned treatment. During the concomitant phase, grade 3-4 hematological toxicities occurred in three patients (6.5%) (or 3/174 cycles) and non-hematological toxicities in six patients (13%) (or 7/179 cycles). A pathological downstaging was obtained in 59.6% of the cases (28/47): complete remission (pCR) in 14 patients, near pCR (residual microfoci on the primary pN0) in eight patients, pT2 pN0 in three patients and partial response on the primary with positive lymph nodes in three patients. Six (13%) and 13 (28%) patients were considered stable and non-responders, respectively. In the last dose level, eight pCR and four near-pCR were obtained out of 15 patients. The maximum tolerable dose was not formally defined because dose escalation was stopped at the last dose level. This schedule represents a feasible treatment and the high pathological response rate is extremely encouraging; the doses found in the last dose-level are the basis for an ongoing phase II study at our institution.

  11. A Matter of Timing: Identifying Significant Multi-Dose Radiotherapy Improvements by Numerical Simulation and Genetic Algorithm Search

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Simon D.; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing) currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA) techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5%) and 7.1% (13.3%) improvement (reduction) on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h), leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17–18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost

  12. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing) currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA) techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5%) and 7.1% (13.3%) improvement (reduction) on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h), leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost-effecitive means

  13. [Factors influencing survival and recurrence and potential significance of postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage ⅢA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Han, W; Song, Y Z; He, M; Li, J; Zhang, R; Qiao, X Y

    2016-11-23

    Objective: To investigate the survival, recurrence patterns and risk factors in patients with stage ⅢA-N2 NSCLC treated with curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and to explore the significance of postoperative radiation therapy. Methods: The clinical data of 290 patients with pathologically diagnosed stage ⅢA-N2 NSCLC after curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy from January 2010 to December 2014 at our department were retrospectively analyzed. The survival and recurrence patterns were observed, and the factors affecting locoregional recurrence were analyzed. Results: The median survival time was 31.5 months. The 1-, 3-and 5-year survival rates were 88.3%, 46.0% and 33.2%, respectively. The median locoregional control time was 38.5 months. The 1-, 3-and 5-year locoregional control rates were 78.6%, 55.2% and 41.0%, respectively. The median distant metastasis-free survival was 26.8 months. The 1-, 3-and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 76.4%, 45.5% and 39.5%, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 19.1 months. The 1-, 3-and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 64.1%, 32.5% and 23.8%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that clinical N status, histological type, pathological T stage, operation mode, the number of positive N2 lymph nodes and the number of positive N2 lymph node stations had a significant influence on overall survival; clinical N status, histological type, the number of positive N2 lymph nodes and the number of positive N2 lymph node stations had a significant influence on locoregional control. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the number of N2 positive lymph nodes (P= 0.017) was an independent factor for overall survival of stage ⅢA-N2 patients; the number of N2 positive lymph nodes (P=0.009) and histological type (P=0.005) were independent factors for locoregional recurrence. For left-sided lung cancer, the lymph node station failure sites were mostly in 2R, 4R, 5, 6 and 7, and

  14. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulou, Zoi; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Zagouri, Flora; Timotheadou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Pentheroudakis, George; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutras, Angelos; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Charalambous, Elpida; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Efstratiou, Ioannis; Zaramboukas, Thomas; Patsea, Helen; Scopa, Chrisoula D.; Skondra, Maria; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2015-01-01

    Background The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9) and kinase (exon 20) domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer. Methods Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR). PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20) and qPCR (exon 9) (Sanger/qPCR mutations). In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS) PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC) were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive), molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive) and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR) negative tumors. Results PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23%) with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24%) with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.82). Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel), while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin). The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004). Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified. Conclusions The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of

  15. Identification of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Gene Variants That Are Significantly Associated with the Interindividual Variations in Warfarin Maintenance Dose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuling; Li, Lei; Kaminsky, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is required for drug metabolism by all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any of the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the POR gene and its flanking intergenic sequences correlate with interindividual variations in the warfarin maintenance dose (which is determined partly by rates of warfarin metabolism) in patients undergoing anticoagulation therapy. Warfarin dose and patients' demographic and clinical information were collected from 124 patients, who had attained a stable warfarin dose while receiving treatment at the Stratton VA Medical Center. Genomic DNAs were isolated from blood samples and were genotyped for 15 SNPs (including 10 SNPs on the POR gene). Association analysis was performed on 122 male patients by linear regression. Simple regression analysis revealed that vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) −1639A>G, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, age, and chronic aspirin therapy were significantly associated with warfarin dose. In contrast, multiple regression analysis revealed that, in addition to several known factors contributing to the variations in warfarin maintenance dose (VKORC1 −1639A>G, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622, and chronic aspirin therapy), three common POR SNPs (−173C>A, −208C>T, and rs2868177) were also significantly associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose. These results indicate, for the first time, that three common SNPs in the POR gene may contribute to the interindividual variability in warfarin maintenance dose. Further studies on functional characterization of the POR SNPs identified, including their impact on the in vivo metabolism of additional drugs, are needed. PMID:21562147

  16. Outcome of Reinduction Chemotherapy with a Modified Dose of Idarubicin for Children with Marrow-Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results of the Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CALL)-0603 Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This multicenter, prospective trial was conducted to develop an effective and safe reinduction regimen for marrow-relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by modifying the dose of idarubicin. Between 2006 and 2009, the trial accrued 44 patients, 1 to 21 years old with first marrow-relapsed ALL. The reinduction regimen comprised prednisolone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, and idarubicin (10 mg/m2/week). The idarubicin dose was adjusted according to the degree of myelosuppression. The second complete remission (CR2) rate was 72.7%, obtained by 54.2% of patients with early relapse < 24 months after initial diagnosis and 95.0% of those with late relapse (P = 0.002). Five patients entered remission with extended treatment, resulting in a final CR2 rate of 84.1%. The CR2 rate was not significantly different according to the idarubicin dose. The induction death rate was 2.3% (1/44). The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 22.2% ± 6.4% and 27.3% ± 6.7% for all patients, 4.2% ± 4.1% and 8.3% ± 5.6% for early relapsers, and 43.8% ± 11.4% and 50.0% ± 11.2% for late relapsers, respectively. Early relapse and slow response to reinduction chemotherapy were predictors of poor outcomes. In conclusion, a modified dose of idarubicin was effectively incorporated into the reinduction regimen for late marrow-relapsed ALL with a low toxic death rate. However, the CR2 rate for early relapsers was suboptimal, and the second remission was not durable in most patients. PMID:28244291

  17. A phase II trial of dose-dense (biweekly) paclitaxel plus carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T; Liu, C L; Zhang, Y F; Liu, Y H; Xu, F P; Zu, J; Zhang, G C; Li, X R; Liao, N; Wang, K

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose-dense (biweekly) carboplatin and paclitaxel as a neoadjuvant treatment for operable breast cancer. Patients with previously untreated breast cancer (stages Ic-III) were treated with four cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2), intravenous drip, D1) and carboplatin (area under the curve of 5, D1). Patients with HER2+ disease simultaneously received trastuzumab (6 mg/kg initial dose with subsequent doses of 4 mg/kg biweekly). The primary endpoint was a pathologically complete response (pCR). Between January 2012 and February 2014, 110 patients were enrolled. The overall pCR rate was 35.45 % (39 of 110). The pCR rates for the different cancer subtypes were as follows: 10.53 % (2 of 19) among the patients with the luminal A subtype, 12.50 % (5 of 40) among the patients with the luminal B (HER2-) subtype, 58.33 % (14 of 24) among the patients with the luminal B (HER2+) subtype, 57.14 % (8 of 14) among the patients with the triple-negative subtype, and 76.92 % (10 of 13) among the patients with the HER2+ subtype. The patients experienced the following toxicity side effects: grade 3/4 neutropenia (N = 27, 24.55 %), grade 3/4 anemia (N = 6, 5.45 %), grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (N = 2, 1.82 %), grade 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (N = 1, 0.91 %), grade 3 neuropathy (N = 3, 2.73 %), grade 3 pain (N = 2, 1.82 %), and grade 3 fatigue (N = 1, 0.91 %). In total, 19.09 % of the patients experienced treatment delay or discontinuation due to hematological toxicity, and one patient discontinued treatment due to non-hematological toxicity. Neoadjuvant biweekly paclitaxel plus carboplatin is a feasible therapy that achieved high pCR rates in patients with the HER2+, triple-negative, and luminal B (HER2+) cancer subtypes (NCT0205986).

  18. Randomized Phase II trial of two high-dose chemotherapy regimens with stem cell transplantation for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in first remission or chemosensitive relapse: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Stiff, Patrick J; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Liu, P Y; Wilczynski, Sharon P; Callander, Natalie S; Scudder, Sidney A; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman; Samlowski, Wolfram; McCoy, Jason; Alberts, David S

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity of two high-dose chemotherapy regimens with stem cell rescue used to treat patients with recurrent or persistent stage III/IV ovarian cancer, with the goal of taking one forward into a Phase III comparison with conventional therapy. Patients under 65 with clinically or pathologically persistent disease after initial chemotherapy or those relapsing >6 months after a complete remission (CR) were randomized to CMC carboplatin (1500 mg/m(2)), mitoxantrone (75 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg)], or CTC: [cisplatin (165 mg/m(2)), thiotepa (600 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (5625 mg/m(2))] with stem cell rescue. Of 67 randomized, the 32 and 26 eligible in the CMC and CTC arms were matched including age (median 49), maximum tumor diameter, and disease status at transplant. Low-risk disease (maximum diameter disease significant; for OS, normal CA125 and platinum sensitivity were significant. The CMC regimen was the superior regimen. However, few patients were long-term progression-free survivors. A clinical CR to primary therapy and a normal CA125, seen in a minority of patients, were requirements for a favorable outcome.

  19. Stop-flow technique for loco-regional delivery of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pelvic cancers.

    PubMed

    Strocchi, E; Iaffaioli, R V; Facchini, G; Mantovani, G; Ricci, S; Cavallo, G; Tortoriello, A; D'Angelo, R; Formato, R; Rosato, G; Fiore, F; Iaccarino, V; Petrella, G; Memoli, B; Santangelo, M; Camaggi, C M

    2004-08-01

    To verify the rationale of a pelvic stop-flow technique for the perfusion of high-doses of mitomycin C and anthacyclines in patients with inoperable, recurrent pelvic cancer. The stop-flow technique was realized by using percutaneous double-balloon arterial-venous catheters that selectively isolate the pelvic vascular section and a perfusion provided by an extracorporeal pump for 20 min. Ten patients (pts) with unresectable pelvic recurrence from colon-rectal cancer were treated with a combination of Mitomycin C (MMC, 20 mg/sqm) plus doxorubicin (DOXO, 75 mg/sqm; 8pts) or epirubicin (EPI, 75 mg/sqm; 2pts) infused into the isolated pelvic compartment. Blood samples were collected from the extracorporeal vascular flow and from peripheral plasma, and analysed for drug quantitation. During the procedure, there were no technical or hemodynamic complications, and no deaths occurred during surgery or in the postoperative period. MMC and DOXO peak levels measured in the extracorporeal system which irrotates the tumor area, were on average 21.6 (range: 4.3-44.3, MMC) and 17.2 (range: 1.8-48.4, DOXO) times higher than those observed in the peripheral blood. Similarly; the area under concentration (AUC) versus time curves measured in the pelvic compartment during stop-flow perfusion were 19.9 (range: 3.8-45.0, MMC) and 13.4 (range: 1.2-26.6, DOXO) times higher than the corresponding value in peripheral circulation. The drug percentage eliminated in the ultra filtrate was only 7.7% (MMC) and 0.9% (DOXO), and the plasmatic AUC(0-24) were similar to those observed with iv bolus of equivalent drug doses. Minimal systemic and local toxicities were observed. One complete pathological and 2 partial responses were observed; pain remission in 8/10 patients. median survival was 12 months (8-31). The endo-arterial administration into the local vasculature produces high pelvic-systemic concentration gradients during the stop-flow perfusion with limited local and systemic toxicity. The

  20. Optimizing initial chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Mantripragada, Kalyan C; Safran, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The two combination chemotherapy regimens FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel represent major breakthroughs in the management of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Both regimens showed unprecedented survival advantage in the setting of front-line therapy. However, their application for treatment of patients in the community is challenging because of significant toxicities, thus limiting potential benefits to a narrow population of patients. Modifications to the dose intensity or schedule of those regimens improve their tolerability, while likely retaining survival advantage over single-agent chemotherapy. Newer strategies to optimize these two active regimens in advanced pancreatic cancer are being explored that can help personalize treatment to individual patients.

  1. Sources and significance of variation in the dose estimates of 36Cl biosphere transfer models: a model intercomparison study.

    PubMed

    Bytwerk, D; Limer, L; Albrecht, A; Marang, L; Smith, G; Thorne, M

    2011-03-01

    A range of performance assessments have indicated that the long-lived activation product (36)Cl will be among the more significant contributors to dose following release to the biosphere from deep or near-surface repositories for radioactive wastes. Described here are results of a BIOPROTA model intercomparison study, investigating dose assessment uncertainties and variability on the basis of six (36)Cl models from three countries. The models share a compartmental approach with transfers between compartments handled on the basis of empirical transfer factors (IMARC, ERB2A, Aquabios), on the basis of defined specific activities (AquaCl36, SA_36Cl), or on a combination of these methods (MTA_Cl36). The dose estimates that these models produce for a consensus well-water irrigation scenario, as well as the effect of altering certain critical assumptions, are reported, and the causes of variation examined. For the scenario considered, the calculated doses are within a factor of 15 of each other. Major differences were attributable to the data used for stable Cl concentrations and (36)Cl transfer parameter values, both typically site-specific parameters. Additional critical assumptions were studied such as the impact of stable chloride in the diet on dose coefficients, the effect of irrigating pasture with contaminated water on (36)Cl concentrations in animal products, and the explicit consideration of foliar uptake.

