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Sample records for dose distribution measurement

  1. Online measurement of dose and dose distribution at bremsstrahlung facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, V. L.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Bukin, A. D.; Voronin, L. A.; Lukin, A. N.; Sidorov, A. V.

    2004-09-01

    A real-time measurement system of the spatial dose distribution is developed and realized for monitoring the bremsstrahlung flow generated on X-ray target by 5 MeV 50 kW electron accelerator. The sensors of the system consist of semiconductor diodes. The beam target and electron accelerator (ILU-10) are briefly described. The practice of using the system in the experimental and start-up procedure is included.

  2. A method for measuring the dose distribution of the radiotherapy domain using the computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Homma, Mitsuhiko; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi; Obata, Yasunori; Tamiya, Tadashi; Koyama, Shuji; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Knowing the dose distribution in a tissue is as important as being able to measure exposure or absorbed dose in radiotherapy. Therefore, we have developed a measurement method for the dose distribution (CR dosimetry) in the phantom based on the imaging plate (IP) of the computed radiography (CR). The IP was applied for the dose measurement as a dosimeter instead of the film used for film dosimetry. The data from the irradiated IP were processed by a personal computer with 10 bits and were depicted as absorbed dose distributions in the phantom. The image of the dose distribution was obtained from the CR system using the DICOM form. The CR dosimetry is an application of CR system currently employed in medical examinations to dosimetry in radiotherapy. A dose distribution can be easily shown by the Dose Distribution Depiction System we developed this time. Moreover, the measurement method is simpler and a result is obtained more quickly compared with film dosimetry.

  3. Quantitative evaluation by measurement and modeling of the variations in dose distributions deposited in mobile targets.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imad; Alsbou, Nesreen; Taguenang, Jean-Michel; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2017-03-03

    The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate variations of dose distributions deposited in mobile target by measurement and modeling. The effects of variation in dose distribution induced by motion on tumor dose coverage and sparing of normal tissues were investigated quantitatively. The dose distributions with motion artifacts were modeled considering different motion patterns that include (a) motion with constant speed and (b) sinusoidal motion. The model predictions of the dose distributions with motion artifacts were verified with measurement where the dose distributions from various plans that included three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated fields were measured with a multiple-diode-array detector (MapCheck2), which was mounted on a mobile platform that moves with adjustable motion parameters. For each plan, the dose distributions were then measured with MapCHECK2 using different motion amplitudes from 0-25 mm. In addition, mathematical modeling was developed to predict the variations in the dose distributions and their dependence on the motion parameters that included amplitude, frequency and phase for sinusoidal motions. The dose distributions varied with motion and depended on the motion pattern particularly the sinusoidal motion, which spread out along the direction of motion. Study results showed that in the dose region between isocenter and the 50% isodose line, the dose profile decreased with increase of the motion amplitude. As the range of motion became larger than the field length along the direction of motion, the dose profiles changes overall including the central axis dose and 50% isodose line. If the total dose was delivered over a time much longer than the periodic time of motion, variations in motion frequency and phase do not affect the dose profiles. As a result, the motion dose modeling developed in this study provided quantitative characterization of variation in the dose distributions induced by motion, which

  4. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-04-04

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors.

  5. Measurements of superficial dose distributions in radiation therapy using translucent cryogel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyadeh, M. M.; Wierzbicki, M.; Diamond, K. R.

    2017-05-01

    Superficial dose distributions were measured using radiochromic translucent poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels. The relationship between dose to the skin surface and dose measured with the bolus (cryogel) was established using a series of oblique irradiations. Gafchromic film was placed under the bolus, and the ratio of bolus-film dose was determined for angle ranging from 0o to 90o. The average ratio over 0-67.5 degrees (0.800 ± 0.064) was used as the single correction factor to convert dose in bolus to dose to the skin surface, and applied to bolus measurements of skin dose from head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments delivered to a RANDO phantom. The resulting dose distributions were compared to film measurements using gamma analysis with a 3%/3mm tolerance and a 10% threshold. The minimum gamma pass rate was 95.2%. This study is the first report on the use of a poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels based dosimeter to provide an accurate estimation of superficial dose distributions in megavoltage photon beams.

  6. Dose distribution response in HDRB measured with EBT2 and compared with PLATO SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, L; Hernández-Oviedo, J O; Ruesga-Vazquez, D; Rivera-Montalvo, T

    2014-01-01

    Dose distribution of a High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (BHDR) oncological treatment with (192)Ir was measured using a Gafchromic EBT2 film. The film calibration was performed with a (60)Co unit and a LINAC of 6 mV and 18 mV. Gafchromic behavior of a dosimeter varies in respect of energy. Experimental results of dose distribution match with those planned in the PLATO commercial system, they also show that there is a difference of 2.11% between the planning system and isodoses measured.

  7. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-03: Four-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using Plastic Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M; Kozuka, T; Oguchi, M; Nishio, T; Haga, A; Hanada, T; Kabuki, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop the detector for the four-dimensional dose distribution measurement. Methods: We made the prototype detector for four-dimensional dose distribution measurement using a cylindrical plastic scintillator (5 cm diameter) and a conical reflection grass. The plastic scintillator is used as a phantom. When the plastic scintillator is irradiated, the scintillation light was emitted according to absorbed dose distribution. The conical reflection grass was arranged to surround the plastic scintillator, which project to downstream the projection images of the scintillation light. Then, the projection image was reflected to 45 degree direction by flat reflection grass, and was recorded by camcorder. By reconstructing the three-dimensional dose distribution from the projection image recorded in each frame, we could obtain the four-dimensional dose distribution. First, we tested the characteristic according to the amount of emitted light. Then we compared of the light profile and the dose profile calculated with the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results: The dose dependency of the amount of light showed linearity. The pixel detecting smaller amount of light had high sensitivity than the pixel detecting larger amount of light. However the difference of the sensitivity could be corrected from the amount of light detected in each pixel. Both of the depth light profile through the conical reflection grass and the depth dose profile showed the same attenuation in the region deeper than peak depth. In lateral direction, the difference of the both profiles was shown at outside field and penumbra region. We consider that the difference is occurred due to the scatter of the scintillation light in the plastic scintillator block. Conclusion: It was possible to obtain the amount of light corresponding to the absorbed dose distribution from the prototype detector. Four-dimensional dose distributions can be reconstructed with high accuracy by the correction of

  8. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1

  9. A method for depth-dose distribution measurements in tissue irradiated by a proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Birattari, C.; Bartolo, D. de

    1994-12-31

    The use of protons and heavy ions for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant disease has aroused a growing interest in the last decade. The notable advantage of heavy charged particles over photons in external beam radiotherapy lies in the possibility of irradiating a small localized region within the body, keeping a low value for the entrance dose. Owing to this high disuniformity of energy deposition, an essential requirement for treatment planning is a precise evaluation of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. The proposed method for depth-dose distribution measurements utilizes a chemical dosimeter (ferrous sulphate solution plus sulfuric acid and eventually xylenol orange) incorporated in a gelatine, whose role is the maintenance of spatial information. Ionizing radiation causes a variation in some parameters of the system such as the proton relaxation rates in the solution (measurable by NMR analysis) or the optical absorption of the gel in the visible spectrum (measurable by spectrophotometry).

  10. 3D dose distribution measurements in brachytherapy using radiochromic gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Sochor, V.; Kačur, M.; Šmoldasová, J.

    2010-07-01

    The paper informs about the joint research project "Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy" which is a three-year project carried out in cooperation with European national metrology institutes and co-funded by the European Community's Seventh Framework Program for research and technological development. The goal of the project is to improve the measurement and standardization of dose-to-water rate by brachytherapy (BT) sources. The paper gives a summary of the individual parts of the whole project and describes in more detail the task of the Czech Metrology Institute: the determination of spatial distribution of dose-to-water by BT sources using radiochromic gel dosimeters, including a new gel with suppressed diffusion. The response of irradiated gels is evaluated using the optical cone beam computed tomography (CT) technique. The characteristics of the optical CT scanner are discussed with respect to CCD camera performance and light source. The optimized composition of the new gel and its dosimetric properties are highlighted. The results show that the radiochromic gels are convenient for measuring the 3D distribution of dose-to-water and could be an alternative to current methods of dose distribution measurements.

  11. Use of CEA TVS film for measuring high energy photon beam dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Cadman, P

    1998-08-01

    CEA TVS film is a therapy verification film that has been recently introduced in the North American market. This film features linear characteristic curves for photon energies from 137Cs to 18 MV as reported by Cheng and Das [Med. Phys. 23, 1225 (1996)]. In Saskatoon, TVS film was investigated for its application in the measurement of dose distributions with 4 and 18 MV linacs and a 60Co unit. The TVS film jacket has a layer of conductive material that has a minimal effect on the film's response. Film sensitivity generally increases for exposures normal to the incident beam as compared with parallel exposures, but was highly dependent on beam energy and depth of measurement. Fractional depth doses obtained in the parallel orientation agreed well with ion chamber measurements for the linac beams at depths beyond Dmax; ion chamber measurements differed by a maximum of 1.6% and 2.6% for the 4 and 18 MV beams, respectively. In the buildup region, an increase in film response was found when compared to the ion chamber measurements for both linac beams. With the 60Co beam, the TVS film showed an increase in sensitivity with depth as the proportion of scattered soft x rays increases; the maximum difference between ion chamber and film fractional depth doses was 7.8%. The TVS film demonstrates a substantial improvement over Kodak X-Omat V film for measuring depth doses in the parallel orientation, for all beams considered. Generally, the results confirm TVS film as an accurate and practical dosimeter for the measurement of dose distributions in high energy photon beams.

  12. Measurement of LET distribution and dose equivalent on board the space shuttle STS-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Takeuchi, R.; Hasebe, N.; Ogura, K.; Nagaoka, S.; Kato, M.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and others are conventional detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Using the RRMD detector, the first attempt of real-time monitoring of space radiation has been achieved successfully for a continuous period of 251.3 h, giving the temporal variations of LET distribution, particle count rates, and rates of absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The RRMD results indicate that a clear enhancement of the number of trapped particles is seen at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent, while some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower geomagnetic cutoff regions for galactic cosmic ray particles (GCRs). Therefore, the main contribution to dose equivalent is seen to be due to GCRs in this low altitude mission (300 km). Also, the dose equivalent rates obtained by TLDs and CR-39 ranged from 146.9 to 165.2 microSv/day and the average quality factors from 1.45 to 1.57 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Space-lab at this highly protected orbit for space radiation with a small inclination (28.5 degrees) and a low altitude (300 km). The LET distributions obtained by two different detectors, RRMD and CR-39, are in good agreement in the region of 15-200 keV/mm and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 keV/mm and LET > 200 keV/mm can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks.

  13. Characterisation of mega-voltage electron pencil beam dose distributions: viability of a measurement-based approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M P; Ebert, M A

    2008-03-01

    The concept of electron pencil-beam dose distributions is central to pencil-beam algorithms used in electron beam radiotherapy treatment planning. The Hogstrom algorithm, which is a common algorithm for electron treatment planning, models large electron field dose distributions by the superposition of a series of pencil beam dose distributions. This means that the accurate characterisation of an electron pencil beam is essential for the accuracy of the dose algorithm. The aim of this study was to evaluate a measurement based approach for obtaining electron pencil-beam dose distributions. The primary incentive for the study was the accurate calculation of dose distributions for narrow fields as traditional electron algorithms are generally inaccurate for such geometries. Kodak X-Omat radiographic film was used in a solid water phantom to measure the dose distribution of circular 12 MeV beams from a Varian 21EX linear accelerator. Measurements were made for beams of diameter, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mm. A blocked-field technique was used to subtract photon contamination in the beam. The "error function" derived from Fermi-Eyges Multiple Coulomb Scattering (MCS) theory for corresponding square fields was used to fit resulting dose distributions so that extrapolation down to a pencil beam distribution could be made. The Monte Carlo codes, BEAM and EGSnrc were used to simulate the experimental arrangement. The 8 mm beam dose distribution was also measured with TLD-100 microcubes. Agreement between film, TLD and Monte Carlo simulation results were found to be consistent with the spatial resolution used. The study has shown that it is possible to extrapolate narrow electron beam dose distributions down to a pencil beam dose distribution using the error function. However, due to experimental uncertainties and measurement difficulties, Monte Carlo is recommended as the method of choice for characterising electron pencil-beam dose distributions.

  14. Generation and dose distribution measurement of flash x-ray in KALI-5000 system

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Rakhee; Roy, Amitava; Mitra, S.; Sharma, A.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K. C.; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2008-10-15

    Flash x-ray generation studies have been carried out in KALI-5000 Pulse power system. The intense relativistic electron beam has been bombarded on a tantalum target at anode to produce flash x-ray via bremsstrahlung conversion. The typical electron beam parameter was 360 kV, 18 kA, and 100 ns, with a few hundreds of A/cm{sup 2} current density. The x-ray dose has been measured with calcium sulfate:dysposium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) thermoluminescent dosimeter and the axial dose distribution has been characterized. It has been observed that the on axis dose falls of with distance {approx}1/x{sup n}, where n varies from 1.8 to 1.85. A maximum on axis dose of 46 mrad has been measured at 1 m distance from the source. A plastic scintillator with optical fiber coupled to a photomultiplier tube has been developed to measure the x-ray pulse width. The typical x-ray pulse width varied from 50 to 80 ns.

  15. Generation and dose distribution measurement of flash x-ray in KALI-5000 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rakhee; Roy, Amitava; Mitra, S.; Sharma, A.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K. C.; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2008-10-01

    Flash x-ray generation studies have been carried out in KALI-5000 Pulse power system. The intense relativistic electron beam has been bombarded on a tantalum target at anode to produce flash x-ray via bremsstrahlung conversion. The typical electron beam parameter was 360 kV, 18 kA, and 100 ns, with a few hundreds of A/cm2 current density. The x-ray dose has been measured with calcium sulfate:dysposium (CaSO4:Dy) thermoluminescent dosimeter and the axial dose distribution has been characterized. It has been observed that the on axis dose falls of with distance ˜1/xn, where n varies from 1.8 to 1.85. A maximum on axis dose of 46 mrad has been measured at 1 m distance from the source. A plastic scintillator with optical fiber coupled to a photomultiplier tube has been developed to measure the x-ray pulse width. The typical x-ray pulse width varied from 50 to 80 ns.

  16. Generation and dose distribution measurement of flash x-ray in KALI-5000 system.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rakhee; Roy, Amitava; Mitra, S; Sharma, A; Mondal, J; Mittal, K C; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P

    2008-10-01

    Flash x-ray generation studies have been carried out in KALI-5000 Pulse power system. The intense relativistic electron beam has been bombarded on a tantalum target at anode to produce flash x-ray via bremsstrahlung conversion. The typical electron beam parameter was 360 kV, 18 kA, and 100 ns, with a few hundreds of A/cm(2) current density. The x-ray dose has been measured with calcium sulfate:dysposium (CaSO(4):Dy) thermoluminescent dosimeter and the axial dose distribution has been characterized. It has been observed that the on axis dose falls of with distance approximately 1/x(n), where n varies from 1.8 to 1.85. A maximum on axis dose of 46 mrad has been measured at 1 m distance from the source. A plastic scintillator with optical fiber coupled to a photomultiplier tube has been developed to measure the x-ray pulse width. The typical x-ray pulse width varied from 50 to 80 ns.

  17. SU-E-T-89: Accuracy of Absolute Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using the Delta4

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, R; Tachibana, H; Ohyoshi, H; Matsumoto, S; Baba, H; Tanaka, F; Ariji, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the accuracy of the absolute dose distribution measurement using the Delta4 phantom compared to the measurements using a ionization chamber and EDR2 film Methods: Several conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were used to compare the dose distribution measured using the Delta4 phantom to the absolute point dose using the chamber and the relative two-dimensional dose distribution using the EDR2 film. For the absolute dose distribution evaluation, the measurements using the Delta4, the chamber and the film were performed in similar measurement geometry. For point dose measurement using the chamber, an acrylic slab phantom with the PTW Semiflex chamber was inserted into the Delta4 phantom, alternative to the Delta4 main unit. Similarly, for dose distribution measurement using the film, the EDR2 film sandwiched with two acrylic slab phantoms were inserted to the phantom. Dose difference and gamma analysis were done for point dose and relative dose distribution comparisons, respectively. Results: The point dose measurements show slight negative systematic dose difference of −0.5 ± 0.1% and −1.0 ± 0.4% in the conventional and the IMRT plans, respectively. The additional measurement for direction dependency for Delta4 shows similar negative systematic dose difference even the phantom analysis software consider the directional dependency. The pass rate of the gamma evaluation was 77.7 ± 5.8% and 88.8±3.3% in the conventional and the IMRT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The Delta4 phantom shows a 1%-systematic dose difference derived from directional dependency and lower resolution compared to the film. Thus it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the phantom to verify the IMRT/VMAT plans. Especially, the dosimetry tool is needed to have high resolution and high measurement accuracy in IMRT/VMAT-SBRT plan with small fields using intensity modulation in which the analysis area is limited and the

  18. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.

    2012-04-01

    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  19. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  20. Design and implementation of a water phantom for IMRT, arc therapy, and tomotherapy dose distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pallotta, Stefania; Marrazzo, Livia; Bucciolini, Marta

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a new phantom for arc therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy dose distribution measurement in pretreatment verification. The presented phantom is innovative for its use of water as the tissue equivalent material, together with a technical solution specifically designed to support radiographic or radiochromic film and ionization chambers in any desired position. The phantom comprise a Plexiglas container, whose present shape and dimensions offer the possibility to simulate a human torso or abdomen; the container can be filled with water by opening the upper cover. On the internal side of the cover, a set of carbon pipes can support film in the desired coronal, axial, or sagittal planes. At one of the two ends of the phantom, an ionization chamber can be positioned parallel to the rotation axis of the accelerator gantry in all possible positions within a 20 cm diameter cylinder, for film calibration purposes. Inhomogeneities can be inserted into the phantom using the same carbon pipes and plastic sheets used to support film. An example of vertebra-shaped inserts made of bone equivalent material is reported. Radiochromic film can be dipped in water, while radiographic film must be protected to prevent damage. To accomplish this, radiographic film is laminated using a cold laminating film. In order to assess the effects of both the lamination itself and the effects of water on laminated Kodak EDR2 film, the optical density (OD) of conventional, laminated, and laminated film immersed in water and exposed to a range of doses from 0 to 300 cGy were compared. The OD of the three samples receiving the same radiation dose did not present any significant difference, thus proving that laminated EDR2 film can also be used in water. A prerequisite for any dosimetric comparison between planned and measured data is a proper film to plan registration. The solution proposed here is an extrinsic in-plane registration

  1. Measurements and calculations of the absorbed dose distribution around a 60Co source.

    PubMed

    Tiourina, T B; Dries, W J; van der Linden, P M

    1995-05-01

    The data from Meisberger et al. [Radiology 90, 953-957 (1968)] are often used as a basis for dose calculations in brachytherapy. In order to describe the absorbed dose in water around a brachytherapy point source, Meisberger provided a polynomial fit for different isotopes taking into account the effect of attenuation and scattering. The validity of the Meisberger coefficients is restricted to distances up to 10 cm from the source, which is regarded to be satisfactory for most brachytherapy applications. However, for more distant organs it may lead to errors in calculated absorbed dose. For this reason dose measurements have been performed in air and in water around a high activity 60Co source used in high dose rate brachytherapy. Measurements were carried out to distances of 20 cm, using ionization chambers. These data show that at a distance of about 15 cm the amount of scattered radiation virtually equals the amount of primary radiation. This emphasizes the contribution of scattered radiation to the dose in healthy tissue far from the target volume, even with relatively high energy photon radiation of 60Co. It is also shown that the Meisberger data as well as the approach of Van Kleffens and Star [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Phys. 5, 557-563 (1979)] lead to significant errors in absorbed dose between distances of 10 and 20 cm from the source. In addition to these measurements, the Monte Carlo code has been used to calculate separately primary dose and scattered dose from a cobalt point source. The calculated results agree with the experimental data within 1% for a most distant dose scoring region.

  2. Measurement of dose distribution in the spherical phantom onboard the ISS-KIBO module -MATROSHKA-R in KIBO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hajime; Kurano, Mieko; Uchihori, Yukio; Nikolaev, Igor; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kartsev, Ivan; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav

    The measurement of dose equivalent and effective dose during manned space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) is important for evaluating the risk to astronaut health and safety when exposed to space radiation. The dosimetric quantities are constantly changing and strongly depend on the level of solar activity and the various spacecraft- and orbit-dependent parameters such as the shielding distribution in the ISS module, location of the spacecraft within its orbit relative to the Earth, the attitude (orientation) and altitude. Consequently, the continuous monitoring of dosimetric quantities is required to record and evaluate the personal radiation dose for crew members during spaceflight. The dose distributions in the phantom body and on its surface give crucial information to estimate the dose equivalent in the human body and effective dose in manned space mission. We have measured the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates using passive dosimeters installed in the spherical phantom in Japanese Experiment Module (“KIBO”) of the ISS in the framework of Matroshka-R space experiment. The exposure duration was 114 days from May 21 to September 12, 2012. The phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material covered with a poncho jacket with 32 pockets on its surface and 20 container rods inside of the phantom. The phantom diameter is 35 cm and the mass is 32 kg. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of luminescent detectors of Al _{2}O _{3};C OSL and CaSO _{4}:Dy TLD and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. As one of preliminary results, the dose distribution on the phantom surface measured with OSL detectors installed in the jacket pockets is found to be ranging from 340 muGy/day to 260 muGy/day. In this talk, we will present the detail dose distributions, and variations of LET spectra and quality factor obtained outside and inside of the spherical phantom installed in the ISS-KIBO.

  3. Wide field array calibration dependence on the stability of measured dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Thomas A.; Simon, William E.; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan; Liu, Chihray

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to simulate the effect of dose distribution changes on detector array calibrations and to explore compensatory methods that are used during calibration measurements. Methods: The array calibration technique that was investigated is known as wide field (WF) calibration. Using this method, a linear array [y-axis (65 detectors) of the IC PROFILER (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL)] is calibrated with three measurements ({alpha}, {theta}, and {lambda}); each measurement uses the same radiation field, which is larger than the array. For measurement configuration {theta}, the array is rotated by 180 deg. from its position in {alpha}; for {lambda}, the array is shifted by one detector from its position in {theta}. The relative detector sensitivities are then determined through ratios of detector readings at the same field locations (using {theta} and {lambda}). This method results in error propagation that is proportional to the number of detectors in the array. During the procedure, the calibration protocol operates under three postulates, which state that (a) the beam shape does not change between measurements; (b) the relative sensitivities of the detectors do not change; and (c) the scatter to the array does not change as the array is moved. The WF calibration's sensitivity to a postulate (a) violation was quantified by applying a sine shaped perturbation (of up to 0.1%) to {alpha}, {theta}, or {lambda}, and then determining the change relative to a baseline calibration. Postulate (a) violations were minimized by using a continuous beam and mechanized array movement during {theta} and {lambda}. A continuously on beam demonstrated more stable beam symmetry as compared to cycling the beam on and off between measurements. Additional side-scatter was also used to satisfy postulate (c). Results: Simulated symmetry perturbations of 0.1% to {theta} or {lambda} resulted in calibration errors of up to 2%; {alpha} was relatively immune to

  4. Systematic measurements of whole-body dose distributions for various treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Contemporary radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, could increase the radiation-induced malignancies because of the increased beam-on time, i.e., number of monitor units needed to deliver the same dose to the target and the larger volume irradiated with low doses. In this study, whole-body dose distributions from typical radiotherapy patient plans using different treatment techniques and therapy machines were measured using the same measurement setup and irradiation intention. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from 6 MV beams were compared in terms of treatment technique (3D-conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical TomoTherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, hard wedges, and flattening filter-free radiotherapy) and therapy machine (Elekta, Siemens and Varian linear accelerators, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy). Results: Close to the target, the doses from intensity-modulated treatments (including flattening filter-free) were below the dose from a static treatment plan, whereas the CyberKnife showed a larger dose by a factor of two. Far away from the treatment field, the dose from intensity-modulated treatments showed an increase in dose from stray radiation of about 50% compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. For the flattening filter-free photon beams, the dose from stray radiation far away from the target was slightly lower than the dose from a static treatment. The CyberKnife irradiation and the treatment using hard wedges increased the dose from stray radiation by nearly a factor of three compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that the dose outside of the treated volume is influenced by several sources. Therefore, when comparing different treatment techniques

  5. Application of TL dosemeters for dose distribution measurements at high temperatures in nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Osvay, M; Deme, S

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3:Mg,Y ceramic thermoluminescence dosemeters were developed at the Institute of Isotopes for high dose applications at room temperatures. The glow curve of Al2O3:Mg,Y exhibits two peaks--one at 250 degrees C (I) and another peak at approximately 400 degrees C (II). In order to extend the application of these dosemeters to high temperatures, the effect of irradiation temperature was investigated using temperature controlled heating system during high dose irradiation at various temperatures (20-100 degrees C). The new calibration and measuring method has been successfully applied for dose mapping within the hermetic zone of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant even at high temperature parts of blocks.

  6. Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

    The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

  7. PAGAT gel dosimeters for dose distribution measurements in the vicinity of high-density implants: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asena, A.; Kairn, T.; Crowe, S. B.; Smith, S. T.; Trapp, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    This work examined the suitability of the PAGAT gel dosimeter for use in dose distribution measurements around high-density implants. An assessment of the gels reactivity with various metals was performed and no corrosive effects were observed. An artefact reduction technique was also investigated in order to minimise scattering of the laser light in the optical CT scans. The potential for attenuation and backscatter measurements using this gel dosimeter were examined for a temporary tissue expander's internal magnetic port.

  8. Comparison of measured and calculated spatial dose distributions for a bench-mark 106Ru/106Rh hot particle source.

    PubMed

    Aydarous, A Sh; Charles, M W; Darley, P J

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of a programme of research to provide validated dose measurement and calculation techniques for beta emitting hot particles by the construction of well-defined model hot particle sources. This enables parallel measurements and calculations to be critically compared. This particular study concentrates on the high-energy beta emitter, (106)Ru/(106)Rh (Emax = 3.54 MeV). This source is a common constituent of failed nuclear fuel, particularly in accident situations. The depth dose distributions were measured using radiochromic dye film (RDF); an imaging photon detector coupled to an LiF thermoluminescent dosemeter (LiF-IPD) and an extrapolation ionisation chamber (ECH). Dose calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4C. Doses were measured and calculated as average values over various areas and depths. Of particular interest are the doses at depths of 7 and 30-50 mg cm(-2), and averaged over an area of 1 cm2, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for use in routine and accidental over-exposures of the skin. In this case, the average ratios (MCNP/measurement) for RDF, ECH and LiF-IPD were 1.07 +/- 0.02, 1.02 +/- 0.01 and 0.83 +/- 0.16, respectively. There are significantly greater discrepancies between the ECH and LiF-IPD measurement techniques and calculations-particularly for shallow depths and small averaging areas.

  9. The dose distribution of low dose rate Cs-137 in intracavitary brachytherapy: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation, treatment planning calculation and polymer gel measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, M.; Love, P. A.; Verhaegen, F.; Nalder, C.; Bidmead, A. M.; Leach, M.; Webb, S.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the dose distribution delivered by low dose rate Cs-137 brachytherapy sources was investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques and polymer gel dosimetry. The results obtained were compared with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The 20 mm and the 30 mm diameter Selectron vaginal applicator set (Nucletron) were used for this study. A homogeneous and a heterogeneous—with an air cavity—polymer gel phantom was used to measure the dose distribution from these sources. The same geometrical set-up was used for the MC calculations. Beyond the applicator tip, differences in dose as large as 20% were found between the MC and TPS. This is attributed to the presence of stainless steel in the applicator and source set, which are not considered by the TPS calculations. Beyond the air cavity, differences in dose of around 5% were noted, due to the TPS assuming a homogeneous water medium. The polymer gel results were in good agreement with the MC calculations for all the cases investigated.

  10. Evaluation of a new Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Spectrometer for size distribution measurements of solution metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B; Gabrio, Brian J; Obereit, Derek; Beck, Tyler J

    2003-01-01

    The ability of the Model 3320 and newer Model 3321 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Spectrometer (APS) to make accurate mass-weighted size distribution measurements of solution metered dose inhalers (MDIs) was evaluated. Measurements of experimental HFA-134a beclomethasone dipropionate MDIs were made with both the APS 3320 and APS 3321 and compared to the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The mass-weighted size distribution measurements from the ACI and APS 3321 agreed well but were very different than the APS 3320 measurements. Evaluation of the APS 3320 size distribution measurements indicated that the presence of a few erroneous particle measurements caused a gross overestimation of the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD). When a previously described technique was used to eliminate erroneous particle size measurements from the size distribution calculation, the MMAD and GSD from the APS 3320 agreed well with those from the ACI and APS 3321. The GSD from the APS 3321 and the APS 3320 after a mask was applied were slightly larger than from the ACI. It is believed that both APS instruments slightly underestimate the GSD while the ACI slightly overestimates the GSD. Further experiments were conducted using the APS 3321 to examine the influence of drug concentration and cosolvent level on the size distribution of solution formulation MDIs. The MMAD was shown experimentally and theoretically to be proportional to drug concentration to the one-third power. Cosolvent concentration had minimal influence on MMAD over the range examined. The measurements reported in this paper demonstrate that it is possible to obtain accurate mass-weighted size distribution measurements with the APS 3320 and APS 3321. These instruments allow for accurate size distribution measurements to be made in minutes as opposed to the hours required to conduct and analyze size distribution measurements from cascade impactors.

  11. Measurement of neutron dose distribution for a passive scattering nozzle at the Proton Medical Research Center (PMRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayama, Ryuichi; Fujita, Yasuo; Tadokoro, Masahiro; Fujimaki, Hisataka; Sakae, Takeji; Terunuma, Toshiyuki

    2006-08-01

    For a passive scattering nozzle at the Proton Medical Research Center (PMRC), the distribution of the neutron dose equivalent in the direction transverse to the proton beam line was measured for 200 MeV protons using a tissue equivalent proportional counter REM500. The neutron dose equivalent per Gray of proton-absorbed dose at the isocenter was approximately 2.3 mSv/Gy. The neutron dose outside of the treatment field was approximately 2 mSv/Gy, at maximum and it should be reduced as low as possible according to the ALARA principle. The aperture size of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC), which is a pre-collimator for shielding unwanted protons and mounted at a position upstream from the patient bolus and collimator, was varied in order to investigate its reduction effect on the neutron dose equivalent outside of the treatment field. We confirmed that the neutron dose equivalent outside of the treatment field can be limited depending on the aperture size of the MLC. This could be considered in future treatment planning optimization and patient treatment. MCNPX calculations showed good agreement with the measurements within 10%.

  12. Assessment of the dose distribution inside a cardiac cath lab using TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M.; Teles, P.; Cardoso, G.; Vaz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, there was a substantial increase in the number of interventional cardiology procedures worldwide, and the corresponding ionizing radiation doses for both the medical staff and patients became a subject of concern. Interventional procedures in cardiology are normally very complex, resulting in long exposure times. Also, these interventions require the operator to work near the patient and, consequently, close to the primary X-ray beam. Moreover, due to the scattered radiation from the patient and the equipment, the medical staff is also exposed to a non-uniform radiation field that can lead to a significant exposure of sensitive body organs and tissues, such as the eye lens, the thyroid and the extremities. In order to better understand the spatial variation of the dose and dose rate distributions during an interventional cardiology procedure, the dose distribution around a C-arm fluoroscopic system, in operation in a cardiac cath lab at Portuguese Hospital, was estimated using both Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and dosimetric measurements. To model and simulate the cardiac cath lab, including the fluoroscopic equipment used to execute interventional procedures, the state-of-the-art MC radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0 was used. Subsequently, Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) measurements were performed, in order to validate and support the simulation results obtained for the cath lab model. The preliminary results presented in this study reveal that the cardiac cath lab model was successfully validated, taking into account the good agreement between MC calculations and TLD measurements. The simulated results for the isodose curves related to the C-arm fluoroscopic system are also consistent with the dosimetric information provided by the equipment manufacturer (Siemens). The adequacy of the implemented computational model used to simulate complex procedures and map dose distributions around the operator and the medical staff is discussed, in

  13. NOTE: Measurement of the three-dimensional distribution of radiation dose in grid therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, J. V.; Warrington, A. P.; Partridge, M.; Philps, A.; Glees, J.; Tait, D.; Ahmed, R.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.

    2004-10-01

    A single large dose of megavoltage x-rays delivered through a grid is currently being utilized by some centres for palliative radiotherapy treatments of large tumours. In this note, we investigate the dosimetry of grid therapy using two-dimensional film dosimetry and three-dimensional gel dosimetry. It is shown that the radiation dose is attenuated more rapidly with depth in a grid field than an open field, and that even shielded regions receive approximately 25% of the dose to the unshielded areas.

  14. Measurement of dose equivalent distribution on-board commercial jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kubančák, J; Ambrožová, I; Ploc, O; Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Štěpán, V; Uchihori, Y

    2014-12-01

    The annual effective doses of aircrew members often exceed the limit of 1 mSv for the public due to the increased level of cosmic radiation at the flight altitudes, and thus, it is recommended to monitor them [International Commission on Radiation Protection. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21: (1-3), (1991)]. According to the Monte Carlo simulations [Battistoni, G., Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members taking into consideration the aircraft structures. Adv. Space Res. 36: , 1645-1652 (2005) and Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 108: (2), 91-105 (2004)], the ambient dose equivalent rate Ḣ*(10) depends on the location in the aircraft. The aim of this article is to experimentally evaluate Ḣ*(10) on-board selected types of aircraft. The authors found that Ḣ*(10) values are higher in the front and the back of the cabin and lesser in the middle of the cabin. Moreover, total dosimetry characteristics obtained in this way are in a reasonable agreement with other data, in particular with the above-mentioned simulations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and measurement with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter for dose distributions in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, T.; Maeyama, T.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Fukunishi, N.; Fukasaku, K.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we used a 135 MeV/nucleon carbon-ion beam to irradiate a biological sample composed of fresh chicken meat and bones, which was placed in front of a PAGAT gel dosimeter, and compared the measured and simulated transverse-relaxation-rate (R2) distributions in the gel dosimeter. We experimentally measured the three-dimensional R2 distribution, which records the dose induced by particles penetrating the sample, by using magnetic resonance imaging. The obtained R2 distribution reflected the heterogeneity of the biological sample. We also conducted Monte Carlo simulations using the PHITS code by reconstructing the elemental composition of the biological sample from its computed tomography images while taking into account the dependence of the gel response on the linear energy transfer. The simulation reproduced the experimental distal edge structure of the R2 distribution with an accuracy under about 2 mm, which is approximately the same as the voxel size currently used in treatment planning.

  16. Examination of the relevance of using radiochromic films in measuring entrance skin dose distribution in conventional digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Soliman, K; Bakkari, M

    2015-07-01

    Based on manufacturer specifications, radiochromic films are sensitive enough to be used for dosimetry in digital mammography (DM). The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of measuring entrance surface dose (ESD) distribution using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films. The films were irradiated following a standard clinical two-view screening mammography protocol using a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) imaging system. The films were then digitised using a flatbed scanner. The calibration curve relating the readings from a calibrated ionisation chamber and the films' net optical density (NOD) could not be obtained. The examination of the calibration data revealed non-sensitivity of the films to resolve dose differences below 20 mGy at 28 kVp. Therefore, radiochromic films were found not to be suitable for measuring ESD profiles in DM. A 2D map of the NOD of the irradiated films obtained using in-house developed MATLAB computer program is presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Comparison of methods for the measurement of radiation dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: Ge-doped optical fiber, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} radiochromic plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A. L.; Di Pietro, P.; Alobaidli, S.; Issa, F.; Doran, S.; Bradley, D.; Nisbet, A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distribution measurement in clinical high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is challenging, because of the high dose gradients, large dose variations, and small scale, but it is essential to verify accurate treatment planning and treatment equipment performance. The authors compare and evaluate three dosimetry systems for potential use in brachytherapy dose distribution measurement: Ge-doped optical fibers, EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis, and the radiochromic material PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout. Methods: Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibers with 6 {mu}m active core and 5.0 mm length were sensitivity-batched and their thermoluminescent properties used via conventional heating and annealing cycles. EBT3 Gafchromic film of 30 {mu}m active thickness was calibrated in three color channels using a nominal 6 MV linear accelerator. A 48-bit transmission scanner and advanced multichannel analysis method were utilized to derive dose measurements. Samples of the solid radiochromic polymer PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, 60 mm diameter and 100 mm height, were analyzed with a parallel beam optical CT scanner. Each dosimetry system was used to measure the dose as a function of radial distance from a Co-60 HDR source, with results compared to Monte Carlo TG-43 model data. Each system was then used to measure the dose distribution along one or more lines through typical clinical dose distributions for cervix brachytherapy, with results compared to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Purpose-designed test objects constructed of Solid Water and held within a full-scatter water tank were utilized. Results: All three dosimetry systems reproduced the general shape of the isolated source radial dose function and the TPS dose distribution. However, the dynamic range of EBT3 exceeded those of doped optical fibers and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and the latter two suffered from unacceptable noise and artifact. For the experimental

  18. SU-E-T-223: Investigation of the Accuracy of Two-Dimensional Dose Distributions Measurement From High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Ir-192 Source Using Multiple-Diode-Array Detector (MapCheck2)

    SciTech Connect

    Taguenang, J; De La Fuente, T Herman; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric accuracy of multiple-diode-array detector (Mapcheck2) for high-dose-rate brachytherapy Ir-192 source. The two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 were validated with EBT2 Gafchromic film measurement and AAPM task-group- 43 (TG-43) modeling. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from Ir-192 source were measured with MapCheck2 and EBT2-films. MapCheck2 response was corrected for effects: directional dependence, diode and phantom heterogeneity. Optical density growth of the film was controlled by synchronized scanning of the film exposed to Ir-192 and calibration films exposed to 6 MV linac beams. Similarly, MapCheck2 response was calibrated to dose using 6 MV beams. An empirical model was developed for the dose distributions measured with Mapcheck2 that considered directional, diode and phantom heterogeneity corrections. The dose deposited in solid-state-detectors was modeled using a cavity theory model for the diode. This model was then validated with measurements using EBT2-films and calculations with TG-43. Results: The response of MapCheck2 has been corrected for different effects including: (a) directional dependence of 0–20% over angular range 0o–90o, (b) phantom heterogeneity (3%) and (c) diode heterogeneity (9%). The corrected dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 agreed well with the measured dose distributions from EBT2-film and with calculations using TG-43 within 5% over a wide range of dose levels and rates. The advantages of MapCheck2 include less noisy, linear and stable response compared with film. The response of MapCheck2 exposed to 192Ir-source showed no energy dependence similar to its response to MV energy beam. Detection spatial-resolution of individual diodes was 0.8×0.8 mm2, however, 2DMapCheck2 resolution is limited by distance between diodes (7.07 mm). Conclusion: The dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 agreed well within 5% with that measured using EBT2-films; and

  19. Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2016-04-01

    Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within  ±0.4 s and doses  ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional

  20. Dose distribution for endovascular brachytherapy using Ir-192 sources: comparison of Monte Carlo calculations with radiochromic film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureka, C. S.; Sunny, C. Sunil; Subbaiah, K. V.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of Ir-192 source distribution using the Monte Carlo method and radiochromic film experiments for endovascular brachytherapy is presented. Three different source possibilities, namely, mHDR Ir-192 sources with 5 mm and 2.5 mm step sizes and Ir-192 seed sources with 1 mm air gap are investigated to obtain uniform radial dose distribution throughout the treatment area. From this study, it is inferred that mHDR Ir-192 sources with 2.5 mm step size are effective for getting dose uniformity. Hence, different restenosis geometries, namely, linear, dumb bell and hairpin, are simulated with 2.5 mm step size, 15 mHDR Ir-192 sources using the Monte Carlo technique and the results are compared experimentally by using radiochromic films. The results from both methods agreed to within 7%. Further, it is also inferred that for the dosimetry of endovascular brachytherapy, the film dosimetry may be considered adequate, even if the film calibration is time consuming and requires adequate dosimetric procedures.

  1. The use of gel dosimetry to measure the 3D dose distribution of a 90Sr/90Y intravascular brachytherapy seed.

    PubMed

    Massillon-Jl, G; Minniti, R; Mitch, M G; Maryanski, M J; Soares, C G

    2009-03-21

    Absorbed dose distributions in 3D imparted by a single (90)Sr/(90)Y beta particle seed source of the type used for intravascular brachytherapy were investigated. A polymer gel dosimetry medium was used as a dosemeter and phantom, while a special high-resolution laser CT scanner with a spatial resolution of 100 microm in all dimensions was used to quantify the data. We have measured the radial dose function, g(L)(r), observing that g(L)(r) increases to a maximum value and then decreases as the distance from the seed increases. This is in good agreement with previous data obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), even if the TLDs underestimate the dose at distances very close to the seed. Contrary to the measurements, g(L)(r) calculated through Monte Carlo simulations and reported previously steadily decreases without a local maximum as a function of the distance from the seed. At distances less than 1.5 mm, differences of more than 20% are observed between the measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations. This difference could be due to a possible underestimation of the energy absorbed into the seed core and encapsulation in the Monte Carlo simulation, as a consequence of the unknown precise chemical composition of the core and its respective density for this seed. The results suggest that g(L)(r) can be measured very close to the seed with a relative uncertainty of about 1% to 2%. The dose distribution is isotropic only at distances greater than or equal to 2 mm from the seed and is almost symmetric, independent of the depth. This study indicates that polymer gel coupled with the special small format laser CT scanner are valid and accurate methods for measuring the dose distribution at distances close to an intravascular brachytherapy seed.

  2. Application of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ECSWL) in orthopaedics. II. Dose-response and pressure distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Park, S H; Weinstein, J N; Loening, S; Oster, D

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ECSWL) technique to the loosening of the bone-cement interface for the extraction of the cement during revision arthroplasty it is essential to know the dose-response characteristics. The present study shows that the number of shocks needed to break the interface between a 2- and 6-mm-thick bovine femoral bone and bone cement is similar to the fatigue behavior of a material, that is, Log(N) = C(kV) + D, where N is the number of shock impulses, kV is the power setting of the lithotripter machine in kilovolts, and C and D are constants. Iso-pressure distribution of the traveling shock wave front through a simulated bone in a Plexiglass tube using Fuji pressure film showed quantitative pressure contours from which one can understand the effective area of shock wave and its distribution. The most effective area of the shock wave was about 1.5 cm in diameter at 23 and 25 kV with pressure at least 7.0 MPa which is more than sufficient to break the bone-cement interface in tension.

  3. Contact radiotherapy using a 50 kV X-ray system: Evaluation of relative dose distribution with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and comparison with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, Olivier; Hachem, Sabet; Franchisseur, Eric; Marcié, Serge; Gérard, Jean-Pierre; Bordy, Jean-Marc

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a dosimetric study concerning the system named "Papillon 50" used in the department of radiotherapy of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France. The machine provides a 50 kVp X-ray beam, currently used to treat rectal cancers. The system can be mounted with various applicators of different diameters or shapes. These applicators can be fixed over the main rod tube of the unit in order to deliver the prescribed absorbed dose into the tumor with an optimal distribution. We have analyzed depth dose curves and dose profiles for the naked tube and for a set of three applicators. Dose measurements were made with an ionization chamber (PTW type 23342) and Gafchromic films (EBT2). We have also compared the measurements with simulations performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Simulations were performed with a detailed geometrical description of the experimental setup and with enough statistics. Results of simulations are made in accordance with experimental measurements and provide an accurate evaluation of the dose delivered. The depths of the 50% isodose in water for the various applicators are 4.0, 6.0, 6.6 and 7.1 mm. The Monte Carlo PENELOPE simulations are in accordance with the measurements for a 50 kV X-ray system. Simulations are able to confirm the measurements provided by Gafchromic films or ionization chambers. Results also demonstrate that Monte Carlo simulations could be helpful to validate the future applicators designed for other localizations such as breast or skin cancers. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations could be a reliable alternative for a rapid evaluation of the dose delivered by such a system that uses multiple designs of applicators.

  4. Comparison of measured with calculated dose distribution from a 120-MeV electron beam from a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Lundh, O; Rechatin, C; Faure, J; Ben-Ismaïl, A; Lim, J; De Wagter, C; De Neve, W; Malka, V

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the dose distribution of a 120-MeV laser-plasma accelerated electron beam which may be of potential interest for high-energy electron radiation therapy. In the interaction between an intense laser pulse and a helium gas jet, a well collimated electron beam with very high energy is produced. A secondary laser beam is used to optically control and to tune the electron beam energy and charge. The potential use of this beam for radiation treatment is evaluated experimentally by measurements of dose deposition in a polystyrene phantom. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the geant4 code. It has been shown that the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam can deliver a peak dose of more than 1 Gy at the entrance of the phantom in a single laser shot by direct irradiation, without the use of intermediate magnetic transport or focusing. The dose distribution is peaked on axis, with narrow lateral penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations of electron beam propagation and dose deposition indicate that the propagation of the intense electron beam (with large self-fields) can be described by standard models that exclude collective effects in the response of the material. The measurements show that the high-energy electron beams produced by an optically injected laser-plasma accelerator can deliver high enough dose at penetration depths of interest for electron beam radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. Many engineering issues must be resolved before laser-accelerated electrons can be used for cancer therapy, but they also represent exciting challenges for future research. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Comparison of measured with calculated dose distribution from a 120-MeV electron beam from a laser-plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, O.; Rechatin, C.; Faure, J.; Ben-Ismaiel, A.; Lim, J.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.; Malka, V.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose distribution of a 120-MeV laser-plasma accelerated electron beam which may be of potential interest for high-energy electron radiation therapy. Methods: In the interaction between an intense laser pulse and a helium gas jet, a well collimated electron beam with very high energy is produced. A secondary laser beam is used to optically control and to tune the electron beam energy and charge. The potential use of this beam for radiation treatment is evaluated experimentally by measurements of dose deposition in a polystyrene phantom. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the geant4 code. Results: It has been shown that the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam can deliver a peak dose of more than 1 Gy at the entrance of the phantom in a single laser shot by direct irradiation, without the use of intermediate magnetic transport or focusing. The dose distribution is peaked on axis, with narrow lateral penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations of electron beam propagation and dose deposition indicate that the propagation of the intense electron beam (with large self-fields) can be described by standard models that exclude collective effects in the response of the material. Conclusions: The measurements show that the high-energy electron beams produced by an optically injected laser-plasma accelerator can deliver high enough dose at penetration depths of interest for electron beam radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. Many engineering issues must be resolved before laser-accelerated electrons can be used for cancer therapy, but they also represent exciting challenges for future research.

  6. SU-E-T-163: Evaluation of Dose Distributions Recalculated with Per-Field Measurement Data Under the Condition of Respiratory Motion During IMRT for Liver Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J; Yoon, M; Nam, T; Ahn, S; Chung, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The dose distributions within the real volumes of tumor targets and critical organs during internal target volume-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ITV-IMRT) for liver cancer were recalculated by applying the effects of actual respiratory organ motion, and the dosimetric features were analyzed through comparison with gating IMRT (Gate-IMRT) plan results. Methods: The 4DCT data for 10 patients who had been treated with Gate-IMRT for liver cancer were selected to create ITV-IMRT plans. The ITV was created using MIM software, and a moving phantom was used to simulate respiratory motion. The period and range of respiratory motion were recorded in all patients from 4DCT-generated movie data, and the same period and range were applied when operating the dynamic phantom to realize coincident respiratory conditions in each patient. The doses were recalculated with a 3 dose-volume histogram (3DVH) program based on the per-field data measured with a MapCHECK2 2-dimensional diode detector array and compared with the DVHs calculated for the Gate-IMRT plan. Results: Although a sufficient prescription dose covered the PTV during ITV-IMRT delivery, the dose homogeneity in the PTV was inferior to that with the Gate-IMRT plan. We confirmed that there were higher doses to the organs-at-risk (OARs) with ITV-IMRT, as expected when using an enlarged field, but the increased dose to the spinal cord was not significant and the increased doses to the liver and kidney could be considered as minor when the reinforced constraints were applied during IMRT plan optimization. Conclusion: Because Gate-IMRT cannot always be considered an ideal method with which to correct the respiratory motional effect, given the dosimetric variations in the gating system application and the increased treatment time, a prior analysis for optimal IMRT method selection should be performed while considering the patient's respiratory condition and IMRT plan results.

  7. Measurement of the absorbed dose distribution near an 192Ir intravascular brachytherapy seed using a high-spatial-resolution gel dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massillon-JL, G.; Minniti, R.; Mitch, M. G.; Soares, C. G.

    2012-06-01

    The absorbed dose distribution at sub-millimeter distances from the Best single 192Ir intravascular brachytherapy seed was measured using a high-spatial-resolution gel dosimetry system. Two gel phantoms from the same batch were used; one for the seed irradiation and one for calibration. Since the response of this gel is energy independent for photons between 20 and 1250 keV, the gel was calibrated using a narrowly collimated 60Co gamma-ray beam (cross-sectional area ˜1 cm2). A small format laser computed tomography scanner was used to acquire the data. The measurements were carried out with a spatial resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions. The seed was calibrated at NIST in terms of air-kerma strength. The absorbed dose rate as well as the radial dose function, gL(r), was measured for radial distances between 0.6 and 12.6 mm from the seed center. The dose rate constant was measured, yielding a value of Λ = (1.122 ± 0.032) cGy h-1 U-1, which agrees with published data within the measurement uncertainty. For distances between 0.6 and 1.5 mm, gL(r) decreases from a maximum value of 1.06 down to 1.00; between 1.5 and 6.7 mm, an enhancement is clearly observed with a maximum value around 1.24 and beyond 6.7 mm, gL(r) has an approximately constant value around 1.0, which suggests that this seed can be considered as a point source only at distances larger than 6.7 mm. This latter observation agrees with data for the same seed reported previously using Gafchromic film MD-55-2. Additionally, published Monte Carlo (MC) calculations have predicted the observed behavior of the radial dose function resulting from the absorbed dose contributions of beta particles and electrons emitted by the 192Ir seed. Nonetheless, in the enhancement region, MC underestimates the dose by approximately 20%. This work suggests that beta particles and electrons emitted from the seed make a significant contribution to the total absorbed dose delivered at distances near the seed center (less

  8. Measurement and model prediction of proton-recoil track length distributions in NTA film dosimeters for neutron energy spectroscopy and retrospective dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taulbee, Timothy D.

    The goal of this research was to determine whether neutron dose reconstruction could be improved through re-analysis of historic NTA films worn by workers in the 1950 through the 1970s. To improve neutron dose reconstruction, the underlying neutron energy spectra is critical in determining the organ dose due to energy dependence of the dose conversion factor as well as the application of radiation weighting factors used in epidemiology and probability of causation calculations. Monte Carlo models of proton-recoil track length distributions were developed and benchmarked against measurement data for both NTA and Ilford films. These models, when applied to several NTA film dosimeter configurations, demonstrated that proton-recoil track length distributions change based upon incident neutron energy. The neutron energy spectra changes that result from the general work environment such as source term and shielding can subsequently be modeled to predict the response of the NTA film dosimeter. An Automatic NTA Film Analyzer has been designed and developed to determine if the difference in proton-recoil track length distributions predicted by the Monte Carlo models could be measured and whether these differences could be correlated to the incident neutron energy spectra. The design required the development of a 2D-3D hybrid track recognition algorithm for a three dimensional analysis of the NTA film in order to accurately determine the proton-recoil track length for subsequent neutron energy determination. NTA films exposed to a plutonium fluoride (PuF4) and polonium boron (PoB) calibration sources were measured and compared. The proton-recoil track lengths were used to reconstruct the incident neutron energy spectra demonstrating the functionality of the analyzer and that reconstruction of the neutron energy spectra from NTA films is feasible. These measurements were compared to the Monte Carlo models and confirmed the applicability of using models to determine the NTA

  9. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Viulet, Tiberiu; Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

  10. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Dano, D; Remington, B C; Astier, C; Baumert, J L; Kruizinga, A G; Bihain, B E; Taylor, S L; Kanny, G

    2015-09-01

    Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge method for future studies. Records of patients at University Hospital in Nancy (France) with objective symptoms to sesame challenges were collected and combined with previously published data. An estimation of the sesame allergy population threshold was calculated based on individual NOAELs and LOAELs. Clinical dosing schemes at Nancy were investigated to see if the optimal protocol for sesame is currently used. Fourteen patients (10 M/4 F, 22 ± 14.85 years old) with objective symptoms were added to previously published data making a total of 35 sesame allergic patients. The most sensitive patient reacted to the first dose at challenge of 1.02 mg sesame protein. The ED05 ranges between 1.2 and 4.0 mg of sesame protein (Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull models) and the ED10 between 4.2 and 6.2 mg. The optimal food challenge dosing scheme for sesame follows semi-log dose increases from 0.3 to 3000 mg protein. This article provides a valuable update to the existing clinical literature regarding sesame NOAELs and LOAELs. Establishment of a population threshold for sesame could help in increasing the credibility of precautionary labelling and decrease the costs associated with unexpected allergic reactions. Also, the use of an optimal dosing scheme would decrease time spent on diagnostic and thereafter on the economic burden of sesame allergy diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of the stochastic radial dose distribution for a 30-MeV proton beam using a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, S.; Sato, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of the lineal energy, y, of a 30-MeV proton beam was measured as a function of the radial distance from the beam path, and the dosed mean of y,y¯D, was obtained to investigate the radial dependence of y¯D. A wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter, in a cylindrical volume with simulated diameters of 0.36, 0.72 and 1.44 µm was used for the measurement of y distributions, yf(y). The measured values of yf(y) summed in the radial direction agreed fairly well with the corresponding data taken from the microdosimetric calculations using the PHITS code. The y¯D value of the 30-MeV proton beam presented its smallest value at r = 0.0 and gradually increased with radial distance, and the y¯D values of heavy ions such as iron showed rapid decrease with radial distance. This experimental result demonstrated that the stochastic deposited energy distribution of high-energy protons in the microscopic region is rather constant in the core as well as in the penumbra region of the track structure. PMID:25956785

  12. Measurement of the depth distribution of average LET and absorbed dose inside a water-filled phantom on board space station MIR.

    PubMed

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Schoner, W; Fugger, M; Vana, N; Noll, M; Ebner, R; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V

    2001-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities developed the HTR-method for determination of absorbed dose and "averaged" linear energy transfer (LET) in mixed radiation fields. The method was applied with great success during several space missions (e.g. STS-60, STS-63, BION-10 and BION-11) and on space station MIR in the past 10 years. It utilises the changes of peak height ratios in LiF thermoluminescent glowcurves in dependence on the LET. Due to the small size of these dosemeters the HTR-method can be used also for measurements inside tissue equivalent phantoms. A water filled phantom with a diameter of 35 cm containing four channels where dosemeters can be exposed in different depths was developed by the Institute for Biomedical Problems. This opens the possibility to measure the depth distribution of the average LET and the dose equivalent simultaneously. During phase 1 dosemeters were exposed for 271 days (05.1997-02.1998) in 6 different depths inside the phantom, which was positioned in the commander cabin. In phase 2 dosemeters were exposed in 2 channels in 6 different depths for 102 days (05.1998-08.1998) in the board engineer cabin, following an exposure in different channels in 3 different depths for 199 days (08.1998- 02.1999) in the Modul KWANT 2.

  13. Simple methods for the estimation of dose distributions, organ doses and energy imparted in paediatric radiology.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Nilsson, M

    1996-07-01

    The energy imparted and the effective dose can both be used to describe the risk to the patient in diagnostic radiology. Simple methods must be employed to determine these quantities in clinical situations. Methods using measured relative depth-dose distributions are presented and evaluated here. Measurements of depth-dose distributions for x-ray beams were performed with an ionization chamber, a diode and a number of TL dosimeters. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements with both phantoms and patients. The method of calculating the mean absorbed dose to organs was applied to pelvis and lumbar spine examinations. TL dosimeters were found to be an appropriate detector for measuring depth-dose distributions. When calculating the energy imparted the entrance beam area must be accurately known. The mean absorbed dose to organs can be derived from measured relative depth-dose curves if accurate information on entrance beam position and area is available for the particular examination technique used. The advantage of these methods is that the dose distribution is measured for the photon beam used for the examination of the patients.

  14. Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Doke, T; Kikuchi, J; Sakaguchi, T; Takeuchi, R; Takashima, T; Kobayashi, M; Terasawa, K; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, A; Kyan, A; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Ogura, K; Nagaoka, S; Kato, M; Nakano, T; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET

  15. Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Sakaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Takashima, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Terasawa, K.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, A.; hide

    1997-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET

  16. SU-E-I-15: Quantitative Evaluation of Dose Distributions From Axial, Helical and Cone-Beam CT Imaging by Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional Diode-Array Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, M; Aldoohan, S; Sonnad, J; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate quantitatively dose distributions from helical, axial and cone-beam CT clinical imaging techniques by measurement using a two-dimensional (2D) diode-array detector. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from selected clinical protocols used for axial, helical and cone-beam CT imaging were measured using a diode-array detector (MapCheck2). The MapCheck2 is composed from solid state diode detectors that are arranged in horizontal and vertical lines with a spacing of 10 mm. A GE-Light-Speed CT-simulator was used to acquire axial and helical CT images and a kV on-board-imager integrated with a Varian TrueBeam-STx machine was used to acquire cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Results: The dose distributions from axial, helical and cone-beam CT were non-uniform over the region-of-interest with strong spatial and angular dependence. In axial CT, a large dose gradient was measured that decreased from lateral sides to the middle of the phantom due to large superficial dose at the side of the phantom in comparison with larger beam attenuation at the center. The dose decreased at the superior and inferior regions in comparison to the center of the phantom in axial CT. An asymmetry was found between the right-left or superior-inferior sides of the phantom which possibly to angular dependence in the dose distributions. The dose level and distribution varied from one imaging technique into another. For the pelvis technique, axial CT deposited a mean dose of 3.67 cGy, helical CT deposited a mean dose of 1.59 cGy, and CBCT deposited a mean dose of 1.62 cGy. Conclusions: MapCheck2 provides a robust tool to measure directly 2D-dose distributions for CT imaging with high spatial resolution detectors in comparison with ionization chamber that provides a single point measurement or an average dose to the phantom. The dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 consider medium heterogeneity and can represent specific patient dose.

  17. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  18. Proton Depth Dose Distribution: 3-D Calculation of Dose Distributions from Solar Flare Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    distributions in the transverse plane intersecting isocenter are presented for each of the 3 solar flare event. in all 3 exposure geometries. In all 3...calculation con- figurations the maximum predicted",dose occurred on the surface of the head. The dose at the isocenter of the head relative ’to the...for all 3 cases ire: 1. All isodose distributions are displayed relative to a normalization dose of 100 centigray at the isocenter in the absence of

  19. Dose distributions in regions containing beta sources: Irregularly shaped source distributions in homogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Methods are introduced by which dose rate distributions due to nonuniform, irregularly shaped distributions of beta emitters can be calculated using dose rate distributions for uniform, spherical source distributions. The dose rate distributions can be written in the MIRD formalism.

  20. Dose distribution for dental cone beam CT and its implication for defining a dose index

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, R; Theodorakou, C; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Jacobs, R; Horner, K; Bogaerts, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the dose distribution for a range of cone beam CT (CBCT) units, investigating different field of view sizes, central and off-axis geometries, full or partial rotations of the X-ray tube and different clinically applied beam qualities. The implications of the dose distributions on the definition and practicality of a CBCT dose index were assessed. Methods Dose measurements on CBCT devices were performed by scanning cylindrical head-size water and polymethyl methacrylate phantoms, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, a small-volume ion chamber and radiochromic films. Results It was found that the dose distribution can be asymmetrical for dental CBCT exposures throughout a homogeneous phantom, owing to an asymmetrical positioning of the isocentre and/or partial rotation of the X-ray source. Furthermore, the scatter tail along the z-axis was found to have a distinct shape, generally resulting in a strong drop (90%) in absorbed dose outside the primary beam. Conclusions There is no optimal dose index available owing to the complicated exposure geometry of CBCT and the practical aspects of quality control measurements. Practical validation of different possible dose indices is needed, as well as the definition of conversion factors to patient dose. PMID:22752320

  1. Determination of dose distributions and parameter sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow's milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.

  2. Radon Exposure and the Definition of Low Doses-The Problem of Spatial Dose Distribution.

    PubMed

    Madas, Balázs G

    2016-07-01

    Investigating the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation is considered to be one of the most important fields in radiological protection research. Although the definition of low dose given by a dose range seems to be clear, it leaves some open questions. For example, the time frame and the target volume in which absorbed dose is measured have to be defined. While dose rate is considered in the current system of radiological protection, the same cancer risk is associated with all exposures, resulting in a given amount of energy absorbed by a single target cell or distributed among all the target cells of a given organ. However, the biological effects and so the health consequences of these extreme exposure scenarios are unlikely to be the same. Due to the heterogeneous deposition of radon progeny within the lungs, heterogeneous radiation exposure becomes a practical issue in radiological protection. While the macroscopic dose is still within the low dose range, local tissue doses on the order of Grays can be reached in the most exposed parts of the bronchial airways. It can be concluded that progress in low dose research needs not only low dose but also high dose experiments where small parts of a biological sample receive doses on the order of Grays, while the average dose over the whole sample remains low. A narrow interpretation of low dose research might exclude investigations with high relevance to radiological protection. Therefore, studies important to radiological protection should be performed in the frame of low dose research even if the applied doses do not fit in the dose range used for the definition of low doses.

  3. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  4. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Yang, T. C.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  5. Space radiation absorbed dose distribution in a human phantom.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Badavi, F F; Yang, T C; Cleghorn, T F

    2002-01-01

    The radiation risk to astronauts has always been based on measurements using passive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The skin dose is converted to dose equivalent using an average radiation quality factor based on model calculations. The radiological risk estimates, however, are based on organ and tissue doses. This paper describes results from the first space flight (STS-91, 51.65 degrees inclination and approximately 380 km altitude) of a fully instrumented Alderson Rando phantom torso (with head) to relate the skin dose to organ doses. Spatial distributions of absorbed dose in 34 1-inch-thick sections measured using TLDs are described. There is about a 30% change in dose as one moves from the front to the back of the phantom body. Small active dosimeters were developed specifically to provide time-resolved measurements of absorbed dose rates and quality factors at five organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) inside the phantom. Using these dosimeters, it was possible to separate the trapped-proton and the galactic cosmic radiation components of the doses. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and a charged-particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) were flown next to the phantom torso to provide data on the incident internal radiation environment. Accurate models of the shielding distributions at the site of the TEPC, the CPDS and a scalable Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model of the phantom torso were developed. These measurements provided a comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human phantom, and to assess the accuracy and validity of radiation transport models throughout the human body. The results show that for the conditions in the International Space Station (ISS) orbit during periods near the solar minimum, the ratio of the blood-forming organ dose rate to the skin absorbed dose rate is about 80%, and the ratio of the dose equivalents is almost one. The results show that the GCR model dose

  6. Space Radiation Absorbed Dose Distribution in a Human Phantom Torso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Yang, T.; Atwell, W.

    2000-01-01

    The flight of a human phantom torso with head that containing active dosimeters at 5 organ sites and 1400 TLDs distributed in 34 1" thick sections is described. Experimental dose rates and quality factors are compared with calculations for shielding distributions at the sites using the Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model. The measurements were complemented with those obtained from other instruments. These results have provided the most comprehensive data set to map the dose distribution inside a human and to assess the accuracy of radiation transport models and astronaut radiation risk.

  7. Measurement of dose in radionuclide therapy by using Cerenkov radiation.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yao; Tang, Xiaobin; Shu, Diyun; Shao, Wencheng; Gong, Chunhui; Geng, Changran; Zhang, Xudong; Yu, Haiyan

    2017-08-14

    This work aims to determine the relationship between Cerenkov photon emission and radiation dose from internal radionuclide irradiation. Water and thyroid phantoms were used to simulate the distribution of Cerenkov photon emission and dose deposition through Monte Carlo method. The relationship between Cerenkov photon emission and dose deposition was quantitatively analyzed. A neck phantom was also used to verify Cerenkov photon detection for thyroid radionuclide therapy. Results show that Cerenkov photon emission and dose deposition exhibit the same distribution pattern in water phantom, and this relative distribution relationship also existed in the thyroid phantom. Moreover, Cerenkov photon emission exhibits a specific quantitative relation to dose deposition. For thyroid radionuclide therapy, only a part of Cerenkov photon produced by thyroid could penetrate the body for detection; therefore, the use of Cerenkov radiation for measurement of radionuclide therapy dose may be more suitable for superficial tumors. This study demonstrated that Cerenkov radiation has the potential to be used for measuring radiation dose for radionuclide therapy.

  8. 238U and 232Th Dose Calculations and Size Distribution Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R. Z.; Jacob, E. M.; Marschke, S. F.; Pranitis, D. M.; Jaw, H-R. Kristina

    2000-03-01

    A rotating drum impactor was co-located with a high volume air sampler for ~ 1 y at the fence line of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Fernald Environmental Management Project site. Data on the size distribution of uranium bearing atmospheric aerosols from 0.065 mm to 100 mm in diameter were obtained and used to compute dose using several different models. During most of the year, the mass of 238U above 15 mm exceeded 70% of the total uranium mass from all particulates. Above 4.3 µm, the 238U mass exceeded 80% of the total uranium mass from all particulates. During any sampling period the size distribution was bimodal. In the winter/spring period, the modes appeared at 0.29 µm and 3.2 µm. During the summer period, the lower mode shifted up to ~ 0.45 mm. In the fall/winter, the upper mode shifted to ~ 1.7 µm, while the lower mode stayed at 0.45 mm. These differences reflect the changes in site activities. Thorium concentrations were comparable to the uranium concentrations during the late spring and summer period and decreased to ~25% of the 238U concentration in the late summer. The thorium size distribution trend also differed from the uranium trend. The current calculational method used to demonstrate compliance with regulations assumes that the airborne particulates are characterized by an activity median diameter of 1 µm. This assumption results in an overestimate of the dose to offsite receptors by as much as a factor of seven relative to values derived using the latest ICRP 66 lung model with more appropriate particle sizes. Further evaluation of the size distribution for each radionuclide would substantially improve the dose estimates.

  9. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  10. In vivo skin dose measurement in breast conformal radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Noghreiyan, Atefeh Vejdani; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Jamali, Farideh; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Accurate skin dose assessment is necessary during breast radiotherapy to assure that the skin dose is below the tolerance level and is sufficient to prevent tumour recurrence. The aim of the current study is to measure the skin dose and to evaluate the geometrical/anatomical parameters that affect it. Material and methods Forty patients were simulated by TIGRT treatment planning system and treated with two tangential fields of 6 MV photon beam. Wedge filters were used to homogenise dose distribution for 11 patients. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) and the effects of beam incident angle, thickness of irradiated region, and beam entry separation on the skin dose were analysed. Results Average skin dose in treatment course of 50 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV) was 36.65 Gy. The corresponding dose values for patients who were treated with and without wedge filter were 35.65 and 37.20 Gy, respectively. It was determined that the beam angle affected the average skin dose while the thickness of the irradiated region and the beam entry separation did not affect dose. Since the skin dose measured in this study was lower than the amount required to prevent tumour recurrence, application of bolus material in part of the treatment course is suggested for post-mastectomy advanced breast radiotherapy. It is more important when wedge filters are applied to homogenize dose distribution. PMID:27358592

  11. Calculation of external dose from distributed source

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail.

  12. Measurements of LET-distribution, dose equivalent and quality factor with the RRMD-III on the Space Shuttle Missions STS-84, -89 and -91.

    PubMed

    Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Sakaguchi, T; Terasawa, K; Yoshihira, E; Nagaoka, S; Nakano, T; Takahashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Dosimetric measurements on the Space Shuttle Missions STS-84, -89 and -91 have been made by the real-time radiation monitoring device III (RRMD-III). Simultaneously, another dosimetry measurement was made by the Dosimetry Telescope (DOSTEL) on STS-84 and by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on STS-91. First, the RRMD-III instrument is described in detail and its results summarized. Then, the results of DOSTEL and TEPC are compared with those of the RRMD-III. Also, the absorbed doses obtained by TLD (Mg2SiO4) and by RRMD-III on board STS-84 and -91 are compared.

  13. Calculation of dose distribution above contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Junya; Tenzou, Hideki; Manabe, Seiya; Iwakura, Yukiko

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altitude and the distribution of the ambient dose rate in the air over soil decontamination area by using PHITS simulation code. The geometry configuration was 1000 m ×1000 m area and 1m in soil depth and 100m in altitude from the ground to simulate the area of residences or a school grounds. The contaminated region is supposed to be uniformly contaminated by Cs-137 γ radiation sources. The air dose distribution and space resolution was evaluated for flux of the gamma rays at each altitude, 1, 5, 10, and 20m. The effect of decontamination was calculated by defining sharpness S. S was the ratio of an average flux and a flux at the center of denomination area in each altitude. The suitable flight altitude of the drone is found to be less than 15m above a residence and 31m above a school grounds to confirm the decontamination effect. The calculation results can be a help to determine a flight planning of a drone to minimize the clash risk.

  14. A dosimetric study of a heterogeneous phantom for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy comparing Monte Carlo and pencil beam calculations to dose distributions measured with a 2-D diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curley, Casey Michael

    Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculations are compared to their measured planar dose distributions using a 2-D diode array for lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). The planar dose distributions were studied for two different phantom types: an in-house heterogeneous phantom and a homogeneous phantom. The motivation is to mimic the human anatomy during a lung SBRT treatment and incorporate heterogeneities into the pre-treatment Quality Assurance process, where measured and calculated planar dose distributions are compared before the radiation treatment. Individual and combined field dosimetry has been performed for both fixed gantry angle (anterior to posterior) and planned gantry angle delivery. A gamma analysis has been performed for all beam arrangements. The measurements were obtained using the 2-D diode array MapCHECK 2(TM). MC and PB calculations were performed using the BrainLAB iPlan RTRTM Dose software. The results suggest that with the heterogeneous phantom as a quality assurance device, the MC calculations result in closer agreements to the measured values, when using the planned gantry angle delivery method for composite beams. For the homogeneous phantom, the results suggest that the preferred delivery method is at the fixed anterior to posterior gantry angle. Furthermore, the MC and PB calculations do not show significant differences for dose difference and distance to agreement criteria 3%/3mm. However, PB calculations are in better agreement with the measured values for more stringent gamma criteria when considering individual beam whereas MC agreements are closer for composite beam measurements.

  15. Dosimetry of dose distributions in radiotherapy of patients with surgical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brożyna, Bogusław; Chełmiński, Krzysztof; Bulski, Wojciech; Giżyńska, Marta; Grochowska, Paulina; Walewska, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Marta; Kawecki, Andrzej; Krajewski, Romuald

    2014-11-01

    The investigation was performed in order to evaluate the use of Gafchromic EBT films for measurements of dose distributions created during radiotherapy in tissues surrounding titanium or resorbable implants used for joining and consolidating facial bones. Inhomogeneous dose distributions at implant-tissue interfaces can be the reason of normal tissue complications observed in radiotherapy patients after surgery with implants. The dose measured at a depth of 2.5 cm on contact surfaces, proximal and distal to the beam source, between the titanium implant and the phantom material was 109% and 92% respectively of the reference dose measured in a homogeneous phantom. For the resorbable implants the doses measured on the proximal and the distal contact surfaces were 102% and 101% respectively of the reference dose. The resorbable implants affect the homogeneity of dose distribution at a significantly lesser degree than the titanium implants. Gafchromic EBT films allowed for precise dose distribution measurements at the contact surfaces between tissue equivalent materials and implants. We measured doses at contact surfaces between titanium implants and RW3 phantom. We measured doses at contact surfaces between resorbable implants and RW3 phantom. We compared doses measured on contact surfaces and doses in homogeneous phantom. Doses at contact surfaces between RW3 phantom and titanium were distorted about 8-9%. Doses at RW3 phantom and resorbable implant contact surfaces were distorted about 2%.

  16. Skin dose measurement with MICROSPEC-2{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Chen, J.; Ing, H.; Clifford, E.T.H.; McLean, T.

    1997-10-01

    For many years, the Eberline HP-260{trademark} beta detectors were used for skin dose measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This detector does not measure the beta spectrum and the skin dose can only be determined if the contaminating radioactive isotope is known. A new product MICROSPEC-2{trademark}, has been developed which consists of a small portable computer with a multichannel analyzer and a beta probe consisting of a phoswich detector. The system measures the beta spectrum and automatically folds in the beta fluence-to-dose conversion function to yield the skin dose.

  17. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Helmrot, Ebba; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs.

  18. Tomotherapy dose distribution verification using MAGIC-f polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pavoni, J. F.; Pike, T. L.; Snow, J.; DeWerd, L.; Baffa, O.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the application of MAGIC-f gel in a three-dimensional dose distribution measurement and its ability to accurately measure the dose distribution from a tomotherapy unit. Methods: A prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation was simulated in the gel phantom and the treatment was delivered by a TomoTherapy equipment. Dose distribution was evaluated by the R2 distribution measured in magnetic resonance imaging. Results: A high similarity was found by overlapping of isodoses of the dose distribution measured with the gel and expected by the treatment planning system (TPS). Another analysis was done by comparing the relative absorbed dose profiles in the measured and in the expected dose distributions extracted along indicated lines of the volume and the results were also in agreement. The gamma index analysis was also applied to the data and a high pass rate was achieved (88.4% for analysis using 3%/3 mm and of 96.5% using 4%/4 mm). The real three-dimensional analysis compared the dose-volume histograms measured for the planning volumes and expected by the treatment planning, being the results also in good agreement by the overlapping of the curves. Conclusions: These results show that MAGIC-f gel is a promise for tridimensional dose distribution measurements.

  19. Tomotherapy dose distribution verification using MAGIC-f polymer gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pavoni, J F; Pike, T L; Snow, J; DeWerd, L; Baffa, O

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the application of MAGIC-f gel in a three-dimensional dose distribution measurement and its ability to accurately measure the dose distribution from a tomotherapy unit. A prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation was simulated in the gel phantom and the treatment was delivered by a TomoTherapy equipment. Dose distribution was evaluated by the R2 distribution measured in magnetic resonance imaging. A high similarity was found by overlapping of isodoses of the dose distribution measured with the gel and expected by the treatment planning system (TPS). Another analysis was done by comparing the relative absorbed dose profiles in the measured and in the expected dose distributions extracted along indicated lines of the volume and the results were also in agreement. The gamma index analysis was also applied to the data and a high pass rate was achieved (88.4% for analysis using 3%∕3 mm and of 96.5% using 4%∕4 mm). The real three-dimensional analysis compared the dose-volume histograms measured for the planning volumes and expected by the treatment planning, being the results also in good agreement by the overlapping of the curves. These results show that MAGIC-f gel is a promise for tridimensional dose distribution measurements.

  20. Detailed dose distribution prediction of Cf-252 brachytherapy source with boron loading dose enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D; Molinari, V; Jehouani, A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dose rate distribution and to determine the boron effect on dose rate distribution for (252)Cf brachytherapy source. This study was carried out using a Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the Monte Carlo computer code, the dosimetric parameters were determined following the updated TG-43 formalism and compared with current literature data. The validated computer code was then applied to evaluate the neutron and photon dose distribution and to illustrate the boron loading effect.

  1. An IMRT dose distribution study using commercial verification software.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Fernando, W; Grace, M; Rykers, K

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of IMRT requires users to confirm that the isodose distributions and relative doses calculated by their planning system match the doses delivered by their linear accelerators. To this end the commercially available software, VeriSoft (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was trialled to determine if the tools and functions it offered would be of benefit to this process. The CMS XiO (Computerized Medical System, St. Louis, MO) treatment planning system was used to generate IMRT plans that were delivered with an upgraded Elekta SL15 linac. Kodak EDR2 film sandwiched in RW3 solid water (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was used to measure the IMRT fields delivered with 6 MV photons. The isodose and profiles measured with the film generally agreed to within +/- 3% or +/- 3 mm with the planned doses, in some regions (outside the field) the match fell to within +/- 5%. The isodose distributions of the planning system and the film could be compared on screen, allowing for electronic records of the comparison to be kept if desired. The features of this software would be of benefit to an IMRT QA program.

  2. Effect of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distributions from Cf-252 brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used to determine the effect of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distribution from a Cf-252 brachytherapy source. Neutron and gamma-ray fluences, energy spectra and dose rate distributions were determined in both homogenous and inhomogeneous phantoms. Simulations were performed using the MCNP5 code. Obtained results were compared with experimentally measured values published in literature. Results showed a significant change in neutron dose rate distributions in presence of heterogeneities. However, their effect on gamma rays dose distribution is minimal.

  3. Measurement of dose in panoramic dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Montgomery, A

    2000-09-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has recommended the introduction of dose-width product (DWP) for the measurement of patient dose in panoramic dental radiology and has proposed a reference level of 65 mGy mm for adult exposures. This paper describes a method for measuring DWP and dose-area product (DAP) using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). The technique was used on 16 sets with a range of exposure settings. The mean value of DWP was 14% higher than the mean value reported from a survey by the NRPB. This difference is most likely to be caused by systematic variations due to measurement method. The average DAP for a standard adult examination was shown to be 11.3 cGy cm2. Data are presented so that the DAP can be derived from the exposure factors (tube current and operating potential) and beam area. Based on published data for effective dose, it is estimated that the DAP to effective dose conversion factor is approximately 0.06 mSv(Gy cm2)-1. The average DAP value (11.3 cGy cm2) can be compared with the average value for intraoral radiography (9.3 cGy cm2) based on the NRPB survey of entrance surface doses assuming 6 cm circular collimation.

  4. Curtailing patient-specific IMRT QA procedures from 2D dose error distribution.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Keita; Sumida, Iori; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Otani, Yuki; Oda, Michio; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) test is conducted to verify the accuracy of dose delivery. It generally consists of three verification processes: the absolute point dose difference, the planar dose differences at each gantry angle, and the planar dose differences by 3D composite irradiation. However, this imposes a substantial workload on medical physicists. The objective of this study was to determine whether our novel method that predicts the 3D delivered dose allows certain patient-specific IMRT QAs to be curtailed. The object was IMRT QA for the pelvic region with regard to point dose and composite planar dose differences. We compared measured doses, doses calculated in the treatment planning system, and doses predicted by in-house software. The 3D predicted dose was reconstructed from the per-field measurement by incorporating the relative dose error distribution into the original dose grid of each beam. All point dose differences between the measured and the calculated dose were within ±3%, whereas 93.3% of them between the predicted and the calculated dose were within ±3%. As for planar dose differences, the gamma passing rates between the calculated and the predicted dose were higher than those between the calculated and the measured dose. Comparison and statistical analysis revealed a correlation between the predicted and the measured dose with regard to both point dose and planar dose differences. We concluded that the prediction-based approach is an accurate substitute for the conventional measurement-based approach in IMRT QA for the pelvic region. Our novel approach will help medical physicists save time on IMRT QA.

  5. Curtailing patient-specific IMRT QA procedures from 2D dose error distribution

    PubMed Central

    Kurosu, Keita; Sumida, Iori; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Otani, Yuki; Oda, Michio; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) test is conducted to verify the accuracy of dose delivery. It generally consists of three verification processes: the absolute point dose difference, the planar dose differences at each gantry angle, and the planar dose differences by 3D composite irradiation. However, this imposes a substantial workload on medical physicists. The objective of this study was to determine whether our novel method that predicts the 3D delivered dose allows certain patient-specific IMRT QAs to be curtailed. The object was IMRT QA for the pelvic region with regard to point dose and composite planar dose differences. We compared measured doses, doses calculated in the treatment planning system, and doses predicted by in-house software. The 3D predicted dose was reconstructed from the per-field measurement by incorporating the relative dose error distribution into the original dose grid of each beam. All point dose differences between the measured and the calculated dose were within ±3%, whereas 93.3% of them between the predicted and the calculated dose were within ±3%. As for planar dose differences, the gamma passing rates between the calculated and the predicted dose were higher than those between the calculated and the measured dose. Comparison and statistical analysis revealed a correlation between the predicted and the measured dose with regard to both point dose and planar dose differences. We concluded that the prediction-based approach is an accurate substitute for the conventional measurement-based approach in IMRT QA for the pelvic region. Our novel approach will help medical physicists save time on IMRT QA. PMID:26661854

  6. Radiation Therapy Photon Beams Dose Conformation According to Dose Distribution Around Intracavitary-Applied Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkovic, Slaven Zauhar, Gordana; Faj, Dario; Radojcic, Deni Smilovic; Svabic, Manda

    2010-04-01

    Intracavitary application of brachytherapy sources followed by external beam radiation is essential for the local treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Due to very high doses to the central portion of the target volume delivered by brachytherapy sources, this part of the target volume must be shielded while being irradiated by photon beams. Several shielding techniques are available, from rectangular block and standard cervix wedge to more precise, customized step wedge filters. Because the calculation of a step wedge filter's shape was usually based on effective attenuation coefficient, an approach that accounts, in a more precise way, for the scattered radiation, is suggested. The method was verified under simulated clinical conditions using film dosimetry. Measured data for various compensators were compared to the numerically determined sum of the dose distribution around brachytherapy sources and one of compensated beam. Improvements in total dose distribution are demonstrated, using our method. Agreement between calculation and measurements were within 3%. Sensitivity of the method on sources displacement during treatment has also been investigated.

  7. Selecting radiotherapy dose distributions by means of constrained optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, J C L; Buttazzo, G; García-Archilla, B; Herrero, M A; Núñez, L

    2014-05-01

    The main steps in planning radiotherapy consist in selecting for any patient diagnosed with a solid tumor (i) a prescribed radiation dose on the tumor, (ii) bounds on the radiation side effects on nearby organs at risk and (iii) a fractionation scheme specifying the number and frequency of therapeutic sessions during treatment. The goal of any radiotherapy treatment is to deliver on the tumor a radiation dose as close as possible to that selected in (i), while at the same time conforming to the constraints prescribed in (ii). To this day, considerable uncertainties remain concerning the best manner in which such issues should be addressed. In particular, the choice of a prescription radiation dose is mostly based on clinical experience accumulated on the particular type of tumor considered, without any direct reference to quantitative radiobiological assessment. Interestingly, mathematical models for the effect of radiation on biological matter have existed for quite some time, and are widely acknowledged by clinicians. However, the difficulty to obtain accurate in vivo measurements of the radiobiological parameters involved has severely restricted their direct application in current clinical practice.In this work, we first propose a mathematical model to select radiation dose distributions as solutions (minimizers) of suitable variational problems, under the assumption that key radiobiological parameters for tumors and organs at risk involved are known. Second, by analyzing the dependence of such solutions on the parameters involved, we then discuss the manner in which the use of those minimizers can improve current decision-making processes to select clinical dosimetries when (as is generally the case) only partial information on model radiosensitivity parameters is available. A comparison of the proposed radiation dose distributions with those actually delivered in a number of clinical cases strongly suggests that solutions of our mathematical model can be

  8. Dose measurements around spallation neutron sources.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, M; Stoulos, S; Manolopoulou, M; Krivopustov, M; Zamani, M

    2008-01-01

    Neutron dose measurements and calculations around spallation sources appear to be of great importance in shielding research. Two spallation sources were irradiated by high-energy proton beams delivered by the Nuclotron accelerator (JINR), Dubna. Neutrons produced by the spallation sources were measured by using solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, neutron dose was calculated after polyethylene and concrete, using a phenomenological model based on empirical relations applied in high-energy physics. The study provides an analytical and experimental neutron benchmark analysis using the transmission factor and a comparison between the experimental results and calculations.

  9. Influence of metal of the applicator on the dose distribution during brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Shiau, An-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Jen; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how the metal materials of the applicator influence the dose distribution when performing brachytherapy for cervical cancer. A pinpoint ionization chamber, Monte Carlo code MCNPX, and treatment planning system are used to evaluate the dose distribution for a single Ir-192 source positioned in the tandem and ovoid. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the tandem, differences among measurement, MCNPX calculation and treatment planning system results are <5%. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the ovoid, the MCNPX result agrees with the measurement. But the doses calculated from treatment planning system are overestimated by up to a factor of 4. This is due to the shielding effect of the metal materials in the applicator not being considered in the treatment planning system. This result suggests that the treatment planning system should take into account corrections for the metal materials of the applicator in order to improve the accuracy of the radiation dose delivered.

  10. Verification of IMRT dose distributions using a water beam imaging system.

    PubMed

    Li, J S; Boyer, A L; Ma, C M

    2001-12-01

    A water beam imaging system (WBIS) has been developed and used to verify dose distributions for intensity modulated radiotherapy using dynamic multileaf collimator. This system consisted of a water container, a scintillator screen, a charge-coupled device camera, and a portable personal computer. The scintillation image was captured by the camera. The pixel value in this image indicated the dose value in the scintillation screen. Images of radiation fields of known spatial distributions were used to calibrate the device. The verification was performed by comparing the image acquired from the measurement with a dose distribution from the IMRT plan. Because of light scattering in the scintillator screen, the image was blurred. A correction for this was developed by recognizing that the blur function could be fitted to a multiple Gaussian. The blur function was computed using the measured image of a 10 cm x 10 cm x-ray beam and the result of the dose distribution calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Based on the blur function derived using this method, an iterative reconstruction algorithm was applied to recover the dose distribution for an IMRT plan from the measured WBIS image. The reconstructed dose distribution was compared with Monte Carlo simulation result. Reasonable agreement was obtained from the comparison. The proposed approach makes it possible to carry out a real-time comparison of the dose distribution in a transverse plane between the measurement and the reference when we do an IMRT dose verification.

  11. Measuring pacemaker dose: A clinical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Studenski, Matthew T.; Xiao Ying; Harrison, Amy S.

    2012-07-01

    Recently in our clinic, we have seen an increased number of patients presenting with pacemakers and defibrillators. Precautions are taken to develop a treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the pacemaker because of the adverse effects of radiation on the electronics. Here we analyze different dosimeters to determine which is the most accurate in measuring pacemaker or defibrillator dose while at the same time not requiring a significant investment in time to maintain an efficient workflow in the clinic. The dosimeters analyzed here were ion chambers, diodes, metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. A simple phantom was used to quantify the angular and energy dependence of each dosimeter. Next, 8 patients plans were delivered to a Rando phantom with all the dosimeters located where the pacemaker would be, and the measurements were compared with the predicted dose. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained to determine the dosimeter response in the kilovoltage energy range. In terms of the angular and energy dependence of the dosimeters, the ion chamber and diode were the most stable. For the clinical cases, all the dosimeters match relatively well with the predicted dose, although the ideal dosimeter to use is case dependent. The dosimeters, especially the MOSFETS, tend to be less accurate for the plans, with many lateral beams. Because of their efficiency, we recommend using a MOSFET or a diode to measure the dose. If a discrepancy is observed between the measured and expected dose (especially when the pacemaker to field edge is <10 cm), we recommend analyzing the treatment plan to see whether there are many lateral beams. Follow-up with another dosimeter rather than repeating multiple times with the same type of dosimeter. All dosimeters should be placed after the CBCT has been acquired.

  12. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  13. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  14. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  15. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model

    PubMed Central

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. Material and methods The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Results Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT. PMID:28344603

  16. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model.

    PubMed

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit

    2017-02-01

    To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  17. Differential dose contributions on total dose distribution of 125I brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Camgöz, B.; Yeğin, G.; Kumru, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    This work provides an improvement of the approach using Monte Carlo simulation for the Amersham Model 6711 125I brachytherapy seed source, which is well known by many theoretical and experimental studies. The source which has simple geometry was researched with respect to criteria of AAPM Tg-43 Report. The approach offered by this study involves determination of differential dose contributions that come from virtual partitions of a massive radioactive element of the studied source to a total dose at analytical calculation point. Some brachytherapy seeds contain multi-radioactive elements so the dose at any point is a total of separate doses from each element. It is momentous to know well the angular and radial dose distributions around the source that is located in cancerous tissue for clinical treatments. Interior geometry of a source is effective on dose characteristics of a distribution. Dose information of inner geometrical structure of a brachytherapy source cannot be acquired by experimental methods because of limits of physical material and geometry in the healthy tissue, so Monte Carlo simulation is a required approach of the study. EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation software was used. In the design of a simulation, the radioactive source was divided into 10 rings, partitioned but not separate from each other. All differential sources were simulated for dose calculation, and the shape of dose distribution was determined comparatively distribution of a single-complete source. In this work anisotropy function was examined also mathematically. PMID:24376927

  18. Dose distribution in pediatric CT head examination using a new phantom with radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, R; Katsuda, T; Gotanda, T; Tabuchi, A; Yatake, H; Takeda, Y

    2008-12-01

    Performing a detailed dose measurement is important to keep radiation doses during computed tomography (CT) examinations as low as reasonably achievable. To estimate in detail the dose distribution during pediatric CT examination of the head, a sheet roll CT dosimetry phantom (SRCT-P) with radiochromic film (RF) was developed. The dose distributions in the SRCT-P (diameters of 6 [premature baby], 10 [neonate], and 14 [infant] cm) were evaluated. The SRCT-Ps were made by rolling up flexible acrylic sheets (1.1 g/cm3). RFs were positioned every 5 mm along the radius at each SRCT-P, starting at 10 mm (center) and ending on the surface. The dose distribution along the z-axis at the center or on the surface showed a flat or wave pattern, respectively. When the mean surface dose at 10 cm diameter was taken as 100%, the mean surface doses at 6 or 14 cm diameters were 105 or 96%, respectively, and the mean center doses at 6, 10, and 14 cm were 109, 99, and 74%, respectively. The maximum-minimum doses and dose distribution of a CT examination can be measured separately by using the SRCT-P with RF.

  19. Dose-time-response modeling using negative binomial distribution.

    PubMed

    Roy, Munmun; Choudhury, Kanak; Islam, M M; Matin, M A

    2013-01-01

    People exposed to certain diseases are required to be treated with a safe and effective dose level of a drug. In epidemiological studies to find out an effective dose level, different dose levels are applied to the exposed and a certain number of cures is observed. Negative binomial distribution is considered to fit overdispersed Poisson count data. This study investigates the time effect on the response at different time points as well as at different dose levels. The point estimation and confidence bands for ED(100p)(t) and LT(100p)(d) are formulated in closed form for the proposed dose-time-response model with the negative binomial distribution. Numerical illustrations are carried out in order to check the performance level of the proposed model.

  20. WE-A-17A-12: The Influence of Eye Plaque Design On Dose Distributions and Dose- Volume Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, P; Molloy, JA; Rivard, MJ

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of slot design of the model EP917 plaque on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods: The dimensions and orientation of the slots in EP917 plaques were measured. In the MCNP5 radiation simulation geometry, dose distributions on orthogonal planes and DVHs for a tumor and sclera were generated for comparisons. 27 slot designs and 13 plaques were evaluated and compared with the published literature and the Plaque Simulator clinical treatment planning system. Results: The dosimetric effect of the gold backing composition and mass density was < 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the central axis (CAX) dose distributions by < 1% per 0.1 mm in design variation. Seed shifts in the slot towards the eye and shifts of the {sup 125} I-coated Ag rod within the capsule had the greatest impact on CAX dose distribution, increasing by 14%, 9%, 4%, and 2.5% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm, respectively, from the inner sclera. Along the CAX, dose from the full plaque geometry using the measured slot design was 3.4% ± 2.3% higher than the manufacturer-provided geometry. D{sub 10} for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured plaque was also higher, but 9%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D{sub 10} doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at −1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also lower by a factor of 2.6, 1.4, 1.23, and 1.13, respectively. Conclusion: The study identified substantial sensitivity of the EP917 plaque dose distributions to slot design. However, it did not identify substantial dosimetric variations based on radionuclide choice ({sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, or {sup 131}Cs). COMS plaques provided lower scleral doses with similar tumor dose coverage.

  1. SU-E-T-388: Evaluation of Electronic Brachytherapy Dose Distributions in Tissue Equivalent Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M; Ahmad, S; Johnson, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the measured and calculated dose distributions for electronic brachytherapy (EBT) in various tissue equivalent homogenous materials. Methods: Calculated dose distributions in water were generated using published TG-43 parameters in Varian BrachyVision software for a 50 kVp, 50 cm Xoft source. Dose distributions were measured within a 3D-scanning tank using dosimeters including: PTW 0.125 cc, pin-point, and parallel-plate ion chambers, Sun Nuclear “Edge” diode and Gafchromic EBT3 film. Multi-channel film dosimetry was used in film analysis. EBT3 film curves were calibrated via radial dose comparison to both independently measured and published data. The resulting film calibration was utilized to measure dose distributions created by titanium filtered source utilized in clinical brachytherapy applications. Data was collected within homogenous PMMA, vinyl, polystyrene, paraffin, and water-equivalent plastic phantoms. Results: Ion-chamber data was corrected to effective points of measurement and normalized prior to comparison between calculated and measured dose distributions. Measurements made in water and water equivalent materials compared well with results from treatment planning software. The maximum percent differences (relative to water) observed between 1 cm and 3.5 cm depth from source for each of the phantom materials are as follows: PMMA 35%, polystyrene 41%, plastic-water 23%, vinyl 115%, and paraffin 46%. Conclusion: The increased probability of photoelectric interactions occurring within the patient during electronic brachytherapy will emphasize the radiological differences between varying human tissues in dose deposition. These differences can Result in clinically significant dose perturbations and it is therefore recommended to move to a model based dose calculation, as outlined in TG-186, to improve the dosimetric accuracy of low energy EBT.

  2. Normal tissue dose conformality measures to guide radiotherapy fractionation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To determine conditions under which hypofractionation could be favorable for a normal tissue--even if tumor [{alpha}/{beta}] exceeds the normal tissue's [{alpha}/{beta}]. Methods: The hypofractionation sufficiency condition (HSC) for an organ is defined as a dose conformality constraint such that, if satisfied, a family of tumor control probability isoeffective fractionation schemes will show decreasing normal tissue complication probability with decreasing number of fractions. Results: In the extended equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model [obtained by replacing dose with linear quadratic (LQ) 2 Gy equivalent dose], the HSC for a normal organ is proven to be satisfied if a suitably weighted average of the relative dose [hypofractionation sufficiency index (HSI)] is less than the ratio of normal tissue to tumor [{alpha}/{beta}]. The HSI is determined solely by dose distribution and the normal tissue volume factor, ''a.'' If the HSC is satisfied for every normal tissue of concern, then there is a therapeutic gain with hypofractionation. The corresponding multifractionation sufficiency condition (therapeutic gain with increasing number of fractions) and multifractionation sufficiency index (MSI) are also derived. A sample clinical case is presented. Conclusions: Within the context of the LQ/EUD models, conformality measures (HSI and MSI) can be used to inform fractionation decisions.

  3. Simultaneous Objective Measurements Of Dose And Image Quality In Mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochon, Y.; Depeursinge, Ch.; Hessler, Ch.; Raimondi, S.; Valley, J.-F.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a radiological system can be evaluated on the one hand by an objective determination of the quality of the produced image and, on the other hand, by the dose delivered to the patient. In order to measure these two factors in a single exposure a Kodak breast phantom has been modified so as to simulate the breast absorption. The dose distribution is measured with thermoluminescent detectors. By consideration of a theoretical model of the X-ray imaging in mammography, a single quality factor is computed from the contrast, the spatial resolution and the noise measured on the phantom image. We present results obtained in various working conditions, i.e. variable X-ray tube voltages, use of different screen-film combinations, use of a grid.

  4. Distortions induced by radioactive seeds into interstitial brachytherapy dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi; Modrick, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    In a previous article, we presented development and verification of an integral transport equation-based deterministic algorithm for computing three-dimensional brachytherapy dose distributions. Recently, we have included fluorescence radiation physics and parallel computation to the standing algorithms so that we can compute dose distributions for a large set of seeds without resorting to the superposition methods. The introduction of parallel computing capability provided a means to compute the dose distribution for multiple seeds in a simultaneous manner. This provided a way to study strong heterogeneity and shadow effects induced by the presence of multiple seeds in an interstitial brachytherapy implant. This article presents the algorithm for computing fluorescence radiation, algorithm for parallel computing, and display results for an 81-seed implant that has a perfect and imperfect lattice. The dosimetry data for a single model 6711 seeds is presented for verification and heterogeneity factor computations using simultaneous and superposition techniques are presented.

  5. Effects of energy spectrum on dose distribution calculations for high energy electron beams.

    PubMed

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader; Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia; Brahimi, Zakia; Chami, Ahmed Chafik

    2009-01-01

    In an early work we have demonstrated the possibility of using Monte Carlo generated pencil beams for 3D electron beam dose calculations. However, in this model the electron beam was considered as monoenergetic and the effects of the energy spectrum were taken into account by correction factors, derived from measuring central-axis depth dose curves. In the present model, the electron beam is considered as polyenergetic and the pencil beam distribution of a clinical electron beam, of a given nominal energy, is represented as a linear combination of Monte Carlo monoenergetic pencil beams. The coefficients of the linear combination describe the energy spectrum of the clinical electron beam, and are chosen to provide the best-fit between the calculated and measured central axis depth dose, in water. The energy spectrum is determined by the constrained least square method. The angular distribution of the clinical electron beam is determined by in-air penumbra measurements. The predictions of this algorithm agree very well with the measurements in the region near the surface, and the discrepancies between the measured and calculated dose distributions, behind 3D heterogeneities, are reduced to less than 10%. We have demonstrated a new algorithm for 3D electron beam dose calculations, which takes into account the energy spectra. Results indicate that the use of this algorithm leads to a better modeling of dose distributions downstream, from complex heterogeneities.