  2. Clinical Significance of Early Changes in Circulating Tumor Cells from Patients Receiving First-Line Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Emanuela; Necchi, Andrea; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Colecchia, Maurizio; Raggi, Daniele; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Cappelletti, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic paradigm of metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) is rapidly shifting and new biomarkers are needed to enhance patient selection. Objective: Early identification of dynamic predictors of outcome may be a key to optimize the sequence of effective therapies in metastatic UC patients. Methods: Blood samples from patients receiving first-line MVAC chemotherapy were collected at baseline (T0) and after 2 cycles (T2). Samples were processed by immunomagnetic beads (AdnaTest ProstateCancerSelect kit) and the expression of EPCAM, MUC1 and ERBB2 was studied using multiplex-PCR. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) positivity and cutoffs, obtained by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in healthy donors, were: ≥1 positive marker among EPCAM (≥0.40 ng/μl), MUC1 (≥0.10 ng/μl) and ERBB2 (≥0.20 ng/μl). CTC variation (T0/T2) was split in favorable (+/–, –/–, –/+) and unfavorable groups (+/+). Cox regression analyses evaluated associations with clinical factors. Results: In this pilot study to assess a new CTC detection method, among 31 evaluable patients, 17 (54.8%) were CTC-positive at T0. No association was found between CTC and objective response to MVAC. CTC dynamic changes better predicted 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to CTC status assessed at single time points. Unfavorable trend was univariably detrimental on 3-year PFS (10% vs. 49.2%, p = 0.006) and OS (20% vs. 63.5%, p = 0.017). Significance was maintained after controlling for liver metastases (p = 0.031 and p = 0.025 for PFS and OS) and MSKCC score (p = 0.014 and 0.025). Conclusions: Newly described early CTC changes during chemotherapy might be useful to improve our prognostic ability. Pending validation, these results could fulfill the promise to help accelerating therapeutic sequences. PMID:28035320

  3. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  4. Management of Mucositis During Chemotherapy: From Pathophysiology to Pragmatic Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Van Sebille, Ysabella Z A; Stansborough, Romany; Wardill, Hannah R; Bateman, Emma; Gibson, Rachel J; Keefe, Dorothy M

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a common condition caused by the breakdown of the mucosal barrier. Symptoms can include pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, which can often necessitate chemotherapy treatment breaks or dose reductions, thus compromising survival outcomes. Despite the significant impact of mucositis, there are currently limited clinically effective pharmacological therapies for the pathology. New emerging areas of research have been proposed to play key roles in the development of mucositis, providing rationale for potential new therapeutics for the prevention, treatment or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review aims to address these new areas of research and to comment on the therapeutics arising from them.

  5. Infectious Complications during Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Children with High-Risk or Recurrent Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji-Man; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Kim, Yae-Jean; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed infectious complications during tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in children and adolescents with high-risk or recurrent solid tumors. A total of 324 patients underwent their first HDCT/auto-SCT between October 2004 and September 2014, and 283 of them proceeded to their second HDCT/auto-SCT (a total of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs). During the early transplant period of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs (from the beginning of HDCT to day 30 post-transplant), bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI), respiratory virus infection, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation occurred in 7.1%, 2.3%, 13.0%, and 2.5% of HDCT/auto-SCTs, respectively. The early transplant period of the second HDCT/auto-SCT had infectious complications similar to the first HDCT/auto-SCT. During the late transplant period of HDCT/auto-SCT (from day 31 to 1 year post-transplant), bacteremia, UTI, and VZV reactivation occurred in 7.5%, 2.5%, and 3.9% of patients, respectively. Most infectious complications in the late transplant period occurred during the first 6 months post-transplant. There were no invasive fungal infections during the study period. Six patients died from infectious complications (4 from bacterial sepsis and 2 from respiratory virus infection). Our study suggests that infectious complications are similar following second and first HDCT/auto-SCT in children. PMID:27627440

  6. Role of parenteral antibiotherapy in gastrointestinal tract flora suppression. A study in children treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, P; Hartmann, O; Tancrede, C; Kalifa, C; Patte, C; Flamant, F; Lemerle, J

    1989-07-01

    In order to determine the effect of parenteral antibiotherapy on the fecal flora in patients with profound and prolonged granulocytopenia, we initiated a prospective study of 62 cases of autologous bone marrow transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy. All patients were children from 2 to 18 years old, isolated in a protective environment, receiving a diet low in viable microbial content but no oral non-absorbable prophylactic antibiotics to decontaminate the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriological analysis of fecal flora was conducted at least once a week before and during parenteral antibiotherapy, administered at the first greater than 38 degrees C febrile episode in these granulocytopenic patients (granulocyte count less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l). The 58 evaluable patients fell into three groups with regard to the systemic antibiotherapy: group A (n = 16): moxalactam + mezlocillin; group B (n = 15): moxalactam + tobramycin; and group C (n = 27): cefotaxime plus gentamicin. Fecal flora suppression was observed in 51/58 cases (88%) (group A: 15/16, group B: 13/15, group C: 23/27). It always occurred within 5 days of initiating parenteral antibiotherapy and persisted in 88% of the 51 patients over the whole period of systemic antibiotherapy. During the latter, fecal recolonization was observed in seven cases (12%), always by Enterobacteriaceae sensitive to the prescribed systemic antibiotherapy, never responsible for septicemia. Since parenteral antibiotherapy alone was able to suppress the gastrointestinal tract flora, the effects of this treatment should be considered in all trials of digestive tract decontamination.

  7. Infectious Complications during Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Children with High-Risk or Recurrent Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Bae; Yi, Eun Sang; Kang, Ji-Man; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Kim, Yae-Jean; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed infectious complications during tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in children and adolescents with high-risk or recurrent solid tumors. A total of 324 patients underwent their first HDCT/auto-SCT between October 2004 and September 2014, and 283 of them proceeded to their second HDCT/auto-SCT (a total of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs). During the early transplant period of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs (from the beginning of HDCT to day 30 post-transplant), bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI), respiratory virus infection, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation occurred in 7.1%, 2.3%, 13.0%, and 2.5% of HDCT/auto-SCTs, respectively. The early transplant period of the second HDCT/auto-SCT had infectious complications similar to the first HDCT/auto-SCT. During the late transplant period of HDCT/auto-SCT (from day 31 to 1 year post-transplant), bacteremia, UTI, and VZV reactivation occurred in 7.5%, 2.5%, and 3.9% of patients, respectively. Most infectious complications in the late transplant period occurred during the first 6 months post-transplant. There were no invasive fungal infections during the study period. Six patients died from infectious complications (4 from bacterial sepsis and 2 from respiratory virus infection). Our study suggests that infectious complications are similar following second and first HDCT/auto-SCT in children.

  8. Prolonged survival of patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: the GELTAMO experience.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José; Conde, Eulogio; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Arranz, Reyes; Gandarillas, Marcos; Leon, Angel; Ojanguren, Jesus; Sureda, Anna; Carrera, Dolores; Bendandi, Mauricio; Moraleda, Jose; Ribera, Jose Maria; Albo, Carmen; Morales, Alfonso; García, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Pascual; Cañigral, Guillermo; Bergua, Juan; Caballero, María Dolores

    2007-04-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL) is a rare lymphoma with a poor prognosis and no standard treatment. Here, we report our experiences with 19 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) within the GELTAMO co-operative group between 1992 and 2004. The median age at transplantation was 46 yr. Fifteen patients underwent the procedure as front-line therapy and four patients as salvage therapy. Most patients received peripheral stem cells (90%) coupled with BEAM or BEAC as conditioning regimen (79%). A 79% of patients achieved complete response, 5% partial response and 16% failed the procedure. After a median follow-up of 25 months, eight patients died (seven of progressive disease and secondary neoplasia), while actuarial overall survival and progression-free survival at 3 yr was 60% and 55%. Prognostic factors associated with a poor outcome included bone marrow involvement, transplantation in refractory disease state, attributing more than one factor of the age-adjusted-International Prognostic Index, Pretransplant peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) Score or Prognostic Index for PTCL. More than half of the patients with AIL that display unfavourable prognostic factors at diagnosis or relapse would be expected to be alive and disease-free after 3 yr when treated with HDC/ASCT. Patients who are transplanted in a refractory disease state do not benefit from this procedure.

  9. Highly favorable outcome in BRCA-mutated metastatic breast cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Boudin, L; Gonçalves, A; Sabatier, R; Moretta, J; Sfumato, P; Asseeva, P; Livon, D; Bertucci, F; Extra, J-M; Tarpin, C; Houvenaegel, G; Lambaudie, E; Tallet, A; Resbeut, M; Sobol, H; Charafe-Jauffret, E; Calmels, B; Lemarie, C; Boher, J-M; Viens, P; Eisinger, F; Chabannon, C

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer carrying BRCA mutation may be highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. We hypothesized a better outcome for BRCA-mutated (BRCA(mut)) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC AHSCT) versus unaffected BRCA (BRCA wild type; (BRCA(wt))) or patients without documented BRCA mutation (BRCA untested (BRCA(ut))). All female patients treated for MBC with AHSCT at Institut Paoli-Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. BRCA(mut) and BRCA(wt) patients were identified from our institutional genetic database. Overall survival (OS) was the primary end point. A total of 235 patients were included. In all, 15 patients were BRCA(mut), 62 BRCA(wt) and 149 BRCA(ut). In multivariate analyses, the BRCA(mut) status was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio (HR): 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-8.64, P=0.0326) and PFS (HR: 2.52, 95% CI :1.29-4.91, P=0.0069). In this large series of MBC receiving HDC AHSCT, we report a highly favorable survival outcome in the subset of patients with documented germline BRCA mutations.

  10. Metronomic chemotherapy following the maximum tolerated dose is an effective anti-tumour therapy affecting angiogenesis, tumour dissemination and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vives, Marta; Ginestà, Mireia M; Gracova, Kristina; Graupera, Mariona; Casanovas, Oriol; Capellà, Gabriel; Serrano, Teresa; Laquente, Berta; Viñals, Francesc

    2013-11-15

    In this article, the effectiveness of a multi-targeted chemo-switch (C-S) schedule that combines metronomic chemotherapy (MET) after treatment with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is reported. This schedule was tested with gemcitabine in two distinct human pancreatic adenocarcinoma orthotopic models and with cyclophosphamide in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. In both models, the C-S schedule had the most favourable effect, achieving at least 80% tumour growth inhibition without increased toxicity. Moreover, in the pancreatic cancer model, although peritoneal metastases were observed in control and MTD groups, no dissemination was observed in the MET and C-S groups. C-S treatment caused a decrease in angiogenesis, and its effect on tumour growth was similar to that produced by the MTD followed by anti-angiogenic DC101 treatment. C-S treatment combined an increase in thrombospondin-1 expression with a decrease in the number of CD133+ cancer cells and triple-positive CD133+/CD44+/CD24+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These findings confirm that the C-S schedule is a challenging clinical strategy with demonstrable inhibitory effects on tumour dissemination, angiogenesis and CSCs. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  11. [Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis after intrathecal chemotherapy and intravenous high-dose cytarabine in an acute myeloid leukemia case with t(8;21)(q22;q22)].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Keiki; Ito, Ryugo; Kageyama, Yuki; Nagaharu, Keiki; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Ito, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) is a very rare but life-threatening complication in leukemia patients. SSST is very rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In leukemia patients, several risk factors for SSST have been reported such as administration of L-asparaginase, disseminated intravascular coagulation, congenital thrombophilia, meningeal leukemia, and intrathecal chemotherapy (IT). Lumbar puncture itself and corticosteroid administration have also been acknowledged as risk factors. We describe herein our clinical experience with SSST in a 29-year-old Japanese man suffering from AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22), who presented with abrupt onset of loss of consciousness, left hemiplegia, and seizure soon after IT and high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) with dexamethasone for post remission consolidation. Despite the presence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) due to SSST rupture, we conducted anticoagulant therapy with heparin. Although ICH worsened temporarily, his clinical condition gradually improved with resolution of the SSST, and he eventually became fully ambulatory. There were no deficiencies of natural anticoagulants. Three additional cycles of HD-AraC without IT therapy were conducted, but no neurological complications recurred with the concomitant use of warfarin. He was discharged free of neurological deficits. In our case, there is a possibility that IT and the administration of corticosteroids along with HD-AraC triggered SSST.

  12. Dose-intensive chemotherapy including rituximab is highly effective but toxic in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia: parallel study of 81 patients.

    PubMed

    Xicoy, Blanca; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Müller, Markus; García, Olga; Hoffmann, Christian; Oriol, Albert; Hentrich, Marcus; Grande, Carlos; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Esteve, Jordi; van Lunzen, Jan; Del Potro, Eloy; Knechten, Heribert; Brunet, Salut; Mayr, Christoph; Escoda, Lourdes; Schommers, Philipp; Alonso, Natalia; Vall-Llovera, Ferran; Pérez, Montserrat; Morgades, Mireia; González, José; Fernández, Angeles; Thoden, Jan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Wyen, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    The results of intensive immunochemotherapy were analyzed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BLL) in two cohorts (Spain and Germany). Alternating cycles of chemotherapy were administered, with dose reductions for patients over 55 years. Eighty percent of patients achieved remission, 11% died during induction, 9% failed and 7% died in remission. Four-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) probabilities were 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62-82%) and 71% (95% CI: 61-81%). CD4 T-cell count < 200/μL and bone marrow involvement were associated with poor OS (hazard ratio [HR] 3.2 [1.2-8.3] and HR 2.7 [1.1-6.6]) and PFS (HR 3.5 [1.3-9.1] and HR 2.4 [1-5.7]), bone marrow involvement with poor disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 14.4 [1.7-119.7] and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score > 2 (odds ratio [OR] 11.9 [1.4-99.9]) with induction death. In HIV-related BLL, intensive immunochemotherapy was feasible and effective, but toxic. Prognostic factors were performance status, CD4 T-cell count and bone marrow involvement.

  13. Palifermin reduces infection rate and hyperfibrinogenemia in patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy based on beam or BU-thiothepa.

    PubMed

    Milone, G; Leotta, S; Cupri, A; Fauci, A L; Spina, P; Parisi, M; Berritta, D; Tripepi, G

    2014-09-01

    We performed a retrospective study in patients who underwent high-dose chemotherapy and auto-SCT because of haematological malignancies. Forty patients were treated with palifermin while 80 were controls selected after being matched for diagnosis and length of neutropenia. Patients treated with BEAM or BU-CY or THIO-CY (BEAM/BUS) displayed, after palifermin, a lower rate of severe oral mucositis (P=0.03). This beneficial effect of palifermin was not evident in the stratum of patients treated with high-dose melphalan (HD-PAM). After palifermin, we observed in the whole treated population a reduced rate of 'fever of unknown origin' (FUO, P=0.02) and of severe infections not related to Gram-positive bacteria (FUO, Gram-negative bacteremia or pneumonia) (P=0.003). This effect of palifermin on infections not related to Gram-positive bacteria was evident only in patients receiving BEAM/BUS (P=0.01) and not in patients treated with HD-PAM (P=0.11). Fibrinogen peak in plasma was found to be reduced after palifermin in the whole population (P=0.01) and in the stratum who received BEAM/BUS (P=0.02) but not in the stratum of HD-PAM. In conclusion, anti-infectious beneficial effects of palifermin are more evident in BEAM/BUS-treated patients and toward some types of infections. Reduction of fibrinogen level after palifermin suggests that this agent reduces not only the rate of infections but also their severity.

  14. Combination Chemotherapy with Suboptimal Doses of Benznidazole and Pentoxifylline Sustains Partial Reversion of Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Resende Pereira, Isabela; de Souza Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre; Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Britto, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) progresses with parasite persistence, fibrosis, and electrical alterations associated with an unbalanced immune response such as high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). Presently, the available treatments only mitigate the symptoms of CCC. To improve CCC prognosis, we interfered with the parasite load and unbalanced immune response using the trypanocidal drug benznidazole (Bz) and the immunoregulator pentoxifylline (PTX). C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and with signs of CCC were treated for 30 days with a suboptimal dose of Bz (25 mg/kg of body weight), PTX (20 mg/kg), or their combination (Bz plus PTX) and analyzed for electrocardiographic, histopathological, and immunological changes. Bz (76%) and Bz-plus-PTX (79%) therapies decreased parasite loads. Although the three therapies reduced myocarditis and fibrosis and ameliorated electrical alterations, only Bz plus PTX restored normal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals. Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice presented complementary effects of Bz and PTX, which reduced TNF expression (37%) in heart tissue and restored normal TNF receptor 1 expression on CD8+ T cells, respectively. Bz (85%) and PTX (70%) therapies reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in heart tissue, but only Bz (58%) reduced NO levels in serum. These effects were more pronounced after Bz-plus-PTX therapy. Moreover, 30 to 50 days after treatment cessation, reductions of the prolonged QTc and QRS intervals were sustained in Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice. Our findings support the importance of interfering with the etiological agent and immunological abnormalities to improve CCC prognosis, opening an opportunity for a better quality of life for Chagas' disease (CD) patients. PMID:27161638

  15. Quality of life, taste, olfactory and oral function following high-dose chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Phillips, N; Parry, J; Epstein, M S; Nevill, T; Stevenson-Moore, P

    2002-12-01

    Multiple oral complaints develop following high-dose chemo/radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) which can influence quality of life. The purpose of this investigation was to assess quality of life, oral function, taste and smell in a cohort of patients following HCT. A general quality of life survey (the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)) Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire (QLQ-C30), with an added oral symptom and function scale and assessment of taste and smell was administered to a consecutive series of patients at day 90-100 post HCT. General QOL was impacted by fatigue, affecting physical, social emotional and cognitive function. While oral function scales appeared to be little affected at day 90-100 post HCT, abnormalities of taste were reported. Reports of changes in taste and smell appeared to parallel each other and changes remained at the time of the survey post-HCT. Change in taste appeared to be closely associated with dry mouth. Patients appeared to have difficulty in differentiating sour and bitter, which had been more affected than salt and sweet taste. Females appeared to report greater changes in taste than males. Increased smell sensitivity and taste change resulted in changes in food preparation in some cases, as did reported increase in sensitivity to sour and bitter taste. Acute complications are well known to affect QOL during the early period following HCT, but little assessment of long-term changes in oral QOL and taste has been conducted following transplant. The EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire with the oral addendum provides a measure of the quality of life and oral function, and may provide useful outcome measures for assessment of oral care prevention and management in HCT patients.

  16. Combination Chemotherapy with Suboptimal Doses of Benznidazole and Pentoxifylline Sustains Partial Reversion of Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Resende Pereira, Isabela; de Souza Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre; Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Britto, Constança; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2016-07-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) progresses with parasite persistence, fibrosis, and electrical alterations associated with an unbalanced immune response such as high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). Presently, the available treatments only mitigate the symptoms of CCC. To improve CCC prognosis, we interfered with the parasite load and unbalanced immune response using the trypanocidal drug benznidazole (Bz) and the immunoregulator pentoxifylline (PTX). C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and with signs of CCC were treated for 30 days with a suboptimal dose of Bz (25 mg/kg of body weight), PTX (20 mg/kg), or their combination (Bz plus PTX) and analyzed for electrocardiographic, histopathological, and immunological changes. Bz (76%) and Bz-plus-PTX (79%) therapies decreased parasite loads. Although the three therapies reduced myocarditis and fibrosis and ameliorated electrical alterations, only Bz plus PTX restored normal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals. Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice presented complementary effects of Bz and PTX, which reduced TNF expression (37%) in heart tissue and restored normal TNF receptor 1 expression on CD8(+) T cells, respectively. Bz (85%) and PTX (70%) therapies reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in heart tissue, but only Bz (58%) reduced NO levels in serum. These effects were more pronounced after Bz-plus-PTX therapy. Moreover, 30 to 50 days after treatment cessation, reductions of the prolonged QTc and QRS intervals were sustained in Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice. Our findings support the importance of interfering with the etiological agent and immunological abnormalities to improve CCC prognosis, opening an opportunity for a better quality of life for Chagas' disease (CD) patients.

  17. Prevalence of menstrual cycles and outcome of 50 pregnancies after high-dose chemotherapy and auto-SCT in non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma patients younger than 40 years.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S; Youssef, I; Soudy, H; Elhassan, T A M; Rauf, S M; Maghfoor, I

    2015-12-01

    Data are limited regarding the prevalence of menstrual cycles and pregnancies after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and auto-stem cell transplantation (SCT). Female patients who underwent HDC auto-SCT for non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma (1997-2012) were reviewed. The selection criteria were as follows: (1) alive without disease 12 and 24 months after auto-SCT for menstrual cycles and pregnancy, respectively, (2) age <40 years at auto-SCT, and (3) no primary infertility. One-hundred and seventy-six females underwent single auto-SCT. Eighty-nine were eligible for menstrual cycles and pregnancy analysis. Median age at auto-SCT was 25 years (14-40 years), at pregnancy 27 years (20-37 years), median follow-up 65 months (range 24-190). Regular menstrual-cycles resumed in 56/89 patients (63%). Increasing age (P=0.02) and number of prior chemotherapy cycles (P=0.02) are associated with higher risk of amenorrhea. Forty patients tried to get pregnant, 26 (65%) became pregnant 50 times: 43 (86%) live birth, 7 (14%) miscarriage and 2/50 had birth defects. Twenty-four patients practiced breastfeeding (median duration 4 months (1-24 months)). Enough breast milk production was reported 62.5% vs 100% in those patients who did or did not receive above the diaphragm radiation therapy, respectively, (P=0.066). Our data highlights significantly higher than perceived incidence of menstrual cycle resumption, successful pregnancies and breastfeeding after HDC auto-SCT.

  18. Randomized trials of high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer: fraud, the press and the data (or lessons learned in medical policy governing clinical research).

    PubMed Central

    Antman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    High dose therapy for breast cancer remains controversial. Of the 15 randomized trials of high dose therapy in breast cancer reported to date, two South African studies have been discredited leaving 13 remaining studies. Mortality was consistently low, in the 0 to 2.5% range, except for the BCNU containing American Intergroup study, which had a 7.4% toxic mortality rate. Seven of the remaining 13 studies randomized fewer than 200 patients. Three of these small studies have significant differences in disease free survival, and a fourth study has a trend in favor of high dose therapy. The other three small studies cannot exclude a survival difference of 20%. Of the 6 remaining moderately large trials of 219 to 885 randomized patients, 5 are adjuvant studies and one included patients with metastatic disease. Of the five adjuvant trials, four have significant differences in relapse rate favoring the high dose arm, and the remaining study has a trend (with a high dose sequential single agent design rather than combination therapy as in the other studies). A planned subset analysis of the first 284 patients in the largest study funded by the Dutch insurance industry showed a significant advantage for high dose therapy. Given the 2-year median time to relapse and an addition 2-year median to death after relapse, the follow up for survival of 3-5 years on these studies is still short. In the only moderately sized metastatic trial from the National Cancer Institute of Canada with a very short median follow-up of 19 months, a significant difference in disease free survival has emerged, with no difference in survival. PMID:12053718

  19. Randomized trials of high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer: fraud, the press and the data (or lessons learned in medical policy governing clinical research).

    PubMed

    Antman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    High dose therapy for breast cancer remains controversial. Of the 15 randomized trials of high dose therapy in breast cancer reported to date, two South African studies have been discredited leaving 13 remaining studies. Mortality was consistently low, in the 0 to 2.5% range, except for the BCNU containing American Intergroup study, which had a 7.4% toxic mortality rate. Seven of the remaining 13 studies randomized fewer than 200 patients. Three of these small studies have significant differences in disease free survival, and a fourth study has a trend in favor of high dose therapy. The other three small studies cannot exclude a survival difference of 20%. Of the 6 remaining moderately large trials of 219 to 885 randomized patients, 5 are adjuvant studies and one included patients with metastatic disease. Of the five adjuvant trials, four have significant differences in relapse rate favoring the high dose arm, and the remaining study has a trend (with a high dose sequential single agent design rather than combination therapy as in the other studies). A planned subset analysis of the first 284 patients in the largest study funded by the Dutch insurance industry showed a significant advantage for high dose therapy. Given the 2-year median time to relapse and an addition 2-year median to death after relapse, the follow up for survival of 3-5 years on these studies is still short. In the only moderately sized metastatic trial from the National Cancer Institute of Canada with a very short median follow-up of 19 months, a significant difference in disease free survival has emerged, with no difference in survival.

  20. Bevacizumab/high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplant for poor-risk relapsed or refractory germ-cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Y.; Tu, S. -M.; Bassett, R.; Jones, R. B.; Gulbis, A. M.; Tannir, N.; Kingham, A.; Ledesma, C.; Margolin, K.; Holmberg, L.; Champlin, R.; Pagliaro, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) using sequential cycles of carboplatin/etoposide is curative for relapsed germ-cell tumors (GCT). However, outcomes of high-risk patients in advanced relapse remain poor. We previously developed a new HDC regimen combining infusional gemcitabine with docetaxel/melphalan/carboplatin (GemDMC), with preliminary high activity in refractory GCT. Given the high vascular endothelial growth factor expression in metastatic GCT and the synergy between bevacizumab and chemotherapy, we studied concurrent bevacizumab and sequential HDC using GemDMC and ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide (ICE) in patients with poor-risk relapsed or refractory disease. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria included intermediate/high-risk relapse (Beyer Model), serum creatinine ≤1.8 mg/dl and adequate pulmonary/cardiac/hepatic function. Patients received sequential HDC cycles with bevacizumab preceding GemDMC (cycle 1) and ICE (cycle 2). The trial was powered to distinguish a target 50% 2-year relapse-free survival (RFS) from an expected 25% 2-year RFS in this population. Results We enrolled 43 male patients, median age 30 (20–49) years, with absolute refractory (N = 20), refractory (N = 17) or cisplatin-sensitive (N = 6) disease, after a median 3 (1–5) prior relapses. Disease status right before HDC was unresponsive (N = 24, progressive disease 22, stable disease 2), partial response with positive markers (PRm+) (N = 8), PRm− (N = 7) or complete response (N = 4). Main toxicities were mucositis and renal. Four patients (three with baseline marginal renal function) died from HDC-related complications. Tumor markers normalized in 85% patients. Resection of residual lesions (N = 13) showed necrosis (N = 4), mature teratoma (N = 2), necrosis/teratoma (N = 3) and viable tumor (N = 4). At median follow-up of 46 (9–84) months, the RFS and overall survival rates are 55.8% and 58.1%, respectively. Conclusions Sequential bevacizumab

  1. Bevacizumab/high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplant for poor-risk relapsed or refractory germ-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Y; Tu, S-M; Bassett, R; Jones, R B; Gulbis, A M; Tannir, N; Kingham, A; Ledesma, C; Margolin, K; Holmberg, L; Champlin, R; Pagliaro, L

    2015-10-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) using sequential cycles of carboplatin/etoposide is curative for relapsed germ-cell tumors (GCT). However, outcomes of high-risk patients in advanced relapse remain poor. We previously developed a new HDC regimen combining infusional gemcitabine with docetaxel/melphalan/carboplatin (GemDMC), with preliminary high activity in refractory GCT. Given the high vascular endothelial growth factor expression in metastatic GCT and the synergy between bevacizumab and chemotherapy, we studied concurrent bevacizumab and sequential HDC using GemDMC and ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide (ICE) in patients with poor-risk relapsed or refractory disease. Eligibility criteria included intermediate/high-risk relapse (Beyer Model), serum creatinine ≤ 1.8 mg/dl and adequate pulmonary/cardiac/hepatic function. Patients received sequential HDC cycles with bevacizumab preceding GemDMC (cycle 1) and ICE (cycle 2). The trial was powered to distinguish a target 50% 2-year relapse-free survival (RFS) from an expected 25% 2-year RFS in this population. We enrolled 43 male patients, median age 30 (20-49) years, with absolute refractory (N = 20), refractory (N = 17) or cisplatin-sensitive (N = 6) disease, after a median 3 (1-5) prior relapses. Disease status right before HDC was unresponsive (N = 24, progressive disease 22, stable disease 2), partial response with positive markers (PRm(+)) (N = 8), PRm(-) (N = 7) or complete response (N = 4). Main toxicities were mucositis and renal. Four patients (three with baseline marginal renal function) died from HDC-related complications. Tumor markers normalized in 85% patients. Resection of residual lesions (N = 13) showed necrosis (N = 4), mature teratoma (N = 2), necrosis/teratoma (N = 3) and viable tumor (N = 4). At median follow-up of 46 (9-84) months, the RFS and overall survival rates are 55.8% and 58.1%, respectively. Sequential bevacizumab/GemDMC-bevacizumab/ICE shows encouraging outcomes in heavily pretreated and

  2. High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Peripheral-Blood Stem-Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors: The Indiana University Experience.

    PubMed

    Adra, Nabil; Abonour, Rafat; Althouse, Sandra K; Albany, Costantine; Hanna, Nasser H; Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Patients with relapsed metastatic germ cell tumor (GCT) can be cured with second-line and even third-line regimens. We report survival outcomes of patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT) at Indiana University between 2004 and 2014. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 364 consecutive patients with GCT who progressed after cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy and were subsequently treated with HDCT and PBSCT. Three hundred forty-one patients received two consecutive courses of HDCT consisting of 700 mg/m(2) carboplatin and 750 mg/m(2) etoposide, each for 3 consecutive days, and each followed by PBSCT. Twenty-three patients received only a single course of HDCT because of progressive disease or toxicity. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test predictors of disease progression. Results The median age was 32 years (range, 17 to 70 years). With a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 60% (95% CI, 55% to 65%) and the 2-year overall survival was 66% (95% CI, 60% to 70%). Three hundred three patients received HDCT as second-line therapy with a 2-year PFS of 63% (95% CI, 57% to 68%), and 61 patients received HDCT as third-line or later therapy with a 2-year PFS of 49% (95% CI, 36% to 61%). In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with disease progression included use of HDCT as third-line or later therapy, platinum-refractory disease, mediastinal primary tumor site, nonseminoma histology, intermediate- or poor-risk disease at the time of GCT diagnosis, and human chorionic gonadotropin ≥ 1,000 mIU/mL at initiation of HDCT. There were nine treatment-related deaths. Secondary leukemia developed in five patients. Conclusion This large single-institution study demonstrates that patients with relapsed metastatic GCT are curable by HDCT plus PBSCT even when used in third-line or later therapy.