  6. Effects of energy spectrum on dose distribution calculations for high energy electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader; Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia; Brahimi, Zakia; Chami, Ahmed Chafik

    2009-01-01

    In an early work we have demonstrated the possibility of using Monte Carlo generated pencil beams for 3D electron beam dose calculations. However, in this model the electron beam was considered as monoenergetic and the effects of the energy spectrum were taken into account by correction factors, derived from measuring central-axis depth dose curves. In the present model, the electron beam is considered as polyenergetic and the pencil beam distribution of a clinical electron beam, of a given nominal energy, is represented as a linear combination of Monte Carlo monoenergetic pencil beams. The coefficients of the linear combination describe the energy spectrum of the clinical electron beam, and are chosen to provide the best-fit between the calculated and measured central axis depth dose, in water. The energy spectrum is determined by the constrained least square method. The angular distribution of the clinical electron beam is determined by in-air penumbra measurements. The predictions of this algorithm agree very well with the measurements in the region near the surface, and the discrepancies between the measured and calculated dose distributions, behind 3D heterogeneities, are reduced to less than 10%. We have demonstrated a new algorithm for 3D electron beam dose calculations, which takes into account the energy spectra. Results indicate that the use of this algorithm leads to a better modeling of dose distributions downstream, from complex heterogeneities. PMID:20126560

  7. Simplified estimation method for dose distributions around field junctions in proton craniospinal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Haruo; Kase, Yuki; Murayama, Shigeyuki

    2017-03-01

    In radiotherapy involving craniospinal irradiation (CSI), field junctions of therapeutic beams are necessary, because a CSI target is generally several times larger than the maximum field size of the beams. The purpose of this study was to develop a simplified method for estimating dose uniformity around the field junctions in proton CSI. We estimated the dose profiles around the field junctions of proton beams using a simplified field-junction model, in which partial lateral dose distributions around the field edge were assumed to be approximated using the error function. We measured the lateral dose distributions of the proton beams planned for the CSI treatment using a two-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array. Although dose hot spots and cold spots tend to be underestimated by a chamber array because of the partial volume effect of the sensitive volume and discrete chamber positions, the model estimation results were fairly consistent with the measurements obtained using a 2D chamber array subjected to CSI-simulated serial irradiation. The simplified junction model enabled us to estimate the dose distributions and dependence of the setup position gap on the dose uniformity around the field junctions on the basis of the field-by-field dose profiles measured using the 2D chamber array.

  8. SU-E-T-165: Characterization of Dose Distributions in High-Dose-Rate Surface Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Buzurovic, I; Hansen, J; Bhagwat, M; O’Farrell, D; Damato, A; Friesen, S; Devlin, P; Cormack, R

    2015-06-15

    %(80.7CAX,39.9E,35.7L)],HC[90%(11.1CAX,10.9E,10.6L),5 0%(34.4CAX,38.8E,47.2L),25%(70.4CAX,80.7E,96.6L);DS[90%(12.1CA X,8.5E,6.8L),50%(60.6CAX,17.7E,15.8L),25%(109.6CAX,40.3E,34.3L)]. Conclusion: These results can be used for the approximate calculation and quick assessment of the radiation dose to the organs-at-risk at depth (heart,brain,thyroid, optical nerve) or at the surface distance from the CT (breast,eyes, gonads), and only the geometry of the CT needs to be measured. Understanding of the dose distributions in HDR surface brachytherapy may improve clinical decision making process.

  9. SU-E-T-520: Four-Dimensional Dose Calculation Algorithm Considering Variations in Dose Distribution Induced by Sinusoidal One-Dimensional Motion Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Taguenang, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate quantitatively the variations in dose-distributions induced by motion by measurements and modeling. A four-dimensional (4D) motion model of dose distributions that accounts for different motion parameters was developed. Methods: Variations in dose distributions induced by sinusoidal phantom motion were measured using a multiple-diode-array-detector (MapCheck2). MapCheck2 was mounted on a mobile platform that moves with adjustable calibrated motion patterns in the superior-inferior direction. Various plans including open and intensity-modulated fields were used to irradiate MapCheck2. A motion model was developed to predict spatial and temporal variations in the dose-distributions and dependence on the motion parameters using pencil-beam spread-out superposition function. This model used the superposition of pencil-beams weighted with a probability function extracted from the motion trajectory. The model was verified with measured dose-distributions obtained from MapCheck2. Results: Dose-distribution varied considerably with motion where in the regions between isocenter and 50% isodose-line, dose decreased with increase of the motion amplitude. Dose levels increased with increase in the motion amplitude in the region beyond 50% isodose-line. When the range of motion (ROM=twice amplitude) was smaller than the field length both central axis dose and the 50% isodose-line did not change with variation of motion amplitude and remained equal to the dose of stationary phantom. As ROM became larger than the field length, the dose level decreased at central axis dose and 50% isodose-line. Motion frequency and phase did not affect the dose distributions which were delivered over an extended time longer than few motion cycles, however, they played an important role for doses delivered with high-dose-rates within one motion cycle . Conclusion: A 4D-dose motion model was developed to predict and correct variations in dose distributions induced by one

  10. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE AND AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet Radiation Dose and Amphibian Distributions in National Parks. Diamond, S. A., Detenbeck, N. E., USEPA, Duluth, MN, USA, Bradford, D. F., USEPA, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Trenham, P. C., University of California, Davis, CA., USA, Adams, M. J., Corn, P. S., Hossack, B., USGS,...

  11. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE AND AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet Radiation Dose and Amphibian Distributions in National Parks. Diamond, S. A., Detenbeck, N. E., USEPA, Duluth, MN, USA, Bradford, D. F., USEPA, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Trenham, P. C., University of California, Davis, CA., USA, Adams, M. J., Corn, P. S., Hossack, B., USGS,...

  12. Seasonal influenza vaccine dose distribution in 157 countries (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Palache, Abraham; Oriol-Mathieu, Valerie; Abelin, Atika; Music, Tamara

    2014-11-12

    Globally there are an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness every year, resulting in 250,000-500,000 deaths. At the World Health Assembly in 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to increase influenza vaccine coverage rates (VCR) for high-risk groups, particularly focusing on at least 75% of the elderly by 2010. But systematic worldwide data have not been available to assist public health authorities to monitor vaccine uptake and review progress toward vaccination coverage targets. In 2008, the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations Influenza Vaccine Supply task force (IFPMA IVS) developed a survey methodology to assess global influenza vaccine dose distribution. The current survey results represent 2011 data and demonstrate the evolution of the absolute number distributed between 2004 and 2011 inclusive, and the evolution in the per capita doses distributed in 2008-2011. Global distribution of IFPMA IVS member doses increased approximately 86.9% between 2004 and 2011, but only approximately 12.1% between 2008 and 2011. The WHO's regions in Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), Southeast Asian (SEARO) and Africa (AFRO) together account for about 47% of the global population, but only 3.7% of all IFPMA IVS doses distributed. While distributed doses have globally increased, they have decreased in EURO and EMRO since 2009. Dose distribution can provide a reasonable proxy of vaccine utilization. Based on the dose distribution, we conclude that seasonal influenza VCR in many countries remains well below the WHA's VCR targets and below the recommendations of the Council of the European Union in EURO. Inter- and intra-regional disparities in dose distribution trends call into question the impact of current vaccine recommendations at achieving coverage targets. Additional policy measures, particularly those that influence patients adherence to vaccination programs, such as reimbursement, healthcare provider knowledge

  13. Determination of dose distributions and parameter sensitivity. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project; dose code recovery activities; Calculation 005

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.

  14. Radiation measurements and doses at SST altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.

    1972-01-01

    Radiation components and dose equivalents due to galactic and solar cosmic rays in the high atmosphere, especially at SST altitudes, are presented. The dose equivalent rate for the flight personnel flying 500 hours per year in cruise altitudes of 60,000-65,000 feet (18-19.5 km) in high magnetic latitudes is about 0.75-1.0 rem per year averaged over the solar cycle, or about 15-20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of the dose distribution around 125I seeds.

    PubMed

    Burns, G S; Raeside, D E

    1987-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used to investigate dose distributions around the 3M Company model 6701 and model 6702 125I brachytherapy seeds. The transverse axis dose distributions of the two seed models were found to be nearly identical, but the longitudinal axis dose distributions differed significantly. Seed design influences upon dose distributions also were investigated.

  16. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor

  17. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, J. V.; Warrington, A. P.; Partridge, M.; Philps, A.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  18. Principles of protection: a formal approach for evaluating dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Wikman-Svahn, Per; Peterson, Martin; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2006-03-01

    One of the central issues in radiation protection consists in determining what weight should be given to individual doses in relation to collective or aggregated doses. A mathematical framework is introduced in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. In addition to evaluation principles that are well known from radiation protection, a series of principles that are derived from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics is investigated. A battery of formal properties is then used to investigate the evaluative principles. The results indicate that one of the new principles, bilinear prioritarianism, may be preferable to current practices, since it satisfies efficiency-related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

  19. Influence of Metal of the Applicator on the Dose Distribution during Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Shiau, An-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Jen; Lin, Hsin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how the metal materials of the applicator influence the dose distribution when performing brachytherapy for cervical cancer. A pinpoint ionization chamber, Monte Carlo code MCNPX, and treatment planning system are used to evaluate the dose distribution for a single Ir-192 source positioned in the tandem and ovoid. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the tandem, differences among measurement, MCNPX calculation and treatment planning system results are <5%. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the ovoid, the MCNPX result agrees with the measurement. But the doses calculated from treatment planning system are overestimated by up to a factor of 4. This is due to the shielding effect of the metal materials in the applicator not being considered in the treatment planning system. This result suggests that the treatment planning system should take into account corrections for the metal materials of the applicator in order to improve the accuracy of the radiation dose delivered. PMID:25133789

  20. Implications of dose distribution on monitoring requirements in U mines and mills.

    PubMed

    Duport, P; Stocker, H; Dalkowski, E

    1988-08-01

    In U mines and mills, mean doses from gamma radiation and 222Rn daughters, respectively, range from 10-30% of the individual limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), while the mean exposure to long-lived dust can be as low as a few percent or as high as 30% of the ICRP recommended limit. In certain mines, 220Rn daughters are present and should also be measured and accounted for. When the doses (or dose equivalents) from all the components of the radiation sources are taken into account, according to the ICRP notions of effective dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent, the mean of the combined doses can reach 30-50% of the combined permissible limit of dose. It is generally observed that individual doses and exposure to radiation are log-normally distributed. Since individual exposures to each specific hazard are generally not correlated, there is a probability that a number of individuals belong to the upper part of each exposure distribution. Therefore, it can happen that non-negligible fractions of the populations are liable to be close to the combined dose limit or to be overexposed. Consequently, in view of the observed nature of the distributions and the need to account for all sources of radiation, it is essential that appropriate radiation monitoring techniques be used to measure and record all significant doses and exposures. The analysis of the results of appropriate monitoring practices will lead to improved engineering controls of radiation hazards and optimum use of preventive resources.

  1. Estimating thyroid dose in pediatric CT exams from surface dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Senan, Rani; Mueller, Deborah L.; Hatab, Mustapha R.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of estimating pediatric thyroid doses from CT using surface neck doses. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were used to measure the neck surface dose of 25 children ranging in ages between one and three years old. The neck circumference for each child was measured. The relationship between obtained surface doses and thyroid dose was studied using acrylic phantoms of various sizes and with holes of different depths. The ratios of hole-to-surface doses were used to convert patients' surface dose to thyroid dose. ImPACT software was utilized to calculate thyroid dose after applying the appropriate age correction factors. A paired t-test was performed to compare thyroid doses from our approach and ImPACT. The ratio of thyroid to surface dose was found to be 1.1. Thyroid doses ranged from 20 to 80 mGy. Comparison showed no statistical significance (p = 0.18). In addition, the average of surface dose variation along the z-axis in helical scans was studied and found to range between 5% (in 10 cm diameter phantom/24 mm collimation/pitch 1.0) and 8% (in 16 cm diameter phantom/12 mm collimation/pitch 0.7). We conclude that surface dose is an acceptable predictor for pediatric thyroid dose from CT. The uncertainty due to surface dose variability may be reduced if narrower collimation is used with a pitch factor close to 1.0. Also, the results did not show any effect of thyroid depth on the measured dose.

  2. Can a commercial gel dosimetry system be used to verify stereotactic spinal radiotherapy treatment dose distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairn, T.; Asena, A.; Crowe, S. B.; Livingstone, A.; Papworth, D.; Smith, S.; Sutherland, B.; Sylvander, S.; Franich, R. D.; Trapp, J. V.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the use of the TruView xylenol-orange-based gel and VISTA optical CT scanner (both by Modus Medical Inc, London, Canada), for use in verifying the accuracy of planned dose distributions for hypo-fractionated (stereotactic) vertebral treatments. Gel measurements were carried out using three stereotactic vertebral treatments and compared with planned doses calculated using the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) as well as with film measurements made using Gafchromic EBT3 film (Ashland Inc, Covington, USA), to investigate the accuracy of the gel system. The gel was calibrated with reference to a moderate-dose gradient region in one of the gel samples. Generally, the gel measurements were able to approximate the close agreement between the doses calculated by the treatment planning system and the doses measured using film (which agreed with each other within 2%), despite lower resolution and bit depth. Poorer agreement was observed when the dose delivered to the gel exceeded the range of doses delivered in the calibration region. This commercial gel dosimetry system may be used to verify hypo-fractionated treatments of vertebral targets, although separate gel calibration measurements are recommended.

  3. Dosimetric and Clinical Analysis of Spatial Distribution of the Radiation Dose in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma

    SciTech Connect

    Massager, Nicolas; Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Benmebarek, Nadir; Desmedt, Francoise; Devriendt, Daniel

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: We investigated variations in the distribution of radiation dose inside (dose inhomogeneity) and outside (dose falloff) the target volume during Gamma Knife (GK) irradiation of vestibular schwannoma (VS). We analyzed the relationship between some parameters of dose distribution and the clinical and radiological outcome of patients. Methods and Materials: Data from dose plans of 203 patients treated for a vestibular schwannoma by GK C using same prescription dose (12 Gy at the 50% isodose) were collected. Four different dosimetric indexes were defined and calculated retrospectively in all plannings on the basis of dose-volume histograms: Paddick conformity index (PI), gradient index (GI), homogeneity index (HI), and unit isocenter (UI). The different measures related to distribution of the radiation dose were compared with hearing and tumor outcome of 203 patients with clinical and radiological follow-up of minimum 2 years. Results: Mean, median, SD, and ranges of the four indexes of dose distribution analyzed were calculated; large variations were found between dose plans. We found a high correlation between the target volume and PI, GI, and UI. No significant association was found between the indexes of dose distribution calculated in this study and tumor control, tumor volume shrinkage, hearing worsening, loss of functional hearing, or complete hearing loss at last follow-up. Conclusions: Parameters of distribution of the radiation dose during GK radiosurgery for VS can be highly variable between dose plans. The tumor and hearing outcome of patients treated is not significantly related to these global indexes of dose distribution inside and around target volume. In GK radiosurgery for VS, the outcome seems more to be influenced by local radiation dose delivered to specific structures or volumes than by global dose gradients.

  4. Tissue composition effect on dose distribution in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Farhood, Bagher; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Hamzian, Nima; Moghaddam, Homa Rezaei; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the effect of the compositions of various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials on dose distribution in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy. Background Neutron brachytherapy and neutron capture therapy are two common radiotherapy modalities. Materials and methods Dose distributions were calculated around a low dose rate 252Cf source located in a spherical phantom with radius of 20.0 cm using the MCNPX code for seven soft tissues and three tissue-equivalent materials. Relative total dose rate, relative neutron dose rate, total dose rate, and neutron dose rate were calculated for each material. These values were determined at various radial distances ranging from 0.3 to 15.0 cm from the source. Results Among the soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials studied, adipose tissue and plexiglass demonstrated the greatest differences for total dose rate compared to 9-component soft tissue. The difference in dose rate with respect to 9-component soft tissue varied with compositions of the materials and the radial distance from the source. Furthermore, the total dose rate in water was different from that in 9-component soft tissue. Conclusion Taking the same composition for various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent media can lead to error in treatment planning in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy. Since the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends that the total dosimetric uncertainty in dose delivery in radiotherapy should be within ±5%, the compositions of various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials should be considered in dose calculation and treatment planning in neutron brachytherapy/neutron capture therapy. PMID:26900352

  5. SU-E-T-798: Verification of 3DVH Dose Distribution Before Clinical Implementation for Patient-Specific IMRT QA

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In recent years patient-specific IMRT QA has transitioned from film and chamber measurements to beam-by-beam 2D array measurements. 3DVH takes this transition a step further by estimating the 3D dose distribution delivered using 2D per beam diode array measurements. In this study, the 3D dose distribution generated by 3DVH is compared to film and chamber measurements. In addition, the accuracy ROI volume and error detection is investigated. Methods: Composite film and ion chamber measurements in a solid water phantom were performed for 9 IMRT PINNACLE patient plans for 4 treatment sites. The film and chamber measurements were compared to the dose distribution predicted by 3DVH using MAPCHECK2 per beam measurements. The absolute point dose measurement (CAX) was extracted from the predicted 3DVH and PINNACLE dose distribution and was compared by taking the ratio of measured to predicted doses. The dose distribution measured with film was compared to the distribution in the corresponding plane (AX, SAG, COR) extracted from predicted dose distribution by 3DVH and PINNACLE using a 2D gamma analysis. Gamma analysis was performed with 2% dose, 2 mm DTA, 20% threshold, and global normalization. In addition, the percent difference between 3DVH and PINNACLE ROI volumes was calculated. Results: The average ratio of the measured point dose vs the 3DVH predicted dose was 1.017 (σ=0.011). The average gamma passing rate for measured vs 3DVH dose distributions was 95.1% (σ=2.53%). The average percent difference of 3DVH vs PINNACLE ROI volume was 2.29% (σ=2.5%). Conclusion: The dose distributions predicted by 3DVH using MAPCHECK2 measurements are the same as the distributions that would have been obtained using film and chamber. The ROI volumes used in 3DVH are not an exact match to those in PINNACLE; the effect requires more investigation. The accuracy of error detection by 3DVH is currently being investigated.

  6. Detectors in medical physics measuring dose by detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrowaili, Ziyad

    The doses were measured at the depth of 10 cm and at the maximum dose dmax for two energies 6 MV photon and 10 MV photon on Elekta machine. Measuring dose was done by using only two points and comparing the results with percentage depth dose (PDD) for the depth dose curve for both energies. In addition the doses were obtained by using three methods of detectors to measure the dose by using the ion chamber, Thermo luminescence, and films. The results obtained for three measurements agreed within 2% for 6 MV photon and 3% for 10 MV photon by using three different detectors in the clinic. Therefore, these detectors are stable and reliable to be used in clinical applications.

  7. Verification of 3D Dose Distributions of a Beta-Emitting Radionuclide Using PRESAGE^ Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Mandi; Grant, Ryan; Ibbott, Geoff; Wendt, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Liquid Brachytherapy involves the direct administration of a beta-emitting radioactive solution into the selected tissue. The solution does not migrate from the injection point and uses the limited range of beta particles to produce a three-dimensional dose distribution. We simulated distributions by beta-dose kernels and validated those estimates by irradiating PRESAGE^ polyurethane dosimeters that measure the three-dimensional dose distributions by a change in optical density that is proportional to dose. The dosimeters were injected with internal beta-emitting radionuclide yttrium-90, exposed for 5.75 days, imaged with optical tomography, and analyzed with radiotherapy software. Dosimeters irradiated with an electron beam to 2 or 3 Gy were used for calibration. The shapes and dose distributions in the PRESAGE^ dosimeters were consistent with the predicted dose kernels. Our experiments have laid the groundwork for future application to individualized patient therapy by ultimately designing a treatment plan that conforms to the shape of any appropriate tumor.

  8. Effect of silicone gel breast prosthesis on electron and photon dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; St. George, F.J.; Mansfield, C.M.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of a silicone gel breast prosthesis on the absorbed dose distribution of 9--20 MeV electron beams and 1.25--15 MV photon beams was studied. Compared to water measurements, at depths smaller than the practical range of the electron beams, the central axis depth dose values below the prothesis were lower for all energies by as much as 3.5%. However, at depths near the practical range, the central axis depth dose values for the prosthesis were greater than that of water by as much as 33%. Since this occurs near the end of the electron range, the resultant difference may not be clinically significant. Results of the effect of breast prosthesis on photon depth dose distributions reveal that no clinically significant perturbation is produced by the breast prosthesis using Co-60, 6- and 15-MV radiations.

  9. A study on the dose distributions in various materials from an Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wu, Chin-Hui; Lee, Jeng-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Yu, Chun-Yen; Liao, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Li-Cheng; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, David Y C

    2012-01-01

    Dose distributions of (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy in phantoms simulating water, bone, lung tissue, water-lung and bone-lung interfaces using the Monte Carlo codes EGS4, FLUKA and MCNP4C are reported. Experiments were designed to gather point dose measurements to verify the Monte Carlo results using Gafchromic film, radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, solid water, bone, and lung phantom. The results for radial dose functions and anisotropy functions in solid water phantom were consistent with previously reported data (Williamson and Li). The radial dose functions in bone were affected more by depth than those in water. Dose differences between homogeneous solid water phantoms and solid water-lung interfaces ranged from 0.6% to 14.4%. The range between homogeneous bone phantoms and bone-lung interfaces was 4.1% to 15.7%. These results support the understanding in dose distribution differences in water, bone, lung, and their interfaces. Our conclusion is that clinical parameters did not provide dose calculation accuracy for different materials, thus suggesting that dose calculation of HDR treatment planning systems should take into account material density to improve overall treatment quality.

  10. A bounding estimate of neutron dose based on measured photon dose around single pass reactors at the Hanford site.

    PubMed

    Taulbee, Timothy D; Glover, Samuel E; Macievic, Gregory V; Hunacek, Mickey; Smith, Cheryl; DeBord, Gary W; Morris, Donald; Fix, Jack

    2010-07-01

    Neutron and photon radiation survey records have been used to evaluate and develop a neutron to photon (NP) ratio to reconstruct neutron doses to workers around Hanford's single pass reactors that operated from 1945 to 1972. A total of 5,773 paired neutron and photon measurements extracted from 57 boxes of survey records were used in the development of the NP ratio. The development of the NP ratio enables the use of the recorded dose from an individual's photon dosimeter badge to be used to estimate the unmonitored neutron dose. The Pearson rank correlation between the neutron and photon measurements was 0.71. The NP ratio best fit a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.8, a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.95, and the upper 95 th % of this distribution was 4.75. An estimate of the neutron dose based on this NP ratio is considered bounding due to evidence that up to 70% of the total photon exposure received by workers around the single pass reactors occurs during shutdown maintenance and refueling activities when there is no significant neutron exposure. Thus when this NP ratio is applied to the total measured photon dose from an individual film badge dosimeter, the resulting neutron dose is considered bounded.

  11. A simplified methodology to produce Monte Carlo dose distributions in proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Chris; Jia, Yingcui; Slopsema, Roelf; Yeung, Daniel; Li, Zuofeng

    2014-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simplified methodology that will produce Monte Carlo (MC) dose distribution for proton therapy which can be used as a clinical aid in determining the adequacy of proton plans produced from the treatment planning system (TPS). The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit was used for all simulations. The geometry of the double scatter nozzle in the simulation was a simplification of the treatment nozzle. The proton source was modeled as discrete energy layers, each with a unique energy distribution and weighting factor. The simplified MC system was designed to give the same dose distribution as the measured data used to commission the TPS. After the simplified MC system was finalized, a series of verification comparisons were made between it, measurements, and the clinically used TPS. Comparisons included the lateral profile of a stair-shaped compensator that simulated a sharp lateral heterogeneity and depth-dose measurements through heterogeneous materials. The simplified MC system matched measurements to within 2% or 2 mm for all commissioning data under investigation; moreover, the distal edge and lateral penumbra was within 1 mm of the measurements. The simplified MC system was able to better reproduce the measured profiles for a stair-shaped compensator than the TPS. Both MC and TPS matched the measured depth dose through heterogeneous materials to within 2% or 2 mm. The simplified MC system was straightforward to implement, and produced accurate results when compared to measurements. Therefore, it holds promise as a clinically useful methodology to validate the relative dose distribution of patient treatment plans produced by the treatment planning systems.

  12. Measuring dose from radiotherapy treatments in the vicinity of a cardiac pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Peet, Samuel C; Wilks, Rachael; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the dose absorbed by tissues surrounding artificial cardiac pacemakers during external beam radiotherapy procedures. The usefulness of out-of-field reference data, treatment planning systems, and skin dose measurements to estimate the dose in the vicinity of a pacemaker was also examined. Measurements were performed by installing a pacemaker onto an anthropomorphic phantom, and using radiochromic film and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters to measure the dose in the vicinity of the device during the delivery of square fields and clinical treatment plans. It was found that the dose delivered in the vicinity of the cardiac device was unevenly distributed both laterally and anteroposteriorly. As the device was moved distally from the square field, the dose dropped exponentially, in line with out-of-field reference data in the literature. Treatment planning systems were found to substantially underestimate the dose for volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical tomotherapy, and 3D conformal treatments. The skin dose was observed to be either greater or lesser than the dose received at the depth of the device, depending on the treatment site, and so care should be if skin dose measurements are to be used to estimate the dose to a pacemaker. Square field reference data may be used as an upper estimate of absorbed dose per monitor unit in the vicinity of a cardiac device for complex treatments involving multiple gantry angles. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A measurement-based generalized source model for Monte Carlo dose simulations of CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Liu, Ransheng; Yang, Chengwen; Zhou, Li; Zhai, Hezheng; Deng, Jun

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a generalized source model for accurate Monte Carlo dose simulations of CT scans based solely on the measurement data without a priori knowledge of scanner specifications. The proposed generalized source model consists of an extended circular source located at x-ray target level with its energy spectrum, source distribution and fluence distribution derived from a set of measurement data conveniently available in the clinic. Specifically, the central axis percent depth dose (PDD) curves measured in water and the cone output factors measured in air were used to derive the energy spectrum and the source distribution respectively with a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The in-air film measurement of fan-beam dose profiles at fixed gantry was back-projected to generate the fluence distribution of the source model. A benchmarked Monte Carlo user code was used to simulate the dose distributions in water with the developed source model as beam input. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed source model was tested on a GE LightSpeed and a Philips Brilliance Big Bore multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners available in our clinic. In general, the Monte Carlo simulations of the PDDs in water and dose profiles along lateral and longitudinal directions agreed with the measurements within 4%/1 mm for both CT scanners. The absolute dose comparison using two CTDI phantoms (16 cm and 32 cm in diameters) indicated a better than 5% agreement between the Monte Carlo-simulated and the ion chamber-measured doses at a variety of locations for the two scanners. Overall, this study demonstrated that a generalized source model can be constructed based only on a set of measurement data and used for accurate Monte Carlo dose simulations of patients’ CT scans, which would facilitate patient-specific CT organ dose estimation and cancer risk management in the diagnostic and therapeutic radiology.

  14. Radiation dose distribution in functional heart regions from tangential breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wollschläger, Daniel; Karle, Heiko; Stockinger, Marcus; Bartkowiak, Detlef; Bührdel, Sandra; Merzenich, Hiltrud; Wiegel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the distribution of individually-determined radiation dose to the heart and its functional sub-structures after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients treated in Germany during 1998-2008. We obtained electronic treatment planning records for 769 female breast cancer patients treated with megavoltage tangential field radiotherapy. All dose distributions were re-calculated using Eclipse with the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for photon fields, and the electron Monte Carlo algorithm for electron boost fields. Based on individual dose volume histograms for the complete heart and several functional sub-structures, we estimated various dose measures in patient groups. Mean heart dose spanned a range of 0.9-19.1Gy for left-sided radiotherapy and 0.3-11.6Gy for right-sided radiotherapy. Average (median) mean heart dose was 4.6Gy (3.7Gy) for left-sided radiotherapy, and 1.7Gy (1.4Gy) for right-sided RT. With left-sided radiotherapy, 66% of the patients had 2cm(3) of the complete heart exposed to at least 40Gy. Younger age, higher body mass index, tumor location in a medial quadrant, and presence of a parasternal field were also associated with higher heart dose. Tumor location and treatment choices influence cardiac dose with complex interactions. There is considerable variability in heart dose, with dose metrics of different cardiac sub-structures showing different patterns in their dependency on external influences. Dose-response analysis of late cardiac effects after radiotherapy requires detailed individual dosimetry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dose Distributions of an 192Ir Brachytherapy Source in Different Media

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C. H.; Liao, Y. J.; Liu, Y. W. Hsueh; Hung, S. K.; Lee, M. S.; Hsu, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study used MCNPX code to investigate the brachytherapy 192Ir dose distributions in water, bone, and lung tissue and performed radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter measurements to verify the obtained MCNPX results. The results showed that the dose-rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function in water were highly consistent with data in the literature. However, the lung dose near the source would be overestimated by up to 12%, if the lung tissue is assumed to be water, and, hence, if a tumor is located in the lung, the tumor dose will be overestimated, if the material density is not taken into consideration. In contrast, the lung dose far from the source would be underestimated by up to 30%. Radial dose functions were found to depend not only on the phantom size but also on the material density. The phantom size affects the radial dose function in bone more than those in the other tissues. On the other hand, the anisotropy function in lung tissue was not dependent on the radial distance. Our simulation results could represent valid clinical reference data and be used to improve the accuracy of the doses delivered during brachytherapy applied to patients with lung cancer. PMID:24804263

  16. HDR Brachytherapy Dose Distribution is Influenced by the Metal Material of the Applicator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Jen; Shiau, An-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2015-12-11

    Applicators containing metal have been widely used in recent years when applying brachytherapy to patients with cervical cancer. However, the high dose rate (HDR) treatment-planning system (TPS) that is currently used in brachytherapy still assumes that the treatment environment constitutes a homogeneous water medium and does not include a dose correction for the metal material of the applicator. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the HDR (192)Ir dose distribution in cervical cancer patients when performing brachytherapy using a metal-containing applicator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code were used to explore the doses to the rectum and bladder when using a Henschke applicator containing metal during brachytherapy. When the applicator was assumed to be present, the absolute dose difference between the TLD measurement and MCNPX simulation values was within approximately 5%. A comparison of the MCNPX simulation and TPS calculation values revealed that the TPS overestimated the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) rectum and bladder reference doses by 57.78% and 49.59%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the TPS should be modified to account for the shielding effects of the applicator to ensure the accuracy of the delivered doses.

  17. HDR Brachytherapy Dose Distribution is Influenced by the Metal Material of the Applicator

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Jen; Shiau, An-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Applicators containing metal have been widely used in recent years when applying brachytherapy to patients with cervical cancer. However, the high dose rate (HDR) treatment-planning system (TPS) that is currently used in brachytherapy still assumes that the treatment environment constitutes a homogeneous water medium and does not include a dose correction for the metal material of the applicator. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the HDR 192Ir dose distribution in cervical cancer patients when performing brachytherapy using a metal-containing applicator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code were used to explore the doses to the rectum and bladder when using a Henschke applicator containing metal during brachytherapy. When the applicator was assumed to be present, the absolute dose difference between the TLD measurement and MCNPX simulation values was within approximately 5%. A comparison of the MCNPX simulation and TPS calculation values revealed that the TPS overestimated the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) rectum and bladder reference doses by 57.78% and 49.59%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the TPS should be modified to account for the shielding effects of the applicator to ensure the accuracy of the delivered doses. PMID:26658746

  18. Comparison of dose distributions calculated by the cyberknife Monte Carlo and ray tracing algorithms for lung tumors: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksal, Canan; Akbas, Ugur; Okutan, Murat; Demir, Bayram; Hakki Sarpun, Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Commercial treatment planning systems with have different dose calculation algorithms have been developed for radiotherapy plans. The Ray Tracing and the Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms are available for MultiPlan treatment planning system. Many studies indicated that the Monte Carlo algorithm enables the more accurate dose distributions in heterogeneous regions such a lung than the Ray Tracing algorithm. The purpose of this study was to compare the Ray Tracing algorithm with the Monte Carlo algorithm for lung tumors in CyberKnife System. An Alderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom was used for creating CyberKnife treatment plans. The treatment plan was developed using the Ray Tracing algorithm. Then, this plan was recalculated with the Monte Carlo algorithm. EBT3 radiochromic films were put in the phantom to obtain measured dose distributions. The calculated doses were compared with the measured doses. The Monte Carlo algorithm is the more accurate dose calculation method than the Ray Tracing algorithm in nonhomogeneous structures.

  19. Study of Fricke-gel dosimeter calibration for attaining precise measurements of the absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Liosi, Giulia Maria; Benedini, Sara; Giacobbo, Francesca; Mariani, Mario; Gambarini, Grazia; Artuso, Emanuele; Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Carrara, Mauro; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2015-07-01

    A method has been studied for attaining, with good precision, absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose by means of the Fricke gelatin Xylenol Orange dosimetric system. With this aim, the dose response to subsequent irradiations was analyzed. In fact, the proposed modality is based on a pre-irradiation of each single dosimeter in a uniform field with a known dose, in order to extrapolate a calibration image for a subsequent non-uniform irradiation with an un-known dose to be measured. (authors)

  20. Prediction of in-phantom dose distribution using in-air neutron beam characteristics for BNCS

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.

    1999-12-14

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints, such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures-of-merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium absorbed dose to the skin absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium absorbed dose to the bone absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment, (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce by a factor of 10 the particle transport simulation time by modeling the moderator only.

  1. The effects of motion on the dose distribution of proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Qamhiyeh, Sima; Geismar, Dirk; Pöttgen, Christoph; Stuschke, Martin; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-05-10

    Proton radiotherapy of the prostate basal or whole seminal vesicles using scattering delivery systems is an effective treatment of prostate cancer that has been evaluated in prospective trials. Meanwhile, the use of pencil beam scanning (PBS) can further reduce the dose in the beam entrance channels and reduce the dose to the normal tissues. However, PBS dose distributions can be affected by intra- and interfractional motion. In this treatment planning study, the effects of intra- and interfractional organ motion on PBS dose distributions are investigated using repeated CT scans at close and distant time intervals. The minimum dose (Dmin) and the dose to 2% and 98% of the volumes (D2% and D98%), as well as EUD in the clinical target volumes (CTV), is used as measure of robustness. In all patients, D98% was larger than 96% and D2% was less than 106% of the prescribed dose. The combined information from Dmin, D98% and EUD led to the conclusion that there are no relevant cold spots observed in any of the verification plans. Moreover, it was found that results of single field optimization are more robust than results from multiple field optimizations.

  2. Differential absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons and gamma rays at the mono-energetic neutron calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Takada, M; Baba, M; Yamaguchi, H; Fujitaka, K

    2005-01-01

    Absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons and gamma rays of mono-energetic neutron sources from 140 keV to 15 MeV were measured in the Fast Neutron Laboratory at Tohoku University. By using both a tissue-equivalent plastic walled counter and a graphite-walled low-pressure proportional counter, absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons were obtained separately from those for gamma rays. This method needs no knowledge of energy spectra and dose distributions for gamma rays. The gamma-ray contribution in this neutron calibration field >1 MeV neutron was <3%, while for <550 keV it was >40%. The measured neutron absolute absorbed doses per unit neutron fluence agreed with the LA150 evaluated kerma factors. By using this method, absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons and gamma rays in an unknown neutron field can be obtained separately.

  3. Dose calculation and in-phantom measurement in BNCT using response matrix method.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Faezeh; Shahriari, Majid

    2011-12-01

    In-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution is very important for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) planning validation. If any changes take place in therapeutic neutron beam due to the beam shaping assembly (BSA) change, the dose will be changed so another group of simulations should be carried out for dose calculation. To avoid this time consuming procedure and speed up the dose calculation to help patients not wait for a long time, response matrix method was used. This procedure was performed for neutron beam of the optimized BSA as a reference beam. These calculations were carried out using the MCNPX, Monte Carlo code. The calculated beam parameters were measured for a SNYDER head phantom placed 10 cm away from beam the exit of the BSA. The head phantom can be assumed as a linear system and neutron beam and dose distribution can be assumed as an input and a response of this system (head phantom), respectively. Neutron spectrum energy was digitized into 27 groups. Dose response of each group was calculated. Summation of these dose responses is equal to a total dose of the whole neutron/gamma spectrum. Response matrix is the double dimension matrix (energy/dose) in which each parameter represents a depth-dose resulted from specific energy. If the spectrum is changed, response of each energy group may be differed. By considering response matrix and energy vector, dose response can be calculated. This method was tested for some BSA, and calculations show statistical errors less than 10%.

  4. Benchmark Experiment of Dose Rate Distributions Around the Gamma Knife Medical Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, K.; Kosako, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sonoki, I.

    2014-06-15

    Dose rate measurements around a gamma knife apparatus were performed by using an ionization chamber. Analyses have been performed by using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5. The nuclear library used for the dose rate distribution of {sup 60}Co was MCPLIB04. The calculation model was prepared with a high degree of fidelity, such as the position of each Cobalt source and shielding materials. Comparisons between measured results and calculated ones were performed, and a very good agreement was observed. It is concluded that the Monte Carlo calculation method with its related nuclear data library is very effective for such a complicated radiation oncology apparatus.

  5. Benchmark Experiment of Dose Rate Distributions Around the Gamma Knife Medical Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, K.; Kosako, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sonoki, I.

    2014-06-01

    Dose rate measurements around a gamma knife apparatus were performed by using an ionization chamber. Analyses have been performed by using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5. The nuclear library used for the dose rate distribution of 60Co was MCPLIB04. The calculation model was prepared with a high degree of fidelity, such as the position of each Cobalt source and shielding materials. Comparisons between measured results and calculated ones were performed, and a very good agreement was observed. It is concluded that the Monte Carlo calculation method with its related nuclear data library is very effective for such a complicated radiation oncology apparatus.

  6. A γ dose distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiankui; Chen, Weimin

    2010-09-01

    The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve theγ calculation time for 2D and 3D dose distributions. Theγ calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of dose distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable dose and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation dose distributions. The γ value indicates the acceptability. In regions where γ≤1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naïve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a maximum radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional dose distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O(logN) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the dose points, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the γ evaluation in this work. In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference point isO(logN), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation point is proportional to O(N1/k), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions, respectively. Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted listO(N), the k-d tree algorithm for γ evaluation is much more efficient. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. A gamma dose distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiankui; Chen, Weimin

    2010-09-01

    The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve the gamma calculation time for 2D and 3D dose distributions. The gamma calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of dose distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable dose and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation dose distributions. The gamma value indicates the acceptability. In regions where gamma < or = 1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naïve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a maximum radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional dose distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O (log N) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the dose points, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the gamma evaluation in this work. In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference point is O (log N), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation point is proportional to O (N(1/k), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions, respectively. Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted list O (N), the k-d tree algorithm for gamma evaluation is much more efficient.

  8. Pretreatment verification of IMRT absolute dose distributions using a commercial a-Si EPID

    SciTech Connect

    Talamonti, C.; Casati, M.; Bucciolini, M.

    2006-11-15

    A commercial amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been studied to investigate its potential in the field of pretreatment verifications of step and shoot, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 6 MV photon beams. The EPID was calibrated to measure absolute exit dose in a water-equivalent phantom at patient level, following an experimental approach, which does not require sophisticated calculation algorithms. The procedure presented was specifically intended to replace the time-consuming in-phantom film dosimetry. The dosimetric response was characterized on the central axis in terms of stability, linearity, and pulse repetition frequency dependence. The a-Si EPID demonstrated a good linearity with dose (within 2% from 1 monitor unit), which represent a prerequisite for the application in IMRT. A series of measurements, in which phantom thickness, air gap between the phantom and the EPID, field size and position of measurement of dose in the phantom (entrance or exit) varied, was performed to find the optimal calibration conditions, for which the field size dependence is minimized. In these conditions (20 cm phantom thickness, 56 cm air gap, exit dose measured at the isocenter), the introduction of a filter for the low-energy scattered radiation allowed us to define a universal calibration factor, independent of field size. The off-axis extension of the dose calibration was performed by applying a radial correction for the beam profile, distorted due to the standard flood field calibration of the device. For the acquisition of IMRT fields, it was necessary to employ home-made software and a specific procedure. This method was applied for the measurement of the dose distributions for 15 clinical IMRT fields. The agreement between the dose distributions, quantified by the gamma index, was found, on average, in 97.6% and 98.3% of the analyzed points for EPID versus TPS and for EPID versus FILM, respectively, thus suggesting a great

  9. COMPARING MEASURED AND CALCULATED DOSES IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY PROCEDURES.

    PubMed

    Oliveira da Silva, M W; Canevaro, L V; Hunt, J; Rodrigues, B B D

    2017-03-16

    Interventional cardiology requires complex procedures and can result in high doses and dose rates to the patient and medical staff. The many variables that influence the dose to the patient and staff include the beam position and angle, beam size, kVp, filtration, kerma-area product and focus-skin distance. A number of studies using the Monte Carlo method have been undertaken to obtain prospective dose assessments. In this paper, detailed irradiation scenarios were simulated mathematically and the resulting dose estimates were compared with real measurements made previously under very similar irradiation conditions and geometries. The real measurements and the calculated doses were carried out using or simulating an interventional cardiology system with a flat monoplane detector installed in a dedicated room with an Alderson phantom placed on the procedure table. The X-ray spectra, beam angles, focus-skin distance, measured kerma-area product and filtration were simulated, and the real dose measurements and calculated doses were compared. It was shown that the Monte Carlo method was capable of reproducing the real dose measurements within acceptable levels of uncertainty.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2016-02-01

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements.

  11. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R. )

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm[sup 3] dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Three dimensional dose distribution comparison of simple and complex acquisition trajectories in dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jainil P.; Mann, Steve D.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: A novel breast CT system capable of arbitrary 3D trajectories has been developed to address cone beam sampling insufficiency as well as to image further into the patient’s chest wall. The purpose of this study was to characterize any trajectory-related differences in 3D x-ray dose distribution in a pendant target when imaged with different orbits. Methods: Two acquisition trajectories were evaluated: circular azimuthal (no-tilt) and sinusoidal (saddle) orbit with ±15° tilts around a pendant breast, using Monte Carlo simulations as well as physical measurements. Simulations were performed with tungsten (W) filtration of a W-anode source; the simulated source flux was normalized to the measured exposure of a W-anode source. A water-filled cylindrical phantom was divided into 1 cm{sup 3} voxels, and the cumulative energy deposited was tracked in each voxel. Energy deposited per voxel was converted to dose, yielding the 3D distributed dose volumes. Additionally, three cylindrical phantoms of different diameters (10, 12.5, and 15 cm) and an anthropomorphic breast phantom, initially filled with water (mimicking pure fibroglandular tissue) and then with a 75% methanol-25% water mixture (mimicking 50–50 fibroglandular-adipose tissues), were used to simulate the pendant breast geometry and scanned on the physical system. Ionization chamber calibrated radiochromic film was used to determine the dose delivered in a 2D plane through the center of the volume for a fully 3D CT scan using the different orbits. Results: Measured experimental results for the same exposure indicated that the mean dose measured throughout the central slice for different diameters ranged from 3.93 to 5.28 mGy, with the lowest average dose measured on the largest cylinder with water mimicking a homogeneously fibroglandular breast. These results align well with the cylinder phantom Monte Carlo studies which also showed a marginal difference in dose delivered by a saddle trajectory in the

  13. Dose/volume-response relations for rectal morbidity using planned and simulated motion-inclusive dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Thor, Maria; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O; Karlsdóttir, Àsa; Moiseenko, Vitali; Liu, Mitchell; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2013-12-01

    Many dose-limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy (RT) display considerable internal motion between fractions over a course of treatment, potentially reducing the appropriateness of using planned dose distributions to predict morbidity. Accounting explicitly for rectal motion could improve the predictive power of modelling rectal morbidity. To test this, we simulated the effect of motion in two cohorts. The included patients (232 and 159 cases) received RT for prostate cancer to 70 and 74 Gy. Motion-inclusive dose distributions were introduced as simulations of random or systematic motion to the planned dose distributions. Six rectal morbidity endpoints were analysed. A probit model using the QUANTEC recommended parameters was also applied to the cohorts. The differences in associations using the planned over the motion-inclusive dose distributions were modest. Statistically significant associations were obtained with four of the endpoints, mainly at high doses (55-70 Gy), using both the planned and the motion-inclusive dose distributions, primarily when simulating random motion. The strongest associations were observed for GI toxicity and rectal bleeding (Rs=0.12-0.21; Rs=0.11-0.20). Applying the probit model, significant associations were found for tenesmus and rectal bleeding (Rs=0.13, p=0.02). Equally strong associations with rectal morbidity were observed at high doses (>55 Gy), for the planned and the simulated dose distributions including in particular random rectal motion. Future studies should explore patient-specific descriptions of rectal motion to achieve improved predictive power. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Dual-energy computed tomography of the head: a phantom study assessing axial dose distribution, eye lens dose, and image noise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Kawashima, Hiroki; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Takata, Tadanori; Kobayashi, Masanao; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Koshida, Kichiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a calibration method for small dosimeters to measure absorbed doses during dual- source dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and to compare the axial dose distribution, eye lens dose, and image noise level between DE and standard, single-energy (SE) head CT angiography. Three DE (100/Sn140 kVp 80/Sn140 kVp, and 140/80 kVp) and one SE (120 kVp) acquisitions were performed using a second-generation dual-source CT device and a female head phantom, with an equivalent volumetric CT dose index. The axial absorbed dose distribution at the orbital level and the absorbed doses for the eye lens were measured using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. CT attenuation numbers were obtained in the DE composite images and the SE images of the phantom at the orbital level. The doses absorbed at the orbital level and in the eye lens were lower and standard deviations for the CT attenuation numbers were slightly higher in the DE acquisitions than those in the SE acquisition. The anterior surface dose was especially higher in the SE acquisition than that in the DE acquisitions. Thus, DE head CT angiography can be performed with a radiation dose lower than that required for a standard SE head CT angiography, with a slight increase in the image noise level. The 100/Sn140 kVp acquisition revealed the most balanced axial dose distribution. In addition, our proposed method was effective for calibrating small dosimeters to measure absorbed doses in DECT.

  15. High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Poder, Joel; Smith, Ryan L; Shelton, Nikki; Whitaker, May; Butler, Duncan; Haworth, Annette

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR (192)Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single (192)Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the (192)Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for (192)Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.

  16. Measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Sun, Yue-qiang; Yang, Chuibai; Zhang, Shenyi; Liang, Jinbao

    Astronauts in flight are exposed by the space radiation, which is mainly composed of proton, electron, heavy ion, and neutron. To assess the radiation risk, measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts is indispensable. Especially, measurement for heavy ion radiation is most important as it contributes the major dose. Until now, most of the measurements and assessments of radiation dose of astronauts are based on the LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectrum of space radiation. However, according to the ICRP Publication 123, energy and charge number of heavy ions should be measured in order to assess space radiation exposure to astronauts. In addition, from the publication, quality factors for each organs or tissues of astronauts are different and they should be calculated or measured independently. Here, a method to measure the energy and charge number of heavy ion and a voxel phantom based on the anatomy of Chinese adult male are presented for radiation dose assessment of astronauts.

  17. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  18. Non-uniform dose distributions in cranial radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward T.

    Radiation treatments are often delivered to patients with brain metastases. For those patients who receive radiation to the entire brain, there is a risk of long-term neuro-cognitive side effects, which may be due to damage to the hippocampus. In clinical MRI and CT scans it can be difficult to identify the hippocampus, but once identified it can be partially spared from radiation dose. Using deformable image registration we demonstrate a semi-automatic technique for obtaining an estimated location of this structure in a clinical MRI or CT scan. Deformable image registration is a useful tool in other areas such as adaptive radiotherapy, where the radiation oncology team monitors patients during the course of treatment and adjusts the radiation treatments if necessary when the patient anatomy changes. Deformable image registration is used in this setting, but there is a considerable level of uncertainty. This work represents one of many possible approaches at investigating the nature of these uncertainties utilizing consistency metrics. We will show that metrics such as the inverse consistency error correlate with actual registration uncertainties. Specifically relating to brain metastases, this work investigates where in the brain metastases are likely to form, and how the primary cancer site is related. We will show that the cerebellum is at high risk for metastases and that non-uniform dose distributions may be advantageous when delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission.

  19. Independent calculation of dose distributions for helical tomotherapy using a conventional treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Klüter, Sebastian Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local

  20. Measurements of neutron dose rates with a balloon in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, K; Hiraide, I; Sato, K; Yamagami, T; Nakamura, T; Yabutani, T

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic-ray neutron dose rates with a balloon in Sanriku, Japan (geographic location: 39 degrees N, 142 degrees E; corresponding geomagnetic latitude: 30 degrees N) were conducted at an altitude from 0.2 to 25 km on 25-26 August 2004 when solar activity was at an average level. Neutron dose rates given as ambient dose equivalent rates (H(10)) were measured with high-sensitive neutron dose equivalent counters and electronic silicon personal dosimeters (EPDs). The neutron dose rates increased with increasing altitude, but they were saturated around 15-20 km and decreased with increasing altitude beyond 20 km. The neutron ambient dose equivalent rate was 1.5 microSv/h(- 1) at 20 km. Measured values were corrected for the deviation of the energy response of the dose equivalent counter from the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient, and the corrected values were very close to the calculated values with EPCARD. On the other hand, neutron measurements by the EPDs gave about 10 times overestimation because of the high sensitivity to cosmic-ray protons.