  3. Online training on the safe use of fluoroscopy can result in a significant decrease in patient dose.

    PubMed

    Frederick-Dyer, Katherine C; Faulkner, Austin R; Chang, Ted T; Heidel, R Eric; Pasciak, Alexander S

    2013-10-01

    Concerns over medical radiation exposure have received national press in recent years, and training in the appropriate use of radiation has become an essential component of every radiology residency program. Appropriate training is particularly important in fluoroscopy because it is commonly used by inexperienced radiology residents and has the potential to impart relatively high patient radiation doses. In an effort to minimize the radiation doses received by patients, our institution has recently initiated an online training program in the safe use of fluoroscopy. This course is required and must be completed by new radiology residents before their first fluoroscopy rotation. The goal of this study was to determine if the use of an online course in the safe use of fluoroscopy could result in decreased patient dose without affecting diagnostic quality. Four years of retrospective procedural data for residents performing gastrointestinal and genitourinary fluoroscopic procedures without specialized training were reviewed. Incoming residents took an American Medical Association-accredited online training program in the safe use of fluoroscopy the week before their first fluoroscopy rotation. Patient dose and diagnostic quality data, inferred from the frequency of attending physician intervention necessary to complete the procedure, were collected for all exams performed by the new group of residents after completion of the training course. This was then compared to data from prior classes and stratified by procedure type. Statistically significant reductions in both average fluoroscopy time (FT) or dose-area-product (DAP) were found for many of the fluoroscopic procedures performed by residents who participated in the online fluoroscopy training program. Specifically, statistically significant reductions in FT for barium enema, cystogram, defecogram, and esophagram procedures (P < .001) were found. Esophagram and upper gastrointestinal studies were completed with a

  4. Significant dose reduction for pediatric digital subtraction angiography without impairing image quality: preclinical study in a piglet model.

    PubMed

    Racadio, John; Strauss, Keith; Abruzzo, Todd; Patel, Manish; Kukreja, Kamlesh; Johnson, Neil; den Hartog, Mark; Hoornaert, Bart; Nachabe, Rami

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the hypothesis that image quality of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in pediatrics is not impaired when using a low-dose acquisition protocol. Three piglets corresponding to common pediatric population sizes were used. DSA was performed in the aorta and renal, hepatic, and superior mesenteric arteries using both the commonly used reference standard and novel radiographic imaging noise reduction technologies to ensure pairwise radiation dose and image quality comparison. The air kerma per frame at the interventional reference point for each DSA acquisition was collected as a radiation dose measure, and image quality was evaluated by five interventional radiologists in a randomized blinded fashion using a 5-point scale. The mean air kerma (± SD) at the interventional reference point with the novel x-ray imaging noise reduction technology was significantly lower (1.1 ± 0.8 mGy/frame) than with the reference technology (4.2 ± 3.0 mGy/frame, p = 0.005). However, image quality was statistically similar, with average scores of 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.5 for the novel and reference technologies, respectively (p = 0.934); interrater absolute agreement was 0.77. The DSA radiation dose for pediatrics can be reduced by a factor of four with a novel x-ray imaging noise reduction technology without deterioration of image quality.

  5. Comparative trial of two intravenous doses of granisetron (1 versus 3 mg) in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced acute emesis: a double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Daiki; Kim, Yong-Il; Taku, Keisei; Nakagaki, Shigeru; Ikematsu, Yoshito; Tsubota, Hiromi; Maeda, Masato; Hashimoto, Naoya; Kimura, Masayuki; Daimon, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    A single 3 mg or 40 μg/kg intravenous dose of granisetron combined with dexamethasone is routinely used in several countries, although the antiemetic guidelines have recommended granisetron at the dose of 1 mg or 10 μg/kg. A randomized, multicenter trial was conducted to determine the optimal intravenous granisetron dose, 1 or 3 mg, in cancer patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy. We enrolled 365 patients and randomly assigned them to receive intravenous granisetron 3 mg (3-mg group) or 1 mg (1-mg group), combined with dexamethasone at an adequate dose fixed as per the emetic risk category. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a complete response during the first 24 h after chemotherapy. The study demonstrated that 1 mg of granisetron was not inferior in effect to 3 mg. For the primary end point, 359 patients were evaluable according to the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Complete protection was achieved in the modified ITT population, 90.6% and 88.8% for the 3- and 1-mg groups, respectively (p < 0.01 for non-inferiority). This study showed that 1 mg granisetron is not inferior to 3 mg when both doses are combined with dexamethasone. Therefore, 1-mg dose of intravenous granisetron should be the recommended prophylactic regimen for the prevention of acute emesis.

  6. Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer in women 60 years and older: feasibility and tolerability in a subset of patients in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, Sherko; Krocker, Jutta; Kohls, Andreas; Breitbach, Georg-Peter; Morack, Günther; Budner, Marek; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Lichtenegger, Werner; Elling, Dirk

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and tolerability of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy for older patients with node-positive breast cancer, a retrospective subset analysis compared dose delays and dose reductions for women aged > or = 60 years with those of younger women. Patients were randomized to a dose-dense (DD, 14-day cycle) or conventional-schedule (CS, 21-day cycle) regimen. DD patients (n = 104; 25 aged > or = 60 years) received epirubicin 90 mg/m2 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 (four cycles), then cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2 and fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 (CMF 600/40/600) (three cycles), plus filgrastim 5 microg/kg per day in every cycle. CS patients (n = 107; 27 aged > or = 60 years) received epirubicin 90 mg/m2 plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 (four cycles), then CMF 600/40/600 (three cycles), plus filgrastim if required. Delays were more common in older patients in both the DD and CS groups (DD, 17% versus 6%; CS, 11% versus 6%), as were Grades 3-4 leukopenia (26% versus 12%) and neutropenia (33% versus 25%). All older DD and 89% of older CS patients received all seven chemotherapy cycles, with 99% of cycles at full dose. This study demonstrates that a dose-dense regimen combining epirubicin and paclitaxel can be administered to patients > or = 60 years of age with a tolerable safety profile.

  7. Standard chemotherapy with interferon compared with CHOP followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in untreated patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: the GELF-94 randomized study from the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Sebban, Catherine; Mounier, Nicolas; Brousse, Nicole; Belanger, Coralie; Brice, Pauline; Haioun, Corinne; Tilly, Herve; Feugier, Pierre; Bouabdallah, Redah; Doyen, Chantal; Salles, Gilles; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare our standard chemotherapy regimen (CHVP [cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, teniposide, and prednisone]) plus interferon with 4 courses of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in treatment-naive patients with advanced follicular lymphoma. Four hundred one patients were included from July 1994 to March 2001: 209 received 12 cycles of CHVP plus interferon alpha for 18 months (CHVP-I arm) and 192 received 4 cycles of CHOP followed by high-dose therapy (HDT) with total body irradiation and ASCT (CHOP-HDT arm). Overall response rates were similar in both groups (79% and 78% after induction chemotherapy, respectively). One hundred thirty-one of the 150 patients eligible for HDT underwent transplantation (87%). Intent-to-treat analysis after a median follow-up of 7.5 years showed that there was no difference between the 2 arms for overall survival (P = .53) or event-free survival (P = .11). Patients with a complete response at the end of the induction therapy had a statistically longer event-free survival and overall survival (P = .02 and < .001, respectively). After long-term follow-up, our study showed that there was no statistically significant benefit in favor of first-line high-dose therapy in patients with follicular lymphoma. High-dose therapy should be reserved for relapsing patients.

  8. [The dose-volume factor in radiotherapy. Significance of the focal or tumor volume for the evaluation of radiotherapeutic effect].

    PubMed

    Busch, M; Popp, F A

    1975-01-01

    The absorbed energy dose, in dependence on the irradiated tissue volume or tumor volume (dose-volume-relations) has great significance for the valuation of radiation injuries and of the prognosis of the disease. The present paper includes an analysis, formal demonstrations and interpretation of these relations. Clinical observations and radiobiological experiments in literature were the basis of the present investigation. The assessment is kept simple, the models derived from it interprete well the clinical findings. Through these models, radiobiological findings and clinical experimental principles are connected. This results in a clear conception of the future development of irradiation planning, and the application technique of radiation. The range of validity of the cited models includes the treated volumes usual in radiotherapy. An extrapolation to the cellulary area or to the whole body may only be made with great reservations.

  9. Overview of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Viele, Carol S

    2003-11-01

    To provide a general overview of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID) that will highlight the pathophysiology, incidence, and impact of this problem, as well as describe the oncology nurse's role in the management of CID. Primary and tertiary literature, the authors' clinical experience. CID is a frequent complication of many types of chemotherapy that can significantly affect patient quality of life, increase treatment costs, and limit the ability to deliver full doses of chemotherapy. Because patients may be reluctant to discuss diarrhea with their health care providers, vigilance on the part of the health care team is needed. Through ongoing, regular patient contact, the oncology nurse is uniquely situated to monitor patients for the development of CID, assess its severity, and provide guidance to the health care team on the patient's status.

  10. Concomitant External-beam Irradiation and Chemotherapy Followed by High-dose Rate Brachytherapy Boost in the Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Laliscia, Concetta; Fabrini, Maria Grazia; Delishaj, Durim; Coraggio, Gabriele; Morganti, Riccardo; Tana, Roberta; Paiar, Fabiola; Gadducci, Angiolo

    2016-04-01

    To assess the outcome of 35 patients with vaginal carcinoma treated with different radiotherapy modalities. Thirty-one patients received external-beam irradiation (EBRT) to the entire vagina, para-vaginal area and pelvic nodes (total dose=45-50.4 Gy). Concomitant chemotherapy was used in 22 patients. Nineteen patients received additional 15-25 Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) boost and eight received additional EBRT boost to the primary tumor site. Four women received exclusive 30-40 Gy high-dose-rate BT. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival were 22 months and 89 months, respectively. Age <70 years, use of EBRT plus BT, and concomitant chemotherapy were associated with better progression-free (p=0.002, p=0.007, and p=0.02) and overall (p=0.01, p=0.009, p=0.009) survival. Concomitant EBRT and chemotherapy followed by BT is the best treatment for vaginal carcinoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Italian daily platelet transfusion practice for haematological patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation: a survey by the GIMEMA Haemostasis and Thrombosis Working Party

    PubMed Central

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Castaman, Giancarlo; Falanga, Anna; Santoro, Rita; Napolitano, Mariasanta; Storti, Sergio; Veneri, Dino; Basso, Marco; Candiotto, Laura; Tassinari, Cristina; Federici, Augusto B.; De Stefano, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background Following high-dose chemotherapy/bone marrow transplantation, patients are routinely, prophylactically transfused with platelet concentrates (PC) if they have a platelet count ≤10×109/L or higher in the presence of risk factors for bleeding. However, whether such transfusions are necessary in clinically stable patients with no bleeding, or whether a therapeutic transfusion strategy could be sufficient and safe, is still debated. Materials and methods The GIMEMA Haemostasis and Thrombosis Working Party sent a questionnaire to Italian haematology departments to survey several aspects of daily platelet transfusion practice, such as the cut-off platelet count for transfusion, the evaluation of refractoriness and the type of PC administered. Results The questionnaire was answered by 18 out of 31 centres (58%). A total of 23,162 PC were transfused in 2,396 patients in 2013. The vast majority of centres (95%) transfused PC according to Italian and international guidelines; only a few transfused always at platelet counts ≤20×109/L. The broad agreement on platelet count cut-off for transfusion (≤10×109/L) was not confirmed when the World Health Organization (WHO) bleeding score was considered: only a third of centres (33%) used transfusions as recommended when the bleeding grade was ≥2. Platelet refractoriness was poorly monitored and most centres (89%) evaluated, mostly empirically (67%), response to transfusion only 24 hours later. Thirty percent of centres transfused platelets in asymptomatic refractory patients. Discussion Although most Italian haematology departments transfuse PC according to Italian and international guidelines, our survey shows that in routine daily practice physicians do not comply closely with the WHO recommendations on platelet transfusions and monitoring platelet refractoriness. This causes excessive platelet transfusions, with a resulting increase of costs and waste of public health resources. PMID:27416570

  12. Prognostic impact of hormone receptor- and HER2-defined subtypes in inflammatory breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boudin, Laurys; Gonçalves, Anthony; Sfumato, Patrick; Sabatier, Renaud; Bertucci, François; Tarpin, Carole; Provansal, Magali; Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Lambaudie, Eric; Tallet, Agnes; Resbeut, Michel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Calmels, Boris; Lemarie, Claude; Boher, Jean-Marie; Extra, Jean-Marc; Viens, Patrice; Chabannon, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Studies examining high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC-AHSCT) strategies in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), showed encouraging results in terms of disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The lack of data regarding HER2 status in all of these studies prevented any prognostic analysis involving breast cancer subtypes. Methods: All consecutive female patients treated for IBC with HDC and AHSCT at Institut Paoli-Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. Since 2005, trastuzumab was included in initial treatment. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected. Patients were categorized in three subtypes based on hormonal receptor (HR) and HER2 status of the primary tumor: Luminal, (HR+/HER2-), HER2 (HER2+, any HR), and triple negative (TN) (HER2- and HR-). The main objective was the analysis of OS according to the IHC subtypes. Results: Sixty-seven patients were included. Eleven patients received trastuzumab. Median follow up was 80.04 months (95% CI 73.2-88.08). Five-year OS and DFS for the whole population patients were 74% (95% CI 61-83) and 65 % (95% CI 52-75), respectively. OS differed across subtypes (p=0.057) : HER2 subgroup appeared to have the best prognosis with a 5-year OS of 89% (95% CI 64-97) compared to 57% (95% CI 33-76) for the TN subgroup (HR 5.38, 95% CI 1.14-25.44; p=0.034). Conclusions: In IBC patients receiving HDC-AHSCT, OS favorably compares with data available in the literature on similar groups of patients. TN patients carried the least favourable OS and HER2 patients, half of them also receiving trastuzumab, had the best outcome. These findings provide additional information and options for patients with IBC and who could potentially benefit of HDC-AHSCT. PMID:27877223

  13. High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with High-Risk or Recurrent Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) might improve the survival of patients with high-risk or recurrent solid tumors, therapy effectiveness for bone and soft tissue sarcoma treatment remains unclear. This study retrospectively investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of HDCT/auto-SCT for high-risk or recurrent bone and soft tissue sarcoma. A total of 28 patients (18 high-risk and 10 recurrent) underwent single or tandem HDCT/auto-SCT between October 2004 and September 2014. During follow-up of a median 15.3 months, 18 patients exhibited disease progression and 2 died of treatment-related toxicities (1 veno-occlusive disease and 1 sepsis). Overall, 8 patients remained alive and progression-free. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates for all 28 patients were 28.7% and 26.3%, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, OS and EFS rates were higher in patients with complete or partial remission prior to HDCT/auto-SCT than in those with worse responses (OS, 39.1% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.002; EFS, 36.8% vs. 0.0%, P < 0.001). Therefore, careful selection of patients who can benefit from HDCT/auto-SCT and maximal effort to reduce tumor burden prior to treatment will be important to achieve favorable outcomes in patients with high-risk or recurrent bone and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27366002

  14. Improved outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma with a new fotemustine-based high-dose chemotherapy regimen.

    PubMed

    Musso, Maurizio; Messina, Giuseppe; Di Renzo, Nicola; Di Carlo, Paolo; Vitolo, Umberto; Scalone, Renato; Marcacci, Gianpaolo; Scalzulli, Potito R; Moscato, Tiziana; Matera, Rossella; Crescimanno, Alessandra; Santarone, Stella; Orciuolo, Enrico; Merenda, Anxur; Pavone, Vincenzo; Pastore, Domenico; Donnarumma, Daniela; Carella, Angelo M; Ciochetto, Chiara; Cascavilla, Nicola; Mele, Anna; Lanza, Francesco; Di Nicola, Massimo; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Pinto, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard of care for relapsed/refractory (RR) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Given that HDT may cure a sizeable proportion of patients refractory to first salvage, development of newer conditioning regimens remains a priority. We present the results of a novel HDT regimen in which carmustine was substituted by a third-generation chloroethylnitrosourea, fotemustine, with improved pharmacokinetics and safety (FEAM; fotemustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) in 122 patients with RR-HL accrued into a prospective registry-based study. Application of FEAM resulted in a 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 73·8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0·64-0·81] with median PFS, overall survival and time to progression yet to be reached. The 2-year risk of progression adjusted for the competitive risk of death was 19·4% (95% CI, 0·12-0·27) for the entire patient population. Most previously established independent risk factors, except for fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) (F) FDG)-uptake, were unable to predict for disease progression and survival after FEAM. Although 32% of patients had (18) (F) FDG-positrin emission tomography-positive lesions before HDT, the 2-year risk of progression adjusted for competitive risk of death was 19·4% (95% CI; 0·12-0·27). No unusual acute toxicities or early/late pulmonary adverse events were registered. FEAM emerges as an ideal HDT regimen for RR-HL patients typically pre-exposed to lung-damaging treatments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Combined treatment with high-dose methotrexate, vincristine and procarbazine, without intrathecal chemotherapy, followed by consolidation radiotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, A J; Reni, M; Dell'Oro, S; Ciceri, F; Bernardi, M; Camba, L; Ponzoni, M; Terreni, M R; Tomirotti, M; Spina, M; Villa, E

    2001-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and the activity, as well as the efficacy to treat meninges, of chemotherapy (CHT) containing high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) followed by radiation therapy (RT), without intrathecal CHT, in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. Eligibility criteria were histologically proven diagnosis, disease limited to the CNS, age < or = 70, ECOG performance status < or = 3, HIV-negative and no prior treatment. Thirteen patients (1996-1999; median age 54 years) received two courses of vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 day 1, MTX 3 g/m2 days 3 and 10 and procarbazine 100 mg/m2 days 1-14 every 4 weeks. Patients who achieved a complete remission were referred to RT, those with progressive disease were excluded from further study; all the remaining patients received a third course of CHT followed by RT. Twelve patients responded to CHT (overall response rate = 92%, complete response rate = 77%): 9 underwent consolidation RT, 3 did not. Two patients experienced severe acute toxicity; lethal pulmonary thromboembolism and transient renal failure. Five patients relapsed: 2 after CHT and 3 after RT. Relapse was local in all cases, with a case of concomitant hepatic involvement. No cases of ocular or meningeal relapse were observed. In contrast to high-dose cytarabine-containing CHT, salvage therapy with temozolomide produced good results. Two patients died of treatment-related neurotoxicity. Six patients are alive with a median follow-up of 17 months, and a 2-year overall survival (OS) of 61%. The median survival of the 9 patients who completed the planned treatment is 25+ months with a 2-year OS of 80%. HD-MTX, procarbazine and vincristine followed by RT, without intrathecal therapy, produce similar results with respect to other HD-MTX-containing regimens. These results seem to suggest that adequate meningeal treatment is possible without intrathecal drug delivery, even in CSF-positive patients. Corroborating data from a larger series are, however

  16. A PILOT AND FEASIBILITY CLINICAL TRIAL EVALUATING IMMUNO-GENE THERAPY OF MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA (MPM) USING INTRAPLEURAL DELIVERY OF ADENOVIRUS- INTERFERON-ALPHA (Ad.hIFN-α2b) IN COMBINATION WITH HIGH-DOSE CELECOXIB AND SYSTEMIC CHEMOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sterman, Daniel H; Alley, Evan; Stevenson, James; Friedberg, Joseph; Metzger, Susan; Recio, Adri; Moon, Edmund; Haas, Andrew R; Vachani, Anil; Katz, Sharyn I; Sun, Jing; Heitjan, Daniel F; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Litzky, Leslie; Yearley, Jennifer H; Tan, Kay See; Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Kennedy, Paul; Montaner, Luis J.; Cengel, Keith; Simone, Charles B; Culligan, Melissa; Langer, Corey J; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose “In situ vaccination” using immuno-gene therapy has the ability to induce polyclonal anti-tumor responses directed by the patient’s immune system. Experimental Design Patients with unresectable MPM received two intrapleural doses of a replication-defective adenoviral vector containing the human interferon-alpha2b gene (Ad.IFN) concomitant with a 14-day course of celecoxib followed by chemotherapy. Primary outcomes were safety, toxicity, and objective response rate; secondary outcomes included progression-free and overall survival. Bio-correlates on blood and tumor were measured. Results Forty subjects were treated: 18 received first-line pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, 22 received second-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed (n=7) or gemcitabine (n=15). Treatment was generally well tolerated. The overall response rate was 25% and the disease control rate was 88%. Median overall survival (MOS) for all patients with epithelial histology was 21 months versus 7 months for patients with non-epithelial histology. MOS in the first-line cohort was 12.5 months, while MOS for the second-line cohort was 21.5 months, with 32% of patients alive at 2 years. No biologic parameters were found to correlate with response, including numbers of activated blood T cells or NK cells, regulatory T cells in blood, peak levels of interferon-α in blood or pleural fluid, induction of anti-tumor antibodies, nor an immune-gene signature in pretreatment biopsies. Conclusions The combination of intrapleural Ad.IFN, celecoxib, and chemotherapy proved safe in patients with MPM. Overall survival rate was significantly higher than historical controls in the second-line group. Results of this study support proceeding with a multi-center randomized clinical trial of chemo-immunogene therapy versus standard chemotherapy alone. PMID:26968202

  17. Chemotherapy Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falling Fatigue Fertility and Sexual Side Effects Fever Hair ... Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment Some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy may increase a person's risk ...

  18. Feasibility of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with high-dose cisplatin after induction TPF chemotherapy in head and neck cancer: a critical review of the literature and the experience of the European Institute of Oncology.

    PubMed

    Alterio, D; Cossu Rocca, M; Russell-Edu, W; Dicuonzo, S; Fanetti, G; Marvaso, G; Preda, L; Zorzi, S; Verri, E; Nole', F; Jereczek-Fossa, B A

    2017-05-01

    Many concerns are related to the idea that the acute toxicity of induction chemotherapy (IC) performed with TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) could reduce the ability to deliver the subsequent standard concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head and neck cancer patients. We performed a critical review of the literature on the toxicity profile of the standard CRT administered after the IC with TPF. A total of 13 papers (including 950 patients) were selected. Results showed that most patients were treated with an adequate radiation total dose although a significant proportion of them (from 15 to 30%) completed the planned treatment with a delay of more than 5 days. A minority of patients were able to be treated with three cycles of concurrent cisplatin, but only few papers reported how many of patients reached the cumulative total dose of almost 200 mg/m(2) cisplatin. The rate of deaths due to treatment-related toxicity varied from 0 to 9% (median and mean 2%). Two prospective trials stopped patient enrollment due to acute treatment-related toxicity and because a low number of patients were able to undergo the planned full schedule of cisplatin during the CRT, respectively. Retrospective analysis of 45 patients treated at our institute showed that this schedule was feasible with manageable side effects. In conclusion, the literature data did not provide homogeneous information on the feasibility of the standard CRT after induction TPF. A more uniform data collection of treatment-related toxicity will be helpful in better selecting the patients who might adequately tolerate this multimodality strategy.

  19. A Phase I/II Radiation Dose Escalation Study With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Inoperable Stages I to III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Phase I Results of RTOG 0117

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Moughan, Jennifer; Graham, Mary V.; Byhardt, Roger; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Fowler, Jack; Purdy, James A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: In preparation for a Phase III comparison of high-dose versus standard-dose radiation therapy, this Phase I/II study was initiated to establish the maximum tolerated dose of radiation therapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy, using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included patients with histologically proven, unresectable Stages I to III non-small-cell lung cancer. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel, 50 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin, AUC of 2, given weekly. The radiation dose was to be sequentially intensified by increasing the daily fraction size, starting from 75.25 Gy/35 fractions. Results: The Phase I portion of this study accrued 17 patients from 10 institutions and was closed in January 2004. After the initial 8 patients were accrued to cohort 1, the trial closed temporarily on September 26, 2002, due to reported toxicity. Two acute treatment-related dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported at the time: a case of grade 5 and grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The protocol, therefore, was revised to de-escalate the radiation therapy dose (74 Gy/37 fractions). Patients in cohort 1 continued to develop toxicity, with 6/8 (75%) patients eventually developing grade >=3 events. Cohort 2 accrued 9 patients. There was one DLT, a grade 3 esophagitis, in cohort 2 in the first 5 patients (1/5 patients) and no DLTs for the next 2 patients (0/2 patients). Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 74 Gy/37 fractions (2.0 Gy per fraction) using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent paclitaxel and carboplatin therapy. This dose level in the Phase II portion has been well tolerated, with low rates of acute and late lung toxicities.

  20. Lack of prognostic significance of the germinal-center phenotype in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy with and without rituximab.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ivana; Mitrović, Zdravko; Aurer, Igor; Basić-Kinda, Sandra; Radman, Ivo; Ajduković, Radmila; Labar, Boris; Dotlić, Snjezana; Nola, Marin

    2009-07-01

    The influence of the germinal-center B-cell (GCB) and the non-GCB phenotypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) on the outcome of 92 patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like chemotherapy, with or without rituximab was determined in this study. The differentiation between the GCB and non-GCB types was arrived at by immunohistochemistry using previously published criteria. Thirty-nine patients had the GCB and 53 had the non-GCB type of DLBCL. Forty-nine patients were treated with rituximab and chemotherapy; 43 were treated with chemotherapy alone. The GCB and non-GCB group did not differ in their international prognostic index factors and score, presence of bulky disease, or frequency of rituximab treatment. Median follow-up of the surviving patients was carried out for 37 months. There was no difference between the GCB and non-GCB groups in both overall response rates (67 vs. 70%, respectively) and estimated rates of 3-year event-free (46 vs. 49%, respectively) and overall (54 vs. 56%, respectively) survival. In addition, no differences of the outcomes were observed between the subgroups treated with or without rituximab. The patients of this study with immunohistochemically determined GCB-type DLBCL did not have an improved prognosis, irrespective of whether they had received rituximab or not.

  1. High lipophilicity and high daily dose of oral medications are associated with significant risk for drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of drug failure in clinical trials and a major reason for drug withdrawals from the market. Although there is evidence that dosages of ≥100 mg/day are associated with increased risk for hepatotoxicity, many drugs are safe at such dosages. There is an unmet need to predict risk for DILI more reliably, and lipophilicity might be a contributing factor. We analyzed the combined factors of daily dose and lipophilicity for 164 US Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medications and observed high risk for hepatotoxicity (odds ratio [OR], 14.05; P < 0.001) for drugs given at dosages ≥100 mg/day and octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) ≥3. This defined the "rule-of-two." Similar results were obtained for an independent set of 179 oral medications with 85% of the rule-of-two positives being associated with hepatotoxicity (OR, 3.89; P < 0.01). Using the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, the rule-of-two performed best in predicting DILI in seven therapeutic categories. Among 15 rule-of-two positives, 14 were withdrawn from hepatotoxic drugs, and one was over-the-counter medication labeled for liver injury. We additionally examined drug pairs that have similar chemical structures and act on the same molecular target but differ in their potential for DILI. Again, the rule-of-two predicted hepatotoxicity reliably. Finally, the rule-of-two was applied to clinical case studies to identify hepatotoxic drugs in complex comedication regimes to further demonstrate its use. Apart from dose, lipophilicity contributes significantly to risk for hepatotoxicity. Applying the rule-of-two is an appropriate means of estimating risk for DILI compared with dose alone. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Paulus, Rebecca; Ettinger, David S.; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.; Choy, Hak

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538

  3. Myeloablative chemotherapy for recurrent aggressive oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, G.; Swinnen, L.; Bayer, R.; Rosenfeld, S.; Salzman, D.; Paleologos, N.; Kaminer, L.; Forsyth, P.; Stewart, D.; Peterson, K.; Hu, W.; Macdonald, D.; Ramsay, D.; Smith, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the duration of tumor control and the toxicities of dose-intense myeloablative chemotherapy for patients with recurrent oligodendrogliomas. Patients with previously irradiated oligodendrogliomas, either pure or mixed, that were contrast enhancing, measurable, and behaving aggressively at recurrence were eligible for this study. Only complete responders or major partial responders (75 % reduction in tumor size) to induction chemotherapy--either intensive-dose procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or cisplatin plus etoposide-could receive high-dose thiotepa (300 mg/m2/day for 3 days) followed by hematopoietic reconstitution using either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. Thirty-eight patients began induction chemotherapy and 20 (10 men, 10 women; median age 46 years; median Karnofsky score 80) received high-dose thiotepa. For the high-dose group, the median event-free, progression-free, and overall survival times from recurrence were 17, 20, and 49 months, respectively. Tumor control in excess of 2 years was observed in 6 patients (30%). Four patients (20%) are alive and tumor free 27 to 77 months (median, 42 months) from the start of induction therapy; however, fatal treatment-related toxicities also occurred in 4 patients (20%). Three patients died as a result of a progressive encephalopathy which, in 2 instances, was accompanied by a wasting syndrome; 1 patient died as a consequence of an intracerebral (intratumoral) hemorrhage. Fatal toxicities occurred in patients with pretreatment Karnofsky scores of 60 or 70. High-dose thiotepa to consolidate response was a disappointing treatment strategy for patients with recurrent aggressive oligodendroglial neoplasms, although several patients had durable responses. Moreover, as prescribed, high-dose thiotepa had significant toxic effects in previously irradiated patients, especially those with poorer performance status. PMID:11303620

  4. Pegfilgrastim administration after 24 or 72 or 96 h to allow dose-dense anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: a single-center experience within the GIM2 randomized phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Matteo; Bruzzi, Paolo; Poggio, Francesca; Pastorino, Simona; Gardin, Giovanni; Clavarezza, Matteo; Bighin, Claudia; Pronzato, Paolo; Del Mastro, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the safest timing of pegfilgrastim administration in dose-dense anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy, three different cohorts of patients enrolled in the Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) 2 study and treated at the coordinating center received pegfilgrastim 24 h (cohort A) or 72 h (cohort B) or 96 h (cohort C) after chemotherapy. A total of 41 patients were included. The safety of pegfilgrastim administration in terms of occurrence of early and late leukocytosis and the behavior of white blood cells (WBC) counts in the three cohorts across all chemotherapy cycles were evaluated. Anthracycline and taxane cycles were analyzed separately. The occurrence of early leukocytosis was a more common event in patients in cohort A in both anthracycline and taxane cycles (75 and 66.7%) as compared to cohort B (50 and 60%) and cohort C (66.7 and 33.3%). More patients in cohort C developed late leukocytosis in both anthracycline and taxane cycles (50 and 100%) as compared to cohort A (0 and 66.7%) and cohort B (35.7 and 86.7%). Patients in cohort A experienced the highest median value of WBC count 24 h after pegfilgrastim administration in both anthracycline and taxane cycles (61.2 × 10(3)/μl and 67.8 × 10(3)/μl). Patients in cohort C experienced the highest median value of WBC count at day 13 in both anthracycline and taxane cycles (19.4 × 10(3)/μl and 24.2 × 10(3)/μl). For the prevention of leukocytosis, the safest timing of pegfilgrastim administration based on WBC count in dose-dense anthracycline- and taxane-based regimens seems to be 72 h after chemotherapy. This study is registered with https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00433420.