  1. Neutron detector simultaneously measures fluence and dose equivalent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, R. F.; Dyer, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Neutron detector acts as both an area monitoring instrument and a criticality dosimeter by simultaneously measuring dose equivalent and fluence. The fluence is determined by activation of six foils one inch below the surface of the moderator. Dose equivalent is determined from activation of three interlocked foils at the center of the moderator.

  2. Verification of patient-specific dose distributions in proton therapy using a commercial two-dimensional ion chamber array

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Ciangaru, George; Zhu, Ronald; Song Xiaofei; Gillin, Michael

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a two-dimensional (2D) ion chamber array detector quickly and accurately measures patient-specific dose distributions in treatment with passively scattered and spot scanning proton beams. Methods: The 2D ion chamber array detector MatriXX was used to measure the dose distributions in plastic water phantom from passively scattered and spot scanning proton beam fields planned for patient treatment. Planar dose distributions were measured using MatriXX, and the distributions were compared to those calculated using a treatment-planning system. The dose distributions generated by the treatment-planning system and a film dosimetry system were similarly compared. Results: For passively scattered proton beams, the gamma index for the dose-distribution comparison for treatment fields for three patients with prostate cancer and for one patient with lung cancer was less than 1.0 for 99% and 100% of pixels for a 3% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance-to-dose agreement, respectively. For spot scanning beams, the mean ({+-} standard deviation) percentages of pixels with gamma indices meeting the passing criteria were 97.1%{+-}1.4% and 98.8%{+-}1.4% for MatriXX and film dosimetry, respectively, for 20 fields used to treat patients with prostate cancer. Conclusions: Unlike film dosimetry, MatriXX provides not only 2D dose-distribution information but also absolute dosimetry in fractions of minutes with acceptable accuracy. The results of this study indicate that MatriXX can be used to verify patient-field specific dose distributions in proton therapy.

  3. Radiation dose measurement for various parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Hee-Joung; Jeon, Seong Su; Cho, Hyo-Min; Nam, So Ra; Jung, Ji-Young

    2008-03-01

    The MDCT parameters affecting radiation dose include tube voltage, tube current, change of beam collimation, and size of the human body. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate radiation dose for MDCT parameters. A comparative analysis of the radiation dose according to before and after the calibration of the ionization chamber was performed. The ionization chamber was used for measuring radiation dose in the MDCT, as well as of CTDI W according to temperature and pressure correction factors in the CT room. As a result, the patient dose of CTDI W values linearly increased as tube voltage and current were increased, and nonlinearly decreased as beam collimation was increased. And the CTDI W value which was reflected calibration factors, as well as correction factors of temperature and pressure, was found to be greater by the range of 0.479 ~ 3.162 mGy in effective radiation dose than the uncorrected value. Also, Under the abdomen routine CT conditions used in hospitals, patient exposure dose showed a difference of a maximum of 0.7 mSv between before and after the application of such factors. These results imply that the calibration of the ion chamber, and the application of temperature and pressure of the CT room are crucial in measuring and calculating patient exposure dose.

  4. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  5. TH-C-19A-04: Commissioning and Validation of EBT3 Gafchromic Films for Measurements of Dose Profiles and Integrals of Dose in Small Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dufreneix, S; Bordy, J; Delaunay, F; Daures, J; Gouriou, J; Le, Roy M; Ostrowsky, A; Rapp, B; Sommier, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The use of a primary dosimeter larger than the radiation field gives access to the integral of dose over a specified surface normal to the beam. If a relative dose profile of the beam is well known, it is then possible to calculate the distribution of the absorbed dose at any point on the considered surface. This study aims at validating the use of EBT3 gafchromic films for the measurement of 2D dose distribution and integrals of dose in small fields for such use. Methods: New EBT3 films have been fully characterized: the response versus energy, dose-rate and dose has been investigated. Profiles measured in circular field with a diameter of 20 mm have been compared to the ones measured with a diamond detector developed at CEA/LIST/LCD. The ratio of dose area products measured with EBT3 on a 6 mm and 30 mm diameter surface has been compared to the ratio measured with primary dosimeters (calorimeters) and calculated with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: There was no significant difference between the dose-calibration curves in a 6 MV and a 60Co beam. Deviation was within uncertainty bars when the dose rate inside a pulse was divided by a factor of 80 in the 6 MV photon beam. Profiles in small fields are in good agreement with the diamond profiles. Dose area product ratios obtained with EBT3, calorimeters and simulations are within 1%. Conclusion: EBT3 films are good candidates for the measurement of relative dose distribution in small fields as long as the average of several films is considered. They can be used in association with primary measurements to determinate dosimetric references in small fields and to transfer them to the end user.

  6. A method to determine the planar dose distributions in patient undergone radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilla, S.; Viola, P.; Augelli, B. G.; D'Onofrio, G.; Grimaldi, L.; Craus, M.; Digesù, C.; Deodato, F.; Macchia, G.; Morganti, A. G.; Fidanzio, A.; Azario, L.; Piermattei, A.

    2008-06-01

    A 2D-array equipped with 729 vented plane parallel ion-chambers has been calibrated as a portal dose detector for radiotherapy in vivo measurements. The array has been positioned by a radiographic film stand at 120 cm from the source orthogonal to the radiotherapy beam delivered with the gantry angle at 180°. The collision between the 2D-array and the patient's couch have been avoided. In this work, using the measurements of the portal detector, we present a method to reconstruct the dose variations in the patient treated with step and shoot intensity-modulated beams (IMRT) for head-neck tumours. For this treatment morphological changes often occur during the fractionated therapy. In a first step an in-house software supplied the comparison between the measured portal dose and the one computed by a commercial treatment planning system within the field of view of the computed tomography (CT) scanner. For each patient, the percentage Pγ of chambers, where the comparison is in agreement within a selected acceptance criteria, was determined 8 times. At the first radiotherapy fraction the γ-index analysis supplied Pγ values of about 95%, within acceptance criteria in terms of dose-difference, ΔD, and distance-agreement, Δd, that was equal to 5% and 4 mm, respectively. These acceptance criteria were taken into account for small errors in the patient's set-up reproducibility and for the accuracy of the portal dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS) in particular when the beam was attenuated by inhomogeneous tissues and the shape of the head-neck body contours were irregular. During the treatment, some patients showed a reduction of the Pγ below 90% because due to radiotherapy treatment there was a change of the patient's morphology. In a second step a method, based on dosimetric measurements that used standard phantoms, supplied the percentage dose variations in a coronal plane of the patient using the percentage dose variations measured by the 2D

  7. Characteristics of dosemeter types for skin dose measurements in practice.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, J; Bosmans, H; Marchal, G; Wambersie, A

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of papers report deterministic effects in the skin of patients who have undergone interventional radiological procedures. Dose measurements, and especially skin dose measurements, are therefore increasingly important. Methods and acceptable dosemeters are, however, not clearly defined. This paper is the result of a literature overview with regard to assessing the entrance skin dose during radiological examinations by putting a dosemeter on the patient's skin. The relevant intrinsic characteristics, as well as some examples of clinical use of the different detector types, are presented. In this respect, thermoluminescence, scintillation, semiconductor and film dosemeters are discussed and compared with respect to their practical use.

  8. Rapid Measurement of Neutron Dose Rate for Transport Index

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.

    2000-02-27

    A newly available neutron dose equivalent remmeter with improved sensitivity and energy response has been put into service at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This instrument is being used to expedite measurement of the Transport Index and as an ALARA tool to identify locations where slightly elevated neutron dose equivalent rates exist. The meter is capable of measuring dose rates as low as 0.2 {mu}Sv per hour (20 {mu}rem per hour). Tests of the angular response and energy response of the instrument are reported. Calculations of the theoretical instrument response made using MCNP{trademark} are reported for materials typical of those being shipped.

  9. [Therapeutic errors and dose measuring devices].

    PubMed

    García-Tornel, S; Torrent, M L; Sentís, J; Estella, G; Estruch, M A

    1982-06-01

    In order to investigate the possibilities of therapeutical error in syrups administration, authors have measured the capacity of 158 home spoons (x +/- SD). They classified spoons in four groups: group I (table spoons), 49 units (11.65 +/- 2.10 cc); group II (tea spoons), 41 units (4.70+/-1.04 cc); group III (coffee spoons), 41 units (2.60 +/- 0.59 cc), and group IV (miscellaneous), 27 units. They have compared the first three groups with theoreticals values of 15, 5 and 2.5 cc, respectively, ensuring, in the first group, significant statistical differences. In this way, they analyzed information that paediatricians receive from "vademecums", which they usually consult and have studied two points: If syrup has a meter or not, and if it indicates drug concentration or not. Only a 18% of the syrups have a meter and about 88% of the drugs indicate their concentration (mg/cc). They conclude that to prevent errors of dosage, the pharmacological industry must include meters in their products. If they haven't the safest thing is to use syringes.

  10. The impact of linac output variations on dose distributions in helical tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, R T; Kissick, M W; Mehta, M P; Olivera, G H; Jeraj, R; Mackie, T R

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested for quality assurance purposes that linac output variations for helical tomotherapy (HT) be within ±2% of the long-term average. Due to cancellation of systematic uncertainty and averaging of random uncertainty over multiple beam directions, relative uncertainties in the dose distribution can be significantly lower than those in linac output. The sensitivity of four HT cases with respect to linac output uncertainties was assessed by scaling both modelled and measured systematic and random linac output uncertainties until a dose uncertainty acceptance criterion failed. The dose uncertainty acceptance criterion required the delivered dose to have at least a 95% chance of being within 2% of the planned dose in all of the voxels in the treatment volume. For a random linac output uncertainty of 5% of the long-term mean, the maximum acceptable amplitude of the modelled, sinusoidal, systematic component of the linac output uncertainty for the four cases was 1.8%. Although the measured linac output variations represented values that were outside of the ±2% tolerance, the acceptance criterion did not fail for any of the four cases until the measured linac output variations were scaled by a factor of almost three. Thus the ±2% tolerance in linac output variations for HT is a more conservative tolerance than necessary. PMID:18184996

  11. A robust measurement point for dose verification in delivery quality assurance for a robotic radiosurgery system.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Keita; Sumida, Iori; Shiomi, Hiroya; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Yamaguchi, Hiroko; Okubo, Hirofumi; Tamari, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-05-01

    In this CyberKnife® dose verification study, we investigated the effectiveness of the novel potential error (PE) concept when applied to the determination of a robust measurement point for targeting errors. PE was calculated by dividing the differences between the maximum increases and decreases in dose distributions by the original distribution after obtaining the former by shifting the source-to-axis and off-axis distances of each beam by ±1.0 mm. Thus, PE values and measurement point dose heterogeneity were analyzed in 48 patients who underwent CyberKnife radiotherapy. Sixteen patients who received isocentric dose delivery were set as the control group, whereas 32 who received non-isocentric dose delivery were divided into two groups of smaller PE (SPE) and larger PE (LPE) by using their median PE value. The mean dose differences (± standard deviations) were 1.0 ± 0.9%, 0.5 ± 1.4% and 4.1 ± 2.8% in the control, SPE and LPE groups, respectively. We observed significant correlations of the dose difference with the PE value (r = 0.582, P < 0.001) and dose heterogeneity (r = 0.471, P < 0.001). We concluded that when determining a robust measurement point for CyberKnife point dose verification, PE evaluation was more effective than the conventional dose heterogeneity-based method that introduced optimal measurement point dose heterogeneity of <10% across the detector. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Fluence and dose measurements for an accelerator neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Byun, S. H.; McNeill, F. E.; Mothersill, C. E.; Seymour, C. B.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2007-10-01

    The 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at McMaster University accelerator laboratory is extended to a neutron irradiation facility for low-dose bystander effects research. A long counter and an Anderson-Braun type neutron monitor have been used as monitors for the determination of the total fluence. Activation foils were used to determine the thermal neutron fluence rate (around 106 neutrons s-1). Meanwhile, the interactions of neutrons with the monitors have been simulated using a Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code. Bystander effects, i.e. damage occurring in cells that were not traversed by radiation but were in the same radiation environment, have been well observed following both alpha and gamma irradiation of many cell lines. Since neutron radiation involves mixed field (including gamma and neutron radiations), we need to differentiate the doses for the bystander effects from the two radiations. A tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) filled with propane based tissue equivalent gas simulating a 2 μm diameter tissue sphere has been investigated to estimate the neutron and gamma absorbed doses. A photon dose contamination of the neutron beam is less than 3%. The axial dose distribution follows the inverse square law and lateral and vertical dose distributions are relatively uniform over the irradiation area required by the biological study.

  13. Dose distributions in regions containing beta sources: Uniform spherical source regions in homogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Rahman, M.; Salk, W.N. ); Kwok, C.S. )

    1991-11-01

    The energy-averaged transport model for the calculation of dose rate distributions is applied to uniform, spherical source distributions in homogeneous media for radii smaller than the electron range. The model agrees well with Monte Carlo based calculations for source distributions with radii greater than half the continuous slowing down approximation range. The dose rate distributions can be written in the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism.

  14. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  15. SU-E-T-463: Impact to Total Scatter Factors On the Calculated Dose Distribution in Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, O; Larraga-Gutierrez, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of relative measurements: off axis ratios (OAR), tissue phantom ratios (TPR) and especially total scatter factor (TSF) on the calculated dose distribution in stereotactic radiosurgery with circular cones. Methods: Six detectors were employed to characterize circular collimated photon beams of 6 MV: three diodes (SFD, E, SRS), one ionization chamber (CC01) and two radiochromic films (EBT, EBT2). The relative measurements were incorporated in the treatment planning system (TPS) in order to compare and analyze the calculated dose distributions (DD). Each dose distribution was re-scaled by the TSF to observe its effect in the final dose distribution. The comparison was performed by using the gamma index. A Monte Carlo generated dosimetry was used as reference. Results: The results showed that in terms of relative dosimetry all the detectors have a good agreement within 2%, with the exception of the CC01 and EBT2 film. However, the analysis performed with the dose distributions re-scaled relative to the TSF for each detector showed that the impact it was not only to the isocenter dose. The dose to the PTV and normal tissue showed differences up to 13% depending of the dosimeter used for TSF measurements. Conclusion: With the exception of the CC01 ionization chamber and EBT2 radiochromic film, all the studied dosimeters were adequate for the measurement of OAR and TPR. However, attention must be put in the measurement of TSF. The use of the wrong detector does not only affect the isocenter dose, it may have an impact in the PTV and normal tissue dose.

  16. Influence of Distribution of Animals between Dose Groups on Estimated Benchmark Dose and Animal Distress for Quantal Responses.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Fereshteh; Ringblom, Joakim; Sand, Salomon; Öberg, Mattias

    2017-01-17

    Increasingly, dose-response data are being evaluated with the benchmark dose (BMD) approach rather than by the less precise no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) approach. However, the basis for designing animal experiments, using equally sized dose groups, is still primed for the NOAEL approach. The major objective here was to assess the impact of using dose groups of unequal size on both the quality of the BMD and overall animal distress. We examined study designs with a total number of 200 animals distributed in four dose groups employing quantal data generated by Monte Carlo simulations. Placing more animals at doses close to the targeted BMD provided an estimate of BMD that was slightly better than the standard design with equally sized dose groups. In situations involving a clear dose-response, this translates into fewer animals receiving high doses and thus less overall animal distress. Accordingly, in connection with risk and safety assessment, animal distress can potentially be reduced by distributing the animals appropriately between dose groups without decreasing the quality of the information obtained. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Usability of tartaric acid in dose measurements: an ESR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Güney; Polat, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Mustafa

    2010-03-01

    Unirradiated tartaric acid samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the ESR spectra of irradiated samples contain many resonance signals. The dose-responce curves of the resonance signals, denoted as I 1, I 2, I 3 and I 4 in the present study, were found to increase linearly with the applied radiation dose in the range of 0.04-25 kGy. Adjusting the microvawe power and modulation amplitudes of 1.0 mW and 1.0 mT, respectively, was found to increase the sensitivity of tartaric acid. From the dose-response curves and room temperature decay data, it was concluded that the I 3 resonance signal of tartaric acid can be used for dose measurements at intermediate (0.04-0.4 kGy) and high dose (0.5-25 kGy) levels.

  18. SU-E-T-425: Spherical Dose Distributions for Radiosurgery Using a Standardized MLC Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, R; Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Fiveash, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a standardized MLC treatment plan to generate small spherical dose distributions. Methods: The static virtual cone plan comprised six table positions with clockwise and counterclockwise arcs having collimator angles 45 and 135 degrees, respectively, at each position. The central two leaves of a 2.5 mm leaf width MLC were set to a constant gap. Control points were weighted proportional to the sine of the gantry angle. Plans were created for the 10 MV flattening-filter-free beam of a TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical Systems) with gaps of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mm and were delivered to a phantom containing radiochromic film. Dose was calculated using the Eclipse AAA (Varian Medical Systems). A dynamic plan in which the table and gantry moved simultaneously with 1.5 mm gap was also created and delivered using the TrueBeam developer mode. Results: The full-width-half-max (FWHM) varied with leaf gap, ranging from 5.2 to 6.2 mm. Calculated FWHM was smaller than measured by 0.7 mm for the 1 mm gap and ≤ 0.4 mm for the larger gaps. The measured-to-calculated dose ratio was 0.93, 0.96, 1.01, and 0.99 for 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm gaps, respectively. The dynamic results were the same as the static. The position deviations between the phantom target position and the center of the dose distribution were < 0.4 mm. Conclusion: The virtual cone can deliver spherical dose distributions suitable for radio surgery of small targets such as the trigeminal nerve. The Eclipse AAA accurately calculates the expected dose, particularly for leaf gap ≥ 1.5 mm. The measured dose distribution is slightly larger than the calculation, which is likely due to systematic leaf position error, isocenter variation due to gantry sag and table eccentricity, and inaccuracy in MLC leaf end modeling.

  19. Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Candice L; Clemente, Jennifer L; Ibe, George N; Kandula, Vijay A; Curtis, Kristy D; Whittaker, Peter

    2010-06-15

    Studies report that warfarin doses required to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation decrease with age; however, these studies almost exclusively enrolled patients of European ancestry. Consequently, universal application of dosing paradigms based on such evidence may be confounded because ethnicity also influences dose. Therefore, we determined if warfarin dose decreased with age in Americans of African ancestry, if older African and European ancestry patients required different doses, and if their daily dose frequency distributions differed. Our chart review examined 170 patients of African ancestry and 49 patients of European ancestry cared for in our anticoagulation clinic. We calculated the average weekly dose required for each stable, anticoagulated patient to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, determined dose averages for groups <70, 70-79, and >80 years of age and plotted dose as a function of age. The maintenance dose in patients of African ancestry decreased with age (P<0.001). In addition, older patients of African ancestry required higher average weekly doses than patients of European ancestry: 33% higher in the 70- to 79-year-old group (38.2+/-1.9 vs. 28.8+/-1.7 mg; P=0.006) and 52% in the >80-year-old group (33.2+/-1.7 vs. 21.8+/-3.8 mg; P=0.011). Therefore, 43% of older patients of African ancestry required daily doses >5mg and hence would have been under-dosed using current starting-dose guidelines. The dose frequency distribution was wider for older patients of African ancestry compared to those of European ancestry (P<0.01). The higher doses required by older patients of African ancestry indicate that strategies for initiating warfarin therapy based on studies of patients of European ancestry could result in insufficient anticoagulation and thereby potentially increase their thromboembolism risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Photon beam dose distributions for patients with implanted temporary tissue expanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asena, A.; Kairn, T.; Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temporary tissue expanders (TTEs) on the dose distributions of photon beams in breast cancer radiotherapy treatments. EBT2 radiochromic film and ion chamber measurements were taken to quantify the attenuation and backscatter effects of the inhomogeneity. Results illustrate that the internal magnetic port present in a tissue expander causes a dose reduction of approximately 25% in photon tangent fields immediately downstream of the implant. It was also shown that the silicone elastomer shell of the tissue expander reduced the dose to the target volume by as much as 8%. This work demonstrates the importance for an accurately modelled high-density implant in the treatment planning system for post-mastectomy breast cancer patients.

  1. Dose distributions in phantoms irradiated in thermal columns of two different nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, G; Agosteo, S; Altieri, S; Bortolussi, S; Carrara, M; Gay, S; Nava, E; Petrovich, C; Rosi, G; Valente, M

    2007-01-01

    In-phantom dosimetry studies have been carried out at the thermal columns of a thermal- and a fast-nuclear reactor for investigating: (a) the spatial distribution of the gamma dose and the thermal neutron fluence and (b) the accuracy at which the boron concentration should be estimated in an explanted organ of a boron neutron capture therapy patient. The phantom was a cylinder (11 cm in diameter and 12 cm in height) of tissue-equivalent gel. Dose images were acquired with gel dosemeters across the axial section of the phantom. The thermal neutron fluence rate was measured with activation foils in a few positions of this phantom. Dose and fluence rate profiles were also calculated with Monte Carlo simulations. The trend of these profiles do not show significant differences for the thermal columns considered in this work.

  2. Clinical examples of 3D dose distribution reconstruction, based on the actual MLC leaves movement, for dynamic treatment techniques

    PubMed Central

    Osewski, Wojciech; Dolla, Łukasz; Radwan, Michał; Szlag, Marta; Rutkowski, Roman; Smolińska, Barbara; Ślosarek, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Aim To present practical examples of our new algorithm for reconstruction of 3D dose distribution, based on the actual MLC leaf movement. Background DynaLog and RTplan files were used by DDcon software to prepare a new RTplan file for dose distribution reconstruction. Materials and methods Four different clinically relevant scenarios were used to assess the feasibility of the proposed new approach: (1) Reconstruction of whole treatment sessions for prostate cancer; (2) Reconstruction of IMRT verification treatment plan; (3) Dose reconstruction in breast cancer; (4) Reconstruction of interrupted arc and complementary plan for an interrupted VMAT treatment session of prostate cancer. The applied reconstruction method was validated by comparing reconstructed and measured fluence maps. For all statistical analysis, the U Mann–Whitney test was used. Results In the first two and the fourth cases, there were no statistically significant differences between the planned and reconstructed dose distribution (p = 0.910, p = 0.975, p = 0.893, respectively). In the third case the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.015). Treatment plan had to be reconstructed. Conclusion Developed dose distribution reconstruction algorithm presents a very useful QA tool. It provides means for 3D dose distribution verification in patient volume and allows to evaluate the influence of actual MLC leaf motion on the dose distribution. PMID:25337416

  3. Gamma Knife 3-D dose distribution near the area of tissue inhomogeneities by normoxic gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Isbakan, Fatih; Uelgen, Yekta; Bilge, Hatice; Ozen, Zeynep; Agus, Onur; Buyuksarac, Bora

    2007-05-15

    The accuracy of the Leksell GammaPlan registered , the dose planning system of the Gamma Knife Model-B, was evaluated near tissue inhomogeneities, using the gel dosimetry method. The lack of electronic equilibrium around the small-diameter gamma beams can cause dose calculation errors in the neighborhood of an air-tissue interface. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of inhomogeneity near the paranosal sinuses cavities. The homogeneous phantom was a spherical glass balloon of 16 cm diameter, filled with MAGIC gel; i.e., the normoxic polymer gel. Two hollow PVC balls of 2 cm radius, filled with N{sub 2} gas, represented the air cavities inside the inhomogeneous phantom. For dose calibration purposes, 100 ml gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses, and then scanned in a MR unit. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. Dose distributions are the results of a single shot of irradiation, obtained by collimating all 201 cobalt sources to a known target in the phantom. Both phantoms were irradiated at the same dose level at the same coordinates. Stereotactic frames and fiducial markers were attached to the phantoms prior to MR scanning. The dose distribution predicted by the Gamma Knife planning system was compared with that of the gel dosimetry. As expected, for the homogeneous phantom the isodose diameters measured by the gel dosimetry and the GammaPlan registered differed by 5% at most. However, with the inhomogeneous phantom, the dose maps in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes were spatially different. The diameters of the 50% isodose curves differed 43% in the X axis and 32% in the Y axis for the Z=90 mm axial plane; by 44% in the X axis and 24% in the Z axis for the Y=90 mm coronal plane; and by 32% in the Z axis and 42% in the Y axis for the X=92 mm sagittal plane. The lack of ability of the GammaPlan registered to predict the rapid dose fall off, due

  4. Changes in photon dose distributions due to breast prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, E.E. ); Kuske, R.R. )

    1993-02-15

    Subcutaneous prosthetic implants have been routinely used for cosmetic augmentation and for tissue replacement following mastectomy over the last 15 years. The implants come in many forms as the gel filler material and surrounding shell material(s) vary significantly. This study uses a thin window parallel-plate chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters to quantify any dosimetric changes to surrounding breast tissue due to the presence of the prosthesis. A mammographic phantom was compared to four commercial prostheses, namely two silicon gel fillers within two different shells (silicon or silicon/polyurethane), a tri-glyceride within silicon and a bio-oncotic gel within silicon and a bio-oncotic gel within silicon/polyurethane. The latter two implants were designed with a low-Z fill for diagnostic imaging benefits. Ion chamber results indicate no significant alteration of depth doses away from the implant with only minor canceling (parallel opposed) interface perturbations for all implants. In addition the physical changes to the irradiated prostheses were quantified by tonometry testing and qualified by color change. Each implant exhibited color change following 50 Gy, and the bio-oncotic gel became significantly less formable following irradiation, and even less formable 6 weeks postirradiation. The data indicates that prostheses do not affect the photon beam distribution, but radiation does affect the prosthesis. 9 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Semi-empirical model for the generation of dose distributions produced by a scanning electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, R.; Gignac, C.E.; Agostinelli, A.G.; Rothberg, S.; Schulz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    There are linear accelerators (Sagittaire and Saturne accelerators produced by Compagnie Generale de Radiologie (CGR/MeV) Corporation) which produce broad, flat electron fields by magnetically scanning the relatively narrow electron beam as it emerges from the accelerator vacuum system. A semi-empirical model, which mimics the scanning action of this type of accelerator, was developed for the generation of dose distributions in homogeneous media. The model employs the dose distributions of the scanning electron beams. These were measured with photographic film in a polystyrene phantom by turning off the magnetic scanning system. The mean deviation calculated from measured dose distributions is about 0.2%; a few points have deviations as large as 2 to 4% inside of the 50% isodose curve, but less than 8% outside of the 50% isodose curve. The model has been used to generate the electron beam library required by a modified version of a commercially-available computerized treatment-planning system. (The RAD-8 treatment planning system was purchased from the Digital Equipment Corporation. It is currently available from Electronic Music Industries (EMI), Ltd.)

  6. Neutron dose and energy spectra measurements at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Soldat, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.; Faust, L.G.; Tomeraasen, P.L.

    1987-08-01

    Because some workers have a high potential for significant neutron exposure, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to verify the accuracy of neutron dosimetry at the plant. Energy spectrum and neutron dose measurements were made at the SRP calibrations laboratory and at several other locations. The energy spectra measurements were made using multisphere or Bonner sphere spectrometers,/sup 3/He spectrometers, and NE-213 liquid scintillator spectrometers. Neutron dose equivalent determinations were made using these instruments and others specifically designed to determine dose equivalent, such as the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Survey instruments, such as the Eberline PNR-4, and the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo and track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also used. The TEPC, subjectively judged to provide the most accurate estimation of true dose equivalent, was used as the reference for comparison with other devices. 29 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. The assessment of antibody affinity distribution by thiocyanate elution: a simple dose-response approach.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M U; Katzin, A M

    1995-12-01

    We describe a simple dose-response approach to assess the affinity distribution of polyclonal antibodies. The proportion of antigen-specific antibodies dissociated by increasing concentrations of the mild chaotropic agent ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the distribution of tolerances to this agent was presented in a histogram form. Such 'tolerance distribution', which is analogous to that described in classical dose-response bioassays, is proposed as a representation of the actual antibody affinity distribution. To test this approach, we assessed affinity maturation patterns of anti-Plasmodium falciparum IgG antibodies in paired sera obtained from 22 malaria patients during the acute infection and convalescence. We obtained patterns of antibody affinity distributions consistent with those previously described in immunization experiments with the aid of more complex laboratory and computational approaches. Therefore, we suggest the thiocyanate elution technique as an alternative method for rapid assessment of affinity distributions of polyclonal antibodies elicited against complex antigens, readily applicable to large number of serum samples.

  8. SU-E-T-164: Evaluation of Electron Dose Distribution Using Two Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Li, Z; Shang, K; Jing, Z; Wang, J; Miao, M; Yang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To appreciate the difference of electron dose distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo and Electron 3D algorithms of radiotherapy in a heterogeneous phantom. Methods: A phantom consisted of two different materials (lungs mimicked by low-density cork and others by polystyrene) with an 11x16 cm field size (SSD = 100 cm) was utilized to estimate the two-dimensional dose distributions under 6 and 18 MeV beams. On behalf of two different types of tissue, the heterogeneous phantom was comprised of 3 identical slabs in the longitudinal direction with a thickness of 1 cm for each slab and 2 with a thickness of 2.5 cm. The Monte Carlo/MCTP application package constituted of five codes was performed to simulate the electron beams of a Varian Clinac 23IX. A 20x20 cm2 type III (open walled) applicator was used in these simulations. It has been shown elsewhere that the agreement of the phase space data between the calculation results of MCTP application package and the measured data were within 2% on depth-dose and transverse profiles, as well as output factor calculations. The electron 3D algorithm owned by Pinnacle 8.0m and the MCTP application package were applied for the two-dimensional dose distributions calculation. The curves at 50% and 100%-prescribed dose were observed for 6 and 18 MeV beams, respectively. Results: The MC calculations results were compared with the electron 3D calculations in terms of two-dimensional dose distributions for 6 and 18 MeV beams showed excellent agreement except in distal boundary where it was the very junction of the high and low-density region. Conclusions: The Monte Carlo/MCTP method could be used to better reflect the dose variation caused by heterogeneous tissues. Conclusion: A case study showed that the Monte Carlo/MCTP method could be used to better reflect the dose variation caused by heterogeneous tissues.

  9. A linear programming model for optimizing HDR brachytherapy dose distributions with respect to mean dose in the DVH-tail

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, Åsa; Larsson, Torbjörn; Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that the optimization model hitherto used in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy corresponds weakly to the dosimetric indices used to evaluate the quality of a dose distribution. Although alternative models that explicitly include such dosimetric indices have been presented, the inclusion of the dosimetric indices explicitly yields intractable models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for optimizing dosimetric indices that is easier to solve than those proposed earlier.Methods: In this paper, the authors present an alternative approach for optimizing dose distributions for HDR brachytherapy where dosimetric indices are taken into account through surrogates based on the conditional value-at-risk concept. This yields a linear optimization model that is easy to solve, and has the advantage that the constraints are easy to interpret and modify to obtain satisfactory dose distributions.Results: The authors show by experimental comparisons, carried out retrospectively for a set of prostate cancer patients, that their proposed model corresponds well with constraining dosimetric indices. All modifications of the parameters in the authors' model yield the expected result. The dose distributions generated are also comparable to those generated by the standard model with respect to the dosimetric indices that are used for evaluating quality.Conclusions: The authors' new model is a viable surrogate to optimizing dosimetric indices and quickly and easily yields high quality dose distributions.

  10. A linear programming model for optimizing HDR brachytherapy dose distributions with respect to mean dose in the DVH-tail.

    PubMed

    Holm, Åsa; Larsson, Torbjörn; Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson

    2013-08-01

    Recent research has shown that the optimization model hitherto used in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy corresponds weakly to the dosimetric indices used to evaluate the quality of a dose distribution. Although alternative models that explicitly include such dosimetric indices have been presented, the inclusion of the dosimetric indices explicitly yields intractable models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for optimizing dosimetric indices that is easier to solve than those proposed earlier. In this paper, the authors present an alternative approach for optimizing dose distributions for HDR brachytherapy where dosimetric indices are taken into account through surrogates based on the conditional value-at-risk concept. This yields a linear optimization model that is easy to solve, and has the advantage that the constraints are easy to interpret and modify to obtain satisfactory dose distributions. The authors show by experimental comparisons, carried out retrospectively for a set of prostate cancer patients, that their proposed model corresponds well with constraining dosimetric indices. All modifications of the parameters in the authors' model yield the expected result. The dose distributions generated are also comparable to those generated by the standard model with respect to the dosimetric indices that are used for evaluating quality. The authors' new model is a viable surrogate to optimizing dosimetric indices and quickly and easily yields high quality dose distributions.

  11. Measuring the Distribution of Spitefulness

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, Erik O.; Reiss, J. Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Spiteful, antisocial behavior may undermine the moral and institutional fabric of society, producing disorder, fear, and mistrust. Previous research demonstrates the willingness of individuals to harm others, but little is understood about how far people are willing to go in being spiteful (relative to how far they could have gone) or their consistency in spitefulness across repeated trials. Our experiment is the first to provide individuals with repeated opportunities to spitefully harm anonymous others when the decision entails zero cost to the spiter and cannot be observed as such by the object of spite. This method reveals that the majority of individuals exhibit consistent (non-)spitefulness over time and that the distribution of spitefulness is bipolar: when choosing whether to be spiteful, most individuals either avoid spite altogether or impose the maximum possible harm on their unwitting victims. PMID:22905108

  12. Effects of dosing protocol on distribution of propranolol in periocular tissues after topical ocular instillation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhuo; Yang, Michael B; Li, S Kevin; Hao, Jinsong

    2015-05-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that topical ocular instillation can deliver effective concentrations of propranolol in the periocular tissues, and may be superior to oral propranolol in the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dosing protocol on the distribution of propranolol in the periocular tissues and plasma after topical ocular instillation. Each rabbit received propranolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution using one of the following dosing protocols: three drops of 50 μL, one drop of 50 μL, or one drop of 25 μL. The periocular tissues (e.g. eyelids and extraocular muscles) and blood were collected and assayed for propranolol at 1 h after dosing. Decreasing the concentration of eye drops (1% to 0.5%), decreasing the number of eye drops during dosing (three drops to one drop), or decreasing the instilled volume (50 µL to 25 µL) generally lowered the concentration of propranolol in the periocular tissues. Nevertheless, therapeutic levels of propranolol (> 0.4 μg/g) were delivered to the periocular tissues at 1 h after dosing using any of the three protocols examined. Dose-dependent concentrations in some periocular tissues and plasma were observed over the dose range of 0.125 mg to 1.5 mg. The plasma concentration of propranolol was not measurable when a single 25 μL of propranolol 0.5% was instilled in the eye. The dosing protocol of topical ocular instillation can be tailored to achieve the desired therapeutic concentrations of propranolol in the periocular tissues while minimizing systemic exposure.

  13. A scintillating gas detector for 2D dose measurements in clinical carbon beams.

    PubMed

    Seravalli, E; de Boer, M; Geurink, F; Huizenga, J; Kreuger, R; Schippers, J M; van Eijk, C W E; Voss, B

    2008-09-07

    A two-dimensional position sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector has been developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in hadron therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. The primary electrons, created in the detector's sensitive volume by the incoming beam, drift in an electric field towards the GEMs and undergo gas multiplication in the GEM holes. During this process, photons are emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules and detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. Since the amount of emitted light is proportional to the dose deposited in the sensitive volume of the detector by the incoming beam, the intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D hadron dose distribution. For a measurement of a 3D dose distribution, the scintillating gas detector is mounted at the beam exit side of a water-bellows phantom, whose thickness can be varied in steps. In this work, the energy dependence of the output signal of the scintillating gas detector has been verified in a 250 MeV/u clinical 12C ion beam by means of a depth-dose curve measurement. The underestimation of the measured signal at the Bragg peak depth is only 9% with respect to an air-filled ionization chamber. This is much smaller than the underestimation found for a scintillating Gd2O2S:Tb ('Lanex') screen under the same measurement conditions (43%). Consequently, the scintillating gas detector is a promising device for verifying dose distributions in high LET beams, for example to check hadron therapy treatment plans which comprise beams with different energies.

  14. A scintillating gas detector for 2D dose measurements in clinical carbon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seravalli, E.; de Boer, M.; Geurink, F.; Huizenga, J.; Kreuger, R.; Schippers, J. M.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Voss, B.

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector has been developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in hadron therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. The primary electrons, created in the detector's sensitive volume by the incoming beam, drift in an electric field towards the GEMs and undergo gas multiplication in the GEM holes. During this process, photons are emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules and detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. Since the amount of emitted light is proportional to the dose deposited in the sensitive volume of the detector by the incoming beam, the intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D hadron dose distribution. For a measurement of a 3D dose distribution, the scintillating gas detector is mounted at the beam exit side of a water-bellows phantom, whose thickness can be varied in steps. In this work, the energy dependence of the output signal of the scintillating gas detector has been verified in a 250 MeV/u clinical 12C ion beam by means of a depth-dose curve measurement. The underestimation of the measured signal at the Bragg peak depth is only 9% with respect to an air-filled ionization chamber. This is much smaller than the underestimation found for a scintillating Gd2O2S:Tb ('Lanex') screen under the same measurement conditions (43%). Consequently, the scintillating gas detector is a promising device for verifying dose distributions in high LET beams, for example to check hadron therapy treatment plans which comprise beams with different energies.

  15. Beam rate influence on dose distribution and fluence map in IMRT dynamic technique.

    PubMed

    Slosarek, Krzysztof; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Osewski, Wojciech; Dolla, Lukasz; Bekman, Barbara; Petrovic, Borislava

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of beam rate on dose distribution in IMRT plans and then to evaluate agreement of calculated and measured dose distributions for various beam rate values. Accelerators used in radiotherapy utilize some beam rate modes which can shorten irradiation time and thus reduce ability of patient movement during a treatment session. This aspect should be considered in high conformal dynamic techniques. Dose calculation was done for two different beam rates (100 MU/min and 600 MU/min) in an IMRT plan. For both, a comparison of Radiation Planning Index (RPI) and MU was conducted. Secondly, the comparison of optimal fluence maps and corresponding actual fluence maps was done. Next, actual fluence maps were measured and compared with the calculated ones. Gamma index was used for that assessment. Additionally, positions of each leaf of the MLC were controlled by home made software. Dose distribution obtained for lower beam rates was slightly better than for higher beam rates in terms of target coverage and risk structure protection. Lower numbers of MUs were achieved in 100 MU/min plans than in 600 MU/min plans. Actual fluence maps converted from optimal ones demonstrated more similarity in 100 MU/min plans. Better conformity of the measured maps to the calculated ones was obtained when a lower beam rate was applied. However, these differences were small. No correlation was found between quality of fluence map conversion and leaf motion accuracy. Execution of dynamic techniques is dependent on beam rate. However, these differences are minor. Analysis shows a slight superiority of a lower beam rate. It does not significantly affect treatment accuracy.

  16. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L.; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing. PMID:26960787

  17. Practical dose point-based methods to characterize dose distribution in a stationary elliptical body phantom for a cone-beam C-arm CT system

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Constantin, Dragos; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Girard, Erin; Fahrig, Rebecca; Morin, Richard L.; Dixon, Robert L.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To propose new dose point measurement-based metrics to characterize the dose distributions and the mean dose from a single partial rotation of an automatic exposure control-enabled, C-arm-based, wide cone angle computed tomography system over a stationary, large, body-shaped phantom. Methods: A small 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber (IC) was used to measure the radiation dose in an elliptical body-shaped phantom made of tissue-equivalent material. The IC was placed at 23 well-distributed holes in the central and peripheral regions of the phantom and dose was recorded for six acquisition protocols with different combinations of minimum kVp (109 and 125 kVp) and z-collimator aperture (full: 22.2 cm; medium: 14.0 cm; small: 8.4 cm). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to generate complete 2D dose distributions in the central plane (z = 0). The MC model was validated at the 23 dose points against IC experimental data. The planar dose distributions were then estimated using subsets of the point dose measurements using two proposed methods: (1) the proximity-based weighting method (method 1) and (2) the dose point surface fitting method (method 2). Twenty-eight different dose point distributions with six different point number cases (4, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 23 dose points) were evaluated to determine the optimal number of dose points and their placement in the phantom. The performances of the methods were determined by comparing their results with those of the validated MC simulations. The performances of the methods in the presence of measurement uncertainties were evaluated. Results: The 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases had differences below 2%, ranging from 1.0% to 1.7% for both methods, which is a performance comparable to that of the methods with a relatively large number of points, i.e., the 14- and 23-point cases. However, with the 4-point case, the performances of the two methods decreased sharply. Among the 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases, the 7-point case (1

  18. Practical dose point-based methods to characterize dose distribution in a stationary elliptical body phantom for a cone-beam C-arm CT system

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Constantin, Dragos; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Girard, Erin; Morin, Richard L.; Dixon, Robert L.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To propose new dose point measurement-based metrics to characterize the dose distributions and the mean dose from a single partial rotation of an automatic exposure control-enabled, C-arm-based, wide cone angle computed tomography system over a stationary, large, body-shaped phantom. Methods: A small 0.6 cm3 ion chamber (IC) was used to measure the radiation dose in an elliptical body-shaped phantom made of tissue-equivalent material. The IC was placed at 23 well-distributed holes in the central and peripheral regions of the phantom and dose was recorded for six acquisition protocols with different combinations of minimum kVp (109 and 125 kVp) and z-collimator aperture (full: 22.2 cm; medium: 14.0 cm; small: 8.4 cm). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to generate complete 2D dose distributions in the central plane (z = 0). The MC model was validated at the 23 dose points against IC experimental data. The planar dose distributions were then estimated using subsets of the point dose measurements using two proposed methods: (1) the proximity-based weighting method (method 1) and (2) the dose point surface fitting method (method 2). Twenty-eight different dose point distributions with six different point number cases (4, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 23 dose points) were evaluated to determine the optimal number of dose points and their placement in the phantom. The performances of the methods were determined by comparing their results with those of the validated MC simulations. The performances of the methods in the presence of measurement uncertainties were evaluated. Results: The 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases had differences below 2%, ranging from 1.0% to 1.7% for both methods, which is a performance comparable to that of the methods with a relatively large number of points, i.e., the 14- and 23-point cases. However, with the 4-point case, the performances of the two methods decreased sharply. Among the 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases, the 7-point case (1.0% [±0

  19. MCNPX simulation of proton dose distribution in homogeneous and CT phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Tung, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Chao, T. C.

    2014-02-01

    A dose simulation system was constructed based on the MCNPX Monte Carlo package to simulate proton dose distribution in homogeneous and CT phantoms. Conversion from Hounsfield unit of a patient CT image set to material information necessary for Monte Carlo simulation is based on Schneider's approach. In order to validate this simulation system, inter-comparison of depth dose distributions among those obtained from the MCNPX, GEANT4 and FLUKA codes for a 160 MeV monoenergetic proton beam incident normally on the surface of a homogeneous water phantom was performed. For dose validation within the CT phantom, direct comparison with measurement is infeasible. Instead, this study took the approach to indirectly compare the 50% ranges (R50%) along the central axis by our system to the NIST CSDA ranges for beams with 160 and 115 MeV energies. Comparison result within the homogeneous phantom shows good agreement. Differences of simulated R50% among the three codes are less than 1 mm. For results within the CT phantom, the MCNPX simulated water equivalent Req,50% are compatible with the CSDA water equivalent ranges from the NIST database with differences of 0.7 and 4.1 mm for 160 and 115 MeV beams, respectively.

  20. A molecular fraction method for measuring personnel radiation doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, M. A.; Khalil, W. A.; Krodja, R. P.; Sheta, N.; Abd El-Baset, M. S.

    1987-02-01

    This work represents a development in fast and albedo neutron and gamma ray dosimetry, using cellulose nitrate, as a tissue equivalent material, in which radiation damage was registered. The changes in molecular fractions of the polymer were measured after irradiation with neutron fluences from a 252Cf source in the range 10 5-10 10 n/cm 2 and gamma doses in the range 10 -4-10 -1 Gy through the use of gel filtration chromatography. Effects of irradiation on phantom, phantom to dosimeter distance, phantom thickness and storage at extreme environmental conditions were studied on the detector response and readout. The results showed that main chain scission followed by formation of new molecular configurations is the predominant effect of radiation on the polymer. The method enables measurements of neutron fluences and gamma doses in mixed radiation fields. Empirical formulae for calculating the absorbed dose from the measured changes in molecular fraction intensities are given.

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation of proton irradiated field and deposited dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Yamagata, Fumiko; Tomitani, Takehiro; Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Urakabe, Eriko

    2007-05-01

    In proton therapy, it is important to evaluate the field irradiated with protons and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Positron emitters generated through fragmentation reactions of target nuclei can be used for this purpose. By detecting the annihilation gamma rays from the positron emitters, the annihilation gamma ray distribution can be obtained which has information about the quantities essential to proton therapy. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments with mono-energetic proton beams of 160 MeV and the spread-out Bragg peak beams to three kinds of targets. The annihilation events were detected with a positron camera for 500 s after the irradiation and the annihilation gamma ray distributions were obtained. In order to evaluate the range and the position of distal and proximal edges of the SOBP, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was applied to the detected distributions. The evaluated values with the MLE method were compared with those estimated from the measured dose distributions. As a result, the ranges were determined with the difference between the MLE range and the experimental range less than 1.0 mm for all targets. For the SOBP beams, the positions of distal edges were determined with the difference less than 1.0 mm. On the other hand, the difference amounted to 7.9 mm for proximal edges.

  2. Maximum likelihood estimation of proton irradiated field and deposited dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Yamagata, Fumiko; Tomitani, Takehiro; Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Urakabe, Eriko

    2007-05-15

    In proton therapy, it is important to evaluate the field irradiated with protons and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Positron emitters generated through fragmentation reactions of target nuclei can be used for this purpose. By detecting the annihilation gamma rays from the positron emitters, the annihilation gamma ray distribution can be obtained which has information about the quantities essential to proton therapy. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments with mono-energetic proton beams of 160 MeV and the spread-out Bragg peak beams to three kinds of targets. The annihilation events were detected with a positron camera for 500 s after the irradiation and the annihilation gamma ray distributions were obtained. In order to evaluate the range and the position of distal and proximal edges of the SOBP, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was applied to the detected distributions. The evaluated values with the MLE method were compared with those estimated from the measured dose distributions. As a result, the ranges were determined with the difference between the MLE range and the experimental range less than 1.0 mm for all targets. For the SOBP beams, the positions of distal edges were determined with the difference less than 1.0 mm. On the other hand, the difference amounted to 7.9 mm for proximal edges.

  3. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    PubMed

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of dose-width product in panoramic dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Isoardi, P; Ropolo, R

    2003-02-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has recommended the introduction of dose-width product (DWP) for the measurement of patient dose in panoramic dental radiology. The present work describes a method for measuring DWP using a pencil ionization chamber. The technique was tested on five panoramic dental units; the reproducibility of the method was 5.7%. In order to test the method, DWP was also assessed using thermoluminescent dosemeters and film. The results obtained agreed within 8.6% with those obtained using the pencil ionization chamber method. The proposed method appears to be simple and precise.

  5. Statistical distributions of ultra-low dose CT sinograms and their fundamental limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Zhang, Ruoqiao; Alessio, Adam M.; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2017-03-01

    Low dose CT imaging is typically constrained to be diagnostic. However, there are applications for even lowerdose CT imaging, including image registration across multi-frame CT images and attenuation correction for PET/CT imaging. We define this as the ultra-low-dose (ULD) CT regime where the exposure level is a factor of 10 lower than current low-dose CT technique levels. In the ULD regime it is possible to use statistically-principled image reconstruction methods that make full use of the raw data information. Since most statistical based iterative reconstruction methods are based on the assumption of that post-log noise distribution is close to Poisson or Gaussian, our goal is to understand the statistical distribution of ULD CT data with different non-positivity correction methods, and to understand when iterative reconstruction methods may be effective in producing images that are useful for image registration or attenuation correction in PET/CT imaging. We first used phantom measurement and calibrated simulation to reveal how the noise distribution deviate from normal assumption under the ULD CT flux environment. In summary, our results indicate that there are three general regimes: (1) Diagnostic CT, where post-log data are well modeled by normal distribution. (2) Lowdose CT, where normal distribution remains a reasonable approximation and statistically-principled (post-log) methods that assume a normal distribution have an advantage. (3) An ULD regime that is photon-starved and the quadratic approximation is no longer effective. For instance, a total integral density of 4.8 (ideal pi for 24 cm of water) for 120kVp, 0.5mAs of radiation source is the maximum pi value where a definitive maximum likelihood value could be found. This leads to fundamental limits in the estimation of ULD CT data when using a standard data processing stream

  6. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil.

  7. Dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, Carla C.; Moralles, Mauricio; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from {sup 32}P-loaded glass microspheres and also from {sup 90}Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

  8. Study of the impact of artificial articulations on the dose distribution under medical irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffard, E.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L.; Martin, E.; Meunier, C.; David, C.