  5. Hypoalbuminemia is significantly associated with increased clearance time of high dose methotrexate in patients being treated for lymphoma or leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Samantha N; Buie, Larry W; Adel, Nelly; Goldman, Debra A; Devlin, Sean M; Douer, Dan

    2016-12-01

    As a weak acid, methotrexate (MTX) is bound to serum albumin and has variable protein binding. The purpose of this study was to assess serum albumin's relationship with MTX pharmacokinetics by comparing MTX clearance and toxicities between patients with normal serum albumin to those with hypoalbuminemia. This single-center retrospective study included adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma who received their first MTX at a dose ≥1 g/m(2). Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin ≤3.4 g/dL. MTX clearance was defined as the first documented time the MTX level ≤0.05 μM. Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine differences in toxicities, and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess relationship with time to clearance. Of 523 patients identified, 167 patients were evaluable. One hundred thirty-five patients had normal serum albumin and 32 had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing edema, ascites or pleural effusions (34 vs. 12 %, p = 0.006), and the concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.021). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a significantly longer time to MTX clearance (median 96 vs. 72 h, p = 0.004). In addition, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher proportion of hyperbilirubinemia and significantly longer hospitalization (median 14 vs. 5 days, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hypoalbuminemia was associated with increased time to MTX clearance and increased length of hospitalization. High dose MTX is safe to administer in patients with low albumin levels, with appropriate leucovorin rescue, and good supportive care.

  6. A Phase I/II Radiation Dose Escalation Study with Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients with Inoperable Stages I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Phase I Results of RTOG 0117

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Moughan, Jennifer; Graham, Mary V.; Byhardt, Roger; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Fowler, Jack; Purdy, James A.; Michalski, Jeff M; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

    2009-01-01

    Background In preparation for a Phase III comparison of high-dose versus standard dose radiation therapy, this Phase I/II study was initiated to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation therapy, in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy, using 3DCRT for NSCLC. Methods Eligibility included patients with histologically proven, unresectable Stages I-III NSCLC. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC=2 given weekly. Radiation dose was to be sequentially intensified by increasing the daily fraction size starting from 75.25 Gy/35 fractions. Results The Phase I portion of this study accrued 17 patients from 10 institutions and was closed in January 2004. After the initial eight patients were accrued to Cohort 1, the trial closed temporarily on September 26, 2002 due to reported toxicity. Two acute treatment-related DLTs were reported at the time: a grade 5 and a grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The protocol, therefore, was revised to de-escalate the RT dose (74 Gy/37 fractions). Patients in Cohort 1 continued to develop toxicity with 6/8 (75%) eventually developing ≥ grade 3 events. Cohort 2 accrued 9 patients. There was one DLT, a grade 3 esophagitis, in Cohort 2 in the first 5 patients (1/5) and no DLTs for the next 2 patients (0/2). Conclusions The MTD was determined to be 74 Gy/37 fractions (2.0 Gy per fraction) using 3DCRT with concurrent paclitaxel and carboplatin. This dose level, in the Phase II portion, has been well tolerated with low rates of acute and late lung toxicities. PMID:20457350

  7. Discovery and Delivery of Synergistic Chemotherapy Drug Combinations to Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Kathryn Militar

    Chemotherapy combinations for cancer treatments harbor immense therapeutic potentials which have largely been untapped. Of all diseases, clinical studies of drug combinations are the most prevalent in oncology, yet their effectiveness is disputable, as complete tumor regressions are rare. Our research has been devoted towards developing delivery vehicles for combinations of chemotherapy drugs which elicit significant tumor reduction yet limit toxicity in healthy tissue. Current administration methods assume that chemotherapy combinations at maximum tolerable doses will provide the greatest therapeutic effect -- a presumption which often leads to unprecedented side effects. Contrary to traditional administration, we have found that drug ratios rather than total cumulative doses govern combination therapeutic efficacy. In this thesis, we have developed nanoparticles to incorporate synergistic ratios of chemotherapy combinations which significantly inhibit cancer cell growth at lower doses than would be required for their single drug counterparts. The advantages of multi-drug incorporation in nano-vehicles are many: improved accumulation in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention effect, limited uptake in healthy tissue, and controlled exposure of tumor tissue to optimal synergistic drug ratios. To exploit these advantages for polychemotherapy delivery, two prominent nanoparticles were investigated: liposomes and polymer-drug conjugates. Liposomes represent the oldest class of nanoparticles, with high drug loading capacities and excellent biocompatibility. Polymer-drug conjugates offer controlled drug incorporations through reaction stoichiometry, and potentially allow for delivery of precise ratios. Here, we show that both vehicles, when armed with synergistic ratios of chemotherapy drugs, significantly inhibit tumor growth in an aggressive mouse breast carcinoma model. Furthermore, versatile drug incorporation methods investigated here can be broadly

  8. Convection-enhanced delivery of Ls-TPT enables an effective, continuous, low-dose chemotherapy against malignant glioma xenograft model1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Krauze, Michal T.; Noble, Charles O.; Drummond, Daryl C.; Kirpotin, Dmitri B.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Park, John W.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of malignant gliomas represents one of the most formidable challenges in oncology. The combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy yields median survivals of less than one year. Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive surgical technique, convection-enhanced delivery (CED), for local administration of a novel nanoparticle liposome containing topotecan. CED of this liposomal topotecan (Ls-TPT) resulted in extended brain tissue retention (t½ = 1.5 days), whereas free topotecan was rapidly cleared (t½ = 0.1 days) after CED. The favorable pharmacokinetic profile of extended topotecan release for about seven days, along with biodistribution featuring perivascular accumulation of the nanoparticles, provided, in addition to the known topoisomerase I inhibition, an effective antiangiogenic therapy. In the rat intracranial U87MG tumor model, vascular targeting of Ls-TPT with CED was associated with reductions in laminin expression and vascular density compared to free topotecan or control treatments. A single CED treatment on day 7 showed that free topotecan conferred no survival benefit versus control. However, Ls-TPT produced a significant (P = 0.0002) survival benefit, with six of seven complete cures. Larger U87MG tumors, where CED of Ls-TPT on day 12 resulted in one of six cures, indicated the necessity to cover the entire tumor with the infused therapeutic agent. CED of Ls-TPT was also efficacious in the intracranial U251MG tumor model (P = 0.0005 versus control). We conclude that the combination of a novel nanoparticle Ls-TPT and CED administration was very effective in treating experimental brain tumors. PMID:16723630

  9. Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schüller, J.; Kroiss, A.; Dinstl, K.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic artery chemotherapy was given to 36 patients, using totally implantable devices consisting of a port and external pump. Twenty-seven patients had inoperable liver metastases of colorectal origin. The infusion system was inserted by laparotomy into the hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery. There was no operative mortality. Thirteen infusion systems could not be used for chemotherapy due to dislodgement, early death and lack of follow-up. FUdR was infused every two weeks. There were minor local complications like thrombosis of the system and dislodgement of the port. Toxic effects could be managed by reducing the dose. Response to chemotherapy was evaluated by survival, clinical condition, CEA, ultrasound and CT six months after onset of arterial chemotherapy. Ten/twenty-three patients (43%) responded to therapy, eight of them died on the average 19 months after initial chemotherapy. Six patients were non-responders, seven had stable disease. Five/ten patients developed extrahepatic metastases. Mean survival time was 13.1 months, mean interval until relapse 10.6 months. PMID:2149279

  10. Long-term survival after high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell rescue for high-risk, locally advanced/inflammatory, and metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    VanderWalde, A; Ye, W; Frankel, P; Asuncion, D; Leong, L; Luu, T; Morgan, R; Twardowski, P; Koczywas, M; Pezner, R; Paz, I B; Margolin, K; Wong, J; Doroshow, J H; Forman, S; Shibata, S; Somlo, G

    2012-08-01

    Patients with high-risk locally advanced/inflammatory and oligometastatic (≤3 sites) breast cancer frequently relapse or experience early progression. High-dose chemotherapy combined with peripheral stem cell rescue may prolong progression-free survival/relapse-free survival (PFS/RFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, patients initiated high-dose chemotherapy with STAMP-V (carboplatin, thiotepa, and cyclophosphamide), ACT (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide), or tandem melphalan and STAMP-V. Eighty-six patients were diagnosed with locally advanced/inflammatory (17 inflammatory) breast cancer, and 12 were diagnosed with oligometastatic breast cancer. Median follow-up was 84 months (range, 6-136 months) for patients with locally advanced cancer and 40 months (range, 24-62 months) for those with metastatic cancer. In the patients with locally advanced cancer, 5-year RFS and OS were 53% (95% CI, 41%-63%) and 71% (95% CI, 60%-80%), respectively, hormone receptors were positive in 74%, and HER2 overexpression was seen in 23%. In multivariate analysis, hormone receptor-positive disease and lower stage were associated with better 5-year RFS (60% for ER [estrogen receptor]/PR [progesterone receptor]-positive versus 30% for ER/PR-negative; P < .01) and OS (83% for ER/PR-positive versus 38% for ER/PR-negative; P < .001). In the patients with metastatic cancer, 3-year PFS and OS were 49% (95% CI, 19%-73%) and 73% (95% CI, 38%-91%), respectively. The favorable long-term RFS/PFS and OS for high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral stem cell rescue in this selected patient population reflect the relative safety of the procedure and warrant validation in defined subgroups through prospective, randomized, multi-institutional trials.

  11. Cost effectiveness of pegfilgrastim versus filgrastim after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma and myeloma: an economic evaluation of the PALM Trial.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Lionel; Lefranc, Anne; Pérol, David; Quittet, Philippe; Schmidt-Tanguy, Aline; Siani, Carole; de Peretti, Christian; Favier, Bertrand; Biron, Pierre; Moreau, Philippe; Bay, Jacques Olivier; Lissandre, Séverine; Jardin, Fabrice; Espinouse, Daniel; Sebban, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    Use of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) filgrastim accelerates neutrophil recovery following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Since filgrastim requires multiple daily administrations, forms of rhG-CSF with a longer half life, including pegfilgrastim, have been developed. Pegfilgrastim is safe and effective in supporting neutrophil recovery and reducing febrile neutropenia after conventional chemotherapy. Pegfilgrastim has also been successfully used to support patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation for haematological malignancies. To our knowledge, no cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of pegfilgrastim in this setting has been published yet. We undertook a CEA to compare a single injection of pegfilgrastim versus repeated administrations of filgrastim in patients who had undergone PBSC transplantation for lymphoma or myeloma. The CEA was set in France and covered a period of 100 ± 10 days from transplant. The CEA was designed as part of an open-label, multicentre, randomized phase II trial. Costs were assessed from the hospital's point of view and are expressed in 2009 euros. Costs computation focused on inpatient, outpatient, and home care. Costs in the two arms of the study were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. When differences were statistically significant, multiple regression analyses were performed in order to identify cost drivers. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated for the major endpoints of the trial; i.e., duration of febrile neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <0.5 × 10(9)/L and temperature ≥38 °C), duration of neutropenia (ANC <1.0 × 10(9)/L and ANC <0.5 × 10(9)/L), duration of thrombopenia (platelets <50 × 10(9)/L and <20 × 10(9)/L), and days with a temperature ≥38 °C). Uncertainty around the ICER was captured by a probabilistic analysis using a non-parametric bootstrap method. 151 patients were enrolled at ten French

  12. Immune Signatures Following Single Dose Trastuzumab Predict Pathologic Response to Preoperative Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varadan, Vinay; Gilmore, Hannah; Miskimen, Kristy L.S.; Tuck, David; Parsai, Shikha; Awadallah, Amad; Krop, Ian E.; Winer, Eric P.; Bossuyt, Veerle; Somlo, George; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa M.; Fenton, Mary Anne; Sikov, William; Harris, Lyndsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Recent data suggest that intrinsic subtype and immune cell infiltration may predict response to trastuzumab-based therapy. We studied the interaction between these factors, changes in immune signatures following brief exposure to trastuzumab, and achievement of pathologic complete response (pCR) to subsequent preoperative trastuzumab and chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. Experimental Design In patients enrolled on two multicenter trials (03-311 and 211B), tumor core biopsies were obtained at baseline and after brief exposure to single-agent trastuzumab or nab-paclitaxel. Gene expression profiles were assessed to assign PAM50 subtypes, measure immune cell activation, and were correlated with response. Results The pCR rate was significantly higher in HER2-enriched tumors in the Discovery, 03-311 (36%, P = 0.043) dataset, as compared with other subtypes, which validated in 211B (50%, P = 0.048). Significant increases in a signature of immune cell admixture (Immune Index) were observed only following brief exposure to trastuzumab in HER2-enriched tumors (Discovery/03-311, P = 0.05; Validation/211B, P = 0.02). Increased Immune Index was predictive of response after brief exposure (03-311, P = 0.03; 211B, P = 0.04), but not at baseline, in addition to increased expression of a CD4+ follicular helper T-cell signature (03-311, P = 0.05; 211B, P = 0.04). Brief exposure to trastuzumab significantly increased gene expression of the T-cell marker PD-1 in HER2-enriched tumors (Discovery/03-311, P = 0.045) and PD-1 positivity by IHC (Validation/211B, P = 0.035). Conclusions Correlations between pCR rates, increases in Immune Index and markers of T-cell activity following brief exposure to trastuzumab in HER2-enriched tumors provide novel insights into the interaction between tumor biology, antitumor immunity, and response to treatment, and suggest potential clinically useful biomarkers in HER2+ breast cancers. PMID:26842237

  13. Phase I trial of split-dose induction docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) chemotherapy followed by curative surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (TISOC-1)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induction chemotherapy (ICT) with docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) followed by radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for unresectable locally advanced head and neck cancer. This phase I study was designed to investigate the safety and tolerability of a split-dose TPF ICT regimen prior to surgery for locally advanced resectable oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Methods Patients received TPF split on two dosages on day 1 and 8 per cycle for one or three 3-week cycles prior to surgery and postoperative radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Docetaxel was escalated in two dose levels, 40 mg/m2 (DL 0) and 30 mg/m2 (DL −1), plus 40 mg/m2 cisplatin and 2000 mg/m2 fluorouracil per week using a 3 +3 dose escalation algorithm. Results Eighteen patients were enrolled and were eligible for toxicity and response. A maximum tolerated dose of 30 mg/m2 docetaxel per week was reached. The most common grade 3+ adverse event was neutropenia during ICT in 10 patients. Surgery reached R0 resection in all cases. Nine patients (50%) showed complete pathologic regression. Conclusions A split-dose regime of TPF prior to surgery is feasible, tolerated and merits additional investigation in a phase II study with a dose of 30 mg/m docetaxel per week. Trial registration number NCT01108042 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier) PMID:23083061

  14. Seven year update of an EORTC phase III trial of high-dose intensity M-VAC chemotherapy and G-CSF versus classic M-VAC in advanced urothelial tract tumours.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, C N; de Mulder, P; Schornagel, J H; Theodore, C; Fossa, S D; van Oosterom, A T; Witjes, J A; Spina, M; van Groeningen, C J; Duclos, B; Roberts, J T; de Balincourt, C; Collette, L

    2006-01-01

    EORTC protocol 30924 is an international randomized trial reporting a 7.3 year update of a 2 weekly regimen of high-dose intensity chemotherapy with M-VAC plus granulocyte colony stimulating factor (HD-M-VAC) compared to classic M-VAC in advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Two hundred and sixty three untreated patients with bidimensionally measurable TCC were included. In an intention to treat analysis, there were 28 complete responses (CR) (21%) and 55 partial responses (PR) (41%), for an overall response rate (RR) of 64% on the HD-M-VAC arm. On M-VAC, there were 12 CR (9%) and 53 PR (41%), for an overall RR of 50% . The P-value for the difference in CR was 0.009; and for RR, was 0.06. After a median follow-up of 7.3 years, 24.6% are alive on the HD-M-VAC arm vs. 13.2% on the M-VAC arm. Median progression-free survival was better with HD-MVAC (9.5 months) vs. M-VAC (8.1 months). The mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 0.76. The 2-year survival rate for HD-M-VAC was 36.7% vs. 26.2% for M-VAC. At 5 years, the survival rate was 21.8% in the HD-M-VAC vs. 13.5%. Median survival was 15.1 months on HD-MVAC and 14.9 months on M-VAC. There was one death from toxicity in each arm; and more patients died to malignant disease in the M-VAC arm (76%) than in the HD-M-VAC arm (64.9%). With longer follow-up initial results have been confirmed, and shows that HD-M-VAC produces a borderline statistically significant relative reduction in the risk of progression and death compared to M-VAC.