    2005-02-01

    Perturbations due to the presence of high density heterogeneities in the body are not correctly taken into account in the Treatment Planning Systems currently available for external radiotherapy. For this reason, the accuracy of the dose distribution calculations has to be improved by using Monte Carlo simulations. In a previous study, we established a theoretical model by using the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc [I. Kawrakow, D.W.O. Rogers, The EGSnrc code system: MC simulation of electron and photon transport. Technical Report PIRS-701, NRCC, Ottawa, Canada, 2000] in order to obtain the dose distributions around simple heterogeneities. These simulations were then validated by experimental results obtained with thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber. The influence of samples composed of hip prostheses materials (titanium alloy and steel) and a substitute of bone were notably studied. A more complex model was then developed with the Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc [D.W.O. Rogers, C.M. MA, G.X. Ding, B. Walters, D. Sheikh-Bagheri, G.G. Zhang, BEAMnrc Users Manual. NRC Report PPIRS 509(a) rev F, 2001] in order to take into account the hip prosthesis geometry. The simulation results were compared to experimental measurements performed in a water phantom, in the case of a standard treatment of a pelvic cancer for one of the beams passing through the implant. These results have shown the great influence of the prostheses on the dose distribution.

  9. Absorption, distribution, and elimination of graded oral doses of methylmercury in juvenile white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Fadel, James G; Lin, Pinpin; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-10-15

    are in the following decreasing order: gastro-intestinal tract>kidney>spleen>gill>heart>liver>brain>white muscle and remaining whole body. At 48h, Hg was found to be preferentially distributed to metabolically active tissues. Digestibility is highest at the lowest MeHg dose. Measurable urinary Hg was observed in the fish treated with the highest MeHg dose, and a significant increase in the elimination flux was observed between 3 and 12h post intubation.

  10. Pediatric organ dose measurements in axial and helical multislice CT

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Alanna; White, R. Allen; Mc-Nitt-Gray, Mike; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna

    2009-05-15

    An anthropomorphic pediatric phantom (5-yr-old equivalent) was used to determine organ doses at specific surface and internal locations resulting from computed tomography (CT) scans. This phantom contains four different tissue-equivalent materials: Soft tissue, bone, brain, and lung. It was imaged on a 64-channel CT scanner with three head protocols (one contiguous axial scan and two helical scans [pitch=0.516 and 0.984]) and four chest protocols (one contiguous axial scan and three helical scans [pitch=0.516, 0.984, and 1.375]). Effective mA s [=(tube currentxrotation time)/pitch] was kept nearly constant at 200 effective mA s for head and 290 effective mA s for chest protocols. Dose measurements were acquired using thermoluminescent dosimeter powder in capsules placed at locations internal to the phantom and on the phantom surface. The organs of interest were the brain, both eyes, thyroid, sternum, both breasts, and both lungs. The organ dose measurements from helical scans were lower than for contiguous axial scans by 0% to 25% even after adjusting for equivalent effective mA s. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in organ dose values between the 0.516 and 0.984 pitch values for both head and chest scans. The chest organ dose measurements obtained at a pitch of 1.375 were significantly higher than the dose values obtained at the other helical pitches used for chest scans (p<0.05). This difference was attributed to the automatic selection of the large focal spot due to a higher tube current value. These findings suggest that there may be a previously unsuspected radiation dose benefit associated with the use of helical scan mode during computed tomography scanning.

  11. SU-F-SPS-05: Experimental Validation of Peripheral Dose Distribution of Electron Beams for Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Cebe, M; Pacaci, P; Mabhouti, H; Codel, G; Sanli, E; Serin, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, the two available calculation algorithms of the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system(TPS), the electron Monte Carlo(eMC) and General Gaussian Pencil Beam(GGPB) algorithms were used to compare measured and calculated peripheral dose distribution of electron beams. Methods: Peripheral dose measurements were carried out for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 22 MeV electron beams of Varian Triology machine using parallel plate ionization chamber and EBT3 films in the slab phantom. Measurements were performed for 6×6, 10×10 and 25×25cm{sup 2} cone sizes at dmax of each energy up to 20cm beyond the field edges. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained for each energy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution measured using parallel plate ionization chamber and EBT3 film and calculated by eMC and GGPB algorithms were compared. The measured and calculated data were then compared to find which algorithm calculates peripheral dose distribution more accurately. Results: The agreement between measurement and eMC was better than GGPB. The TPS underestimated the out of field doses. The difference between measured and calculated doses increase with the cone size. The largest deviation between calculated and parallel plate ionization chamber measured dose is less than 4.93% for eMC, but it can increase up to 7.51% for GGPB. For film measurement, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 98.2% and 92.7% for eMC and GGPB respectively for all field sizes and energies. Conclusion: Our results show that the Monte Carlo algorithm for electron planning in Eclipse is more accurate than previous algorithms for peripheral dose distributions. It must be emphasized that the use of GGPB for planning large field treatments with 6 MeV could lead to inaccuracies of clinical significance.

  12. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  13. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S.; Ginevan, M.E.; Naiman, D.Q.; James, A.C.; Jenkins, R.A.; Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P.; Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G.

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  14. Dose distribution and mapping with 3D imaging presentation in intraoral and panoramic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Yung-Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2011-10-01

    In current medical imaging applications, high quality images not only provide more diagnostic value for anatomic delineation but also offer functional information for treatment direction. However, this approach would potentially subscribe higher radiation dose in dental radiographies, which has been putatively associated with low-birth-weight during pregnancy, which affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis or thereby directly affects the reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to apply the high resolution 3-D image mapping technique to evaluate radiation doses from the following aspects: (1) verifying operating parameters of dental X-ray units, (2) measuring the leakage radiations and (3) mapping dose with 3-D radiographic imaging to evaluate dose distribution in head and neck regions. From the study results, we found that (1) leakage radiation from X-ray units was about 21.31±15.24 mR/h (<100 mR/h), (2) error of actual tube voltage for 60 kVp setting was from 0.2% to 6.5%, with an average of 2.5% (<7%) and (3) the error of exposure time for a 0.5-1.5 s setting was within 0.7-8.5%, with an average of 7.3% (<10%) error as well. Our 3-D dose mapping demonstrated that dose values were relatively lower in soft tissues and higher in bone surfaces compared with other investigations. Multiple causes could contribute to these variations, including irradiation geometry, image equipment and type of technique applied, etc. From the results, we also observed that larger accumulated doses were presented in certain critical organs, such as salivary gland, thyroid gland and bone marrow. Potential biological affects associated with these findings warrant further investigation.

  15. Dose measurements for dental cone-beam CT: a comparison with MSCT and panoramic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deman, P.; Atwal, P.; Duzenli, C.; Thakur, Y.; Ford, N. L.

    2014-06-01

    To date there is a lack of published information on appropriate methods to determine patient doses from dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) equipment. The goal of this study is to apply and extend the methods recommended in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report 111 for CBCT equipment to characterize dose and effective dose for a range of dental imaging equipment. A protocol derived from the one proposed by Dixon et al (2010 Technical Report 111, American Association of Physicist in Medicine, MD, USA), was applied to dose measurements of multi-slice CT, dental CBCT (small and large fields of view (FOV)) and a dental panoramic system. The computed tomography dose index protocol was also performed on the MSCT to compare both methods. The dose distributions in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom were characterized using a thimble ionization chamber and Gafchromic™ film (beam profiles). Gafchromic™ films were used to measure the dose distribution in an anthropomorphic phantom. A method was proposed to extend dose estimates to planes superior and inferior to the central plane. The dose normalized to 100 mAs measured in the center of the phantom for the large FOV dental CBCT (11.4 mGy/100 mAs) is two times lower than that of MSCT (20.7 mGy/100 mAs) for the same FOV, but approximately 15 times higher than for a panoramic system (0.6 mGy/100 mAs). The effective dose per scan (in clinical conditions) found for the dental CBCT are 167.60 ± 3.62, 61.30 ± 3.88 and 92.86 ± 7.76 mSv for the Kodak 9000 (fixed scan length of 3.7 cm), and the iCAT Next Generation for 6 cm and 13 cm scan lengths respectively. The method to extend the dose estimates from the central slice to superior and inferior slices indicates a good agreement between theory and measurement. The Gafchromic™ films provided useful beam profile data and 2D distributions of dose in phantom.

  16. Absorbed dose measurements on LDEF and comparisons with predictions.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V; Frank, A L; Benton, E R; Armstrong, T W; Colborn, B L

    1996-11-01

    The radiation environment on LDEF was monitored by cumulative absorbed dose measurements made with TLDs at different locations and shielding depths. The TLDs were included in four experiments: A0015(a) Biostack, P0004 Seeds in Space and P0006 Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurements at the trailing edge (west side) of the satellite; M0004 Fiber Optics Data Link at the leading edge (east side); and A0015(b) Biostack at the Earth side. The shielding depths varied between 0.48 and 15.4 g/cm2, Al equivalent. Both the directional dependence of trapped protons incident on the satellite and the shielding thickness were reflected in absorbed dose values. The trapped proton anisotropy was measured by TLDs at the east and west sides of LDEF. At the east side doses ranged from 2.10 to 2.58 Gy under shielding of 2.90 to 1.37 g/cm2 (M0004) while on the west side doses ranged from 2.66 to 6.48 Gy under shielding of 15.4 to 0.48 g/cm2 (P0006). The west side doses were more than a factor of two higher, where the vertical shielding thicknesses to space were equal. Other west side doses of 3.04 to 4.49 Gy under shielding of 11.7 to 3.85 g/cm2 (A0015(a)) and 2.91 to 6.64 Gy under shielding of 11.1 to 0.48 g/cm2 (P0004) generally agreed with the P0006 results. The Earth side doses of 2.41 to 3.93 Gy under shielding of 10.0 to 1.66 g cm2 (A0015(b)) were intermediate between the east side and west side doses. Calculations utilizing a model of trapped proton spectra were performed by Watts et al. (1993) and comparisons of dose measurement and calculations may be found in a companion paper (Armstrong et al., 1996).

  17. Absorbed dose measurements on LDEF and comparisons with predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation environment on LDEF was monitored by cumulative absorbed dose measurements made with TLDs at different locations and shielding depths. The TLDs were included in four experiments: A0015(a) Biostack, P0004 Seeds in Space and P0006 Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurements at the trailing edge (west side) of the satellite; M0004 Fiber Optics Data Link at the leading edge (east side); and A0015(b) Biostack at the Earth side. The shielding depths varied between 0.48 and 15.4 g/cm2, Al equivalent. Both the directional dependence of trapped protons incident on the satellite and the shielding thickness were reflected in absorbed dose values. The trapped proton anisotropy was measured by TLDs at the east and west sides of LDEF. At the east side doses ranged from 2.10 to 2.58 Gy under shielding of 2.90 to 1.37 g/cm2 (M0004) while on the west side doses ranged from 2.66 to 6.48 Gy under shielding of 15.4 to 0.48 g/cm2 (P0006). The west side doses were more than a factor of two higher, where the vertical shielding thicknesses to space were equal. Other west side doses of 3.04 to 4.49 Gy under shielding of 11.7 to 3.85 g/cm2 (A0015(a)) and 2.91 to 6.64 Gy under shielding of 11.1 to 0.48 g/cm2 (P0004) generally agreed with the P0006 results. The Earth side doses of 2.41 to 3.93 Gy under shielding of 10.0 to 1.66 g cm2 (A0015(b)) were intermediate between the east side and west side doses. Calculations utilizing a model of trapped proton spectra were performed by Watts et al. (1993) and comparisons of dose measurement and calculations may be found in a companion paper (Armstrong et al., 1996).

  18. Estimation of radiation-induced cancer from three-dimensional dose distributions: Concept of organ equivalent dose

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Uwe . E-mail: uwe.schneider@psi.ch; Zwahlen, Daniel; Ross, Dieter; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Estimates of secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy are becoming more important for comparative treatment planning. Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patient. These data open up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. We report a new method to estimate organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates. The concept of an organ equivalent dose (OED) for radiation-induced cancer assumes that any two dose distributions in an organ are equivalent if they cause the same radiation-induced cancer incidence. Methods and Materials: The two operational parameters of the OED concept are the organ-specific cancer incidence rate at low doses, which is taken from the data of the atomic bomb survivors, and cell sterilization at higher doses. The effect of cell sterilization in various organs was estimated by analyzing the secondary cancer incidence data of patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated with radiotherapy in between 1962 and 1993. The radiotherapy plans used at the time the patients had been treated were reconstructed on a fully segmented whole body CT scan. The dose distributions were calculated in individual organs for which cancer incidence data were available. The model parameter that described cell sterilization was obtained by analyzing the dose and cancer incidence rates for the individual organs. Results: We found organ-specific cell radiosensitivities that varied from 0.017 for the mouth and pharynx up to 1.592 for the bladder. Using the two model parameters (organ-specific cancer incidence rate and the parameter characterizing cell sterilization), the OED concept can be applied to any three-dimensional dose distribution to analyze cancer incidence. Conclusion: We believe that the concept of OED presented in this investigation represents a first step in assessing the potential risk of secondary

  19. Ambient dose and dose rate measurements in the vicinity of Elekta Precise accelerators for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O

    2014-12-01

    In radiation therapy, commercially available medical linear accelerators (LINACs) are used. At high primary beam energies in the 10-MeV range, the leakage dose of the accelerator head and the backscatter from the room walls, the air and the patient become more important. Therefore, radiation protection measurements of photon dose rates in the treatment room and in the maze are performed to quantify the radiation field. Since the radiation of the LINACs is usually pulsed with short radiation pulse durations in the microsecond range, there are problems with electronic dose (rate) meters commonly used in radiation protection. In this paper measurements with ionisation chambers are presented and electronic dosemeters are used for testing at selected positions. The measured time-averaged dose rate ranges from a few microsieverts per hour in the maze to some millisieverts per hour in the vicinity of the accelerator head and up to some sieverts per hour in the blanked primary beam and several hundred sieverts per hour in the direct primary beam.

  20. Unit of Measurement Used and Parent Medication Dosing Errors

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Benard P.; Ugboaja, Donna C.; Sanchez, Dayana C.; Paul, Ian M.; Moreira, Hannah A.; Rodriguez, Luis; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adopting the milliliter as the preferred unit of measurement has been suggested as a strategy to improve the clarity of medication instructions; teaspoon and tablespoon units may inadvertently endorse nonstandard kitchen spoon use. We examined the association between unit used and parent medication errors and whether nonstandard instruments mediate this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a larger study of provider communication and medication errors. English- or Spanish-speaking parents (n = 287) whose children were prescribed liquid medications in 2 emergency departments were enrolled. Medication error defined as: error in knowledge of prescribed dose, error in observed dose measurement (compared to intended or prescribed dose); >20% deviation threshold for error. Multiple logistic regression performed adjusting for parent age, language, country, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults); child age, chronic disease; site. RESULTS: Medication errors were common: 39.4% of parents made an error in measurement of the intended dose, 41.1% made an error in the prescribed dose. Furthermore, 16.7% used a nonstandard instrument. Compared with parents who used milliliter-only, parents who used teaspoon or tablespoon units had twice the odds of making an error with the intended (42.5% vs 27.6%, P = .02; adjusted odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–4.4) and prescribed (45.1% vs 31.4%, P = .04; adjusted odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–3.5) dose; associations greater for parents with low health literacy and non–English speakers. Nonstandard instrument use partially mediated teaspoon and tablespoon–associated measurement errors. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support a milliliter-only standard to reduce medication errors. PMID:25022742

  1. Unit of measurement used and parent medication dosing errors.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Dreyer, Benard P; Ugboaja, Donna C; Sanchez, Dayana C; Paul, Ian M; Moreira, Hannah A; Rodriguez, Luis; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-08-01

    Adopting the milliliter as the preferred unit of measurement has been suggested as a strategy to improve the clarity of medication instructions; teaspoon and tablespoon units may inadvertently endorse nonstandard kitchen spoon use. We examined the association between unit used and parent medication errors and whether nonstandard instruments mediate this relationship. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a larger study of provider communication and medication errors. English- or Spanish-speaking parents (n = 287) whose children were prescribed liquid medications in 2 emergency departments were enrolled. Medication error defined as: error in knowledge of prescribed dose, error in observed dose measurement (compared to intended or prescribed dose); >20% deviation threshold for error. Multiple logistic regression performed adjusting for parent age, language, country, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults); child age, chronic disease; site. Medication errors were common: 39.4% of parents made an error in measurement of the intended dose, 41.1% made an error in the prescribed dose. Furthermore, 16.7% used a nonstandard instrument. Compared with parents who used milliliter-only, parents who used teaspoon or tablespoon units had twice the odds of making an error with the intended (42.5% vs 27.6%, P = .02; adjusted odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.4) and prescribed (45.1% vs 31.4%, P = .04; adjusted odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.5) dose; associations greater for parents with low health literacy and non-English speakers. Nonstandard instrument use partially mediated teaspoon and tablespoon-associated measurement errors. Findings support a milliliter-only standard to reduce medication errors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Overall measurements of dose to patients in common interventional cardiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weipeng; Zhang, Menglong; Zhang, Yi

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to measure peak skin dose (PSD), dose-area product (DAP), cumulative dose (CD) and fluoroscopy time (FT) for interventional cardiology procedures and to evaluate whether patient doses were higher than that in other published data. Three cardiac procedure types, including coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and radio frequency (RF) ablation, were entered into the study. Data of four special metrics (PSD, DAP, CD and FT) for these procedures were collected and measured. A total of 238 patients who underwent interventional radiology procedures participated in this study. For every procedure, data about PSD were resulted from six TLD arrays and DAP, CD and FT were collected from the displayed monitor. The mean, standard deviation (SD), range and third quartile of the distribution of PSD, DAP, CD and FT recorded and measured on spot were calculated for all procedures. High-dose cases were specifically recorded. There was wide variation in the doses observed for different instances of the same procedure. PSD for PTCA and RF ablation ranged from 0.1 Gy to more than 3 Gy. Of 238 instances, there were 22 (9.2 %) with PSDs greater than 2 Gy and 4 (1.7 %) than 3 Gy. The third quartile of the distribution for PTCA had exceeded the DIMOND preliminary reference levels by 41.1 % in DAP and 25.0 % in FT. Mean DAP was in the range of reported values for CAG procedure, but higher than all data obtained in literatures for PTCA. Data from this study are in the range of most reported values for CAG and RF ablation procedure, while higher than that obtained in some literatures for PTCA. In case of a constant delivering of high doses to patient and physician himself, thorough training of interventionalists and staff is necessary, and the legislation has to be revised and set dose constrains especially for the interventional high-dose procedures.

  3. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baoping; Chen, Zhuo; Wei, Yuguo; Qin, Xiaofeng

    2007-07-01

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.

  4. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  5. KERMA-based radiation dose management system for real-time patient dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Oh, Kyung-Min; Nam, Sang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Song, Yong-Keun; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    Because systems that reduce radiation exposure during diagnostic procedures must be developed, significant time and financial resources have been invested in constructing radiation dose management systems. In the present study, the characteristics of an existing ionization-based system were compared to those of a system based on the kinetic energy released per unit mass (KERMA). Furthermore, the feasibility of using the KERMA-based system for patient radiation dose management was verified. The ionization-based system corrected the effects resulting from radiation parameter perturbations in general radiography whereas the KERMA-based system did not. Because of this difference, the KERMA-based radiation dose management system might overestimate the patient's radiation dose due to changes in the radiation conditions. Therefore, if a correction factor describing the correlation between the systems is applied to resolve this issue, then a radiation dose management system can be developed that will enable real-time measurement of the patient's radiation exposure and acquisition of diagnostic images.

  6. Measurement of radiation dose in cerebral CT perfusion study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Fukutomi, Yukimi; Oomoto, Kenji; Murase, Kenya; Miki, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate radiation dose in cerebral perfusion studies with a multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scanner on various voltage and current settings by using a human head phantom. Following the CT perfusion study protocol, continuous cine scans (1 sec/rotation x60 sec) consisting of four 5-mm-thick contiguous slices were performed three times at variable tube voltages of 80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV, and 140 kV with the same tube current setting of 200 mA and on variable current settings of 50 mA, 100 mA, 150 mA, and 200 mA with the same tube voltage of 80 kV. Radiation doses were measured using a total of 41 theroluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed in the human head phantom. Thirty-six TLDs were inside and three were on the surface of the slice of the X-ray beam center, and two were placed on the surface 3 cm caudal assuming the lens position. Average radiation doses of surface, inside, and lens increased in proportion to the increases of tube voltage and tube current. The lowest inside dose was 87.6+/-15.3 mGy, and the lowest surface dose was 162.5+/-6.7 mGy at settings of 80 kV and 50 mA. The highest inside dose was 1,591.5+/-179.7 mGy, and the highest surface dose was 2,264.6+/-123.7 mGy at 140 kV-200 mA. At 80 kV-50 mA, the average radiation dose of lens was the lowest at 5.5+/-0.0 mGy. At 140 kV-200 mA the radiation dose of lens was the highest at 127.2+/-0.6 mGy. In cerebral CT perfusion study, radiation dose can vary considerably. Awareness of the patient's radiation dose is recommended.

  7. Statistical distribution of the measure of coherence.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Saralees; Kotz, Samuel

    2006-11-01

    The recent papers by Miranda de Sa et al. (2001) and Miranda de Sa (2004) proposed a new measure of coherence between two signals. In this paper, we derive the exact probability density function and moments of the measure. We also provide simple programs for computing the associated cumulative distribution function and percentile points as well as for generating random samples of the measure.

  8. Three-dimensional dose distribution of proton beams derived from luminescence images of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Watabe, H.; Toshito, T.; Komori, M.

    2017-05-01

    We recently found that luminescence was emitted from water during proton irradiation at lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold and imaging was possible by using a CCD camera. However, since the measured distributions were projection images of the luminescence, precise dose estimations from the images were not possible. If the 3 dimensional images can be formed from the projection images, more precise dose information could be obtained. For this purpose, we calculate the 3-dimensional distribution of the proton beams from the luminescence images and use them for beam width estimations. We assumed that the proton beams have circular shape and the transverse images were reconstructed from the projection images using the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm for positron emission tomography (PET). The reconstructed images were compared to estimate the proton-beam widths with those obtained from the projection images and simulation results. We obtained 3-dimensional distributions of the proton beams from the projection images and also the reconstructed sagittal, coronal, and transverse images as well as volume rendering images. The estimated beam widths from the reconstructed images, which were slightly smaller than those obtained from the projection images, were identical to those calculated with the simulation. The 3-dimensional distributions of the luminescence images of water of proton beams could be reconstructed from the projection images and showed improved accuracy in estimating the beam widths of the proton beams.

  9. SADDE (Scaled Absorbed Dose Distribution Evaluator): A code to generate input for VARSKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Durham, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The VARSKIN computer code has been limited to the isotopes for which the scaled absorbed dose distributions were provided by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee or to data that could be interpolated from isotopes that had similar spectra. This document describes the methodology to calculate the scaled absorbed dose distribution data for any isotope (including emissions by the daughter isotopes) and its implementation by a computer code called SADDE (Scaled Absorbed Dose Distribution Evaluator). The SADDE source code is provided along with input examples and verification calculations. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  10. A portable absorbed dose measuring instrument with gamma discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quam, W. M.; Wilde, W. I.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of an electronic instrument for measuring the radiation dose absorbed by tissues are presented. The detector is a sphere of tissue-equivalent plastic with a single wire located on a diameter of the sphere. The electronic circuits and method of operation of the detector are described. Advantages are the small size and easy portability plus ability to selectively measure neutron and gamma plus neutron events.

  11. Two-dimensional dose distribution around a commercial 125I seed.

    PubMed

    Burns, G S; Raeside, D E

    1988-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used to investigate the dose distribution around a 3M Company model 6711 125I seed immersed in a water phantom. Dose rate per unit activity data are presented as a matrix of 63 points surrounding the seed. Relative dose data are presented graphically for two mutually perpendicular directions and compared with the corresponding data for the only other 125I seed currently available, the 3M Company model 6702 125I seed. The 6711 relative dose distribution decreases more rapidly with distance from the seed than does the 6702 relative dose distribution. Uncertainties in the 6711 seed dose distribution produced by end-weld thickness variations were investigated and found to be substantial at certain points.

  12. Assessment of target volume doses in radiotherapy based on the standard and measured calibration curves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Gholamreza Fallah; Alam, Nader Riyahi; Rezaeejam, Hamed; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman

    2015-01-01

    In radiation treatments, estimation of the dose distribution in the target volume is one of the main components of the treatment planning procedure. To estimate the dose distribution, the information of electron densities is necessary. The standard curves determined by computed tomography (CT) scanner that may be different from that of other oncology centers. In this study, the changes of dose calculation due to the different calibration curves (HU-ρel) were investigated. Dose values were calculated based on the standard calibration curve that was predefined for the treatment planning system (TPS). The calibration curve was also extracted from the CT images of the phantom, and dose values were calculated based on this curve. The percentage errors of the calculated values were determined. The statistical analyses of the mean differences were performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for both of the calibration curves. The results show no significant difference for both of the measured and standard calibration curves (HU-ρel) in 6, 15, and 18 MeV energies. In Wilcoxon ranked sum nonparametric test for independent samples with P<0.05, the equality of monitor units for both of the curves to transfer 200 cGy doses to reference points was resulted. The percentage errors of the calculated values were lower than 2% and 1.5% in 6 and 15 MeV, respectively. From the results, it could be concluded that the standard calibration curve could be used in TPS dose calculation accurately.

  13. D-Shuttle project: measurement and comparison of individual doses of high school students.

    PubMed

    Hara, T; Anzai, S; Saito, M; Fijiwara, Y

    2016-09-27

    In 2014, a team of high school students and teachers measured individual exposure doses using D-Shuttle dosimeters. In total, 216 students and teachers participated in the project, with the cooperation of 12 high schools in Japan (six from Fukushima Prefecture), four from France, eight from Poland, and two from Belarus. The participants wore the dosimeters for 2 weeks and recorded their locations in diary charts. The distribution of annual exposure doses for each school and region, estimated from the measured results, overlapped. It was concluded that the external exposure of high school students in Fukushima Prefecture was not markedly higher compared with that of students from other regions.

  14. Impact of the differential fluence distribution of brachytherapy sources on the spectroscopic dose-rate constant

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, Martha J.; Bartol, Laura J.; DeWerd, Larry A. E-mail: ladewerd@wisc.edu

    2015-05-15

    the spectroscopic technique affect the accuracy of Λ{sub spec}. Results: For all sources studied, the angular and spatial distributions of φ{sub full} were more complex than the distributions used in φ{sub spec}. Differences between Λ{sub spec} and Λ{sub full} ranged from −0.6% to +6.4%, confirming the discrepancies found by Rodriguez and Rogers. The largest contribution to the discrepancy was the assumption of isotropic emission in φ{sub spec}, which caused differences in Λ of up to +5.3% relative to Λ{sub full}. Use of the approximated spatial and energy distributions caused smaller average discrepancies in Λ of −0.4% and +0.1%, respectively. The water-only model introduced an average discrepancy in Λ of −0.4%. Conclusions: The approximations used in φ{sub spec} caused discrepancies between Λ{sub approx,i} and Λ{sub full} of up to 7.8%. With the exception of the energy distribution, the approximations used in φ{sub spec} contributed to this discrepancy for all source models studied. To improve the accuracy of Λ{sub spec}, the spatial and angular distributions of φ{sub full} could be measured, with the measurements replacing the approximated distributions. The methodology used in this work could be used to determine the resolution that such measurements would require by computing the dose-rate constants from phase spaces modified to reflect φ{sub full} binned at different spatial and angular resolutions.

  15. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors.The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields

  16. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; CGG Persoon, Lucas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation

  17. Shuttle radiation dose measurements in the International Space Station orbits.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, Gautam D

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is now a reality with the start of a permanent human presence on board. Radiation presents a serious risk to the health and safety of the astronauts, and there is a clear requirement for estimating their exposures prior to and after flights. Predictions of the dose rate at times other than solar minimum or solar maximum have not been possible, because there has been no method to calculate the trapped-particle spectrum at intermediate times. Over the last few years, a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been flown at a fixed mid-deck location on board the Space Shuttle in 51.65 degrees inclination flights. These flights have provided data that cover the expected changes in the dose rates due to changes in altitude and changes in solar activity from the solar minimum to the solar maximum of the current 23rd solar cycle. Based on these data, a simple function of the solar deceleration potential has been derived that can be used to predict the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) dose rates to within +/-10%. For altitudes to be covered by the ISS, the dose rate due to the trapped particles is found to be a power-law function, rho(-2/3), of the atmospheric density, rho. This relationship can be used to predict trapped dose rates inside these spacecraft to +/-10% throughout the solar cycle. Thus, given the shielding distribution for a location inside the Space Shuttle or inside an ISS module, this approach can be used to predict the combined GCR + trapped dose rate to better than +/-15% for quiet solar conditions.

  18. Assessment of patient dose in medical processes by in-vivo dose measuring devices: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncel, Nina

    2016-11-01

    In-vivo dosimetry (IVD) in medicine especially in radiation therapy is a well-established and recommended procedure for the estimation of the dose delivered to a patient during the radiation treatment. It became even more important with the emerging use of new and more complex radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated or image-guided radiation therapy. While IVD has been used in brachytherapy for decades and the initial motivation for performing was mainly to assess doses to organs at risk by direct measurements, it is now possible to calculate 3D for detection of deviations or errors. In-vivo dosimeters can be divided into real-time and passive detectors that need some finite time following irradiation for their analysis. They require a calibration against a calibrated ionization chamber in a known radiation field. Most of these detectors have a response that is energy and/or dose rate dependent and consequently require adjustments of the response to account for changes in the actual radiation conditions compared to the calibration situation. Correction factors are therefore necessary to take. Today, the most common dosimeters for patients' dose verification through in-vivo measurements are semiconductor diodes, thermo-luminescent dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and plastic scintillator detectors with small outer diameters.

  19. The Belt Method for Measuring Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W , Jr

    1943-01-01

    The measurement of pressure distribution may be accomplished rapidly for any number of locations deemed necessary in model or full-scale investigations by use of the "belt" method. Reasonable accuracy may be obtained by careful use of this method.

  20. Absorbed photon dose measurement and calculation for some patient organs examined by computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.

    Patient doses from computed tomography (CT) examinations are usually expressed in terms of dose index, organ doses, and effective dose. The CT dose index (CTDI) can be measured free-in-air or in a CT dosimetry phantom. Organ doses can be measured directly in anthropomorphic Rando phantoms using thermoluminescent detectors. Organ doses can also be calculated by the Monte Carlo method utilizing measured CTDI values. In this work, organ doses were assessed for three main CT examinations: head, chest, and abdomen, using the different mentioned methods. Results of directly measured doses were compared with calculated doses for different organs in the study, and also compared with published international studies.

  1. Temporal variation of dose rate distribution around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station using unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Orita, Tadashi; Torii, Tatsuo

    2016-12-01

    Aerial radiological survey using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was applied to measurement surface contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS). An unmanned helicopter monitoring system (UHMS) was developed to survey the environmental effect of radioactive cesium scattered as a result of the FDNPS accident. The UHMS was used to monitor the area surrounding the FDNPS six times from 2012 to 2015. Quantitative changes in the radioactivity distribution trend were revealed from the results of these monitoring runs. With this information, we found that the actual reduction of dose rate was faster than the one calculated with radiocesium physical half-life. It is indicated that the attenuation effect of radiation by radiocesium penetration in soil is dominant as for reason of reduction of dose rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dose distribution around a 3.0-mm type 6702 I-125 seed.

    PubMed

    Scarbrough, E C; Sanborn, G E; Anderson, J A; Nguyen, P D; Niederkorn, J Y; Antich, P P

    1990-01-01

    The 3M Company recently produced a special version of the type 6702 seed for use in animal studies of ocular melanoma. The seed consists of a single I-125 impregnated ion exchange resin sphere encapsulated in a 3.0-mm-long titanium cylinder, as opposed to the normal 4.5-mm cylinder containing from three to five resin spheres. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements show that the dose distribution around the 3-mm capsule differs in places by up to 10% from that of the 4.5-mm seed. In addition, the two seed types differ by 12% in the ratio of dose in tissue along the transverse seed axis to apparent activity. These differences must be taken into account when using these seeds.

  3. Computational determination of absorbed dose distributions from multiple volumetric gamma ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi

    2002-05-01

    Determination of absorbed dose distributions is very important in brachytherapy procedures. The typical computation involves superposition of absorbed dose distributions from a single seed to compute the combined absorbed dose distribution formed by multiple seeds. This approach does not account for the shadow effect caused by the metallic nature of volumetric radioactive seeds. Since this shadow effect will cause deviations from the targeted dose distribution, it may have important implications on the success of the procedures. We demonstrated accuracy of our deterministic algorithms for isotropic point sources in the past. We will show that we now have the capability of computing absorbed dose distributions from multiple volumetric seeds and demonstrate that our results are quite close to the results published in the literature.

  4. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  5. Comparison of dose distributions for Hounsfield number conversion methods in GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Dong; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Eng Chan; Yun, Sang Mo; Kang, Jeong Ku; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2014-06-01

    The conversion of patient computed tomography (CT) data to voxel phantoms is essential for CT-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and incorrect assignments of materials and mass densities can lead to large errors in dose distributions. We investigated the effects of mass density and material assignments on GEANT4-based photon dose calculations. Three material conversion methods and four density conversion methods were compared for a lung tumor case. The dose calculations for 6-MV photon beams with a field size of 10 × 10 cm2 were performed using a 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm3 voxel with 1.2 × 109 histories. The material conversion methods led to different material assignment percentages in converted voxel regions. The GEANT4 example and the modified Schneider material conversion methods showed large local dose differences relative to the BEAMnrc default method for lung and other tissues. For mass density conversion methods when only water was used, our results showed only slight dose differences. Gaussian-like distributions, with mean values close to zero, were obtained when the reference method was compared with the other methods. The maximum dose difference of ˜2% indicated that the dose distributions agreed relatively well. Material assignment methods probably have more significant impacts on dose distributions than mass density assignment methods. The study confirms that material assignment methods cause significant dose differences in GEANT4-based photon dose calculations.

  6. Dose-area product measurements in panoramic dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Poppe, B; Looe, H K; Pfaffenberger, A; Chofor, N; Eenboom, F; Sering, M; Rühmann, A; Poplawski, A; Willborn, K

    2007-01-01

    In this study, dose-area product (DAP) measurements in panoramic dental radiology have been performed in Germany. The results obtained in this study were proposed as diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A representative number of dental panoramic units, both with digital and conventional image receptors, have been chosen. Common statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation and 3rd quartile have been calculated. For four different standard programmes, 'large adult', 'adult male', 'adult female' and 'child', the proposed DRLs are 101, 87, 84 and 75 mGy cm(2), respectively. No clear tendency to a generalised dose reduction from the transition to digital techniques has been observed. Effective doses have been calculated from E/DAP conversion factors published in literature. Even though these values differ by a factor of approximately 3, upper limits of 15.8-21.2 microSv for the four different exposure settings were derived from the data.

  7. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  8. Measurement of gold nanofilm dose enhancement using unlaminated radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Joseph T. Snyder, Michael G.; Hillman, Yair; Laha, Suvra S.; Lawes, Gavin; Buczek, Matthew G.; Tucker, Mark A.; Liu, Fangchao; Mao, Guangzhao

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Bombarding high-Z material with x-ray radiation releases Auger electrons and Coster–Kronig electrons, along with deeper penetrating fluorescent x-rays and photoelectrons. The Auger and Coster–Kronig electron penetration distance is on the order of nanometers to micrometers in water or tissue, creating a large dose enhancement accompanied by a RBE greater than 1 at the cellular level. The authors’ aim is to measure the gold nanofilm dose enhancement factor (DEF) at the cellular level with unlaminated radiochromic film via primary 50 kVp tungsten x-ray spectrum interaction, similar to an electronic brachytherapy spectrum. Methods: Unlaminated Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 film and Monte Carlo modeling were combined to derive DEF models. Gold film of thickness 23.1 ±  4.3 nm and surface roughness of 1.2 ± 0.2 nm was placed in contact with unlaminated radiochromic film in a downstream orientation and exposed to a 50 kVp tungsten bremsstrahlung, mean energy 19.2 keV. Film response correction factors were derived by Monte Carlo modeling of electron energy deposition in the film’s active layer, and by measuring film energy dependence from 4.5 keV to 50 kVp. Results: The measured DEF within a 13.6 μm thick water layer was 0.29 with a mean dose of 94 ± 9.4 cGy from Au emissions and 324 ± 32.4 cGy from the 50 kVp primary beam. Monte Carlo derived correction factors allowed determination of Au contributed dose in shallower depths at 0.25 μm intervals. Maximum DEF of 18.31 was found in the first 0.25 μm water depth. Conclusions: Dose enhancement from Au nanofilm can be measured at the cellular level using unlaminated radiochromic film. Complementing the measured dose value with Monte Carlo calculations allows estimation of dose enhancement at depth increments within the cellular range.

  9. Low LET proton microbeam to understand high-LET RBE by shaping spatial dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greubel, Christoph; Ilicic, Katarina; Rösch, Thomas; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Moser, Marcus; Girst, Stefanie; Walsh, Dietrich W. M.; Schmid, Thomas E.; Dollinger, Günther

    2017-08-01

    High LET radiation, like heavy ions, are known to have a higher biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to low LET radiation, like X- or γ -rays. Theories and models attribute these higher effectiveness mostly to their extremely inhomogeneous dose deposition, which is concentrated in only a few micron sized spots. At the ion microprobe SNAKE, low LET 20 MeV protons (LET in water of 2.6 keV/μm) can be applied to cells either randomly distributed or focused to submicron spots, approximating heavy ion dose deposition. Thus, the transition between low and high LET energy deposition is experimentally accessible and the effect of different spatial dose distributions can be analysed. Here, we report on the technical setup to cultivate and irradiate 104 cells with submicron spots of low LET protons to measure cell survival in unstained cells. In addition we have taken special care to characterise the beam spot of the 20 MeV proton microbeam with fluorescent nuclear track detectors.

  10. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  11. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony L; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2013-10-07

    A novel phantom is presented for 'full system' dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit.

  12. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Antony L.; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J.; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A novel phantom is presented for ‘full system’ dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit.

  13. Fricke gel dosimeter with improved sensitivity for low-dose-level measurements.

    PubMed

    Vaiente, Mauro; Molina, Wladimir; Silva, Lila Carrizales; Figueroa, Rodolfo; Malano, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Santibañez, Mauricio; Vedelago, José

    2016-07-01

    . The aim of this work consists of implementing the optimized gel dosimeter to perform direct measurements of absorbed dose in samples irradiated during microcomputed tomography scanning in order to preliminary assess dose levels for further scanning of small animals for further applications in veterinary and paleontology. As a first attempt, dose distributions were measured in water-equivalent phantoms having dimensions comparable to small animals, 100 to 1000 cm(3) , approximately. According to the obtained results, it is found that the proposed method shows satisfactory reliability and adequate performance for a promising gel dosimetry system. PACS number(s): 87.53.Bn, 87.57.uq, 87.59.-e.

  14. Fricke gel dosimeter with improved sensitivity for low-dose-level measurements.

    PubMed

    Valente, Mauro; Molina, Wladimir; Silva, Lila Carrizales; Figueroa, Rodolfo; Malano, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Santibañez, Mauricio; Vedelago, José

    2016-07-08

    . The aim of this work consists of implementing the optimized gel dosimeter to perform direct measurements of absorbed dose in samples irradiated during microcomputed tomography scanning in order to preliminary assess dose levels for further scanning of small animals for further applications in veterinary and paleontology. As a first attempt, dose distributions were measured in water-equivalent phantoms having dimensions comparable to small animals, 100 to 1000 cm3, approximately. According to the obtained results, it is found that the proposed method shows satisfactory reliability and adequate performance for a promising gel dosimetry system. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Spatial distributions of dose enhancement around a gold nanoparticle at several depths of proton Bragg peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jihun; Sutherland, Kenneth; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Date, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recognized as a promising candidate for a radiation sensitizer. A proton beam incident on a GNP can produce secondary electrons, resulting in an enhancement of the dose around the GNP. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of dose enhancement around the GNP, especially in the direction along the incident proton. The purpose of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of dose enhancement by taking the incident direction into account. Two steps of calculation were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. First, the energy spectra of 100 and 195 MeV protons colliding with a GNP were calculated at the Bragg peak and three other depths around the peak in liquid water. Second, the GNP was bombarded by protons with the obtained energy spectra. Radial dose distributions were computed along the incident beam direction. The spatial distributions of the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and subtracted dose (Dsub) were then evaluated. The spatial DEF distributions showed hot spots in the distal radial region from the proton beam axis. The spatial Dsub distribution isotropically spread out around the GNP. Low energy protons caused higher and wider dose enhancement. The macroscopic dose enhancement in clinical applications was also evaluated. The results suggest that the consideration of the spatial distribution of GNPs in treatment planning will maximize the potential of GNPs.

  16. The prediction of transmitted dose distributions using a 3D treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Reich, P; Bezak, E; Mohammadi, M; Fog, L

    2006-03-01

    Patient dose verification is becoming increasingly important with the advent of new complex radiotherapy techniques such as conformal radiotherapy (CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). An electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has potential application for in vivo dosimetry. In the current work, an EPID has been modelled using a treatment planning system (TPS) to predict transmitted dose maps. A thin slab of RW3 material used to initially represent the EPID. A homogeneous RW3 phantom and the thin RW3 slab placed at a clinical distance away from the phantom were scanned using a CT simulator. The resulting CT images were transferred via DICOM to the TPS and the density of the CT data corresponding to the thin RW3 slab was changed to 1 g/cm3. Transmitted dose maps (TDMs) in the modelled EPID were calculated by the TPS using the collapsed-cone (C-C) convolution superposition (C/S) algorithm. A 6 MV beam was used in the simulation to deliver 300 MU to the homogenous phantom using an isocentric and SSD (source-to-surface) technique. The phantom thickness was varied and the calculated TDMs in the modelled EPID were compared with corresponding measurements obtained from a calibrated scanning liquid-filled ionisation chamber (SLIC) EPID. The two TDMs were compared using the gamma evaluation technique of Low et al. The predicted and measured TDMs agree to within 2 % (averaged over all phantom thicknesses) on the central beam axis. More than 90 % of points in the dose maps (excluding field edges) produce a gamma index less than or equal to 1, for dose difference (averaged over all phantom thicknesses), and distance-to-agreement criteria of 4 %, 3.8 mm, respectively. In addition, the noise level on the central axis in the predicted dose maps is less than 0.1 %. We found that phantom thickness changes of approximately 1 mm, which correspond to dose changes on the central beam axis of less than 0.6 %, can be detected in the predicted transmitted dose distributions.

  17. Phase space determination from measured dose data for intraoperative electron radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Herranz, E; Herraiz, J L; Ibáñez, P; Pérez-Liva, M; Puebla, R; Cal-González, J; Guerra, P; Rodríguez, R; Illana, C; Udías, J M

    2015-01-07

    A procedure to characterize beams of a medical linear accelerator for their use in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) is presented. The procedure relies on dose measurements in homogeneous media as input, avoiding the need for detailed simulations of the accelerator head. An iterative algorithm (EM-ML) has been employed to extract the relevant details of the phase space (PHSP) of the particles coming from the accelerator, such as energy spectra, spatial distribution and angle of emission of particles. The algorithm can use pre-computed dose volumes in water and/or air, so that the machine-specific tuning with actual data can be performed in a few minutes. To test the procedure, MC simulations of a linear accelerator with typical IOERT applicators and energies, have been performed and taken as reference. A solution PHSP derived from the dose produced by the simulated accelerator has been compared to the reference PHSP. Further, dose delivered by the simulated accelerator for setups not included in the fit of the PHSP were compared to the ones derived from the solution PHSP. The results show that it is possible to derive from dose measurements PHSP accurate for IOERT MC dose estimations.

  18. Dose and image quality measurements for contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduko, J. M.; Homolka, P.; Jones, V.; Whitwam, D.

    2015-03-01

    The results of patient dose surveys of two contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography systems are presented, showing mean glandular doses for both low and high energy components of the exposures. For one system the distribution of doses is of an unusual pattern, very different from that normally measured in patient dose surveys. The contribution of the high energy component of the exposure to the total is shown to be about 20% of that of the low energy component for this system. It is about 33% for the other system, for which the distribution of doses is similar to previously published surveys . A phantom containing disks with a range of different iodine content was used, with tissue-equivalent materials, to investigate the properties of one dual energy system. The iodine signal difference to noise ratio is suggested as a measure of image quality. It was found to remain practically constant as phantom thickness was varied, and increased only slowly (with a power relationship) as air kerma increased. Other measurements showed good reproducibility of the iodine signal difference, and that it was proportional to iodine concentration in the phantom. The iodine signal difference was found to be practically the same for a wide range of phantom thickness and glandularity.

  19. Experimental evaluation of a MOSFET dosimeter for proton dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Miyagishi, Tomoko; Hirano, Eriko; Hotta, Kenji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2006-12-07

    The metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter has been widely studied for use as a dosimeter for patient dose verification. The major advantage of this detector is its size, which acts as a point dosimeter, and also its ease of use. The commercially available TN502RD MOSFET dosimeter manufactured by Thomson and Nielsen has never been used for proton dosimetry. Therefore we used the MOSFET dosimeter for the first time in proton dose measurements. In this study, the MOSFET dosimeter was irradiated with 190 MeV therapeutic proton beams. We experimentally evaluated dose reproducibility, linearity, fading effect, beam intensity dependence and angular dependence for the proton beam. Furthermore, the Bragg curve and spread-out Bragg peak were also measured and the linear-energy transfer (LET) dependence of the MOSFET response was investigated. Many characteristics of the MOSFET response for proton beams were the same as those for photon beams reported in previous papers. However, the angular MOSFET responses at 45, 90, 135, 225, 270 and 315 degrees for proton beams were over-responses of about 15%, and moreover the MOSFET response depended strongly on the LET of the proton beam. This study showed that the angular dependence and LET dependence of the MOSFET response must be considered very carefully for quantitative proton dose evaluations.

  20. A novel method for 4D measurement-guided planned dose perturbation to estimate patient dose/DVH changes due to interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, B.; Feygelman, V.

    2013-06-01

    As IMRT/VMAT technology continues to evolve, so do the dosimetric QA methods. We present the theoretical framework for the novel planned dose perturbation algorithm. It allows not only to reconstruct the 3D volumetric doe on a patient from a measurement in a cylindrical phantom, but also to incorporate the effects of the interplay between the intrafractional organ motion and dynamic delivery. Unlike in our previous work, this 4D dose reconstruction does not require the knowledge of the TPS dose for each control point of the plan, making the method much more practical. Motion is viewed as just another source of error, accounted for by perturbing (morphing) the planned dose distribution based on the limited empirical dose from the phantom measurement. The strategy for empirical verification of the algorithm is presented as the necessary next step.

  1. Measurement of neutron dose in the compensator IMRT treatment.

    PubMed

    Rezaian, Abbas; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Banaee, Nooshin

    2017-10-01

    A radiation treatment delivery technique, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), has found widespread use in the treatment of cancers. One of IMRT implementing methods is IMRT compensator based, which the modulation are done by high Z materials. When photons with energies higher than 8MV interact with high Z material in path, Photoneutrons are produced. In this study, the effect of compensator on photoneutron production was investigated. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to calculate the neutron dose equivalent as a function of the depth in phantom with and without compensator. Measurements were made using CR-39 track-etched detectors. CR-39 detectors, were cut in dimensions of 2.5×2.5 cm(2) by laser, placed in different depths of slab phantom and then irradiated by 18MV photons. Same procedure was performed with the compensator present and absent. The measured data were compared with MCNP calculations. In both experimental and simulation results, neutron dose equivalent when compensator used, was less than non-compensator field. The calculated neutron dose equivalent was maximum at surface and decreased exponentially by increasing depth, but in experimental data, the neutron dose equivalent reached a maximum at approximately 3cm depth in the phantom and beyond which decreased with depth.CR-39 calibration was carried out in air, by considering that neutron energy spectrum changes toward thermal neutrons by depth in phantom increasing, it is suggested that for measuring equivalent neutron dose at phantom depth, should have proper neutron calibration in terms of energy spectrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of 3-dimensional dose reconstruction system between fluence-based system and dose measurement-guided system.