  15. High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation as Adjuvant Treatment in High-Risk Breast Cancer: Data from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Lanza, Francesco; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Öztürk, Mustafa; Blaise, Didier; Leno Núñez, Rubén; Schouten, Harry C; Bosi, Alberto; De Giorgi, Ugo; Generali, Daniele; Rosti, Giovanni; Necchi, Andrea; Ravelli, Andrea; Bengala, Carmelo; Badoglio, Manuela; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Bregni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess toxicity and efficacy of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in 583 high-risk breast cancer (BC) patients (>3 positive nodes) who were transplanted between 1995 and 2005 in Europe. All patients received surgery before transplant, and 55 patients (9.5%) received neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. Median age was 47.1 years, 57.3% of patients were premenopausal at treatment, 56.5% had endocrine-responsive tumors, 19.5% had a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumor, and 72.4% had ≥10 positive lymph nodes at surgery. Seventy-nine percent received a single HDC procedure. Overall transplant-related mortality was 1.9%, at .9% between 2001 and 2005, whereas secondary tumor-related mortality was .9%. With a median follow-up of 120 months, overall survival and disease-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years in the whole population were 75% and 64% and 58% and 44%, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that rates of overall survival were significantly better in patients with endocrine-responsive tumors, <10 positive lymph nodes, and smaller tumor size. HER2 status did not affect survival probability. Adjuvant HDC with AHSCT has a low mortality rate and provides impressive long-term survival rates in patients with high-risk BC. Our results suggest that this treatment modality should be considered in selected high-risk BC patients and further investigated in clinical trials.

  16. Impact of High-Dose Chemotherapy on the Ability to Deliver Subsequent Local-Regional Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 9082

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Cirrincione, Constance M.S.; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.; Laurie, Frances; Glicksman, Arvin S.; Vredenburgh, James; Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Crump, Michael; Richardson, Paul G.; Schuster, Michael W.; Ma Jinli; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Norton, Larry; Seagren, Steven

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To report, from Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 9082, the impact of high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and BCNU (HD-CPB) vs. intermediate-dose CPB (ID-CPB) on the ability to start and complete the planned course of local-regional radiotherapy (RT) for women with breast cancer involving >=10 axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1998, 785 patients were randomized. The HD-CPB and ID-CPB arms were balanced regarding patient characteristics. The HD-CPB and ID-CPB arms were compared on the probability of RT initiation, interruption, modification, or incompleteness. The impact of clinical variables and interactions between variables were also assessed. Results: Radiotherapy was initiated in 82% (325 of 394) of HD-CPB vs. 92% (360 of 391) of ID-CPB patients (p = 0.001). On multivariate analyses, RT was less likely given to patients who were randomized to HD treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 0 .38, p < 0.001), older (p = 0.005), African American (p = 0.003), postmastectomy (p = 0.02), or estrogen receptor positive (p = 0.03). High-dose treatment had a higher rate of RT interruption (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.001, OR = 2.05), modification (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.001, OR = 2.46), and early termination of RT (9% vs. 2%, p = 0.0001, OR = 5.35), compared with ID. Conclusion: Treatment arm significantly related to initiation, interruption, modification, and early termination of RT. Patients randomized to HD-CPB were less likely to initiate RT, and of those who did, they were more likely to have RT interrupted, modified, and terminated earlier than those randomized to ID-CPB. The observed lower incidence of RT usage in African Americans vs. non-African Americans warrants further study.

  17. Switching to a Pediatric Dose O-Arm Protocol in Spine Surgery Significantly Reduced Patient Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Alvin W; Luo, T David; McIntosh, Amy L; Schueler, Beth A; Winkler, Jennifer A; Stans, Anthony A; Larson, A Noelle

    2016-09-01

    Intraoperative computed tomography and image-guided navigation improve the accuracy of screw placement. Radiation exposure to the patient remains a primary drawback. The objective of the present study was to compare the total intraoperative radiation dose and assess the resultant image quality for O-arm-assisted pedicle screw insertion, among 3 protocols: default (manufacturer recommended), institutional (reduced dose utilized in our institution), and pediatric (new protocol with lowest dose). Thirty-seven consecutive patients under the age of 18 years underwent posterior instrumentation of the spine and underwent an intraoperative O-arm scan. Techniques (kV and mAs) for default and institutional dose settings were manually adjusted based on spinal level and body weight. Pediatric dose techniques were 80 kV/80 mAs with no adjustment for level or weight. The number of scans repeated because of inadequate imaging was assessed, and the mean estimated effective dose between the 3 protocols was compared. Sixty-eight scans were performed in 37 consecutive patients with mean age of 14 years and mean weight of 55 kg. For reference, the effective radiation dose of a chest x-ray is approximately 0.10 mSv. Use of the default protocol resulted in higher mean effective dose per scan of 4.65 mSv, whereas institutional protocol resulted in 2.37 mSv. The pediatric protocol reduced the mean dose to 0.65 mSv. The total effective dose per surgery was: 1.17 mSv (pediatric), 3.83 mSv (institutional), and 12.79 mSv (default) (P<0.0001 each). All scans lead to satisfactory image quality except in 1 patient >100 kg with stainless steel implants. There were no neurological or other implant-related complications. The pediatric protocol resulted in satisfactory image quality with the lowest total radiation dose, only 1/10 of that of the default protocol. We successfully switched to a pediatric low-dose O-arm protocol in clinical practice, reducing the dose to <1/4 of the mean annual natural

  18. Impact of Drug Therapy, Radiation Dose, and Dose Rate on Renal Toxicity Following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E. Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a radiation dose response and to determine the dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influence the incidence of late renal toxicity following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: A comprehensive retrospective review was performed of articles reporting late renal toxicity, along with renal dose, fractionation, dose rate, chemotherapy regimens, and potential nephrotoxic agents. In the final analysis, 12 articles (n = 1,108 patients), consisting of 24 distinct TBI/chemotherapy conditioning regimens were included. Regimens were divided into three subgroups: adults (age {>=}18 years), children (age <18 years), and mixed population (both adults and children). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors significantly associated with late renal complications. Results: Individual analysis was performed on each population subgroup. For the purely adult population, the only significant variable was total dose. For the mixed population, the significant variables included total dose, dose rate, and the use of fludarabine. For the pediatric population, only the use of cyclosporin or teniposide was significant; no dose response was noted. A logistic model was generated with the exclusion of the pediatric population because of its lack of dose response. This model yielded the following significant variables: total dose, dose rate, and number of fractions. Conclusion: A dose response for renal damage after TBI was identified. Fractionation and low dose rates are factors to consider when delivering TBI to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Drug therapy also has a major impact on kidney function and can modify the dose-response function.

  19. Phase I Study of Concurrent High-Dose Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy With Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin and Vinorelbine for Unresectable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, Ikuo; Sumi, Minako; Ito, Yoshinori; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Kubota, Kaoru; Tamura, Tomohide

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose in concurrent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with chemotherapy for unresectable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Eligible patients with unresectable Stage III NSCLC, age {>=}20 years, performance status 0-1, percent of volume of normal lung receiving 20 GY or more (V{sub 20}) {<=}30% received three to four cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} Day 1) and vinorelbine (20 mg/m{sup 2} Days 1 and 8) repeated every 4 weeks. The doses of 3D-CRT were 66 Gy, 72 Gy, and 78 Gy at dose levels 1 to 3, respectively. Results: Of the 17, 16, and 24 patients assessed for eligibility, 13 (76%), 12 (75%), and 6 (25%) were enrolled at dose levels 1 to 3, respectively. The main reasons for exclusion were V{sub 20} >30% (n = 10) and overdose to the esophagus (n = 8) and brachial plexus (n = 2). There were 26 men and 5 women, with a median age of 60 years (range, 41-75). The full planned dose of radiotherapy could be administered to all the patients. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were noted in 24 (77%) and 5 (16%) of the 31 patients, respectively. Grade 4 infection, Grade 3 esophagitis, and Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity were noted in 1 patient, 2 patients, and 1 patient, respectively. The dose-limiting toxicity was noted in 17% of the patients at each dose level. The median survival and 3-year and 4-year survival rates were 41.9 months, 72.3%, and 49.2%, respectively. Conclusions: 72 Gy was the maximum dose that could be achieved in most patients, given the predetermined normal tissue constraints.

  20. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Garces, Yolanda I. . E-mail: garces.yolanda@Mayo.edu; Okuno, Scott H.; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Bot, Brian M.; Martens, John M.; Wender, Donald B.; Soori, Gamini S.; Moore, Dennis F.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Jett, James R.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m{sup 2}) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m{sup 2}) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m{sup 2}) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade {>=}4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade {>=}3 dyspnea, or Grade {>=}2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade {>=}3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine.

  1. Chemotherapy in Retinoblastoma: Current Approaches.

    PubMed

    Yanık, Özge; Gündüz, Kaan; Yavuz, Kıvılcım; Taçyıldız, Nurdan; Ünal, Emel

    2015-12-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common childhood malignant intraocular tumor. Although enucleation and external beam radiotherapy have been historically used, today the most commonly used eye-sparing approach is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used in both intraocular and extraocular RB cases. Chemotherapeutic agents may be applied in different ways, including systemic, subconjunctival, intra-arterial and intravitreal routes. The main purposes of application of systemic therapy are to reduce the tumor size for local treatment (chemoreduction), or to reduce the risk of metastasis after enucleation surgery (adjuvant therapy). Intra-arterial chemotherapy with the current name "super-selective intra-arterial infusion therapy" could be applied as primary therapy in tumors confined to the retina or as a secondary method in tumor recurrence. The most important advantage of intra-arterial therapy is the prevention of systemic chemotherapy complications. Intravitreal chemotherapy is administered in the presence of persistent or recurrent vitreous seeding. The term "extraocular RB" includes orbital invasion and metastatic disease. Current treatment for orbital invasion is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical enucleation and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery. In metastatic disease, regional lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and/or central nervous system (CNS) involvement may occur. Among them, CNS involvement has the worst prognosis, remaining at almost 100% mortality. In metastatic disease, high-dose salvage chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue therapy are the possible treatment options; radiotherapy could also be added to the protocol according to the side of involvement.

  2. Chemotherapy in Retinoblastoma: Current Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Yanık, Özge; Gündüz, Kaan; Yavuz, Kıvılcım; Taçyıldız, Nurdan; Ünal, Emel

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common childhood malignant intraocular tumor. Although enucleation and external beam radiotherapy have been historically used, today the most commonly used eye-sparing approach is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used in both intraocular and extraocular RB cases. Chemotherapeutic agents may be applied in different ways, including systemic, subconjunctival, intra-arterial and intravitreal routes. The main purposes of application of systemic therapy are to reduce the tumor size for local treatment (chemoreduction), or to reduce the risk of metastasis after enucleation surgery (adjuvant therapy). Intra-arterial chemotherapy with the current name “super-selective intra-arterial infusion therapy” could be applied as primary therapy in tumors confined to the retina or as a secondary method in tumor recurrence. The most important advantage of intra-arterial therapy is the prevention of systemic chemotherapy complications. Intravitreal chemotherapy is administered in the presence of persistent or recurrent vitreous seeding. The term “extraocular RB” includes orbital invasion and metastatic disease. Current treatment for orbital invasion is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical enucleation and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery. In metastatic disease, regional lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and/or central nervous system (CNS) involvement may occur. Among them, CNS involvement has the worst prognosis, remaining at almost 100% mortality. In metastatic disease, high-dose salvage chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue therapy are the possible treatment options; radiotherapy could also be added to the protocol according to the side of involvement. PMID:27800245

  3. [Chemotherapy-induced stomatitis and diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Shigenori; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2011-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a clinically important and sometimes dose-limiting toxicity of cancer treatment, including standard-dose chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Consequently, dose reductions or treatment delays resulting from mucositis may impair treatment effectiveness. Symptoms are oral mucositis, dysphagia, abdominal pain and diarrhea, depending on the affected site. Although the underlying pathobiology of oral mucositis has been considerably elucidated over the past decade, there are few interventions for the prevention or treatment validated by randomized trials. The most commonly accepted intervention is basic oral care. Diarrhea is most common in patients treated with irinotecan and in some cases, life-threatening. No definitive interventions for the prevention of diarrhea exist, but there is evidence that loperamide and octreotide are effective for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. In future, there is a need for well designed trials, preferably including a placebo or no treatment control, validating more effective interventions for managing chemotherapy- induced mucositis.

  4. Induction chemotherapy in metastatic neuroblastoma--does dose influence response? A critical review of published data standards, options and recommendations (SOR) project of the National Federation of French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC).