    PubMed

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Ono, Takeshi; Onitsuka, Ryota; Maruyama, Masato; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Kai, Yudai

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) are commercial quasi-3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry arrays. Cross-validation to compare them under the same conditions, such as a treatment plan, allows for clear evaluation of such measurement devices. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of reconstructed dose distributions from the COMPASS system and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software using Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and clinical VMAT plans. In a phantom study, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed clear differences from COMPASS, measurement and MC due to the detector resolution and the dose reconstruction method. Especially, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed 7% difference from MC for the heterogeneous phantom. ArcCHECK 3DVH only corrects the 3D dose distribution of treatment planning system (TPS) using ArcCHECK measurement, and therefore the accuracy of ArcCHECK 3DVH depends on TPS. In contrast, COMPASS showed good agreement with MC for all cases. However, the COMPASS system requires many complicated installation procedures such as beam modeling, and appropriate commissioning is needed. In terms of clinical cases, there were no large differences for each QA device. The accuracy of the compass and ArcCHECK 3DVH systems for phantoms and clinical cases was compared. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages for clinical use, and consideration of the operating environment is important. The QA system selection is depending on the purpose and workflow in each hospital. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Andrew M; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-11-01

    .3% and a -26.6% change in the pDgNhetero coefficient, respectively, relative to the centered distribution for the Mo-Mo spectrum. Lateral displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width, resulted in a 1.5% change in the pDgNhetero coefficient relative to the centered distribution for the W-Rh spectrum. Introducing bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions into mammography phantom design resulted in decreased glandular dose relative to the widely used homogeneous assumption. A homogeneous distribution overestimates the amount of glandular tissue near the entrant surface of the breast, where dose deposition is exponentially higher. While these findings are based on clinically measured distributions of glandular tissue using a large cohort of women, future work is required to improve the classification of glandular distributions based on breast size and overall glandular fraction.

  4. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    inferior directions, resulted in a 37.3% and a −26.6% change in the pDgNhetero coefficient, respectively, relative to the centered distribution for the Mo–Mo spectrum. Lateral displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width, resulted in a 1.5% change in the pDgNhetero coefficient relative to the centered distribution for the W–Rh spectrum. Conclusions: Introducing bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions into mammography phantom design resulted in decreased glandular dose relative to the widely used homogeneous assumption. A homogeneous distribution overestimates the amount of glandular tissue near the entrant surface of the breast, where dose deposition is exponentially higher. While these findings are based on clinically measured distributions of glandular tissue using a large cohort of women, future work is required to improve the classification of glandular distributions based on breast size and overall glandular fraction. PMID:26520725

  5. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-11-15

    compressed breast width in the superior and inferior directions, resulted in a 37.3% and a −26.6% change in the pDgN{sub hetero} coefficient, respectively, relative to the centered distribution for the Mo–Mo spectrum. Lateral displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width, resulted in a 1.5% change in the pDgN{sub hetero} coefficient relative to the centered distribution for the W–Rh spectrum. Conclusions: Introducing bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions into mammography phantom design resulted in decreased glandular dose relative to the widely used homogeneous assumption. A homogeneous distribution overestimates the amount of glandular tissue near the entrant surface of the breast, where dose deposition is exponentially higher. While these findings are based on clinically measured distributions of glandular tissue using a large cohort of women, future work is required to improve the classification of glandular distributions based on breast size and overall glandular fraction.

  6. Image quality and dose distributions of three linac-based imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Ames, Evemarie; Nuesken, Frank; Palm, Jan; Licht, Norbert; Rübe, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Linac-based patient imaging is possible with a variety of techniques using different photon energies. The purpose of this work is to compare three imaging systems operating at 6 MV, flattening free filter (FFF) 1 MV, and 121 kV. The dose distributions of all pretreatment set-up images (over 1,000) were retrospectively calculated on the planning computed tomography (CT) images for all patients with prostate and head-and-neck cancer treated at our institution in 2013. We analyzed the dose distribution and the dose to organs at risk. For head-and-neck cancer patients, the imaging dose from 6-MV cone beam CT (CBCT) reached maximum values at around 8 cGy. The 1-MV CBCT dose was about 63-79 % of the 6-MV CBCT dose for all organs at risk. Planar imaging reduced the imaging dose from CBCT to 30-40 % for both megavoltage modalities. The dose from the kilovoltage CBCT was 4-10 % of the 6-MV CBCT dose. For prostate cancer patients, the maximum dose from 6-MV CBCT reached 13-15 cGy, and was reduced to 66-73 % for 1 MV. Planar imaging reduces the MV CBCT dose to 10-20 %. The kV CBCT dose is 15-20 % of the 6-MV CBCT dose, slightly higher than the dose from MV axes. The dose distributions differ markedly in response to the different beam profiles and dose-depth characteristics.

  7. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, Anik

    2014-09-01

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  8. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    SciTech Connect

    Purwaningsih, Anik

    2014-09-30

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  9. Phase-OFDR for distributed disturbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique based on intensity modulation frequency sweep measurement for distributed disturbance measurement in optical fibres. By evaluating interferometric Rayleigh scattering changes along the fibre, strain and temperature changes are detected with 100 n(epsilon) sensitivity and 10 mK resolution. The vibration frequencies for low frequencies and up to the kHz-range can be obtained from power change evaluation in the spatial domain. This novel OFDR approach is a low-cost alternative for distributed disturbance measurement up to distances of several kilometres.

  10. Analysis of high-dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sudahar, H; Kurup, P G G; Murali, V; Mahadev, P; Velmurugan, J

    2013-01-01

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D5% of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D98%, was 27.93 ± 0.84Gy. The V100% of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V100% of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6mm(3), respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D98% to D80%) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D10% and D5%. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

  11. SU-F-BRF-13: Investigating the Feasibility of Accurate Dose Measurement in a Deforming Radiochromic Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, T; Adamovics, J; Oldham, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Presage-Def, a deformable radiochromic 3D dosimeter, has been previously shown to have potential for validating deformable image registration algorithms. This work extends this effort to investigate the feasibility of using Presage-Def to validate dose-accumulation algorithms in deforming structures. Methods: Two cylindrical Presage-Def dosimeters (8cm diameter, 4.5cm length) were irradiated in a water-bath with a simple 4-field box treatment. Isocentric dose was 20Gy. One dosimeter served as control (no deformation) while the other was laterally compressed during irradiation by 21%. Both dosimeters were imaged before and after irradiation with a fast (∼10 minutes for 1mm isotropic resolution), broad beam, high resolution optical-CT scanner. Measured dose distributions were compared to corresponding distributions calculated by a commissioned Eclipse planning system. Accuracy in the control was evaluated with 3D gamma (3%/3mm). The dose distribution calculated for the compressed dosimeter in the irradiation geometry cannot be directly compared via profiles or 3D gamma to the measured distribution, which deforms with release from compression. Thus, accuracy under deformation was determined by comparing integral dose within the high dose region of the deformed dosimeter distribution versus calculated dose. Dose profiles were used to study temporal stability of measured dose distributions. Results: Good dose agreement was demonstrated in the control with a 3D gamma passing rate of 96.6%. For the dosimeter irradiated under compression, the measured integral dose in the high dose region (518.0Gy*cm3) was within 6% of the Eclipse-calculated integral dose (549.4Gy*cm3). Elevated signal was noted on the dosimeter edge in the direction of compression. Change in dosimeter signal over 1.5 hours was ≤2.7%, and the relative dose distribution remained stable over this period of time. Conclusion: Presage-Def is promising as a 3D dosimeter capable of accurately

  12. Electron absorbed dose measurements in LINACs by thermoluminescent dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Cortés, J Rodríguez; Romero, R Alvarez; Nieto, J Azorín; Montalvo, T Rivera

    2014-01-01

    In this work, electron absorbed doses measurements in radiation therapy (RT) were obtained. Radiation measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO4:Dy) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2). TL response calibration was obtained by irradiating TLDs and a Farmer cylindrical ionization chamber PTW 30013 at the same time. Each TL material showed a typical glow curve according to each material. Both calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium and zirconium oxide exhibited better light intensity to high energy electron beam compared with lithium fluoride. TL response as a function of absorbed dose was analyzed. TL response as a function of high energy electron beam was also studied. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The MLC tongue-and-groove effect on IMRT dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jun; Pawlicki, Todd; Chen, Yan; Li, Jinsheng; Jiang, Steve B.; Ma, C.-M.

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions for a Varian MLC. We have compared the dose distributions calculated using the intensity maps with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Our results showed that, for one intensity-modulated treatment field, the maximum tongue-and-groove effect could be up to 10% of the maximum dose in the dose distributions. For an IMRT treatment with multiple gantry angles (≥5), the difference between the dose distributions with and without the tongue-and-groove effect was hardly visible, less than 1.6% for the two typical clinical cases studied. After considering the patient setup errors, the dose distributions were smoothed with reduced and insignificant differences between plans with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Therefore, for a multiple-field IMRT plan (≥5), the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions will be generally clinically insignificant due to the smearing effect of individual fields. The tongue-and-groove effect on an IMRT plan with small number of fields (<5) will vary depending on the number of fields in a plan (coplanar or non-coplanar), the MLC leaf sequences and the patient setup uncertainty, and may be significant (>5% of maximum dose) in some cases, especially when the patient setup uncertainty is small (≤2 mm).

  14. Performance of dose calculation algorithms from three generations in lung SBRT: comparison with full Monte Carlo-based dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Jarkko J; Kapanen, Mika K; Hyödynmaa, Simo J; Wigren, Tuija K; Pitkänen, Maunu A

    2014-03-06

    The accuracy of dose calculation is a key challenge in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the lung. We have benchmarked three photon beam dose calculation algorithms--pencil beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Acuros XB (AXB)--implemented in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), Varian Eclipse. Dose distributions from full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were regarded as a reference. In the first stage, for four patients with central lung tumors, treatment plans using 3D conformal radiotherapy (CRT) technique applying 6 MV photon beams were made using the AXB algorithm, with planning criteria according to the Nordic SBRT study group. The plans were recalculated (with same number of monitor units (MUs) and identical field settings) using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc MC codes. The MC-calculated dose distributions were compared to corresponding AXB-calculated dose distributions to assess the accuracy of the AXB algorithm, to which then other TPS algorithms were compared. In the second stage, treatment plans were made for ten patients with 3D CRT technique using both the PBC algorithm and the AAA. The plans were recalculated (with same number of MUs and identical field settings) with the AXB algorithm, then compared to original plans. Throughout the study, the comparisons were made as a function of the size of the planning target volume (PTV), using various dose-volume histogram (DVH) and other parameters to quantitatively assess the plan quality. In the first stage also, 3D gamma analyses with threshold criteria 3%/3mm and 2%/2 mm were applied. The AXB-calculated dose distributions showed relatively high level of agreement in the light of 3D gamma analysis and DVH comparison against the full MC simulation, especially with large PTVs, but, with smaller PTVs, larger discrepancies were found. Gamma agreement index (GAI) values between 95.5% and 99.6% for all the plans with the threshold criteria 3%/3 mm were achieved, but 2%/2 mm

  15. Distributed Operating System Experiment (DOSE) Application Installation Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    uses the Cronus distrib- uted environment developed by BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation for the Rome Air Devel- opment Center, Rome, NY. f...and any other machine that has UNIX (or UNIX-like) as the constituent operating system for Cronus .-, T nual is recommended reading before installing...the application. 1.2 RE UIRE S ’" The following describes the minimum requirements needed before installing the DOSE application: 1. Cronus (release 1.3

  16. Distribution of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in the eastern coastal area of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Prasad, G; Omori, Y; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Ramola, R C

    2012-11-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is one of the important radiation exposures on the earth's surface that results from the three primordial radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The elemental concentration of these elements in the earth's crust could result in the anomalous variation of the terrestrial gamma radiation in the environment. The geology of the local area plays an important role in distribution of these radioactive elements. Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured around the eastern coastal area of Odisha with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. The values of the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly at different locations in the study area. The values of the terrestrial gamma dose rate ranged from 77 to 1651 nGy h(-1), with an average of 230 nGy h(-1). During the measurement of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, sand and soil samples were also collected for the assessment of natural radionuclides. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K from these samples were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with a NaI(Tl) detector. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 15.6 to 69 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 46.7 Bq kg(-1), from 28.9 to 973 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 250 Bq kg(-1) and from 139 to 952 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 429, respectively. The detailed significance of these studies has been discussed from the radiation protection point of view.

  17. An improved technique for comparing Gamma Knife dose-volume distributions in stereotactic radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer-Loft, Stephen M.; Walton, Lee; Forster, David M. C.; Kemeny, Andras A.

    1999-08-01

    A function derived from the geometry of brachytherapy dose distributions is applied to stereotactic radiosurgery and an algorithm for the production of a novel dose-volume histogram, the Anderson inverse-square shifted dose-volume histogram (DVH), is proposed. The expected form of the function to be plotted is checked by calculating its value for single focus exposures, and its application to clinical examples of Gamma Knife treatments described. The technique is shown to provide a valuable tool for assessing the adequacy of radiosurgical plans and comparing and reporting dose distributions.

  18. Small total dose measurement system for SDS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Satoh, Yohei; Tachihara, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) uses monitors on board satellites to measure and record in-flight data on ionization effects in space. A compact, total dose measurement system for the small satellite (SDS-1) was developed based on the previous system for measuring total ionizing dose effects. Especially, the sensor for SDS-1 is quite smaller than the sensor for SOHLA-1, which is presented in the last year. The sensor is 8 mm wide×3 mm high×19 mm long and weighs approximately 4 g with 500 mm its wire harness. Eight pin LCC RADFET and temperature sensor are arranged on it. Seven sensors are arranged on some components inside the SDS-1. One of the sensors is arranged on a printed board in advanced microprocessing in-ORBIT experiment equipment (AMI). The AMI demonstrate 320 MIPS microprocessor and DC-DC converter for space. The absorbed dose at the points where the sensors are arranged was evaluated before flight and will be compared with resulting flight data.

  19. High dose cyclophosphamide performs better than monthly dose cyclophosphamide in quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Dussán, K B; Magder, L; Brodsky, R A; Jones, R J; Petri, M

    2008-12-01

    In spite of current therapies, the overall health status of patients with SLE is poor. High-dose cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg for 4 days) with or without stem-cell rescue has been introduced as a new therapy for severe SLE, including renal and central nervous system (CNS)-SLE. Long-term durable responses have been found to be 40%. A randomised clinical trial was completed comparing high-dose cyclophosphamide with monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m squared bovine serum albumin) in patients with SLE who need cyclophosphamide for the first time. The primary outcome of the trial was complete clinical response. In this report, we compare the treatment groups with respect to quality of life. The patients in this study had a mean age of 35.3 +/- 10.1 years, were of Caucasian (35%), African-American (51%), Hispanic (8%) and Asian (6%) people, and 88% were women. The organ leading to treatment was renal lupus in 29%, CNS-lupus in 45% and other organs in 26%. Quality of life was measured at each visit using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36). At 6 months, the patients in the high-dose cyclophosphamide trial arm had significantly greater improvement than patients in the monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide arm (P = 0.026; P = 0.0082, respectively) in the categories of general health and social functioning. At 18 months, the improvement in the role-physical score was significantly greater in the high-dose cyclophosphamide trial arm than in the monthly-dose cyclophosphamide arm (P = 0.025). At the end of the two and a half-year study, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to changes in SF-36. By pooling the groups, at 30 months, there was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement over baseline in 6 of the 8 SF-36 domains. This study shows earlier improvement in SF-36 measures at 6 months in the high-dose cyclophosphamide group but equal improvement in both arms at two and one and a half years. Eventual improvements

  20. Extrapolation of the dna fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation to predict effects at low doses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.; Peterson, L. E.

    2001-01-01

    The patterns of DSBs induced in the genome are different for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations: In the former case, the patterns are well described by a random-breakage model; in the latter, a more sophisticated tool is needed. We used a Monte Carlo algorithm with a random-walk geometry of chromatin, and a track structure defined by the radial distribution of energy deposition from an incident ion, to fit the PFGE data for fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation. These fits determined the unknown parameters of the model, enabling the extrapolation of data for high-dose irradiation to the low doses that are relevant for NASA space radiation research. The randomly-located-clusters formalism was used to speed the simulations. It was shown that only one adjustable parameter, Q, the track efficiency parameter, was necessary to predict DNA fragment sizes for wide ranges of doses. This parameter was determined for a variety of radiations and LETs and was used to predict the DSB patterns at the HPRT locus of the human X chromosome after low-dose irradiation. It was found that high-LET radiation would be more likely than low-LET radiation to induce additional DSBs within the HPRT gene if this gene already contained one DSB.

  1. Extrapolation of the dna fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation to predict effects at low doses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.; Peterson, L. E.

    2001-01-01

    The patterns of DSBs induced in the genome are different for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations: In the former case, the patterns are well described by a random-breakage model; in the latter, a more sophisticated tool is needed. We used a Monte Carlo algorithm with a random-walk geometry of chromatin, and a track structure defined by the radial distribution of energy deposition from an incident ion, to fit the PFGE data for fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation. These fits determined the unknown parameters of the model, enabling the extrapolation of data for high-dose irradiation to the low doses that are relevant for NASA space radiation research. The randomly-located-clusters formalism was used to speed the simulations. It was shown that only one adjustable parameter, Q, the track efficiency parameter, was necessary to predict DNA fragment sizes for wide ranges of doses. This parameter was determined for a variety of radiations and LETs and was used to predict the DSB patterns at the HPRT locus of the human X chromosome after low-dose irradiation. It was found that high-LET radiation would be more likely than low-LET radiation to induce additional DSBs within the HPRT gene if this gene already contained one DSB.

  2. Efficient and reliable 3D dose quality assurance for IMRT by combining independent dose calculations with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, R.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Godart, J.; Langendijk, J. A.; Veld, A. A. van't; Korevaar, E. W.; Groot, M. de

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy treatments require appropriate quality assurance (QA) to verify 3D dose distributions. Moreover, increase in patient numbers demand efficient QA-methods. In this study, a time efficient method that combines model-based QA and measurement-based QA was developed; i.e., the hybrid-QA. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the model-based QA and to evaluate time efficiency of the hybrid-QA method. Methods: Accuracy of the model-based QA was determined by comparison of COMPASS calculated dose with Monte Carlo calculations for heterogeneous media. In total, 330 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were evaluated based on the mean gamma index (GI) with criteria of 3%/3mm and classification of PASS (GI {<=} 0.4), EVAL (0.4 < GI > 0.6), and FAIL (GI {>=} 0.6). Agreement between model-based QA and measurement-based QA was determined for 48 treatment plans, and linac stability was verified for 15 months. Finally, time efficiency improvement of the hybrid-QA was quantified for four representative treatment plans. Results: COMPASS calculated dose was in agreement with Monte Carlo dose, with a maximum error of 3.2% in heterogeneous media with high density (2.4 g/cm{sup 3}). Hybrid-QA results for IMRT treatment plans showed an excellent PASS rate of 98% for all cases. Model-based QA was in agreement with measurement-based QA, as shown by a minimal difference in GI of 0.03 {+-} 0.08. Linac stability was high with an average GI of 0.28 {+-} 0.04. The hybrid-QA method resulted in a time efficiency improvement of 15 min per treatment plan QA compared to measurement-based QA. Conclusions: The hybrid-QA method is adequate for efficient and accurate 3D dose verification. It combines time efficiency of model-based QA with reliability of measurement-based QA and is suitable for implementation within any radiotherapy department.

  3. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J.

    2011-08-02

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  4. The use of linear programming in optimization of HDR implant dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Jozsef, Gabor; Streeter, Oscar E; Astrahan, Melvin A

    2003-05-01

    The introduction of high dose rate brachytherapy enabled optimization of dose distributions to be used on a routine basis. The objective of optimization is to homogenize the dose distribution within the implant while simultaneously satisfying dose constraints on certain points. This is accomplished by varying the time the source dwells at different locations. As the dose at any point is a linear function of the dwell times, a linear programming approach seems to be a natural choice. The dose constraints are inherently linear inequalities. Homogeneity requirements are linearized by minimizing the maximum deviation of the doses at points inside the implant from a prescribed dose. The revised simplex method was applied for the solution of this linear programming problem. In the homogenization process the possible source locations were chosen as optimization points. To avoid the problem of the singular value of the dose at a source location from the source itself we define the "self-contribution" as the dose at a small distance from the source. The effect of varying this distance is discussed. Test cases were optimized for planar, biplanar and cylindrical implants. A semi-irregular, fan-like implant with diverging needles was also investigated. Mean central dose calculation based on 3D Delaunay-triangulation of the source locations was used to evaluate the dose distributions. The optimization method resulted in homogeneous distributions (for brachytherapy). Additional dose constraints--when applied--were satisfied. The method is flexible enough to include other linear constraints such as the inclusion of the centroids of the Delaunay-triangulation for homogenization, or limiting the maximum allowable dwell time.

  5. Astronaut's organ doses inferred from measurements in a human phantom outside the international space station.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Facius, Rainer; Hajek, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Puchalska, Monika; Zhou, Dazhuang; Bossler, Johannes; Akatov, Yury; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Olko, Pawel; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Bergmann, Robert; Fugger, Manfred; Vana, Norbert; Beaujean, Rudolf; Burmeister, Soenke; Bartlett, David; Hager, Luke; Pálfalvi, József; Szabó, Julianna; O'Sullivan, Denis; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Tawara, Hiroko; Benton, Eric; Gaza, Ramona; McKeever, Stephen; Sawakuchi, Gabriel; Yukihara, Eduardo; Cucinotta, Francis; Semones, Edward; Zapp, Neal; Miller, Jack; Dettmann, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Space radiation hazards are recognized as a key concern for human space flight. For long-term interplanetary missions, they constitute a potentially limiting factor since current protection limits for low-Earth orbit missions may be approached or even exceeded. In such a situation, an accurate risk assessment requires knowledge of equivalent doses in critical radiosensitive organs rather than only skin doses or ambient doses from area monitoring. To achieve this, the MATROSHKA experiment uses a human phantom torso equipped with dedicated detector systems. We measured for the first time the doses from the diverse components of ionizing space radiation at the surface and at different locations inside the phantom positioned outside the International Space Station, thereby simulating an extravehicular activity of an astronaut. The relationships between the skin and organ absorbed doses obtained in such an exposure show a steep gradient between the doses in the uppermost layer of the skin and the deep organs with a ratio close to 20. This decrease due to the body self-shielding and a concomitant increase of the radiation quality factor by 1.7 highlight the complexities of an adequate dosimetry of space radiation. The depth-dose distributions established by MATROSHKA serve as benchmarks for space radiation models and radiation transport calculations that are needed for mission planning.

  6. Measurement of CT scanner dose profiles in a filmless department.

    PubMed

    Thomson, F J

    2005-09-01

    The measurement of the FWHM of the slice thickness radiation dose profile of a CT scanner using a prototype low sensitivity CR imaging plate has been investigated, as an alternative to the traditional method using envelope-packed industrial film. Using a standard Agfa clinical CR system to acquire the image, the FWHM of the dose profile can be accurately measured using readily available Public Domain software. An Agfa 18 x 24 cm CR cassette gives a pixel pitch of 113.5 microm, but with interpolation, the measurement accuracy can be less than 1 pixel. For a nominal 10 mm collimation, 15 successive measurements of the FWHM using CR gave an average width of 10.00 mm with a standard deviation of 0.02 mm. This may be compared with 4 successive measurements using film and a dual exposure technique to define the optical density at half peak height, yielding an average width of 9.98 mm with a SD of 0.03 mm. This prototype NDT plate is not a commercial product, but a radiotherapy plate with a similar sensitivity is available commercially and should give similar results.

  7. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system.

    PubMed

    Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I; Akatov, Y A; Reitz, G; Arkhanguelski, V V

    2002-10-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 microGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Overestimation of carboplatin doses is avoided by radionuclide GFR measurement.

    PubMed

    Craig, A J; Samol, J; Heenan, S D; Irwin, A G; Britten, A

    2012-10-09

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used in the calculation of carboplatin dose. Glomerular filtration rate is measured using a radioisotope method (radionuclide GFR (rGFR)), however, estimation equations are available (estimated GFR (eGFR)). Our aim was to assess the accuracy of three eGFR equations and the subsequent carboplatin dose in an oncology population. Patients referred for an rGFR over a 3-year period were selected; eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equations. Carboplatin doses were calculated for those patients who had received carboplatin chemotherapy. Bias, precision and accuracy were examined. Two hundred and eighty-eight studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Paired t-tests showed significant differences for all three equations between rGFR and eGFR with biases of 12.3 (MDRD), 13.6 (CKD-EPI) and 7.7 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) (CG). An overestimation in carboplatin dose was seen in 81%, 87% and 66% of studies using the MDRD, CKD-EPI and CG equations, respectively. The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations performed poorly compared with the reference standard rGFR; the CG equation showed smaller bias and higher accuracy in our oncology population. On the basis of our results we recommend that the rGFR should be used for accurate carboplatin chemotherapy dosing and where unavailable the use of the CG equation is preferred.

  9. Overestimation of carboplatin doses is avoided by radionuclide GFR measurement

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A J; Samol, J; Heenan, S D; Irwin, A G; Britten, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used in the calculation of carboplatin dose. Glomerular filtration rate is measured using a radioisotope method (radionuclide GFR (rGFR)), however, estimation equations are available (estimated GFR (eGFR)). Our aim was to assess the accuracy of three eGFR equations and the subsequent carboplatin dose in an oncology population. Patients and methods: Patients referred for an rGFR over a 3-year period were selected; eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equations. Carboplatin doses were calculated for those patients who had received carboplatin chemotherapy. Bias, precision and accuracy were examined. Results: Two hundred and eighty-eight studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Paired t-tests showed significant differences for all three equations between rGFR and eGFR with biases of 12.3 (MDRD), 13.6 (CKD-EPI) and 7.7 ml min−1 per 1.73 m2 (CG). An overestimation in carboplatin dose was seen in 81%, 87% and 66% of studies using the MDRD, CKD-EPI and CG equations, respectively. Conclusion: The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations performed poorly compared with the reference standard rGFR; the CG equation showed smaller bias and higher accuracy in our oncology population. On the basis of our results we recommend that the rGFR should be used for accurate carboplatin chemotherapy dosing and where unavailable the use of the CG equation is preferred. PMID:22935580

  10. SU-D-BRB-07: Lipiodol Impact On Dose Distribution in Liver SBRT After TACE

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, D; Ozawa, S; Hioki, K; Suzuki, T; Lin, Y; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y; Kimura, T; Murakami, Y; Nagata, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combining transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Lipiodol on dose distribution by comparing the dosimetric performance of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm, anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Monte Carlo (MC) method using a virtual heterogeneous phantom and a treatment plan for liver SBRT after TACE. Methods: The dose distributions calculated using AAA and AXB algorithm, both in Eclipse (ver. 11; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), and EGSnrc-MC were compared. First, the inhomogeneity correction accuracy of the AXB algorithm and AAA was evaluated by comparing the percent depth dose (PDD) obtained from the algorithms with that from the MC calculations using a virtual inhomogeneity phantom, which included water and Lipiodol. Second, the dose distribution of a liver SBRT patient treatment plan was compared between the calculation algorithms. Results In the virtual phantom, compared with the MC calculations, AAA underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 5.1% and 9.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 6.0%. Furthermore, compared with the MC calculations, the AXB algorithm underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 4.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 4.2%. In the SBRT plan, the AAA and AXB algorithm underestimated the maximum doses in the Lipiodol region by 9.0% in comparison with the MC calculations. In clinical cases, the dose enhancement in the Lipiodol region can approximately 10% increases in tumor dose without increase of dose to normal tissue. Conclusion: The MC method demonstrated a larger increase in the dose in the Lipiodol region than the AAA and AXB algorithm. Notably, dose enhancement were observed in the tumor area; this may lead to a clinical benefit.

  11. A general tumour control probability model for non-uniform dose distributions.

    PubMed

    González, Sara J; Carando, Daniel G

    2008-06-01

    Perfectly uniform dose distributions over target volumes are almost impossible to achieve in clinical practice, due to surrounding normal tissues dose constraints that are commonly imposed to treatment plans. This article introduces a new approach to compute tumour control probabilities (TCPs) under inhomogeneous dose conditions. The equivalent subvolume model presented here does not assume independence between cell responses and can be derived from any homogeneous dose TCP model. To check the consistency of this model, some natural properties are shown to hold, including the so-called uniform dose theorem. In the spirit of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) concept introduced by Niemierko (1997, Med. Phys., 24, 103-110), the probability-EUD is defined. This concept together with the methodology introduced to compute TCPs for inhomogeneous doses is applied to different uniform dose TCP models. As expected, the TCP takes into account the whole dose distribution over the target volume, but it is influenced more strongly by the low-dose regions. Finally, the proposed methodology and other approaches to the inhomogeneous dose scenario are compared.

  12. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Olch, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  13. Characterization of the dose distribution in the halo region of a clinical proton pencil beam using emulsion film detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Giacoppo, F.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Pistillo, C.; Scampoli, P.

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy is a high precision technique in cancer radiation therapy which allows irradiating the tumor with minimal damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. Pencil beam scanning is the most advanced dose distribution technique and it is based on a variable energy beam of a few millimeters FWHM which is moved to cover the target volume. Due to spurious effects of the accelerator, of dose distribution system and to the unavoidable scattering inside the patient's body, the pencil beam is surrounded by a halo that produces a peripheral dose. To assess this issue, nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent material were used for the first time to characterize the beam in the halo region and to experimentally evaluate the corresponding dose. The high-precision tracking performance of the emulsion films allowed studying the angular distribution of the protons in the halo. Measurements with this technique were performed on the clinical beam of the Gantry1 at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Proton tracks were identified in the emulsion films and the track density was studied at several depths. The corresponding dose was assessed by Monte Carlo simulations and the dose profile was obtained as a function of the distance from the center of the beam spot.

  14. Optical CT and MR imaging of radiation dose distributions using the FBX-gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Robin G.

    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging of gelatin doped with the Fricke solution has been applied to the direct measurement of three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions. However, the 3D-dose distribution can also be imaged more economically and efficiently using the method of optical absorption computed tomography. This is accomplished by first preparing a gelatin matrix containing a radiochromic dye and mapping the radiation-induced local change in the optical absorption coefficient. Ferrous Sulphate-Benzoic Acid-Xylenol Orange (FBX) was the dye of choice for this investigation. The complex formed by Fe 3+ and xylenol orange exhibits a linear change in optical attenuation (cm-1) with radiation dose in the range between 0 and 1000 cGy, and the local concentration of this complex can be probed using a green laser light (lambda = 543.5 nm). An optical computed tomography (CT) scanner was constructed analogous to a first-generation x-ray CT scanner, using a He-Ne laser, photodiodes, and rotation-translation stages controlled by a personal computer. The optical CT scanner itself can reconstruct attenuation coefficients to a baseline accuracy of <2% while yielding dose images accurate to within 5% when other uncertainties are taken into account. The radiation-induced conversion of ferrous ion (Fe2+) to ferric ion (Fe3+) in the FBX Gelatin dosimeter can also be measured using magnetic resonance imaging, similar to the standard Fricke-gelatin system. The oxidation process causes a shortening of the spin-spin (T 2), and spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times, each of which can be measured, with varying accuracy and precision, using different MR pulse sequences. In this investigation, the spin-lattice relaxation times of FBX gelatin were determined using both a fast inversion recovery pulse-sequence, and a three-dimensional Look-Locker (3D-LL) pulse-sequence. The inverse spin-lattice relaxation time (R1 = 1/T1) is shown to vary linearly with absorbed dose in the range 500

  15. Patient dose measurements in diagnostic radiology procedures in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Milatović, Aleksandra; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Ivanović, Sonja; Jovanović, Slobodan; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna

    2012-05-01

    It was the aim of the study presented here to estimate for the first time patient dose levels in conventional diagnostic radiology in Montenegro. Measurements of patient dose in terms of entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and kerma-area product (KAP) were performed on at least 10 patients for each examination type, in each of five randomly selected health institutions in Montenegro, so that a total of 872 patients for 16 different examination categories were included in the survey (817 patients for 1049 radiographies and 55 fluoroscopy patients). Exposure settings and individual data were recorded for each patient. Mean, median and third quartile values ESAK of patient doses are reported. The estimated mean ESAK values obtained are as follows: 4.7 mGy for pelvis anteroposterior (AP), 4.5 mGy for lumbar spine AP, 7.8 mGy for lumbar spine lateral (LAT), 3.1 mGy for thoracic spine AP and 4.3 mGy for thoracic spine LAT. When compared with the European diagnostic reference values, the mean ESAK for all studied examination types are found to be below the reference levels, except in chest radiography. Mean ESAK values for chest radiography are 0.9 mGy for posteroanterior (PA) projection and 2.0 mGy for LAT. The results exhibit a wide range of variation. For fluoroscopy examinations, the total KAP was measured. The mean KAP value per procedure for barium meal is found to be 22 Gy cm(2), 41 Gy cm(2) for barium enema and 19 Gy cm(2) for intravenous urography. Broad dose ranges for the same types of examinations indicate the necessity of applying practice optimisation in diagnostic radiology and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels.

  16. Comparison of planned and measured rectal dose in-vivo during high dose rate Cobalt-60 brachytherapy of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Z K; Ung, N M; Malik, R A; Ho, G F; Phua, V C E; Jamalludin, Z; Baharuldin, M T H; Ng, K H

    2014-12-01

    Cobalt-60 (Co-60) is a relatively new source for the application of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Radiation dose to the rectum is often a limiting factor in achieving the full prescribed dose to the target during brachytherapy of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to measure radiation doses to the rectum in-vivo during HDR Co-60 brachytherapy. A total of eleven HDR brachytherapy treatments of cervical cancer were recruited in this study. A series of diodes incorporated in a rectal probe was inserted into the patient's rectum during each brachytherapy procedure. Real-time measured rectal doses were compared to calculated doses by the treatment planning system (TPS). The differences between calculated and measured dose ranged from 8.5% to 41.2%. This corresponds to absolute dose differences ranging from 0.3 Gy to 1.5 Gy. A linear relationship was observed between calculated and measured doses with linear regression R(2) value of 0.88, indicating close association between the measured and calculated doses. In general, absorbed doses for the rectum as calculated by TPS were observed to be higher than the doses measured using the diode probe. In-vivo dosimetry is an important quality assurance method for HDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer. It provides information that can contribute to the reduction of errors and discrepancies in dose delivery. Our study has shown that in-vivo dosimetry is feasible and can be performed to estimate the dose to the rectum during HDR brachytherapy using Co-60.

  17. Prediction of In-Phantom Dose Distribution Using In-Air Neutron Beam Characteristics for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2000-08-15

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study was carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures of merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the skin-absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the bone-absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment and that (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce the particle transport simulation time by a factor of 10 by modeling the moderator only.

  18. IDTT therapy in cadaveric lumbar spine: temperature and thermal dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Kleinstueck, Frank; Lotz, Jeff; Bradford, David

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform extensive temperature mapping throughout human cadaveric disc (n=12) specimens during Intradiscal Thermal Therapy IDTT using the SpineCathTM applicator. Temperature distributions and accumulated thermal dose or thermal damage calculated from the temperature-time history are used to define probable regions of thermal necrosis (destruction of nerves) or thermal coagulation (induced structural changes). The IDTT procedure using SpineCath (5 cm resistive heating segment) and the current standard heating protocol (~17 min) produces intra-discal temperatures which are too low to generate appreciable regions of thermal coagulation and resultant changes in biomechanical properties. This finding was supported by temperature measurements which were mostly below the critical temperature of 60-65°C, except for regions within 1-2 mm of the SpineCath applicator. Furthermore, the analysis of the thermal dose profiles indicate that sufficient thermal doses (240-640 EM43°C) capable of generating complete thermal damage to the nociceptive nerves fibers infiltrating the disc are limited to within ~6 mm of the nucleus and IDTT probe heating segment.

  19. Distribution, elimination, and renal effects of single oral doses of europium in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Keiko; Usuda, Kan; Nakayama, Shin; Sugiura, Yumiko; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Akihiro; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Kono, Koichi

    2011-11-01

    Single doses of europium (III) chloride hexahydrate were orally administered to several groups of rats. Cumulative urine samples were taken at 0-24 h, and blood samples were drawn after 24-h administration. The europium concentration was determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The volume, creatinine, ß-2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase were measured in the urine samples to evaluate possible europium-induced renal effects. The blood samples showed low europium distribution, with an average of 77.5 μg/L for all groups. Although the urinary concentration and excretion showed dose-dependent increases, the percentage of europium excreted showed a dose-dependent decrease, with an average of 0.31% in all groups. The administration of europium resulted in a significant decrease of creatinine and a significant increase of urinary volume, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, and ß-2-microglobulin. Rare earth elements, including europium, are believed to form colloidal conjugates that deposit in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli. This specific reaction may contribute to low europium bioavailability and renal function disturbances. Despite low bioavailability, the high performance of the analytical method for determination of europium makes the blood and urine sampling suitable tools for monitoring of exposure to this element. The results presented in this study will be of great importance in future studies on the health impacts of rare earth elements.

  20. Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Vatnitsky, A S; Vatnitsky, S M

    2011-10-01

    Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

  1. Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

  2. VMAT QA: Measurement-guided 4D dose reconstruction on a patient

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Opp, Daniel; Robinson, Joshua; Wolf, Theresa K.; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) tool that takes as input a time-resolved, low-density ({approx}10 mm) cylindrical surface dose map from a commercial helical diode array, and outputs a high density, volumetric, time-resolved dose matrix on an arbitrary patient dataset. This first validation study is limited to a homogeneous 'patient.'Methods: A VMAT treatment is delivered to a diode array phantom (ARCCHECK, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL). 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear) derives the high-density volumetric dose using measurement-guided dose reconstruction (MGDR). MGDR cylindrical phantom results are then used to perturb the three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning dose on the patient dataset, producing a semiempirical volumetric dose grid. Four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction on the patient is also possible by morphing individual sub-beam doses instead of the composite. For conventional (3D) dose comparison two methods were developed, using the four plans (Multi-Target, C-shape, Mock Prostate, and Head and Neck), including their structures and objectives, from the AAPM TG-119 report. First, 3DVH and treatment planning system (TPS) cumulative point doses were compared to ion chamber in a cube water-equivalent phantom ('patient'). The shape of the phantom is different from the ARCCHECK and furthermore the targets were placed asymmetrically. Second, coronal and sagittal absolute film dose distributions in the cube were compared with 3DVH and TPS. For time-resolved (4D) comparisons, three tests were performed. First, volumetric dose differences were calculated between the 3D MGDR and cumulative time-resolved patient (4D MGDR) dose at the end of delivery, where they ideally should be identical. Second, time-resolved (10 Hz sampling rate) ion chamber doses were compared to cumulative point dose vs time curves from 4D MGDR. Finally, accelerator output was varied to assess the linearity of the 4D MGDR with

  3. VMAT QA: Measurement-guided 4D dose reconstruction on a patient.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Benjamin E; Opp, Daniel; Robinson, Joshua; Wolf, Theresa K; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    To develop and validate a volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) tool that takes as input a time-resolved, low-density (∼10 mm) cylindrical surface dose map from a commercial helical diode array, and outputs a high density, volumetric, time-resolved dose matrix on an arbitrary patient dataset. This first validation study is limited to a homogeneous "patient." A VMAT treatment is delivered to a diode array phantom (ARCCHECK, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL). 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear) derives the high-density volumetric dose using measurement-guided dose reconstruction (MGDR). MGDR cylindrical phantom results are then used to perturb the three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning dose on the patient dataset, producing a semiempirical volumetric dose grid. Four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction on the patient is also possible by morphing individual sub-beam doses instead of the composite. For conventional (3D) dose comparison two methods were developed, using the four plans (Multi-Target, C-shape, Mock Prostate, and Head and Neck), including their structures and objectives, from the AAPM TG-119 report. First, 3DVH and treatment planning system (TPS) cumulative point doses were compared to ion chamber in a cube water-equivalent phantom ("patient"). The shape of the phantom is different from the ARCCHECK and furthermore the targets were placed asymmetrically. Second, coronal and sagittal absolute film dose distributions in the cube were compared with 3DVH and TPS. For time-resolved (4D) comparisons, three tests were performed. First, volumetric dose differences were calculated between the 3D MGDR and cumulative time-resolved patient (4D MGDR) dose at the end of delivery, where they ideally should be identical. Second, time-resolved (10 Hz sampling rate) ion chamber doses were compared to cumulative point dose vs time curves from 4D MGDR. Finally, accelerator output was varied to assess the linearity of the 4D MGDR with global fluence change

  4. Electron dose distributions in experimental phantoms: a comparison with 2D pencil beam calculations.

    PubMed

    Cygler, J; Battista, J J; Scrimger, J W; Mah, E; Antolak, J

    1987-09-01

    Dose distributions were measured and computed within inhomogeneous phantoms irradiated with beams of electrons having initial energies of 10 and 18 MeV. The measurements were made with a small p-type silicon diode and the calculations were performed using the pencil beam algorithm developed originally at the M D Anderson Hospital (MDAH). This algorithm, which is available commercially on many radiotherapy planning computers, is based on the Fermi-Eyges theory of electron transport. The phantoms used in this work were composed of water into which two- and three-dimensional inhomogeneities of aluminum and air (embedded in wax) were introduced. This was done in order to simulate the small bones and the air cavities encountered clinically in radiation therapy of the chest wall or neck. Our intent was to test the adequacy of the two-dimensional implementation of the pencil beam approach. The agreement between measured and computed doses is very good for inhomogeneities which are essentially two-dimensional but discrepancies as large as 40% were observed for more complex three-dimensional inhomogeneities. We can only trace the discrepancies to the complex interplay of numerous approximations in the Fermi-Eyges theory of multiple scattering and its adaptation for practical computer-aided radiotherapy planning.

  5. Development of a Portable Gamma-ray Survey System for the Measurement of Air Dose Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Jun; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kawano, Yoh; Amaya, Yoshihiro; Izumikawa, Takuji; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Shiiya, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Hidenori; Naito, Makoto

    BIo-Safety Hybrid Automatic MOnitor-Niigata (BISHAMON), a portable gamma-ray survey system, was developed to support victims of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. BISHAMON is capable of constructing a map of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rates using vehicle-mounted or on-foot survey methods. In this study, we give an overview of BISHAMON and its measurement results including a comparison with those of other systems such as KURAMA.

  6. POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth J; Souaidia, Nordine

    2010-09-13

    While the upwelling radiance distribution in the ocean can be highly polarized, there are few measurements of this parameter in the open ocean. To obtain the polarized in-water upwelling spectral radiance distribution data we have developed the POLRADS instrument. This instrument is based on the NuRADS radiance distribution camera systems in which linear polarizer's have been installed. By combining simultaneous images from three NuRADS instruments, three Stokes parameters (I, Q, U) for the water leaving radiance can be obtained for all upwelling angles simultaneously. This system measures the Stokes parameters Q/I and U/I with a 0.05-0.06 uncertainty and I with a 7-10% uncertainty.

  7. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  8. Tracking the dose distribution in radiation therapy by accounting for variable anatomy.

    PubMed

    Schaly, B; Kempe, J A; Bauman, G S; Battista, J J; Van Dyk, J

    2004-03-07

    The goal of this research is to calculate the daily and cumulative dose distribution received by the radiotherapy patient while accounting for variable anatomy, by tracking the dose distribution delivered to tissue elements (voxels) that move within the patient. Non-linear image registration techniques (i.e., thin-plate splines) are used along with a conventional treatment planning system to combine the dose distributions computed for each 3D computed tomography (CT) study taken during treatment. For a clinical prostate case, we demonstrate that there are significant localized dose differences due to systematic voxel motion in a single fraction as well as in 15 cumulative fractions. The largest positive dose differences in rectum, bladder and seminal vesicles were 29%, 2% and 24%, respectively, after the first fraction of radiation treatment compared to the planned dose. After 15 cumulative fractions, the largest positive dose differences in rectum, bladder and seminal vesicles were 23%, 32% and 18%, respectively, compared to the planned dose. A sensitivity analysis of control point placement is also presented. This method provides an important understanding of actual delivered doses and has the potential to provide quantitative information to use as a guide for adaptive radiation treatments.

  9. Distributed Operating System Experiment (DOSE) Application User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    ntion ( "° r" ies ,.•t 1.0 INTRODUCTON The Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) initiated Cronus research with Release 1.0 in 1987 (Sullivan and Anderson...1988). Cronus , a distributed computing environment designed specifically for a command and control environment, was developed for Rome Air Development...Center (RADC) and NOSC by BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation. Cronus operates on a variety of different hardwares and runs at the user level

  10. Incorporation of functional imaging data in the evaluation of dose distributions using the generalized concept of equivalent uniform dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miften, Moyed M.; Das, Shiva K.; Su, Min; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2004-05-01

    Advances in the fields of IMRT and functional imaging have greatly increased the prospect of escalating the dose to highly active or hypoxic tumour sub-volumes and steering the dose away from highly functional critical structure regions. However, current clinical treatment planning and evaluation tools assume homogeneous activity/function status in the tumour/critical structures. A method was developed to incorporate tumour/critical structure heterogeneous functionality in the generalized concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD). The tumour and critical structures functional EUD (FEUD) values were calculated from the dose-function histogram (DFH), which relates dose to the fraction of total function value at that dose. The DFH incorporates flouro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) functional data for tumour, which describes the distribution of metabolically active tumour clonogens, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion data for critical structures. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the lung dose distributions of two non-small cell lung caner patients, who received 3D conformal external beam radiotherapy treatment with curative intent, were evaluated. Differences between the calculated lungs EUD and FEUD values of up to 50% were observed in the 3D conformal plans. In addition, a non-small cell lung cancer patient was inversely planned with a target dose prescription of 76 Gy. Two IMRT plans (plan-A and plan-B) were generated for the patient based on the CT, FDG-PET and SPECT treatment planning images using dose-volume objective functions. The IMRT plans were generated with the goal of achieving more critical structures sparing in plan-B than plan-A. Results show the target volume EUD in plan-B is lower than plan-A by 5% with a value of 73.31 Gy, and the FEUD in plan-B is lower than plan-A by 2.6% with a value of 75.77 Gy. The FEUD plan-B values for heart and lungs were lower than plan-A by 22% and 18%, respectively

  11. Measurement of absorbed dose during the phantom torso experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semones, E.; Gibbons, F.; Golightly, M.; Weyland, M.; Johnson, A.; Smith, G.; Shelfer, T.; Zapp, N.

    The Phantom Torso Experiment (PTE) was flown on the International Space Station (ISS) during Increment 2 (April-August 2001). The experiment was located in the US Lab module Human Research Facility (HRF) rack. The objective of the passive dosimetry portion of the experiment was to measure spatial distributions of absorbed dose in the 34, 1 inch sections of a modified RandoTM phantom. In each section of the phantom, thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were placed at various locations (depths) to provide the spatial measurement. TLDs were also located at several radiosensitive organ locations (brain, thyroid, heart/lung, stomach and colon) and two locations on the surface (skin). Active silicon detectors were also placed at these organ locations to provide time resolved results of the absorbed dose rates. Using these detectors, it is possible to separate the trapped and galactic cosmic ray components of the absorbed dose. The TLD results of the spatial and organ dose measurements will be presented and comparisons of the TLD and silicon detector organ absorbed doses will be made.

  12. SU-E-T-514: Investigating the Dose Distributions of Equiangular Spaced Noncoplanar Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T; Maxim, P; Hadsell, M; Loo, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that the use of noncoplanar beams in radiation therapy may Result in dose distributions that are comparable or better than standard coplanar beams [Pugachev, 2001]. A radiation therapy system designed with a noncoplanar beam geometry could allow for a full ring diagnostic quality imaging system to be placed around the patient. Additionally, if the noncoplanar beams were fixed in number and in their angle with respect to the patient’s axial plane, then both treatment and imaging could be achieved concurrently without the need for moving parts, which could greatly reduce treatment times. For such a system to be designed, it is necessary to determine the appropriate number of beams and the beam angles to achieve optimal dose distributions. For simplicity, the beam angles are assumed to be equiangular in the patient’s axial plane, and only the beam angle with respect to the axial plane are varied. This study aims to investigate the dose distributions produced by equiangular noncoplanar beams for multiple beam numbers and beam angles, and to compare these dose distributions with distributions achieved in coplanar volumetric arc therapy (VMAT). Methods Dose distributions produced by noncoplanar beams were calculated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system by varying the gantry, collimator, and couch angles to simulate the noncoplanar delivery method. Noncoplanar intensity-modulated (NC-IMRT) beams using 8, 12, and 16 beams with angles varying from 45 degrees to 54 with respect to the patient’s axial plane were studied. Results The NC-IMRT beams produced dose distributions comparable to VMAT plans for a number of treatment sites, and were capable of meeting similar dose-volume histogram constraints. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that a noncoplanar beam delivery method with fixed beam numbers and beam angles is capable of delivering dose distributions comparable to VMAT plans currently in use.

  13. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

    2014-05-21

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  14. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

    2014-05-01

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  15. SU-E-T-205: Improving Quality Assurance of HDR Brachytherapy: Verifying Agreement Between Planned and Delivered Dose Distributions Using DICOM RTDose and Advanced Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A L; Bradley, D A; Nisbet, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy is undergoing significant development, and quality assurance (QA) checks must keep pace. Current recommendations do not adequately verify delivered against planned dose distributions: This is particularly relevant for new treatment planning system (TPS) calculation algorithms (non TG-43 based), and an era of significant patient-specific plan optimisation. Full system checks are desirable in modern QA recommendations, complementary to device-centric individual tests. We present a QA system incorporating TPS calculation, dose distribution export, HDR unit performance, and dose distribution measurement. Such an approach, more common in external beam radiotherapy, has not previously been reported in the literature for brachytherapy. Methods: Our QA method was tested at 24 UK brachytherapy centres. As a novel approach, we used the TPS DICOM RTDose file export to compare planned dose distribution with that measured using Gafchromic EBT3 films placed around clinical brachytherapy treatment applicators. Gamma analysis was used to compare the dose distributions. Dose difference and distance to agreement were determined at prescription Point A. Accurate film dosimetry was achieved using a glass compression plate at scanning to ensure physically-flat films, simultaneous scanning of known dose films with measurement films, and triple-channel dosimetric analysis. Results: The mean gamma pass rate of RTDose compared to film-measured dose distributions was 98.1% at 3%(local), 2 mm criteria. The mean dose difference, measured to planned, at Point A was -0.5% for plastic treatment applicators and -2.4% for metal applicators, due to shielding not accounted for in TPS. The mean distance to agreement was 0.6 mm. Conclusion: It is recommended to develop brachytherapy QA to include full-system verification of agreement between planned and delivered dose distributions. This is a novel approach for HDR brachytherapy QA. A methodology using advanced film

  16. Gamma Dose Distribution Studies in Ducted Shield Material Having Different Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Ahmed, F. M.

    In the present work the radial distribution of total gamma doses arising from the interaction of reactor neutrons and gamma radiations inside ilmenite heavy concrete shield are measured. The ilmenite concrete is pierced with neutral beam injector ducts having different diameters and lengths. The results obtained show a relative increase in radial gamma doses at a distance of 10 cm from the neutral beam end. An empirical formula was obtained, fitting the measured gamma doses at the peak position in good agreement within a factor of 1.27. Moreover the variation of the total gamma radiation was measured along straight filled ducted with different diameters and length. The experimental data obtained show a reasonable agreement with calculated ones. The scattered as well as unscattered components of the gamma radiation transmitted through a straight duct were investigated. An empirical formula describing this behaviour was obtained.Translated AbstractDie Untersuchung der Dosisverteilung in verschieden konfigurierten Schirmmaterialien mit DurchführungenIn der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die radiale Verteilung der totalen -Dosis gemessen, wie sie aus der Wechselwirkung von Reaktorneutronen und -Strahlung innerhalb eines Betonschirms entsteht. Der Beton ist mit verschieden großen und langen Durchführungen versehen. Die erhaltenen Resultate zeigen einen relativen Intensitätspik 10 cm vor Durchführungsende. Eine empirische Formel wird aufgestellt, die diese Verhältnisse relativ gut (um den Faktor 1.27) wiedergibt. Darüber hinaus wurde die Gamma-Strahlung entlang gerader, gefüllter Durchführungen unterschiedlicher Abmessungen gemessen. Übereinstimmung mit berechneten Werten konnte erzielt werden. Sowohl die gestreuten als auch die ungestreuten Komponenten der Gamma-Strahlung in einer geraden Durchführung wurden untersucht und eine beschriebene, empirische Formel dafür angegeben.

  17. Dose and Position Measurements using a Novel Four-Dimensional In Vivo Dosimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherpak, Amanda

    agreement between dose measurements and treatment plan calculations was within 5% for both free breathing and adaptive treatment deliveries and position measurements were accurate and consistent between the CT and treatment delivery rooms. The two clinical trials demonstrated that the RADPOS system can be used during daily treatments without any disruption to the treatment schedule or discomfort to patients. The lung patient study found significant deviations in external surface motion which emphasize a need for continued position monitoring. Average measured dose values were in agreement with treatment plan dose calculations for the majority of points. The second clinical trial highlighted deviations from calculated treatment plan values as well as changes in position due to needle placement, swelling, and other internal motion as well as changes due to the TRUS probe. These changes were found to be significant in several cases and should therefore be quantified to evaluate influence on dose distributions.

  18. Experimental determination of particle range and dose distribution in thick targets through fragmentation reactions of stable heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Tomitani, Takehiro; Urakabe, Eriko; Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2006-09-07

    In radiation therapy with highly energetic heavy ions, the conformal irradiation of a tumour can be achieved by using their advantageous features such as the good dose localization and the high relative biological effectiveness around their mean range. For effective utilization of such properties, it is necessary to evaluate the range of incident ions and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Several methods have been proposed to derive such physical quantities; one of them uses positron emitters generated through projectile fragmentation reactions of incident ions with target nuclei. We have proposed the application of the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method to a detected annihilation gamma-ray distribution for determination of the range of incident ions in a target and we have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method with computer simulations. In this paper, a water, a polyethylene and a polymethyl methacrylate target were each irradiated with stable (12)C, (14)N, (16)O and (20)Ne beams. Except for a few combinations of incident beams and targets, the MLE method could determine the range of incident ions R(MLE) with a difference between R(MLE) and the experimental range of less than 2.0 mm under the circumstance that the measurement of annihilation gamma rays was started just after the irradiation of 61.4 s and lasted for 500 s. In the process of evaluating the range of incident ions with the MLE method, we must calculate many physical quantities such as the fluence and the energy of both primary ions and fragments as a function of depth in a target. Consequently, by using them we can obtain the dose distribution. Thus, when the mean range of incident ions is determined with the MLE method, the annihilation gamma-ray distribution and the deposited dose distribution can be derived simultaneously. The derived dose distributions in water for the mono-energetic heavy-ion beams of four species were compared with those measured with an

  19. Quantifying the Combined Effect of Radiation Therapy and Hyperthermia in Terms of Equivalent Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, H. Petra; Crezee, Johannes; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.; Barendsen, Gerrit W.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to quantify the therapeutic effect of radiosensitization by hyperthermia; to this end, a numerical method was proposed to convert radiation therapy dose distributions with hyperthermia to equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia. Methods and Materials: Clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created for 15 prostate cancer cases. To simulate a clinically relevant heterogeneous temperature distribution, hyperthermia treatment planning was performed for heating with the AMC-8 system. The temperature-dependent parameters α (Gy{sup −1}) and β (Gy{sup −2}) of the linear–quadratic model for prostate cancer were estimated from the literature. No thermal enhancement was assumed for normal tissue. The intensity modulated radiation therapy plans and temperature distributions were exported to our in-house-developed radiation therapy treatment planning system, APlan, and equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia were calculated voxel by voxel using the linear–quadratic model. Results: The planned average tumor temperatures T90, T50, and T10 in the planning target volume were 40.5°C, 41.6°C, and 42.4°C, respectively. The planned minimum, mean, and maximum radiation therapy doses were 62.9 Gy, 76.0 Gy, and 81.0 Gy, respectively. Adding hyperthermia yielded an equivalent dose distribution with an extended 95% isodose level. The equivalent minimum, mean, and maximum doses reflecting the radiosensitization by hyperthermia were 70.3 Gy, 86.3 Gy, and 93.6 Gy, respectively, for a linear increase of α with temperature. This can be considered similar to a dose escalation with a substantial increase in tumor control probability for high-risk prostate carcinoma. Conclusion: A model to quantify the effect of combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia in terms of equivalent dose distributions was presented. This model is particularly instructive to estimate the potential effects of interaction from different

  20. Effect of different prosthetic materials on radiation dose distribution in an orbital defect: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Tuncer Burak; Onal, Cem; Efe, Esma; Yilmaz, Burak

    2012-04-01

    It is challenging to treat and irradiate empty cavities with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) because body contour irregularities can result in dose heterogeneities. The use of compensator materials to fill the empty cavities can provide a more homogeneous radiation dose distribution. The purposes of this clinical report are to describe the use of 3 different materials (elastomeric material, water-filled balloon, and acrylic resin) in an orbital defect and compare the dosimetric parameters and photon-electron dose distribution during EBRT. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of a wide-range of X-ray doses using specialty doped silica fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sani, S. F.; Hammond, R.; Jafari, S. M.; Wahab, Norfadira; Amouzad Mahdiraji, G.; Siti Shafiqah, A. S.; Abdul Rashid, H. A.; Maah, M. J.; Aldousari, H.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alzimami, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Using six types of tailor-made doped optical fibres, we carry out thermoluminescent (TL) studies of X-rays, investigating the TL yield for doses from 20 mGy through to 50 Gy. Dosimetric parameters were investigated for nominal 8 wt% Ge doped fibres that in two cases were co-doped, using B in one case and Br in the other. A comparative measurement of surface analysis has also been made for non-annealed and annealed capillary fibres, use being made of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Comparison was made with the conventional TL phosphor LiF in the form of the proprietary product TLD-100, including dose response and glow curves investigated for X-rays generated at 60 kVp over a dose range from 2 cGy to 50 Gy. The energy response of the fibres was also performed for X-rays generated at peak accelerating potentials of 80 kVp, 140 kVp, 250 kVp and 6 MV photons for an absorbed dose of 2 Gy. Present results show the samples to be suitable for use as TL dosimeters, with good linearity of response and a simple glow curve (simple trap) distribution. It has been established that the TL performance of an irradiated fibre is not only influenced by radiation parameters such as energy, dose-rate and total dose but also the type of fibre.

  2. Radiochromic film measurement of anisotropy function for high-dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S D; Bianchi, C; Conte, L; Novario, R; Bhatt, B C

    2004-09-07

    The dose distribution produced by the high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir source is inherently anisotropic due to self-absorption by the high-density source core, oblique filtration by the source capsule and the asymmetric geometry of the source capsule. To account for the dose distribution anisotropy of brachytherapy sources, AAPM Task Group No 43 has included a two-dimensional anisotropy function, F(r, theta), in the recommended dose calculation formalism. Gafchromic HS radiochromic film (RCF) was used to measure anisotropy function for microSelectron HDR 192Ir source (classic/old design). Measurements were carried out in a water phantom using specially fabricated PMMA cylinders at radial distances 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. The data so generated are comparable to both experimental and Monte Carlo calculated values for this source reported earlier by other authors. The RCF method described in this paper is comparatively high resolution, simple to use and is a general method, which can be applied for other brachytherapy sources as well.

  3. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model.

  4. Improvement of dose distribution with irregular surface compensator in whole breast radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hideki, Fujita; Nao, Kuwahata; Hiroyuki, Hattori; Hiroshi, Kinoshita; Haruyuki, Fukuda

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric aspects of whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) between an irregular surface compensator (ISC) and a conventional tangential field technique using physical wedges. Treatment plans were produced for 20 patients. The Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) was used for the dose calculation: For the physical wedge technique, the wedge angle was selected to provide the best dose homogeneity; for the ISC technique, the fluence editor application was used to extend the optimal fluence. These two treatment plans were compared in terms of doses in the planning target volume, the dose homogeneity index, the maximum dose, ipsilateral lung and heart doses for left breast irradiation, and the monitor unit counts required for treatment. Compared with the physical wedge technique, the ISC technique significantly reduced the dose homogeneity index, the maximum dose, the volumes received at 105% of the prescription dose, as well as reducing both the ipsilateral lung and heart doses (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). However, the monitor unit counts were not significantly different between the techniques (P > 0.05). Thus, the ISC technique for WBRT enables significantly better dose distribution in the planning target volume. PMID:24049317

  5. Detection of lung nodules in chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT): effects of the different angular dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byungdu; Lee, Youngjin; Kim, Dohyeon; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Jin, Seong-Soo; Mu, Shou-Chih; Kim, Hye-Mi; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-03-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new imaging modality for better detection of high- and smallcontrast lung nodules compared to conventional X-ray radiography. In CDT system, several projection views need to be acquired with limited angular range. The acquisition of insufficient number of projection data can degrade the reconstructed image quality. This image degradation easily affected by acquisition parameters such as angular dose distribution, number of projection views and reconstruction algorithm. To investigate the imaging characteristics, we evaluated the impact of the angular dose distribution on image quality by simulation studies with Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). We designed the different angular dose distribution conditions. The results showed that the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improves when exposed the higher dose at central projection views than peripheral views. While it was found that increasing angular dose distribution at central views improved lung nodule detectability, although both peripheral regions slightly suffer from image noise due to low dose distribution. The improvements of CNR by using proposed image acquisition technique suggest possible directions for further improvement of CDT system for lung nodule detection with high quality imaging capabilities.

  6. Clinical usefulness of the management and delivery of radiation dose-distribution images using the Internet.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Onogi, Y; Aoki, Y; Kozuka, T; Ohtomo, K

    1998-01-01

    Dose distribution images in radiation therapy play important roles in the management of cancer patients. To date, hard copies of these images have been stored for referral by radiation oncologists as needed. In most cases, these images are not available to medical personnel outside the radiation oncology department. We have developed a means to access these dose distribution images from the hospital via the World-Wide Web (WWW). A screen snapshot of a dose distribution image on the CRT of a treatment planning unit is copied to the WWW server and converted to a GIF (graphic interchange format) image. Similarly, we can register dose volume histograms and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) on the WWW. Medical personnel can view these images through the WWW browser from anywhere in the hospital. As a result, radiation oncologists are given detailed information on target definition in treatment planning by expert physicians. The system also helps co-medical personnel in understanding dose distribution and predicting radiation injury. At the same time, it actualizes an electronic archive of dose distribution images, which is a database for quick and reliable review, evaluation, and comparison of treatment plans. This technique also fosters closer relationships among radiation oncologists, physicians, and co-medical personnel.

  7. [Management and delivery of radiation dose distribution images using the Internet].

    PubMed

    Onogi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Aoki, Y; Kozuka, T; Toyoda, T; Sasaki, Y

    1998-01-01

    Dose distribution images play important roles in the management of cancer patients. To date hard copies of these images have been stored and referred to by radiation oncologists as needed. In most cases, these images were not available to medical personnel outside the radiation oncology department. We have developed a mechanism in the hospital to access these dose distribution images via WWW (World Wide Web). A screen snapshot of a dose distribution image on the CRT of a treatment planning machine is copied to the WWW server and converted to a GIF image. Similarly, we can register dose volume histograms and digitally reconstructed radiographs on the WWW. Medical personnel throughout the hospital can access the images through the WWW browser. As a result, radiation oncologists are given detailed information on target definition in treatment planning by expert physicians. The system also helps co-medical staff in understanding dose distributions and predicting radiation injuries. At the same time, it actualizes an electronic archive of dose distribution images, which is a database for quick and reliable review, evaluation and comparison of treatment plans. This technique also furthers a close relationship among radiation oncologists, physicians, and co-medical personnel.

  8. SU-E-T-113: Dose Distribution Using Respiratory Signals and Machine Parameters During Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Imae, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Takeuchi, Y; Shiraki, T; Yano, K; Yamashita, H; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique capable of acquiring projection images during treatment. Treatment plans for lung tumors using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) are calculated with planning computed tomography (CT) images only exhale phase. Purpose of this study is to evaluate dose distribution by reconstructing from only the data such as respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during treatment. Methods: Phantom and three patients with lung tumor underwent CT scans for treatment planning. They were treated by VMAT while acquiring projection images to derive their respiratory signals and machine parameters including positions of multi leaf collimators, dose rates and integrated monitor units. The respiratory signals were divided into 4 and 10 phases and machine parameters were correlated with the divided respiratory signals based on the gantry angle. Dose distributions of each respiratory phase were calculated from plans which were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and the machine parameters during treatment. The doses at isocenter, maximum point and the centroid of target were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Dose distributions during treatment were calculated using the machine parameters and the respiratory signals detected from projection images. Maximum dose difference between plan and in treatment distribution was −1.8±0.4% at centroid of target and dose differences of evaluated points between 4 and 10 phases were no significant. Conclusion: The present method successfully evaluated dose distribution using respiratory signals and machine parameters during treatment. This method is feasible to verify the actual dose for moving target.

  9. Dose distribution homogeneity in two TBI techniques—Analysis of 208 irradiated patients conducted in Stanislaw Leszczynski Memorial Hospital, Katowice

    PubMed Central

    Kawa-Iwanicka, Aneta; Łobodziec, Włodzimierz; Dybek, Marcin; Nenko, Dorota; Iwanicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Background To analyze and compare dose distribution homogeneity in selected points (especially in the chest wall region) for patients irradiated with two different TBI techniques to achieve a uniform total dose (excluding lungs area) specified in the range of 11.4–14.0 Gy. Material and methods From August 2000 to December 2009, a group of 158 patients was treated by the use of 15 MV photon irradiation consisting of six fractions: four opposed lateral and two anterior–posterior/posterior–anterior (AP/PA). Patients were irradiated with the fraction dose of 2 Gy twice a day for 3 consecutive days. The prescribed dose to PC point (specified at intersection of the beam axis with the mid-plane of the patient irradiated laterally) was 12 Gy. Since January 2010 until closing the study, another group of 50 patients was treated according to a modified protocol. The treatment was carried out in six lateral fractions only, twice a day, for three following days and a lateral lung shield was used for a part of total irradiation time. The measurements of doses in 20 selected points of patient's body were carried out by means of MOSFET detectors. Results The modified TBI technique allows to achieve an expected homogenous dose in the points of interest similar to that obtained by using the initial protocol. The calculated and measured in vivo doses met the specified range of 11.4–14 Gy for both applied TBI protocols. Conclusions Our results indicate that for all patients the homogenous dose distribution in the specified range was achieved. PMID:24377040

  10. Dose distribution homogeneity in two TBI techniques-Analysis of 208 irradiated patients conducted in Stanislaw Leszczynski Memorial Hospital, Katowice.

    PubMed

    Kawa-Iwanicka, Aneta; Lobodziec, Włodzimierz; Dybek, Marcin; Nenko, Dorota; Iwanicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    To analyze and compare dose distribution homogeneity in selected points (especially in the chest wall region) for patients irradiated with two different TBI techniques to achieve a uniform total dose (excluding lungs area) specified in the range of 11.4-14.0 Gy. From August 2000 to December 2009, a group of 158 patients was treated by the use of 15 MV photon irradiation consisting of six fractions: four opposed lateral and two anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA). Patients were irradiated with the fraction dose of 2 Gy twice a day for 3 consecutive days. The prescribed dose to PC point (specified at intersection of the beam axis with the mid-plane of the patient irradiated laterally) was 12 Gy. Since January 2010 until closing the study, another group of 50 patients was treated according to a modified protocol. The treatment was carried out in six lateral fractions only, twice a day, for three following days and a lateral lung shield was used for a part of total irradiation time. The measurements of doses in 20 selected points of patient's body were carried out by means of MOSFET detectors. The modified TBI technique allows to achieve an expected homogenous dose in the points of interest similar to that obtained by using the initial protocol. The calculated and measured in vivo doses met the specified range of 11.4-14 Gy for both applied TBI protocols. Our results indicate that for all patients the homogenous dose distribution in the specified range was achieved.

  11. Measuring dendritic distribution of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Edmund W; Smith, W Bryan; Anelli, Roberta; Heckman, C J

    2006-09-30

    Neurons perform much of their integrative work in the dendritic tree, and spinal motoneurons have the largest tree of any cell. Electrical excitability is strongly influenced by dendrite membrane properties, which are difficult to measure directly. We describe a method to measure the distribution of ion channel membrane densities along dendritic trajectories. The method combines standard immunohistochemistry with reconstruction procedures for both large-scale and small-scale optical microscopy. Software written for Matlab then extracts the colocalization of the target ion channel with the target dye injected cell, and calculates the relative channel density per square micron of cell surface area, as a function of distance from the cell body. The technique can be used to quantify the localization and distribution of any immunoreactive moiety, and the software provides a flexible vehicle for sensitivity analysis, to validate heuristics for selecting thresholds.

  12. Distinctive features of boron distribution in silicon under high-dose ion-implantation doping

    SciTech Connect

    Galiev, G.B.; Saraikin, V.V.; Begishev, A.R.; Mokerov, V.G.

    1987-03-01

    The method of ion-implantation doping (IID) is used extensively in the fabrication of semiconductor devices as it allows different dopants to be introduced into a semiconductor in a controlled manner. The authors present their results of measurements of boron distribution profiles in silicon after IID, using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and electroreflection spectroscopy. The authors studied samples of p/sup +/-p structures, where the p/sup +/ layer was obtained by IID of boron with different values of energy and dose into single-crystal silicon with an initial p-type carrier concentration of 1.6 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and (111) orientation.

  13. Application of Uniform Measurement Error Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-18

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...Uniform Measurement Error Distribution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ghazarians, Alan; Jackson, Dennis...PFA), Probability of False Reject (PFR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 19a. NAME

  14. Feasibility study of a simple approximation algorithm for in-vivo dose reconstruction by using the transit dose measured using an EPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ui-Jung; Song, Mi Hee; Baek, Tae Seong; Chung, Eun Ji; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the accuracy of the dose delivered to the patient during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by using in-vivo dosimetry and to avoid accidental exposure to healthy tissues and organs close to tumors. The in-vivo dose was reconstructed by back projection of the transit dose with a simple approximation that considered only the percent depth dose and inverse square law. While the average gamma index for comparisons of dose distributions between the calculated dose map and the film measurement was less than the one for 96.3% of all pixels with the homogeneous phantom, the passing rate was reduced to 92.8% with the inhomogeneous phantom, suggesting that the reduction was apparently due to the inaccuracy of the reconstruction algorithm for inhomogeneity. The proposed method of calculating the dose inside a phantom was of comparable or better accuracy than the treatment planning system, suggesting that it can be used to verify the accuracy of the dose delivered to the patient during treatment.

  15. Understanding Coronal Heating with Emission Measure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchik, James A.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Bradshaw, Stephen J.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cross-field spatial scale of coronal heating is small, so that the fundamental plasma structures (loop strands) are spatially unresolved. We therefore must appeal to diagnostic techniques that are not strongly affected by spatial averaging. One valuable observable is the emission measure distribution, EM(T), which indicates how much material is present at each temperature. Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on the Hinode mission, we have determined emission measure distributions in the cores of two active regions. The distributions have power law slopes of approximately 2.4 coolward of the peak. We compare these slopes, as well as the amount of emission measure at very high temperature, with the predictions of a series of models. The models assume impulsive heating (nanoflares) in unresolved strands and take full account of non equilibrium ionization. A variety of nanoflare properties and initial conditions are considered. We also comment on the selection of spectral lines for upcoming missions like Solar Orbiter.

  16. Impact of Mobile Dose-Tracking Technology on Medication Distribution at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Matthew; Campbell, Udobi

    2016-05-01

    Medication dose-tracking technologies have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce costs associated with re-dispensing doses reported as missing. Data describing this technology and its impact on the medication use process are limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of dose-tracking technology on pharmacy workload and drug expense at an academic, acute care medical center. Dose-tracking technology was implemented in June 2014. Pre-implementation data were collected from February to April 2014. Post-implementation data were collected from July to September 2014. The primary endpoint was the percent of re-dispensed oral syringe and compounded sterile product (CSP) doses within the pre- and post-implementation periods per 1,000 discharges. Secondary endpoints included pharmaceutical expense generated from re-dispensing doses, labor costs, and staff satisfaction with the medication distribution process. We observed an average 6% decrease in re-dispensing of oral syringe and CSP doses from pre- to post-implementation (15,440 vs 14,547 doses; p = .047). However, when values were adjusted per 1,000 discharges, this trend did not reach statistical significance (p = .074). Pharmaceutical expense generated from re-dispensing doses was significantly reduced from pre- to post-implementation ($834,830 vs $746,466 [savings of $88,364]; p = .047). We estimated that $2,563 worth of technician labor was avoided in re-dispensing missing doses. We also saw significant improvement in staff perception of technology assisting in reducing missing doses (p = .0003), as well as improvement in effectiveness of resolving or minimizing missing doses (p = .01). The use of mobile dose-tracking technology demonstrated meaningful reductions in both the number of doses re-dispensed and cost of pharmaceuticals dispensed.

  17. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Rahim Hematiyan, Mohammad; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2015-12-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%.

  18. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2015-12-07

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost(®) brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%.

  19. Issues in the reconstruction of environmental doses on the basis of thermoluminescence measurements in the Techa riverside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougrov, N. G.; Goksu, H. Y.; Haskell, E.; Degteva, M. O.; Meckbach, R.; Jacob, P.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The potential of thermoluminescence measurements of bricks from the contaminated area of the Techa river valley, Southern Urals, Russia, for reconstructing external exposures of affected population groups has been studied. Thermoluminescence dating of background samples was used to evaluate the age of old buildings available on the river banks. The anthropogenic gamma dose accrued in exposed samples is determined by subtracting the natural radiation background dose for the corresponding age from the accumulated dose measured by thermoluminescence. For a site in the upper Techa river region, where the levels of external exposures were extremely high, the depth-dose distribution in bricks and the dependence of accidental dose on the height of the sampling position were determined. For the same site, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport were performed for different source configurations corresponding to the situation before and after the construction of a reservoir on the river and evacuation of the population in 1956. A comparison of the results provides an understanding of the features of the measured depth-dose distributions and height dependencies in terms of the source configurations and shows that bricks from the higher sampling positions are likely to have accrued a larger fraction of anthropogenic dose from the time before the construction of the reservoir. The applicability of the thermoluminescent dosimetry method to environmental dose reconstruction in the middle Techa region, where the external exposure was relatively low, was also investigated.

  20. Issues in the reconstruction of environmental doses on the basis of thermoluminescence measurements in the Techa riverside

    SciTech Connect

    Bougrov, N.G.; Degteva, M.O.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Meckbach, R.; Jacob, P.; Haskell, E.

    1998-12-01

    The potential of thermoluminescence measurements of bricks from the contaminated area of the Techa river valley, Southern Urals, Russia, for reconstructing external exposures of affected population groups has been studied. Thermoluminescence dating of background samples was used to evaluate the age of old buildings available on the river banks. The anthropogenic gamma dose accrued in exposed samples is determined by subtracting the natural radiation background dose for the corresponding age from the accumulated dose measured by thermoluminescence. For a site in the upper Techa river region, where the levels of external exposures were extremely high, the depth-dose distribution in bricks and the dependence of accidental dose on the height of the sampling position were determined. For the same site, Monte carlo simulations of radiation transport were performed for different source configurations corresponding to the situation before and after the construction of a reservoir on the river and evacuation of the population in 1956. A comparison of the results provides an understanding of the features of the measured depth-dose distributions and height dependencies in terms of the source configurations and shows that bricks from the higher sampling positions are likely to have accrued a larger fraction of anthropogenic dose from the time before the construction of the reservoir. The applicability of the thermoluminescent dosimetry method to environmental dose reconstruction in the middle Techa region, where the external exposure was relatively low, was also investigated.

  1. Issues in the reconstruction of environmental doses on the basis of thermoluminescence measurements in the Techa riverside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougrov, N. G.; Goksu, H. Y.; Haskell, E.; Degteva, M. O.; Meckbach, R.; Jacob, P.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The potential of thermoluminescence measurements of bricks from the contaminated area of the Techa river valley, Southern Urals, Russia, for reconstructing external exposures of affected population groups has been studied. Thermoluminescence dating of background samples was used to evaluate the age of old buildings available on the river banks. The anthropogenic gamma dose accrued in exposed samples is determined by subtracting the natural radiation background dose for the corresponding age from the accumulated dose measured by thermoluminescence. For a site in the upper Techa river region, where the levels of external exposures were extremely high, the depth-dose distribution in bricks and the dependence of accidental dose on the height of the sampling position were determined. For the same site, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport were performed for different source configurations corresponding to the situation before and after the construction of a reservoir on the river and evacuation of the population in 1956. A comparison of the results provides an understanding of the features of the measured depth-dose distributions and height dependencies in terms of the source configurations and shows that bricks from the higher sampling positions are likely to have accrued a larger fraction of anthropogenic dose from the time before the construction of the reservoir. The applicability of the thermoluminescent dosimetry method to environmental dose reconstruction in the middle Techa region, where the external exposure was relatively low, was also investigated.

  2. Absorbed dose distribution for X-ray beams and beams of electrons from the Therac 10 Neptune linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Tronc, D; Gayet, P

    1980-02-01

    After a brief presentation of the Therac 10 Neptune linear accelerator a complete set of dose distribution numerical values is given. These values define the depths on the axis as a function of the depth dose and define the penumbra (as characterized by the positions of the isodose curve intersections with parallel planes to the phantom surface) for beams of X-rays and for beams of electrons. Measurements of residual X-rays are given for a 10 MeV beam of electrons.

  3. Inter-comparison of Dose Distributions Calculated by FLUKA, GEANT4, MCNP, and PHITS for Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zi-Yi; Tsai, Pi-En; Lee, Shao-Chun; Liu, Yen-Chiang; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2017-09-01

    The dose distributions from proton pencil beam scanning were calculated by FLUKA, GEANT4, MCNP, and PHITS, in order to investigate their applicability in proton radiotherapy. The first studied case was the integrated depth dose curves (IDDCs), respectively from a 100 and a 226-MeV proton pencil beam impinging a water phantom. The calculated IDDCs agree with each other as long as each code employs 75 eV for the ionization potential of water. The second case considered a similar condition of the first case but with proton energies in a Gaussian distribution. The comparison to the measurement indicates the inter-code differences might not only due to different stopping power but also the nuclear physics models. How the physics parameter setting affect the computation time was also discussed. In the third case, the applicability of each code for pencil beam scanning was confirmed by delivering a uniform volumetric dose distribution based on the treatment plan, and the results showed general agreement between each codes, the treatment plan, and the measurement, except that some deviations were found in the penumbra region. This study has demonstrated that the selected codes are all capable of performing dose calculations for therapeutic scanning proton beams with proper physics settings.

  4. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of the OneDose MOSFET for measuring kilovoltage imaging dose from image-guided radiotherapy procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, George X.; Coffey, Charles W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a single-use dosimeter, OneDose MOSFET designed for in vivo patient dosimetry, for measuring the radiation dose from kilovoltage (kV) x rays resulting from image-guided procedures. Methods: The OneDose MOSFET dosimeters were precalibrated by the manufacturer using Co-60 beams. Their energy response and characteristics for kV x rays were investigated by using an ionization chamber, in which the air-kerma calibration factors were obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL). The dosimetric properties have been tested for typical kV beams used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Results: The direct dose reading from the OneDose system needs to be multiplied by a correction factor ranging from 0.30 to 0.35 for kilovoltage x rays ranging from 50 to 125 kVp, respectively. In addition to energy response, the OneDose dosimeter has up to a 20% reduced sensitivity for beams (70-125 kVp) incident from the back of the OneDose detector. Conclusions: The uncertainty in measuring dose resulting from a kilovoltage beam used in IGRT is approximately 20%; this uncertainty is mainly due to the sensitivity dependence of the incident beam direction relative to the OneDose detector. The ease of use may allow the dosimeter to be suitable for estimating the dose resulting from image-guided procedures.

  6. Effect of Tissue Composition on Dose Distribution in Electron Beam Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, M.; Tabatabaei, Z. S.; Vejdani Noghreiyan, A.; Vosoughi, H.; Knaup, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tissue composition on dose distribution in electron beam radiotherapy. Methods A Siemens Primus linear accelerator and a phantom were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In a homogeneous cylindrical phantom, six types of soft tissue and three types of tissue-equivalent materials were investigated. The tissues included muscle (skeletal), adipose tissue, blood (whole), breast tissue, soft tissue (9-components) and soft tissue (4-component). The tissue-equivalent materials were water, A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic and perspex. Electron dose relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue at various depths on the beam’s central axis was determined for 8, 12, and 14 MeV electron energies. Results The results of relative electron dose in various materials relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue were reported for 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams as tabulated data. While differences were observed between dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials, which vary with the composition of material, electron energy and depth in phantom, they can be ignored due to the incorporated uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculations. Conclusion Based on the calculations performed, differences in dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials are not significant. However, due to the difference in composition of various materials, further research in this field with lower uncertainties is recommended. PMID:25973407

  7. Evaluation of a software system for estimating planned dose error in patients, based on planar IMRT QA measurements.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Parniani, Ashkan; Lerma, Fritz; Reynolds, Shannon; Jordan, James; Sedaghat, Alireza; Sarfaraz, Mehrdad; Rodgers, James

    2014-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry verification is routinely conducted via integrated or individual field dosimetry using film or a matrix of detectors. Techniques and software systems are commercially available which use individual field dosimetry measurements as input into algorithms that estimate 3D patient dose distributions on CT scan derived target volumes and organs at risk (OARs), thus allowing direct dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis vs. treatment planning system (TPS) DVH. The purpose of this work is to present a systematic benchmarking technique to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of such a software system. A MapCheck2 diode array and 3DVH™ software from Sun Nuclear were used for this study. Delivered planar dose was measured with the diode array as an input to 3DVH™ software that was used to estimate the 3D dose matrix. Accuracy of the output of 3DVH™ is tested by comparing measured planar doses over a range of depths to the same planes reconstructed by 3DVH™. Different fields from complex IMRT cases were selected and examined in this study. The sensitivity to depth of measurement was evaluated. The Gamma Index analysis, comparing calculated 3D dose with measured 3D dose with 2% and 2mm distance-to-agreement (DTA) criteria returned a pass rate of > 90% for all patient cases calculated by the treatment planning system and it returned a pass rate of > 96% in 9 out of 10 cases calculated by 3DVH™. Extracted computed dose planes with 3DVH™ software at different depths in the flat phantom passed all gamma evaluation analyses when compared to measured planes at different depths using MapCheck2. Studying complex head and neck IMRT fields, it was shown that the 3D dose distribution predicted by the planned dose perturbation (PDP) algorithm is both accurate and consistent.

  8. DOSE TO CURIE DETERMINATION FOR CONTAINERS WITH MEASURABLE CS-137

    SciTech Connect

    RATHBUN LA; ANDERSON JD; SWAN RJ

    2010-12-03

    The Next Generation Retrieval (NGR) project will retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers from Trenches 17 and 27 in the 218-E-12B (12B) burial ground. The trenches were in operation from May 1970 through October 1972. A portion of the retrieved containers that will require shipment to and acceptance at a treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facility and the containers will be either remote-handled (RH) and/or contact-handled (CH). The method discussed in this document will be used for the RH and some of the CH containers to determine the radionuclide inventory. Waste disposition (shipment and TSD acceptance) requires that the radioactive content be characterized for each container. Source-term estimates using high resolution, shielded, gamma-ray scan assay techniques cannot be performed on a number of RH and other containers with high dose rates from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba. This document provides the method to quantify the radioactive inventory of fission product gamma emitters within the containers based on the surface dose rate measurements taken in the field with hand-held survey instruments.

  9. Analysis of high–dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Mahadev, P.; Velmurugan, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high–dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30 Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D{sub 5%} of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41 Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86 Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D{sub 98%}, was 27.93 ± 0.84 Gy. The V{sub 100%} of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V{sub 100%} of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D{sub 98%} to D{sub 80%}) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D{sub 10%} and D{sub 5%}. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

  10. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-21

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  11. Calculation of equivalent dose for Auger electron emitting radionuclides distributed in human organs.

    PubMed

    Goddu, S M; Howell, R W; Rao, D V

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons can be extremely radiotoxic depending on the subcellular distribution of the radiochemical. Despite this, ICRP 60 provides no guidance in the calculation of equivalent dose H(T) for Auger electrons. The recent report by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine recommends a radiation weighting factor wR of 20 for stochastic effects caused by Auger electrons, along with a method of calculating the equivalent dose that takes into account the subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. In view of these recommendations, it is important to reevaluate equivalent doses from Auger electron emitters. The mean absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity (S-value) from Auger electrons and other radiations is calculated for ninety Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides distributed in human ovaries, testes and liver. Using these S-values, and the formalism given in the recent AAPM report, the dependence of the organ equivalent doses on subcellular distribution of the Auger electron emitters is examined. The results show an increase in the mean equivalent dose for Auger electron emitters when a significant fraction of the organ activity localizes in the DNA.

  12. Target point correction optimized based on the dose distribution of each fraction in daily IGRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Markus; Giske, Kristina; Stoiber, Eva M.; Schwarz, Michael; Bendl, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To use daily re-calculated dose distributions for optimization of target point corrections (TPCs) in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This aims to adapt fractioned intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to changes in the dose distribution induced by anatomical changes. Methods: Daily control images from an in-room on-rail spiral CT-Scanner of three head-and-neck cancer patients were analyzed. The dose distribution was re-calculated on each control CT after an initial TPC, found by a rigid image registration method. The clinical target volumes (CTVs) were transformed from the planning CT to the rigidly aligned control CTs using a deformable image registration method. If at least 95% of each transformed CTV was covered by the initially planned D95 value, the TPC was considered acceptable. Otherwise the TPC was iteratively altered to maximize the dose coverage of the CTVs. Results: In 14 (out of 59) fractions the criterion was already fulfilled after the initial TPC. In 10 fractions the TPC can be optimized to fulfill the coverage criterion. In 31 fractions the coverage can be increased but the criterion is not fulfilled. In another 4 fractions the coverage cannot be increased by the TPC optimization. Conclusions: The dose coverage criterion allows selection of patients who would benefit from replanning. Using the criterion to include daily re-calculated dose distributions in the TPC reduces the replanning rate in the analysed three patients from 76% to 59% compared to the rigid image registration TPC.

  13. Effect of collimator and couch angle change on breast IMRT dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Ma, Charlie; Wang, Lu; Chen, Lili; Li, Jinsheng

    2009-09-30

    Intensity modulated tangential photon beams for breast cancer treatment can improve the dose uniformity significantly throughout the whole breast and reduce the dose to the lung and the heart comparing with the conventional technique. Before the first treatment, patient setup may require a change on the collimator angle and/or the couch angle based on the chest wall coverage according to the port films. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of the collimator and the couch angle change on the dose distribution for breast cancer treatment using intensity modulated tangential photon beams, and thus to determine the clinical acceptable range of the angle change for routine treatment. Ten breast cases treated with intensity modulated tangential photon beams were analyzed in this study. Patient-specific CT data and the RTP files obtained from our home-grown Monte Carlo based breast IMRT treatment planning system were used for IMRT dose re-calculation with collimator or couch angle changes. The isodose distributions and DVHs were compared with the original plans and the effects of the collimator and couch angle change to breast IMRT dose distributions were evaluated. Our results show that a 4-degree change in the collimator angle or the couch angle did not affect the dose distribution significantly and it is acceptable in the clinic for patient treatment.

  14. SU-E-T-609: Perturbation Effects of Pedicle Screws On Radiotherapy Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Deroma, R; Borzov, E; Nevelsky, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy in conjunction with surgical implant fixation is a common combined treatment in case of bone metastases. However, metal implants generally used in orthopedic implants perturb radiation dose distributions. Carbon-Fiber Reinforced (CFR) PEEK material has been recently introduced for production of intramedullary screws and plates. Gold powder can be added to the CFR-PEEK material in order to enhance visibility of the screws during intraoperative imaging procedures. In this work, we investigated the perturbation effects of the pedicle screws made of CFR-PEEK, CFR-PEEK with added gold powder (CFR-PEEK-AU) and Titanium (Ti) on radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using the EGSnrc code package for 6MV beams with 10×10 fields at SSD=100cm. By means of MC simulations, dose distributions around titanium, CFR- PEEK and CFR-PEEK-AU screws (manufactured by Carbo-Fix Orthopedics LTD, Israel) placed in a water phantom were calculated. The screw axis was either parallel or perpendicular to the beam axis. Dose perturbation (relative to dose in homogeneous water phantom) was assessed. Results: Maximum overdose due to backscatter was 10% for the Ti screws, 5% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and effectively zero for the CFR-PEEK screws. Maximum underdose due to attenuation was 25% for the Ti screws, 15% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and 5% for the CFR-PEEK screws. Conclusion: Titanium screws introduce the largest distortion on the radiation dose distribution. The gold powder added to the CFR-PEEK material improves visibility at the cost of increased dose perturbation. CFR-PEEK screws caused minimal alteration on the dose distribution. This can decrease possible over and underdose of adjacent tissue and thus favorably influence treatment efficiency. The use of such implants has potential clinical advantage in the treatment of neoplastic bone disease.

  15. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station - overview and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Summerer, L.; Vana, N.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.; Arkhangelsky, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosemeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET ∞) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosemeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosemeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosemeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  16. Depth Dose Distribution Study within a Phantom Torso after Irradiation with a Simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis; Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are compounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrapolation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over- or underestimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be predicted to within about a +10% accuracy using space radiation transport models for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped radiation behind shielding. However for solar particle event (SPE) with steep energy spectra and for extra-vehicular activities on the surface of the moon where only tissue shielding is present, transport models predict that there are large differences in model assumptions in projecting organ doses. Therefore experimental verification of SPE induced organ doses may be crucial for the design of lunar missions. In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field

  17. Development of an objective dose distribution analysis method for OSL dating and pilot studies for planetary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepper, Kenneth Errol

    Scope and method of study. Part I: In its simplest expression a luminescence age is the natural absorbed radiation dose (De) divided by the in-situ dose rate. The experimental techniques of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating have evolved to the point were hundreds of Des, and therefore depositional ages can be quickly and conveniently determined for a single sediment sample. The first major objective of this research was to develop an objective analysis method for analyzing dose distribution data and selecting an age-representative dose (Dp). The analytical method was developed based on dose data sets collected from 3 eolian and 3 fluvial sediment samples from Central Oklahoma. Findings and conclusions. Part I: An objective method of presenting the dose distribution data, and a mathematically rigorous means of determining the Dp, as well as a statistically meaningful definition of the uncertainty in Dp have been proposed. The concept of experimental error deconvolution was introduced. In addition a set of distribution shape parameters to facilitate comparison among samples have been defined. These analytical techniques hold the potential to greatly enhance the accuracy and utility of OSL dating for young fluvial sediments. Scope and method of study. Part II: The second major objective of this research was to propose the application of luminescence dating to sediments on Mars. A set of fundamental luminescence dating properties was evaluated for a martian surface materials analog and a polar deposit contextual analog. Findings and conclusions. Part II: The luminescence signals measured from the analogs were found to have a wide dynamic dose response range with no unusual or prohibitive short-term instabilities and were readily reset by exposure to sunlight. These properties form a stable base for continued investigations toward the development of luminescence dating instruments and procedures for Mars.

  18. Develop and fabricate a radiation dose measurement system for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Paul R.; Hanser, Frederick; Belue, Jeff; Cohen, Ram

    1994-11-01

    A second generation Dosimeter has been designed to fulfill the need for accurate radiation dose measurements. Two identical Dosimeters, a flight unit and a backup unit, have been fabricated, tested and calibrated. The backup Dosimeter was integrated into the payload of the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronic Expedients (APEX) satellite, as part of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment. APEX was launched shortly after 1430 UT on 8/3/94, with the initial orbit having apogee/perigee in the equatorial plane. The Dosimeter was turned on in Rev. 20, at about 0410 UT on 8/5/94. The initial turn on showed no anomalies with the Dosimeter operating properly. The Dosimeter was then monitored for several days and proper operation has been verified.

  19. Dose measurements in pulsed radiation fields with commercially available measuring components.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Sabrina; Hupe, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Dose measurements in pulsed radiation fields with dosemeters using the counting technique are known to be inappropriate. Therefore, there is a demand for a portable device able to measure the dose in pulsed radiation fields. As a detector, ionisation chambers seem to be a good alternative. In particular, using a secondary standard ionisation chamber in combination with a reliable charge-measuring system would be a good solution. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) uses secondary standard ionisation chambers in combination with PTB-made measuring electronics for dose measurements at its reference fields. However, for general use, this equipment is too complex. For measurements on-site, a mobile special electronic system [Hupe, O. and Ankerhold, U. Determination of ambient and personal dose equivalent for personnel and cargo security screening. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 121: (4), 429-437 (2006)] has been used successfully. Still, for general use, there is a need for a much simpler but a just as good solution. A measuring instrument with very good energy dependence for H*(10) is the secondary standard ionisation chamber HS01. An easy-to-use and commercially available electrometer for measuring the generated charges is the UNIDOS by PTW Freiburg. Depending on the expected dose values, the ionisation chamber used can be selected. In addition, measurements have been performed by using commercially available area dosemeters, e.g. the Mini SmartION 2120S by Thermo Scientific, using an ionisation chamber and the Szintomat 6134 A/H by Automess, using a scintillation detector. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

    1995-09-01

    The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements.

  1. 'In vivo' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoso Mejia, C. A.; Buenfil Burgos, A. E.; Ruiz Trejo, C.; Mota Garcia, A.; Trejo Duran, E.; Rodriguez Ponce, M.; Gamboa de Buen, I.

    2010-12-07

    The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured 'in vivo' by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the 'in vivo' measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the 'in vivo' dose is fully described.

  2. ``In vivo'' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, C. A. Reynoso; Burgos, A. E. Buenfil; Trejo, C. Ruiz; García, A. Mota; Durán, E. Trejo; Ponce, M. Rodríguez; de Buen, I. Gamboa

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured "in vivo" by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the "in vivo" measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the "in vivo" dose is fully described.

  3. Approximate distribution of dose among foetal organs for radioiodine uptake via placenta transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, R. K.; Saunders, M.; Palmer, A. M.; Preece, A. W.

    2001-11-01

    Absorbed radiation doses to internal foetal organs were calculated according to the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) technique in this study. Anthropomorphic phantoms of the pregnant female as in MIRDOSE3 enabled estimation of absorbed dose to the whole foetus at two stages of gestation. Some foetal organ self-doses could have been estimated by invoking simple spherical models for thyroid, liver, etc, but we investigated the use of the MIRDOSE3 new-born phantom as a surrogate for the stage 3 foetus, scaled to be compatible with total foetal body mean absorbed dose/cumulated activity. We illustrate the method for obtaining approximate dose distribution in the foetus near term following intake of 1 MBq of 123I, 124I, 125I or 131I as sodium iodide by the mother using in vivo biodistribution data examples from a good model of placenta transfer. Doses to the foetal thyroid of up to 1.85 Gy MBq-1 were predicted from the 131I uptake data. Activity in the foetal thyroid was the largest contributor to absorbed dose in the foetal body, brain, heart and thymus. Average total doses to the whole foetus ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 mGy MBq-1 for stages 1 and 3 of pregnancy using the MIRDOSE3 program, and were considerably higher than those predicted from the maternal contributions alone. Doses to the foetal thymus and stomach were similar, around 2-3 mGy MBq-1. Some foetal organ doses from the radioiodides were ten times higher than to the corresponding organs of the mother, and up to 100 times higher to the thyroid. The fraction of activity uptakes in foetal organs were distributed similarly to the maternal ones.

  4. Electron Irradiation of Conjunctival Lymphoma-Monte Carlo Simulation of the Minute Dose Distribution and Technique Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Brualla, Lorenzo; Zaragoza, Francisco J.; Sempau, Josep; Wittig, Andrea; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy is the only conservative curative approach for Stage I non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the conjunctiva. The target volume is geometrically complex because it includes the eyeball and lid conjunctiva. Furthermore, the target volume is adjacent to radiosensitive structures, including the lens, lacrimal glands, cornea, retina, and papilla. The radiotherapy planning and optimization requires accurate calculation of the dose in these anatomical structures that are much smaller than the structures traditionally considered in radiotherapy. Neither conventional treatment planning systems nor dosimetric measurements can reliably determine the dose distribution in these small irradiated volumes. Methods and Materials: The Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D and human eye were performed using the PENELOPE and PENEASYLINAC codes. Dose distributions and dose volume histograms were calculated for the bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina, papilla, lacrimal gland, and anterior and posterior hemispheres. Results: The simulated results allow choosing the most adequate treatment setup configuration, which is an electron beam energy of 6 MeV with additional bolus and collimation by a cerrobend block with a central cylindrical hole of 3.0 cm diameter and central cylindrical rod of 1.0 cm diameter. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulation is a useful method to calculate the minute dose distribution in ocular tissue and to optimize the electron irradiation technique in highly critical structures. Using a voxelized eye phantom based on patient computed tomography images, the dose distribution can be estimated with a standard statistical uncertainty of less than 2.4% in 3 min using a computing cluster with 30 cores, which makes this planning technique clinically relevant.

  5. Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths. Methods: Cumulative dose distribution along the z-axis was calculated based on the previously published CT dose equilibration data by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)] and a mechanism for computing dose on axial lines by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 39, 5347–5352 (2012)]. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), the total energy (E) absorbed in a small cylinder of unit mass per centimeter square about the central or peripheral axis, and the energy (E{sub in}) absorbed inside irradiated length (L) were subsequently extracted from the dose distribution. Results: Extensive results of FWHM, FWTM, and E{sub in}/E were presented on the central and peripheral axes of infinitely long PMMA (diameters 6–50 cm) and water (diameters 6–55 cm) cylinders with L < 100 cm. FWHM was greater than the primary beam width only on the central axes of large phantoms and also with L ranging from a few centimeter to about 33 cm. FWTM generally increased with phantom diameter, and could be up to 32 cm longer than irradiated length, depending on L, phantom diameter and axis, but was insensitive to phantom material (PMMA or water). E{sub in}/E increased with L and asymptotically approached unity for large L. As phantom diameter increased, E{sub in}/E generally decreased, but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. A heuristic explanation of dose distribution width results was presented. Conclusions: This study enables the reader to gain a comprehensive view of dose distribution width and energy absorption and provides useful data for estimating doses to organs inside or

  6. The effects of exercise on dose and dose distribution of inhaled automotive pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, M.T.; Mautz, W.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in ventilation rate and in the entry route of air pollutants into the respiratory tract (nose versus mouth breathing) affected the respiratory tract uptake and penetration of inhaled gaseous and particulate pollutants associated with automobile emissions. Experiments were performed with female beagle dogs exposed while standing at rest or while exercising on a treadmill at 5 km/hour and a 7.5 percent grade. Dogs were exposed to nitrogen dioxide at concentrations of 1 and 5 parts per million (ppm), to formaldehyde at 2 and 10 ppm, and to an aerosol of ammonium nitrate particles (0.3 micron mass median aerodynamic diameter) at 1 mg/m3. Total respiratory system uptake and effects on breath time, expired tidal volume, fractional expiration time, minute ventilation, respiratory gas exchange, ventilation equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and dynamic pulmonary resistance and compliance were measured in exercising and resting dogs exposed for two hours to 5 ppm nitrogen dioxide and 10 ppm formaldehyde in combination with 1 mg/m3 of ammonium nitrate particles. Regional penetration of pollutants through oral and nasal airways and pollutant uptake in the lung were measured in a separate group of six tracheostomized dogs standing at rest while being exposed to nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, and ammonium nitrate particles. Hypercapnic stimulation was used to modify ventilation rates in the tracheostomized dogs while pollutant penetration and uptake were measured. Dogs exposed to 5 ppm of nitrogen dioxide at rest tended to breathe more rapidly (p less than 0.05) and more shallowly (a nonsignificant trend) than dogs exposed to purified air.