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, C R; Blanc Vincent, M P; Bergeron, C; Fervers, B; Philip, T

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, from a review of published data, whether in stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age, the dose or scheduling of induction chemotherapy influenced the response rate in distant metastases. Publications relating to induction chemotherapy since the introduction of cisplatin/epipodophyllotoxin combinations were identified using Medline, Current Contents and personal reference lists. Thirteen publications were identified which described 17 regimens involving 948 children. The doses and the scheduling of the various regimens were compared with a standard regimen OPEC (vincristine, cisplatin, teniposide, cyclophosphamide). These were correlated with the reported response rates in the bone marrow. Due to a lack of standardisation in the nature of restaging investigations, timing of restaging and definitions of response it was difficult to compare all studies. The complete response rate at distant metastases ranged from less than 40% to over 90%. For individual drugs; the comparative doses given in each course ranged up to 4.2 g/m(2) for cyclophosphamide, 280 mg/m(2) for cisplatin, 600 mg/m(2) for etoposide and 4.5 mg/m(2) for vincristine. There was no evidence of any positive correlation between response rate in the marrow and either the dose of any individual drug or the schedule used. In contrast to a previous study which included a number of older studies where disease assessment was even more variable, this analysis has failed to show any justification for the routine use of very intensive induction regimens in this disease. Such an approach should only be taken in the context of randomised trials in which timing and methods of reassessment can be standardised. Until such studies demonstrate superiority either in terms of response rate or progression-free survival lower morbidity regimens should remain the standard therapy.

  5. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  6. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  7. Symptom incidence, distress, cancer-related distress, and adherence to chemotherapy among African American women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yee, Melissa K; Sereika, Susan M; Bender, Catherine M; Brufsky, Adam M; Connolly, Mary C; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q

    2017-06-01

    There is a persistent racial survival disparity between African American (AA) and white women with breast cancer. There is evidence that symptom incidence, associated distress, and overall cancer-related distress may be unexplored, important contributing factors. The purpose of the current study was to: 1) describe and compare the number of chemotherapy-related symptoms and associated distress among AA women with breast cancer over the course of chemotherapy at 3 time points (at baseline before initiating chemotherapy, midpoint, and at the completion of chemotherapy); and 2) to describe the relationship between the number of chemotherapy-related symptoms and overall cancer distress compared with the ability to receive at least 85% of the prescribed chemotherapy within the prescribed timeframe. Descriptive, comparative, and correlational analyses of symptom incidence, symptom distress, cancer-related distress, and prescribed chemotherapy dose received among a cohort of AA women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer were performed. AA women (121 women) experienced worsening symptoms from baseline to midpoint in chemotherapy and then stabilized for the duration of therapy. The inability to receive 85% of the prescribed chemotherapy within a prescribed time point was found to be significantly correlated with midpoint symptom distress. The main findings of the current study were that AA women experience a deterioration in symptom distress over the course of chemotherapy from baseline (before chemotherapy) to the midpoint, which was found to be associated with less adherence to chemotherapy overall. Thus, the incidence and management of physical and emotional symptoms, as measured through a multidimensional symptom measurement tool, may be contributing to breast cancer dose disparity and should be explored further. Cancer 2017;123:2061-2069. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J.; Richard, S.; Khalil, A.; Alexandre, I.; Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G.; Lotz, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis. PMID:25493378

  9. Understanding Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may get chemotherapy before a peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Fill this section in with your doctor or nurse. I am getting chemo ... can be given in these forms: An IV (intravenously) A shot (injection) into a muscle or other part of your body A pill ...

  10. Chemotherapy regimens for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Loi, M; Roche, N; Alifano, M

    2009-12-01

    In spite of medical progresses, lung cancer still remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Treatment of lung cancer is based on a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, molecular targeted therapies and supportive cares. These different treatments have been largely evaluated in the last decades with an enormous quantity of available literature. In this paper, authors provide a short review on chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer, based on a selection of the most relevant trials. The use in different settings is reviewed, including adjuvant and neo-adjuvant treatments in operable patients as well as therapy in inoperable patients. The association with both radiotherapy and recently available molecular targeted therapies is also reviewed. In the adjuvant setting, chemotherapy achieved an approximately 5% increase in five-year survival, suggesting that studies to identify ideal candidates to this combined treatment are mandatory. In inoperable patients, the efficacy of chemotherapy has been definitively established, as it provides a significant survival advantage, with improved quality of life, over best supportive cares. Evidences exist on the benefit of the association of molecular targeted drugs to chemotherapy. However, more trials comparing combinations of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, biological therapies, at different doses and duration, are needed. Further research on toxicity and costs are also needed. The possibility of choosing the most appropriate cancer treatment on an individual basis represents the main challenge for the future.

  11. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anna Dorothea; Syn, Nicholas Lx; Moehler, Markus; Grothe, Wilfried; Yong, Wei Peng; Tai, Bee-Choo; Ho, Jingshan; Unverzagt, Susanne

    2017-08-29

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In "Western" countries, most people are either diagnosed at an advanced stage, or develop a relapse after surgery with curative intent. In people with advanced disease, significant benefits from targeted therapies are currently limited to HER-2 positive disease treated with trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, in first-line. In second-line, ramucirumab, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, demonstrated significant survival benefits. Thus, systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for advanced gastric cancer. Uncertainty remains regarding the choice of the regimen. To assess the efficacy of chemotherapy versus best supportive care (BSC), combination versus single-agent chemotherapy and different chemotherapy combinations in advanced gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase up to June 2016, reference lists of studies, and contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We considered only RCTs on systemic, intravenous or oral chemotherapy versus BSC, combination versus single-agent chemotherapy and different chemotherapy regimens in advanced gastric cancer. Two review authors independently identified studies and extracted data. A third investigator was consulted in case of disagreements. We contacted study authors to obtain missing information. We included 64 RCTs, of which 60 RCTs (11,698 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis of overall survival. We found chemotherapy extends overall survival (OS) by approximately 6.7 months more than BSC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.3, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24 to 0.55, 184 participants, three studies, moderate-quality evidence). Combination chemotherapy extends OS slightly (by an additional month) versus single-agent chemotherapy (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.89, 4447 participants, 23 studies, moderate-quality evidence), which is

  12. Primary Analysis of the Phase II Component of a Phase I/II Dose Intensification Study Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Inoperable Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: RTOG 0117

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Graham, Mary V.; Byhardt, Roger; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Fowler, Jack; Purdy, James A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Phase I of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0117 determined that 74 Gy was the maximum-tolerated dose with concurrent weekly carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy for inoperable non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Phase II results are reported here. Patients and Methods Patients with unresectable stages I-III NSCLC were eligible. Chemotherapy consisted of weekly paclitaxel at 50 mg/m2 and carboplatin at area under the curve 2 mg/m2. The radiation dose was 74 Gy given in 37 fractions. Radiation therapy volumes included those of the gross tumor and involved nodes. The volume of lung at or exceeding 20 Gy (V20) was mandated to be ≤ 30%. Results Of the combined phase I/II enrollment, a total of 55 patients received 74 Gy, of whom 53 were evaluable. The median follow-up was 19.3 months (range, 0.9 to 57.9 months) for all patients and 25.4 months (range, 13.1 to 57.9 months) for those still alive. The median survival for all patients was 25.9 months. The percentage surviving at least 12 months was 75.5% (95% CI, 65.7% to 85.2%). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) times for stage III patients (n = 44) were 21.6 months and 10.8 months, respectively. OS and PFS rates at 12 months were 72.7% and 50.0%, respectively. Twelve patients experienced grade ≥ 3 lung toxicity (two patients had grade 5 lung toxicity). Conclusion The median survival time and OS rate at 12 months for this regimen are encouraging. These results serve as projection expectations for the high-dose radiation arms of the current RTOG 0617 phase III intergroup trial. PMID:20368547

  13. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  14. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised, Phase IIB trial in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia to compare fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone and low-dose rituximab: the Attenuated dose Rituximab with ChemoTherapy In Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (ARCTIC) trial.

    PubMed

    Howard, Dena R; Munir, Talha; McParland, Lucy; Rawstron, Andy C; Chalmers, Anna; Gregory, Walter M; O'Dwyer, John L; Smith, Alison; Longo, Roberta; Varghese, Abraham; Smith, Alexandra; Hillmen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    mitoxantrone. A total of 100 participants completed FCR, 79 completed FCM-miniR and 21 commenced FCM-miniR but switched to FCR following DMEC recommendations. The CR rate for participants receiving FCR was 76%, compared with 55% for FCM-miniR (adjusted odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.73). Key secondary end points also showed that FCR was superior, with more participants achieving MRD negativity (57% for FCR vs. 46% for FCM-miniR). More participants experienced a serious adverse reaction with FCM-miniR compared with FCR (50% vs. 41%). At a median of 37.3 months' follow-up, the PFS and OS rates are good compared with previous studies, with no significant difference between the treatment arms. The economic analysis indicates that because FCM-miniR is less effective than FCR, FCM-miniR is not expected to be cost-effective over a lifetime horizon, producing a mean cost-saving of -£7723, a quality-adjusted life-year loss of -0.73 and a resulting incremental net monetary loss of -£6780. FCM-miniR is less well tolerated, with poorer response rates, than FCR, partly owing to the additional toxicity associated with mitoxantrone. In view of this, FCM-miniR will not be taken forward into a larger definitive Phase III trial. The trial demonstrated that oral FCR yields extremely high response rates compared with historical series with intravenous chemotherapy. We shall compare the results of ARCTIC with those of the ADMIRE (Does the ADdition of Mitoxantrone Improve Response to FCR chemotherapy in patients with CLL?) trial, which compared FCR with FCM-R to assess the efficacy of low- versus standard-dose rituximab, allowing for the toxicity associated with mitoxantrone. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16544962. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 21, No. 28. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  15. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei; Morano, Karen; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Crawford, Jeffrey C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Blackstock, A. William; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  16. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  17. Fluorouracil and dose-dense chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer: an open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Del Mastro, Lucia; De Placido, Sabino; Bruzzi, Paolo; De Laurentiis, Michele; Boni, Corrado; Cavazzini, Giovanna; Durando, Antonio; Turletti, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Valle, Enrichetta; Garrone, Ornella; Puglisi, Fabio; Montemurro, Filippo; Barni, Sandro; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Gamucci, Teresa; Colantuoni, Giuseppe; Giuliano, Mario; Gravina, Adriano; Papaldo, Paola; Bighin, Claudia; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Forestieri, Valeria; Cognetti, Francesco

    2015-05-09

    Whether addition of fluorouracil to epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (EC-P) is favourable in adjuvant treatment of patients with node-positive breast cancer is controversial, as is the benefit of increased density of dosing. We aimed to address these questions in terms of improvements in disease-free survival. In this 2 × 2 factorial, open-label, phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18-70 years with operable, node positive, early-stage breast cancer from 81 Italian centres. Eligible patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio with a centralised, interactive online system to receive either dose-dense chemotherapy (administered intravenously every 2 weeks with pegfilgrastim support) with fluorouracil plus EC-P (FEC-P) or EC-P or to receive standard-interval chemotherapy (administered intravenously every 3 weeks) with FEC-P or EC-P. The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival, assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method in the intention-to-treat population. Our primary comparisons were between dose schedule (every 2 weeks vs every 3 weeks) and dose type (FEC-P vs EC-P). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00433420. Between April 24, 2003, and July 3, 2006, we recruited 2091 patients. 88 patients were enrolled in centres that only provided standard-intensity dosing. After a median follow-up of 7·0 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4·5-6·3), 140 (26%) of 545 patients given EC-P every 3 weeks, 157 (29%) of 544 patients given FEC-P every 3 weeks, 111 (22%) of 502 patients given EC-P every 2 weeks, and 113 (23%) of 500 patients given FEC-P every 2 weeks had a disease-free survival event. For the dose-density comparison, disease-free survival at 5 years was 81% (95% CI 79-84) in patients treated every 2 weeks and 76% (74-79) in patients treated every 3 weeks (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·65-0·92; p=0·004); overall survival rates at 5 years were 94% (93-96) and 89% (87-91; HR 0·65, 0·51-0·84; p=0·001) and for the

  18. Curative cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frei, E

    1985-12-01

    Cancer chemotherapy provides variably effective treatment for the majority of forms of human cancer and curative treatment for some 12 categories of cancer. Curative treatment is defined as the proportion of patients who survive beyond the time after which the risk of treatment failure approaches zero, i.e., the disease-free survival plateau. This progress has resulted from a closely integrated scientific effort, including drug development, pharmacology, preclinical modeling, experimental design with respect to clinical trials, quantitative criteria for response, and a series of clinical trials (initially in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia) in which the importance of complete remission, of dose and schedule, of sequencing chemotherapeutic agents, of pharmacological sanctuaries, and particularly of combination chemotherapy was studied. The principles derived from these studies, particularly those relating to combination chemotherapy, resulted in curative treatment for disseminated Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, pediatric solid tumors, testicular cancer, and limited small cell lung cancer. Many patients with certain stages of solid tumors, such as breast cancer and osteogenic sarcoma, are at high risk of having disseminated microscopic disease. Experimental studies indicate that treatment which is only partially effective against macroscopic disease is much more effective against microscopic tumors. Therefore chemotherapy is administered immediately following control of the primary tumor in patients at high risk of having disseminated microscopic disease, a treatment known as adjuvant chemotherapy. This program has been highly successful in increasing the cure rate in patients with pediatric solid tumors and in prolonging disease-free survival in patients with premenopausal breast cancer. Given dissemination of the technology, it is estimated that 15,000-30,000 patients per year are potentially curable in the United States. Curability of cancer

  19. Total body MRI-governed involved compartment irradiation combined with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue improves long-term survival in Ewing tumor patients with multiple primary bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Burdach, S; Thiel, U; Schöniger, M; Haase, R; Wawer, A; Nathrath, M; Kabisch, H; Urban, C; Laws, H J; Dirksen, U; Steinborn, M; Dunst, J; Jürgens, H

    2010-03-01

    We examined the role of total body magnetic resonance imaging (TB-MRI)-governed involved compartment irradiation (ICI) and high-dose chemotherapy (HDC), followed by stem cell rescue (SCR) in patients with high-risk Ewing tumors (ETs) with multiple primary bone metastases (high-risk ET-MBM). Eleven patients with high-risk ET-MBM receiving initial assessment of involved bones by TB-MRI were registered from 1995 to 2000 (group A). In all, 6 patients out of 11 had additional lung disease at initial diagnosis; all had multifocal bone disease with more than three bones involved. After systemic induction with etoposide, vincristine, adriamycin (doxorubicin), ifosfamide, and actinomycin D (EVAIA) or VAIA chemotherapy, ICI of all sites positive by TB-MRI was administered, followed by HDC and SCR. A second group matched for observation period and consisting of 26 patients with more than three involved bones at diagnosis was treated with the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study-92 (EICESS-92) protocol (group B). These patients did not receive TB-MRI and consequently did not receive TB-MRI-governed ICI, or HDC and SCR. Survival in group A vs group B was 45 vs 8% at 5 years and 27 vs 8% at 10 years after diagnosis (log rank and Breslow: P<0.005). We conclude that TB-MRI-governed ICI followed by HDC and SCR in ET-MBM is feasible and warrants further evaluation in prospective studies.

  20. Combination with intravenous iron supplementation or doubling erythropoietin dose for patients with chemotherapy-induced anaemia inadequately responsive to initial erythropoietin treatment alone: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Jiang, Hong; Gao, Wei; Tu, Ye; Zhou, Ying; Li, Xi; Zhu, Zhe; Jiang, Qixin; Zhan, Haifeng; Yu, Jiangming; Fu, Chuangang; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Erythropoietin (EPO) is a commonly used option in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA). However, ∼30–50% of patients fail to achieve an adeq