  7. SU-E-T-540: MCNPX Simulation of Proton Dose Distributions in a Water Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C; Chen, S; Chiang, B; Tung, C; Chao, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, fluence and energy deposition of proton and proton by-products and dose distributions were simulated. Lateral dose distributions were also been discussed to understand the difference between Monte Carlo simulations and pencil beam algorithm. Methods: MCNPX codes were used to build a water phantom by using “repeated structures” technique and the doses and fluences in each cell was recorded by mesh tally. This study includes, proton equilibrium and proton disequilibrium case. For the proton equilibrium case, the doses difference between proton and proton by-products were studied. A 160 MeV proton pencil beam was perpendicularly incident into a 40 × 40 × 50 cm{sup 3} water phantom and the scoring volume was 20 × 20 × 0.2 cm{sup 3}. Energy deposition and fluence were calculated from MCNPX with (1) proton only; and (2) proton and secondary particles. For the proton disequilibrium case, the dose distribution variation using different multiple Coulomb scattering were studied. A 70 MeV proton pencil beam was perpendicularly incident into a 40 × 40 × 10 cm{sup 3} water phantom and two scoring voxel sizes of 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.05 cm{sup 3} and 0.01 × 0.01 × 0.05 cm{sup 3} were used for the depth dose distribution, and 0.01 × 0.01 × 0.05 cm{sup 3} for the lateral profile distribution simulations. Results: In the water phantom, proton fluence and dose in depths beyond the Bragg peak were slightly perturbed by the choice of the simulated particle types. The dose from secondary particles was about three orders smaller, but its simulation consumed significant computing time. The depth dose distributions and lateral dose distributions of 70 MeV proton pencil beam obtained from MCNPX, GEANT4, and the pencil beam algorithm showed the significant deviations, probably caused by multiple Coulomb scattering. Conclusion: Multiple Coulomb scattering is critical when there is in proton disequilibrium.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Multichannel All-In-One Phantom Dosimeter for Dose Measurement of Diagnostic X-ray Beam.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyesu; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Kwon, Guwon; Kim, Mingeon; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Young Beom; Jang, Kyoung Won; Youn, Won Sik; Lee, Bongsoo

    2015-11-11

    We developed a multichannel all-in-one phantom dosimeter system composed of nine sensing probes, a chest phantom, an image intensifier, and a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor to measure the dose distribution of an X-ray beam used in radiation diagnosis. Nine sensing probes of the phantom dosimeter were fabricated identically by connecting a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) to a plastic optical fiber (POF). To measure the planar dose distribution on a chest phantom according to exposure parameters used in clinical practice, we divided the top of the chest phantom into nine equal parts virtually and then installed the nine sensing probes at each center of the nine equal parts on the top of the chest phantom as measuring points. Each scintillation signal generated in the nine sensing probes was transmitted through the POFs and then intensified by the image intensifier because the scintillation signal normally has a very low light intensity. Real-time scintillation images (RSIs) containing the intensified scintillation signals were taken by the CMOS image sensor with a single lens optical system and displayed through a software program. Under variation of the exposure parameters, we measured RSIs containing dose information using the multichannel all-in-one phantom dosimeter and compared the results with the absorbed doses obtained by using a semiconductor dosimeter (SCD). From the experimental results of this study, the light intensities of nine regions of interest (ROI) in the RSI measured by the phantom dosimeter were similar to the dose distribution obtained using the SCD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the planar dose distribution including the entrance surface dose (ESD) can be easily measured by using the proposed phantom dosimeter system.

  9. Performance Evaluation of a Multichannel All-In-One Phantom Dosimeter for Dose Measurement of Diagnostic X-ray Beam

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyesu; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Kwon, Guwon; Kim, Mingeon; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Young Beom; Jang, Kyoung Won; Youn, Won Sik; Lee, Bongsoo

    2015-01-01

    We developed a multichannel all-in-one phantom dosimeter system composed of nine sensing probes, a chest phantom, an image intensifier, and a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor to measure the dose distribution of an X-ray beam used in radiation diagnosis. Nine sensing probes of the phantom dosimeter were fabricated identically by connecting a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) to a plastic optical fiber (POF). To measure the planar dose distribution on a chest phantom according to exposure parameters used in clinical practice, we divided the top of the chest phantom into nine equal parts virtually and then installed the nine sensing probes at each center of the nine equal parts on the top of the chest phantom as measuring points. Each scintillation signal generated in the nine sensing probes was transmitted through the POFs and then intensified by the image intensifier because the scintillation signal normally has a very low light intensity. Real-time scintillation images (RSIs) containing the intensified scintillation signals were taken by the CMOS image sensor with a single lens optical system and displayed through a software program. Under variation of the exposure parameters, we measured RSIs containing dose information using the multichannel all-in-one phantom dosimeter and compared the results with the absorbed doses obtained by using a semiconductor dosimeter (SCD). From the experimental results of this study, the light intensities of nine regions of interest (ROI) in the RSI measured by the phantom dosimeter were similar to the dose distribution obtained using the SCD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the planar dose distribution including the entrance surface dose (ESD) can be easily measured by using the proposed phantom dosimeter system. PMID:26569252

  10. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized

  11. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized

  12. The dependence of optimal fractionation schemes on the spatial dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Craft, David; Salari, Ehsan; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider the fractionation problem in radiation therapy. Tumor sites in which the dose-limiting organ at risk (OAR) receives a substantially lower dose than the tumor, bear potential for hypofractionation even if the α/β-ratio of the tumor is larger than the α/β-ratio of the OAR. In this work, we analyze the interdependence of the optimal fractionation scheme and the spatial dose distribution in the OAR. In particular, we derive a criterion under which a hypofractionation regimen is indicated for both a parallel and a serial OAR. The approach is based on the concept of the biologically effective dose (BED). For a hypothetical homogeneously irradiated OAR, it has been shown that hypofractionation is suggested by the BED model if the α/β-ratio of the OAR is larger than α/β-ratio of the tumor times the sparing factor, i.e. the ratio of the dose received by the tumor and the OAR. In this work, we generalize this result to inhomogeneous dose distributions in the OAR. For a parallel OAR, we determine the optimal fractionation scheme by minimizing the integral BED in the OAR for a fixed BED in the tumor. For a serial structure, we minimize the maximum BED in the OAR. This leads to analytical expressions for an effective sparing factor for the OAR, which provides a criterion for hypofractionation. The implications of the model are discussed for lung tumor treatments. It is shown that the model supports hypofractionation for small tumors treated with rotation therapy, i.e. highly conformal techniques where a large volume of lung tissue is exposed to low but nonzero dose. For larger tumors, the model suggests hyperfractionation. We further discuss several non-intuitive interdependencies between optimal fractionation and the spatial dose distribution. For instance, lowering the dose in the lung via proton therapy does not necessarily provide a biological rationale for hypofractionation.

  13. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  14. Evaluation of the breast absorbed dose distribution using the Fricke Xylenol Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czelusniak, C.; Del Lama, L. S.; Moreira, M. V.; De Almeida, A.

    2010-11-01

    During a breast cancer radiotherapy treatment, several issues have to be taken into account, among them, hot spots, gradient of doses delivered over the breast, as well as in the lungs and the heart. The present work aims to apply the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) dosimeter in the study of these issues, using a CCD camera to analyse the dose deposited distribution. Thus, the CCD was used to capture the images of different cuvettes that were filled with FXG and irradiated considering analogous setups employed in breast cancer radiotherapy treatments. Thereafter, these pictures where processed in a MatLab routine and the spatial dose distributions could be evaluated. These distributions were compared with the ones that were obtained from dedicated treatment planning's softwares. According to the results obtained, the FXG, allied with the CCD system, has shown to be a complementary tool in dosimetry, helping to prevent possible complications during breast cancer treatments.

  15. MO-AB-BRA-03: Calorimetry-Based Absorbed Dose to Water Measurements Using Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Martinez, E; Malin, M; DeWerd, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interferometry-based calorimetry is a novel technique to measure radiation-induced temperature changes allowing the measurement of absorbed dose to water (ADW). There are no mechanical components in the field. This technique also has the possibility of obtaining 2D dose distributions. The goal of this investigation is to calorimetrically-measure doses between 2.5 and 5 Gy over a single projection in a photon beam using interferometry and compare the results with doses calculated using the TG-51 linac calibration. Methods: ADW was determined by measuring radiation-induced phase shifts (PSs) of light passing through water irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam. A 9×9×9 cm{sup 3} glass phantom filled with water and placed in an arm of a Michelson interferometer was irradiated with 300, 400, 500 and 600 monitor units. The whole system was thermally insulated to achieve sufficient passive temperature control. The depth of measurement was 4.5 cm with a field size of 7×7 cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the fringe pattern was monitored with a photodiode and used to calculate the time-dependent PS curve. Data was acquired 60 s before and after the irradiation. The radiation-induced PS was calculated by taking the difference in the pre- and post-irradiation drifts extrapolated to the midpoint of the irradiation. Results were compared to computed doses. Results: Average comparison of calculated ADW values with interferometry-measured values showed an agreement to within 9.5%. k=1 uncertainties were 4.3% for calculations and 14.7% for measurements. The dominant source of uncertainty for the measurements was a temperature drift of about 30 µK/s caused by heat conduction from the interferometer’s surroundings. Conclusion: This work presented the first absolute ADW measurements using interferometry in the dose range of linac-based radiotherapy. Future work to improve measurements’ reproducibility includes the implementation of active thermal control techniques.

  16. Stereotactic radiosurgery of prostate cancer - dose distribution for VMAT and CyberKnife techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślosarek, Krzysztof; Osewski, Wojciech; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Stąpór-Fudzińska, Małgorzata; Szlag, Marta

    2016-06-01

    New capabilities of biomedical accelerators allow for very precise depositing of the radiation dose and imaging verification during the therapy. In addition, computer algorithms calculating dose distributions are taking into account the increasing number of physical effects. Therefore, administration of high dose fractionation, which is consistent with radiobiology used in oncology, becomes safer and safer. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which is very precise irradiation with high dose fractionation is increasingly widespread use in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. For this purpose different biomedical accelerators are used. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions for two techniques: VMAT and CyberKnife. Statistical analysis was performed for the two groups of patients treated by VMAT technique (25 patients), and CyberKnife technique (15 patients). The analysis shows that the dose distributions are comparable, both in the treated area (prostate) and in the critical organs (rectum, urinary bladder, femoral heads). The results show that stereotactic radiosurgery of prostate cancer can be carried out on CyberKnife accelerator as well as on the classical accelerator with the use of VMAT technique.

  17. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard; Pawelke, Jörg

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined

  18. Collimator angle influence on dose distribution optimization for vertebral metastases using volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mancosu, Pietro; Cozzi, Luca; Fogliata, Antonella; Lattuada, Paola; Reggiori, Giacomo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The cylindrical symmetry of vertebrae favors the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy in generating a dose ''hole'' on the center of the vertebrae limiting the dose to the spinal cord. The authors have evaluated if collimator angle is a significant parameter for dose distribution optimization in vertebral metastases. Methods: Three patients with one-three vertebrae involved were considered. Twenty-one differently optimized plans (nine single-arc and 12 double-arc plans) were performed, testing various collimator angle positions. Clinical target volume was defined as the whole vertebrae, excluding the spinal cord canal. The planning target volume (PTV) was defined as CTV+5 mm. Dose prescription was 5x4 Gy{sup 2} with normalization to PTV mean dose. The dose at 1 cm{sup 3} of spinal cord was limited to 11.5Gy. Results: The best plans in terms of target coverage and spinal cord sparing were achieved by two arcs and Arc1-80 deg. and Arc2-280 deg. collimator angles for all the cases considered (i.e., leaf travel parallel to the spinal cord primary orientation). If one arc is used, only 80 deg. reached the objectives. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the role of collimation rotation for the vertebrae metastasis irradiation, with the leaf travel parallel to the spinal cord primary orientation to be better than other solutions. Thus, optimal choice of collimator angle increases the optimization freedom to shape a desired dose distribution.

  19. Evaluation of semiempirical VMAT dose reconstruction on a patient dataset based on biplanar diode array measurements.

    PubMed

    Stambaugh, Cassandra; Opp, Daniel; Wassrman, Stuart; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    We report the results of a preclinical evaluation of recently introduced commercial tools for 3D patient IMRT/VMAT dose reconstruction, the Delta(4) Anatomy calculation algorithm. Based on the same initial measurement, volumetric dose can be reconstructed in two ways. Three-dimensional dose on the Delta(4) phantom can be obtained by renormalizing the planned dose distribution by the measurement values (D4 Interpolation). Alternatively, incident fluence can be approximated from the phantom measurement and used for volumetric dose calculation on an arbitrary (patient) dataset with a pencil beam algorithm (Delta(4) PB). The primary basis for comparison was 3D dose obtained by previously validated measurement-guided planned dose perturbation method (ACPDP), based on the ArcCHECK dosimeter with 3DVH software. For five clinical VMAT plans, D4 Interpolation agreed well with ACPDP on a homogeneous cylindrical phantom according to gamma analysis with local dose-error normalization. The average agreement rates were 98.2%±1.3% (1 SD), (range 97.0%-100%) and 92.8%±3.9% (89.5%-99.2%), for the 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria, respectively. On a similar geometric phantom, D4 PB demonstrated substantially lower agreement rates with ACPDP: 88.6%±6.8% (81.2%-96.1%) and 72.4%±8.4% (62.1%-81.1%), for 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm, respectively. The average agreement rates on the heterogeneous patients' CT datasets are lower yet: 81.2%±8.6% (70.4%-90.4%) and 64.6%±8.4% (56.5%-74.7%), respectively, for the same two criteria sets. For both threshold combinations, matched analysis of variance (ANOVA) multiple comparisons showed statistically significant differences in mean agreement rates (p<0.05) for D4 Interpolation versus ACPDP on one hand, and D4 PB versus ACPDP on either cylindrical or patient dataset on the other hand. Based on the favorable D4 Interpolation results for VMAT plans, the resolution of the reconstruction method rather than hardware design is likely to be responsible

  20. Evaluation of semiempirical VMAT dose reconstruction on a patient dataset based on biplanar diode array measurements.

    PubMed

    Stambaugh, Cassandra; Opp, Daniel; Wasserman, Stuart; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-03-06

    We report the results of a preclinical evaluation of recently introduced commercial tools for 3D patient IMRT/VMAT dose reconstruction, the Delta4 Anatomy calculation algorithm. Based on the same initial measurement, volumetric dose can be reconstructed in two ways. Three-dimensional dose on the Delta4 phantom can be obtained by renormalizing the planned dose distribution by the measurement values (D4 Interpolation). Alternatively, incident fluence can be approximated from the phantom measurement and used for volumetric dose calculation on an arbitrary (patient) dataset with a pencil beam algorithm (Delta4 PB). The primary basis for comparison was 3D dose obtained by previously validated measurement-guided planned dose perturbation method (ACPDP), based on the ArcCHECK dosimeter with 3DVH software. For five clinical VMAT plans, D4 Interpolation agreed well with ACPDP on a homogeneous cylindrical phantom according to gamma analysis with local dose-error normalization. The average agreement rates were 98.2% ± 1.3% (1 SD), (range 97.0%-100%) and 92.8% ± 3.9% (89.5%-99.2%), for the 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria, respectively. On a similar geometric phantom, D4 PB demonstrated substantially lower agreement rates with ACPDP: 88.6% ± 6.8% (81.2%-96.1%) and 72.4% ± 8.4% (62.1%-81.1%), for 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm, respectively. The average agreement rates on the heterogeneous patients' CT datasets are lower yet: 81.2% ± 8.6% (70.4%-90.4%) and 64.6% ± 8.4% (56.5%-74.7%), respectively, for the same two criteria sets. For both threshold combinations, matched analysis of variance (ANOVA) multiple comparisons showed statistically significant differences in mean agreement rates (p < 0.05) for D4 Interpolation versus ACPDP on one hand, and D4 PB versus ACPDP on either cylindrical or patient dataset on the other hand. Based on the favorable D4 Interpolation results for VMAT plans, the resolution of the reconstruction method rather than hardware design is likely to be responsible

  1. SU-E-T-313: The Accuracy of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation Algorithm for IMRT Dose Distributions in Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, F; Onizuka, R; Ohno, T; Tomiyama, Y; Hioki, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of the Acuros XB version 11 (AXB11) advanced dose calculation algorithm by comparing with Monte Caro (MC) calculations. The comparisons were performed with dose distributions for a virtual inhomogeneity phantom and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in head and neck. Methods: Recently, AXB based on Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation has been installed in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Oncology System, USA). The dose calculation accuracy of AXB11 was tested by the EGSnrc-MC calculations. In additions, AXB version 10 (AXB10) and Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) were also used. First the accuracy of an inhomogeneity correction for AXB and AAA algorithms was evaluated by comparing with MC-calculated dose distributions for a virtual inhomogeneity phantom that includes water, bone, air, adipose, muscle, and aluminum. Next the IMRT dose distributions for head and neck were compared with the AXB and AAA algorithms and MC by means of dose volume histograms and three dimensional gamma analysis for each structure (CTV, OAR, etc.). Results: For dose distributions with the virtual inhomogeneity phantom, AXB was in good agreement with those of MC, except the dose in air region. The dose in air region decreased in order of MCdose kernel of water, the doses in regions for air, bone, and aluminum considerably became higher than those of AXB and MC. The pass rates of the gamma analysis for IMRT dose distributions in head and neck were similar to those of MC in order of AXB11dose calculation accuracy of AXB11 was almost equivalent to the MC dose calculation.

  2. SU-F-19A-10: Recalculation and Reporting Clinical HDR 192-Ir Head and Neck Dose Distributions Using Model Based Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson Tedgren, A; Persson, M; Nilsson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively re-calculate dose distributions for selected head and neck cancer patients, earlier treated with HDR 192Ir brachytherapy, using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and compare results to distributions from the planning system derived using TG43 formalism. To study differences between dose to medium (as obtained with the MC code) and dose to water in medium as obtained through (1) ratios of stopping powers and (2) ratios of mass energy absorption coefficients between water and medium. Methods: The MC code Algebra was used to calculate dose distributions according to earlier actual treatment plans using anonymized plan data and CT images in DICOM format. Ratios of stopping power and mass energy absorption coefficients for water with various media obtained from 192-Ir spectra were used in toggling between dose to water and dose to media. Results: Differences between initial planned TG43 dose distributions and the doses to media calculated by MC are insignificant in the target volume. Differences are moderate (within 4–5 % at distances of 3–4 cm) but increase with distance and are most notable in bone and at the patient surface. Differences between dose to water and dose to medium are within 1-2% when using mass energy absorption coefficients to toggle between the two quantities but increase to above 10% for bone using stopping power ratios. Conclusion: MC predicts target doses for head and neck cancer patients in close agreement with TG43. MC yields improved dose estimations outside the target where a larger fraction of dose is from scattered photons. It is important with awareness and a clear reporting of absorbed dose values in using model based algorithms. Differences in bone media can exceed 10% depending on how dose to water in medium is defined.

  3. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, A.; Bashor, P. G.; Habib, E.; Kasparis, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of the raindrop size distribution (RSD) have been collected in tropical cyclones and hurricanes with an impact type disdrometer during the past three Atlantic hurricane seasons. The measurements were taken at Wallops Island, Virginia, Lafayette, Louisiana, and Orlando, Florida. The RSDs from the remnants of tropical cyclones or hurricanes at 40 dBZ agreed well with each other where the mean mass diameter was 1.65-1.7 mm, and the total concentration had a range of 600 to 800 drops/m3. Assuming the normalized gamma size distribution, the shape parameter will be 5-8 to satisfy the observed rain rate of 18-20 mm/hr. If the observations were taken during the extratropical phase of the storm where the tropical cyclone merges with a frontal system, the composite spectra at 40 dBZ include more large drops and less small to mid-size drops, typical for continental thunderstorms. Thus, the mean mass diameter was larger, while total concentration, and rain rate was less in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones.

  4. New investigation of distribution imaging and content uniformity of very low dose drugs using hot-melt extrusion method.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Bom; Kang, Chin-Yang; Kang, Wie-Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-12-31

    The content uniformity of low dose drugs in dosage forms is very important for quality assurance. The aim of this study was to prepare uniformly and homogeneously distributed dosage forms of very low-dose drugs using twin screw hot-melt extrusion (HME) and to investigate the distribution of drugs using instrumental analyses. For the feasibility of HME method, a very low amount of coumarin-6, a fluorescent dye, was used to visualize distribution images using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Limaprost, tamsulosin and glimepiride were then used as low-dose model drugs to study the applicability of HME for content uniformity and distribution behaviors. Hydrophilic thermosensitive polymers with low melting point, such as Poloxamer188 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, were chosen as carriers. The melt extrusion was carried out around 50°C, at which both carriers were easily dissolved but model drugs remained in solid form. The physicochemical properties of the hot-melt extrudates, including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), were measured. Content uniformity of the drugs was also checked by HPLC. CLSM imaging showed that model drugs were well distributed throughout the hot-melt extrudate, giving better content uniformity with low batch-to-batch variations compared with simple physical mixtures. DSC, PXRD and FT-IR data showed that there was no interaction or interference between model drugs and thermosensitive polymers. The current HME methods could be used to prepare uniformly distributed and reproducible solid dosage forms containing very low dose drugs for further pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Feasibility of RACT for 3D dose measurement and range verification in a water phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Alsanea, Fahed; Moskvin, Vadim; Stantz, Keith M.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to establish the feasibility of using radiation-induced acoustics to measure the range and Bragg peak dose from a pulsed proton beam. Simulation studies implementing a prototype scanner design based on computed tomographic methods were performed to investigate the sensitivity to proton range and integral dose. Methods: Derived from thermodynamic wave equation, the pressure signals generated from the dose deposited from a pulsed proton beam with a 1 cm lateral beam width and a range of 16, 20, and 27 cm in water using Monte Carlo methods were simulated. The resulting dosimetric images were reconstructed implementing a 3D filtered backprojection algorithm and the pressure signals acquired from a 71-transducer array with a cylindrical geometry (30 × 40 cm) rotated over 2π about its central axis. Dependencies on the detector bandwidth and proton beam pulse width were performed, after which, different noise levels were added to the detector signals (using 1 μs pulse width and a 0.5 MHz cutoff frequency/hydrophone) to investigate the statistical and systematic errors in the proton range (at 20 cm) and Bragg peak dose (of 1 cGy). Results: The reconstructed radioacoustic computed tomographic image intensity was shown to be linearly correlated to the dose within the Bragg peak. And, based on noise dependent studies, a detector sensitivity of 38 mPa was necessary to determine the proton range to within 1.0 mm (full-width at half-maximum) (systematic error < 150 μm) for a 1 cGy Bragg peak dose, where the integral dose within the Bragg peak was measured to within 2%. For existing hydrophone detector sensitivities, a Bragg peak dose of 1.6 cGy is possible. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that computed tomographic scanner based on ionizing radiation-induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range with centi-Gray sensitivity. Realizing this technology into the clinic has the potential to significantly

  6. Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine and Reporting of Doses Administered, New York, New York, USA

    PubMed Central

    Marcello, Roopa Kalyanaraman; Papadouka, Vikki; Misener, Mark; Wake, Edward; Mandell, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene delivered influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) vaccine to health care providers, who were required to report all administered doses to the Citywide Immunization Registry. Using data from this registry and a provider survey, we estimated the number of all pH1N1 vaccine doses administered. Of 2.8 million doses distributed during October 1, 2009–March 4, 2010, a total of 988,298 doses were administered and reported; another 172,289 doses were administered but not reported, for a total of 1,160,587 doses administered during this period. Reported doses represented an estimated 80%–85% of actual doses administered. Reporting by a wide range of provider types was feasible during a pandemic. Pediatric-care providers had the highest reporting rate (93%). Other private-care providers who routinely did not report vaccinations indicated that they had few, if any, problems, thereby suggesting that mandatory reporting of all vaccines would be feasible. PMID:24656328

  7. Mapping of dose distribution from IMRT onto MRI-guided high dose rate brachytherapy using deformable image registration for cervical cancer treatments: preliminary study with commercially available software

    PubMed Central

    Huq, M. Saiful; Houser, Chris; Beriwal, Sushil; Michalski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose For patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy, recommendations for target doses and constraints are based on calculation of the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) from each phase. At present, the EBRT dose distribution is assumed to be uniform throughout the pelvis. We performed a preliminary study to determine whether deformable dose distribution mapping from the EBRT onto magnetic resonance (MR) images for the brachytherapy would yield differences in doses for organs at risk (OARs) and high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Material and methods Nine cervical cancer patients were treated to a total dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), followed by MRI-based 3D high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Retrospectively, the IMRT planning CT images were fused with the MR image for each fraction of brachytherapy using deformable image registration. The deformed IMRT dose onto MR images were converted to EQD2 and compared to the uniform dose assumption. Results For all patients, the EQD2 from the EBRT phase was significantly higher with deformable registration than with the conventional uniform dose distribution assumption. The mean EQD2 ± SD for HR-CTV D90 was 45.7 ± 0.7 Gy vs. 44.3 Gy for deformable vs. uniform dose distribution, respectively (p < 0.001). The dose to 2 cc of the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid was 46.4 ± 1.2 Gy, 46.2 ± 1.0 Gy, and 48.0 ± 2.5 Gy, respectively with deformable dose distribution, and was significantly higher than with uniform dose distribution (43.2 Gy for all OAR, p < 0.001). Conclusions This study reveals that deformed EBRT dose distribution to HR-CTV and OARs in MR images for brachytherapy is technically feasible, and achieves differences compared to a uniform dose distribution. Therefore, the assumption that EBRT contributes the same dose value may need to be carefully investigated further based on deformable image registration. PMID:25097559

  8. A graphical user interface for calculation of 3D dose distribution using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, J. C. L.; Leung, M. K. K.

    2008-02-01

    A software graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of 3D dose distribution using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is developed using MATLAB. This GUI (DOSCTP) provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM CT-based dose calculation using EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. It offers numerous features not found in DOSXYZnrc, such as the ability to use multiple beams from different phase-space files, and has built-in dose analysis and visualization tools. DOSCTP is written completely in MATLAB, with integrated access to DOSXYZnrc and CTCREATE. The program function may be divided into four subgroups, namely, beam placement, MC simulation with DOSXYZnrc, dose visualization, and export. Each is controlled by separate routines. The verification of DOSCTP was carried out by comparing plans with different beam arrangements (multi-beam/photon arc) on an inhomogeneous phantom as well as patient CT between the GUI and Pinnacle3. DOSCTP was developed and verified with the following features: (1) a built-in voxel editor to modify CT-based DOSXYZnrc phantoms for research purposes; (2) multi-beam placement is possible, which cannot be achieved using the current DOSXYZnrc code; (3) the treatment plan, including the dose distributions, contours and image set can be exported to a commercial treatment planning system such as Pinnacle3 or to CERR using RTOG format for plan evaluation and comparison; (4) a built-in RTOG-compatible dose reviewer for dose visualization and analysis such as finding the volume of hot/cold spots in the 3D dose distributions based on a user threshold. DOSCTP greatly simplifies the use of DOSXYZnrc and CTCREATE, and offers numerous features that not found in the original user-code. Moreover, since phase-space beams can be defined and generated by the user, it is a particularly useful tool to carry out plans using specifically designed irradiators/accelerators that cannot be found in the Linac library of commercial treatment planning systems.

  9. Measurements of X-ray doses and spectra produced by picosecond laser-irradiated solid targets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Qiu, Rui; Yu, Minghai; Jiao, Jinlong; Lu, Wei; Yan, Yonghong; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhou, Weimin; Li, Junli; Zhang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Experiments have shown that high-intensity laser interaction with a solid target can generate significant X-ray doses. This study was conducted to determine the X-ray doses and spectra produced for picosecond laser-irradiated solid targets. The photon doses and X-ray spectra in the laser forward and side directions were measured using an XG III ps 300 TW laser system. For laser intensities of 7×10(18)-4×10(19)W/cm(2), the maximum photon dose was 16.8 mSv at 50cm with a laser energy of ~153J on a 1-mm Ta target. The photon dose in the forward direction increased more significantly with increasing laser intensity than that in the side direction. For photon energies >300keV, the X-ray spectrum can be fit with an effective temperature distribution of the exponential form, dN/dE = k× exp(-E/Tx). The X-ray temperature Tx increased with the laser intensity in the forward direction with values of 0.46-0.75MeV. Tx was less strongly correlated with the laser intensity in the side direction with values of 0.29-0.32MeV. The escaping electron spectrum was also measured. The measured electron temperature was correlated with the electron temperature predicted by the ponderomotive law. The observations in this experiment were also investigated numerically. A good agreement was observed between the experimental and simulation results.

  10. SU-E-I-59: Image Quality and Dose Measurement for Partial Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Abouei, E; Ford, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize performance of cone beam CT (CBCT) used in dentistry investigating quantitatively the image quality and radiation dose during dental CBCT over different settings for partial rotation of the x-ray tube. Methods: Image quality and dose measurements were done on a variable field of view (FOV) dental CBCT (Carestream 9300). X-ray parameters for clinical settings were adjustable for 2–10 mA, 60–90 kVp, and two optional voxel size values, but time was fixed for each FOV. Image quality was assessed by scanning cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality phantom (SEDENTEXCT IQ), and then the images were analyzed using ImageJ to calculate image quality parameters such as noise, uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A protocol proposed by SEDENTEXCT, dose index 1 (DI1), was applied to dose measurements obtained using a thimble ionization chamber and cylindrical PMMA dose index phantom (SEDENTEXCT DI). Dose distributions were obtained using Gafchromic film. The phantoms were positioned in the FOV to imitate a clinical positioning. Results: The image noise was 6–12.5% which, when normalized to the difference of mean voxel value of PMMA and air, was comparable between different FOVs. Uniformity was 93.5ß 99.7% across the images. CNR was 1.7–4.2 and 6.3–14.3 for LDPE and Aluminum, respectively. Dose distributions were symmetric about the rotation angle's bisector. For large and medium FOVs at 4 mA and 80–90 kVp, DI1 values were in the range of 1.26–3.23 mGy. DI1 values were between 1.01–1.93 mGy for small FOV (5×5 cm{sup 2}) at 4–5 mA and 75–84 kVp. Conclusion: Noise decreased by increasing kVp, and the CNR increased for each FOV. When FOV size increased, image noise increased and CNR decreased. DI1 values were increased by increasing tube current (mA), tube voltage (kVp), and/or FOV. Funding for this project from NSERC Discovery grant, UBC Faculty of Dentistry Research Equipment Grant and UBC Faculty of

  11. Monte Carlo calculation of dose distributions in oligometastatic patients planned for spine stereotactic ablative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moiseenko, V; Liu, M; Loewen, S; Kosztyla, R; Vollans, E; Lucido, J; Fong, M; Vellani, R; Popescu, I A

    2013-10-21

    Dosimetric consequences of plans optimized using the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) implemented in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy were evaluated by re-calculating with BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo. Six patients with spinal vertebral metastases were planned using volumetric modulated arc therapy. The planning goal was to cover at least 80% of the planning target volume with a prescribed dose of 35 Gy in five fractions. Tissue heterogeneity-corrected AAA dose distributions for the planning target volume and spinal canal planning organ-at-risk volume were compared against those obtained from Monte Carlo. The results showed that the AAA overestimated planning target volume coverage with the prescribed dose by up to 13.5% (mean 8.3% +/- 3.2%) when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Maximum dose to spinal canal planning organ-at-risk volume calculated with Monte Carlo was consistently smaller than calculated with the treatment planning system and remained under spinal cord dose tolerance. Differences in dose distribution appear to be related to the dosimetric effects of accounting for body composition in Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the treatment planning system assumes that all tissues are water-equivalent in their composition and only differ in their electron density.

  12. Validation of Monte Carlo simulation of mammography with TLD measurement and depth dose calculation with a detailed breast model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjing; Qiu, Rui; Ren, Li; Liu, Huan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Li, Junli

    2017-09-01

    Mean glandular dose (MGD) is not only determined by the compressed breast thickness (CBT) and the glandular content, but also by the distribution of glandular tissues in breast. Depth dose inside the breast in mammography has been widely concerned as glandular dose decreases rapidly with increasing depth. In this study, an experiment using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) was carried out to validate Monte Carlo simulations of mammography. Percent depth doses (PDDs) at different depth values were measured inside simple breast phantoms of different thicknesses. The experimental values were well consistent with the values calculated by Geant4. Then a detailed breast model with a CBT of 4 cm and a glandular content of 50%, which has been constructed in previous work, was used to study the effects of the distribution of glandular tissues in breast with Geant4. The breast model was reversed in direction of compression to get a reverse model with a different distribution of glandular tissues. Depth dose distributions and glandular tissue dose conversion coefficients were calculated. It revealed that the conversion coefficients were about 10% larger when the breast model was reversed, for glandular tissues in the reverse model are concentrated in the upper part of the model.

  13. 3D dose and TCP distribution for radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F.; Pérez, P.

    2010-08-01

    A common feature to any radiant therapy is that lesion and health tissue dosimetry provides relevant information for treatment optimization along with dose-efficacy and dose-complication correlation studies. Nowadays, different radionuclide therapies are commonly available, assessing both systemic and loco-regional approach and using different alfa-, beta-and gamma-emitting isotopes and binding molecules. It is well established, that specific dosimetric approaches become necessary according to each therapy modality. Sometimes, observed activity distribution can be satisfactory represented by simple geometrical models. However, Monte Carlo techniques are capable of better approaches, therefore becoming sometimes the only way to get dosimetric data since the patient-specific situation can not be adequately represented by conventional dosimetry techniques. Therefore, due to strong limitations of traditional and standard methods, this work concentrates on the development of a dedicated and novel calculation system in order to assess the dose distribution within the irradiated patient. However, physical dose may not be enough information in order to establish real deterministic biological/metabolic effects; therefore complementary radiobiological models have been suitably introduced with the aim of performing realistic 3D dose as well as corresponding Tumor Control Probability distribution calculation.

  14. SU-E-T-427: Feasibility Study for Evaluation of IMRT Dose Distribution Using Geant4-Based Automated Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H; Shin, W; Testa, M; Min, C; Kim, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning validation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, a precise and automated procedure is necessary to evaluate the patient dose distribution. The aim of this study is to develop an automated algorithm for IMRT simulations using DICOM files and to evaluate the patient dose based on 4D simulation using the Geant4 MC toolkit. Methods: The head of a clinical linac (Varian Clinac 2300 IX) was modeled in Geant4 along with particular components such as the flattening filter and the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Patient information and the position of the MLC were imported from the DICOM-RT interface. For each position of the MLC, a step- and-shoot technique was adopted. PDDs and lateral profiles were simulated in a water phantom (50×50×40 cm{sup 3}) and compared to measurement data. We used a lung phantom and MC-dose calculations were compared to the clinical treatment planning used at the Seoul National University Hospital. Results: In order to reproduce the measurement data, we tuned three free parameters: mean and standard deviation of the primary electron beam energy and the beam spot size. These parameters for 6 MV were found to be 5.6 MeV, 0.2378 MeV and 1 mm FWHM respectively. The average dose difference between measurements and simulations was less than 2% for PDDs and radial profiles. The lung phantom study showed fairly good agreement between MC and planning dose despite some unavoidable statistical fluctuation. Conclusion: The current feasibility study using the lung phantom shows the potential for IMRT dose validation using 4D MC simulations using Geant4 tool kits. This research was supported by Korea Institute of Nuclear safety and Development of Measurement Standards for Medical Radiation funded by Korea research Institute of Standards and Science. (KRISS-2015-15011032)

  15. High resolution 2D dose measurement device based on a few long scintillating fibers and tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Mathieu; Archambault, Louis; Beaulieu, Luc; Gingras, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Patient-specific QA of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments are usually conducted using 2D or 3D dosimetry of the incident dose distribution in a water-equivalent phantom. However, dosimeters typically used for this task usually lack in either spatial resolution or dose accuracy. The purpose of this work is to develop and validate a novel type of high resolution 2D dosimeter based on the tomographic reconstruction of the dose projections obtained using long scintillating fibers for the quality assurance of modern radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT. Fifty parallel scintillating fibers were aligned in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical masonite phantom with a 95 cm source-to-surface distance and a 100 cm source-to-fibers distance. The fibers were disposed so that the effective detection area of the scintillating fibers was a 20 cm diameter disk. Both ends of each scintillating fiber were coupled to clear optical fibers to enable light collection by a single CCD camera. Seven IMRT segments and two square fields were acquired using 18 projections over a 170° rotation of the device. Computation of the dose integrals was made for each scintillating fiber using the irradiation of known rectangular reference fields. Dose reconstructions were conducted using a total-variation minimization iterative reconstruction algorithm. Eight monitor units were programmed for each projection and the reconstructed dose grid pixel resolution was set to 1 × 1 mm(2). 3%∕3 mm gamma tests conducted between the reconstructed IMRT dose distributions and the dose calculated with the treatment planning system Pinnacle(3) were on average successful for 99.6% of the dose pixels with a predicted dose of at least 10% of the maximum dose. The dose profiles for both square fields and IMRT segments agreed within 2% to the dose calculated with Pinnacle(3) except in high dose gradient regions, and were comparable to the dose measured using an ionization chamber array (IBA MatriXX) and radiographic

  16. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  17. Use of bladder dose points for assessment of the spatial dose distribution in the posterior bladder wall in cervical cancer brachytherapy and the impact of applicator position.

    PubMed

    Nkiwane, Karen S; Pötter, Richard; Fokdal, Lars U; Hoskin, Peter; Pearcey, Robert; Segedin, Barbara; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kirisits, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To validate the feasibility and use of dose points to characterize the bladder wall dose distribution and investigate potential impact of the applicator position in cervical cancer brachytherapy. One hundred twenty-eight optimized MRI plans were evaluated. The International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU-38) point doses (B(ICRU)), surrogate for bladder base doses, were compared with D(2cc). Vaginal source to superior-anterior border of the symphysis distances were measured and compared within two groups, namely Group 1-B(ICRU)/D(2cc) ≥1 and Group 2-B(ICRU)/D(2cc) <1. Additionally, points at 1.5 and 2 cm cranial to the B(ICRU), parallel to the tandem and the body axis were analyzed. Thirty-seven percent of the patients had the ratio B(ICRU)/D(2cc) of 1 or higher, with the 2cc subvolume at the bladder base (Group 1). In 63%, BICRU/D2cc ratio was lower than 1 and the 2cc, cranial to the bladder base (Group 2). Median vaginal source-to-superior-anterior border of the symphysis line distance was -2 cm (range, -3.7 to +1.2 cm) in Group 1 and +1.8 cm (range, -2 to +4.8 cm) in Group 2 (+ cranial/- caudal direction). There was a high correlation between vaginal sources near the symphysis and the 2cc subvolume at the bladder base. The additional points provided no added value. Location of the 2cc subvolume varies in cervical cancer brachytherapy. Maximum doses are at the bladder base if vaginal sources are also in the vicinity of the bladder base indicated by B(ICRU)/D(2cc) ratio of 1 or higher. Such variation should be considered in dose-effect analyses and intercomparisons, as the same D(2cc) at different bladder locations may correlate with different morbidity profiles and severity Reporting D(2cc) and B(ICRU) doses together therefore remains essential. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Monte Carlo study on dose distribution evaluation of Flexisource 192Ir brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Majid; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Haghparast, Abbas; Zare, Naser; Ahmadi Moghaddas, Toktam

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the dose distribution of the Flexisource 192Ir source. Background Dosimetric evaluation of brachytherapy sources is recommended by task group number 43 (TG. 43) of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate Flexisource 192Ir source. Dose rate constant and radial dose function were obtained for water and soft tissue phantoms and compared with previous data on this source. Furthermore, dose rate along the transverse axis was obtained by simulation of the Flexisource and a point source and the obtained data were compared with those from Flexiplan treatment planning system (TPS). Results The values of dose rate constant obtained for water and soft tissue phantoms were equal to 1.108 and 1.106, respectively. The values of the radial dose function are listed in the form of tabulated data. The values of dose rate (cGy/s) obtained are shown in the form of tabulated data and figures. The maximum difference between TPS and Monte Carlo (MC) dose rate values was 11% in a water phantom at 6.0 cm from the source. Conclusion Based on dosimetric parameter comparisons with values previously published, the accuracy of our simulation of Flexisource 192Ir was verified. The results of dose rate constant and radial dose function in water and soft tissue phantoms were the same for Flexisource and point sources. For Flexisource 192Ir source, the results of TPS calculations in a water phantom were in agreement with the simulations within the calculation uncertainties. Furthermore, the results from the TPS calculation for Flexisource and MC calculation for a point source were practically equal within the calculation uncertainties. PMID:25949224

  19. Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso after irradiation with a simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Reitz, Guenther

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are com-pounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself. Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrap-olation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over-or under-estimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be pre-dicted to within about a +10In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The first focus of the pre-sented experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on the results of the passive dosimetry using the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable to

  20. Measured Head CT/CTA Skin Dose and Intensive Care Unit Patient Cumulative Exposure.

    PubMed

    Nawfel, R D; Young, G S

    2017-03-01

    Estimates of cumulative CT/CTA radiation dose based on volumetric CT dose index have raised concern that neurological intensive care unit patient exposures may reach thresholds for deterministic skin injury. Because the accuracy of volumetric CT dose index for this purpose in unknown, we set out to directly measure head CT and CTA peak skin dose, assess the relationship of volumetric CT dose index to measured peak skin dose, and determine whether multiple CT/CTA exposures in typical patients in the neurological intensive care unit produce cumulative doses approaching or exceeding single-dose deterministic thresholds for skin injury. In a prospective study from 2011-2013, nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters were used to measure head CT/CTA peak skin dose in 52 patients (28 female, 24 male; mean age, 63 years) divided equally between 2 CT scanners. Volumetric CT dose index and dose-length product were recorded for each examination. Peak skin dose was also measured on an acrylic skull phantom in each scanner. A 2-tailed, unpaired t test was used to compare mean patient skin doses between the 2 scanners. The measured peak skin doses were then used to calculate cumulative peak skin dose in 4 typical patients in intensive care units who received multiple CT/CTA scans. Head CT/CTA peak skin dose agreed between scanners in patients and phantoms: (scanner 1 CT/CTA: patients, 39.2 ± 3.7 mGy and 98.9 ± 5.3 mGy, respectively, versus phantom, 40.0 mGy and 105.4 mGy, respectively; scanner 2 CT/CTA: patients, 42.9 ± 9.4 mGy and 98.8 ± 7.4 mGy, respectively, versus phantom, 37.6 mGy and 95.2 mGy, respectively). Volumetric CT dose index overestimated peak skin dose by a factor of 1.4-1.9 depending on examination and CT scanner. Cumulative doses in 4 patients in the intensive care unit estimated from measured CT/CTA peak skin dose ranged from 1.9-4.5 Gy. Directly measured radiation skin doses from head CT/CTA patient examinations are substantially lower than

  1. [Intracerebral distribution of lindane in rats: short term observation after administration of a single dose].

    PubMed

    Lièvremont, M; Potus, J

    1981-06-22

    Residual radioactivity in Rat brain structures is studied after single dose 14C Lindane administration. Short time after injection, at the onset of convulsions, white matter and myelinated structures show important retention, nucleated cells do not. This heterogeneous distribution agrees with the lipophilic behaviour of the pesticide.

  2. Superficial dose distribution in breast for tangential radiation treatment of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, Roumiana; Gustafsson, Magnus; Baeck, Anna; Drugge, Ninni; Palm, Asa; Lindberg, Andreas; Berglund, Mattias

    2011-03-01

    The superficial (0-2 cm) dose distribution in a cylindrical phantom is examined theoretically and experimentally when irradiated by tangential photon beams. The lateral superficial part of the phantom is shown to receive full dose beyond 2 mm whereas the build-up region is up to 7 mm where the beams enter. Eclipse AAA calculations agree well with the experimental and Monte Carlo data while Eclipse PBC underestimates the entrance dose the first 3-4 mm and fails to give a correct lateral dose close to the surface up to 10 mm depth. The performance of the Eclipse algorithms is evaluated in a number of clinical cases with Monte Carlo results. Examples are given to illustrate how differences in geometrical presentation of the body structure in the treatment planning system and the Monte Carlo simulation as well as the patient voxelization may affect the evaluation results.

  3. Measurement of Entrance Skin Dose and Calculation of Effective Dose for Common Diagnostic X-Ray Examinations in Kashan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Masoumbeigi, Mahboubeh; Salimian, Morteza; Mohseni, Mehran

    2015-02-24

    The knowledge of the radiation dose received by the patient during the radiological examination is essential to prevent risks of exposures. The aim of this work is to study patient doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations in hospitals affiliated to Kashan University of Medical sciences, Iran. The results of this survey are compared with those published by some national and international values. Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured based on the exposure parameters used for the actual examination and effective dose (ED) was calculated by use of conversion coefficients calculated by Monte Carlo methods. The mean entrance surface dose and effective dose for examinations of the chest (PA, Lat), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), lumbar spine (AP, Lat) and skull (AP, Lat) are 0.37, 0.99, 2.01, 1.76, 2.18, 5.36, 1.39 and 1.01 mGy, and 0.04, 0.1, 0.28, 0,28, 0.23, 0.13, 0.01 and 0.01 mSv, respectively. The ESDs and EDs reported in this study, except for examinations of the chest, are generally lower than comparable reference dose values published in the literature. On the basis of the results obtained in this study can conclude that use of newer equipment and use of the proper radiological parameter can significantly reduce the absorbed dose. It is recommended that radiological parameter in chest examinations be revised.

  4. Measurement of Entrance Skin Dose and Calculation of Effective Dose for Common Diagnostic X-Ray Examinations in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Masoumbeigi, Mahboubeh; Salimian, Morteza; Mohseni, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the radiation dose received by the patient during the radiological examination is essential to prevent risks of exposures. The aim of this work is to study patient doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations in hospitals affiliated to Kashan University of Medical sciences, Iran. The results of this survey are compared with those published by some national and international values. Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured based on the exposure parameters used for the actual examination and effective dose (ED) was calculated by use of conversion coefficients calculated by Monte Carlo methods. The mean entrance surface dose and effective dose for examinations of the chest (PA, Lat), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), lumbar spine (AP, Lat) and skull (AP, Lat) are 0.37, 0.99, 2.01, 1.76, 2.18, 5.36, 1.39 and 1.01 mGy, and 0.04, 0.1, 0.28, 0,28, 0.23, 0.13, 0.01 and 0.01 mSv, respectively. The ESDs and EDs reported in this study, except for examinations of the chest, are generally lower than comparable reference dose values published in the literature. On the basis of the results obtained in this study can conclude that use of newer equipment and use of the proper radiological parameter can significantly reduce the absorbed dose. It is recommended that radiological parameter in chest examinations be revised. PMID:26156930

  5. Macroscopic geometric heterogeneity effects in radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Moran, J M; Nigg, D W; Wheeler, F J; Bauer, W F

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This paper describes such a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for the tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for this model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous-tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10%-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  6. Intra-tumor distribution of PEGylated liposome upon repeated injection: No possession by prior dose.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nishio, Miho; Tanaka, Masao; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-12-28

    Liposomes have proven to be a viable means for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. However, significant variability has been detected in their intra-tumor accumulation and distribution, resulting in compromised therapeutic outcomes. We recently examined the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of weekly sequentially administered oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes. In that study, the first and second doses of l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes were distributed diversely and broadly within tumor tissues, resulting in a potent anti-tumor efficacy. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such a diverse and broad liposome distribution. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of dosage interval on the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of "empty" PEGylated liposomes. Intra-tumor distribution of sequentially administered "empty" PEGylated liposomes was altered in a dosing interval-dependent manner. In addition, the intra-tumor distribution pattern was closely related to the chronological alteration of tumor blood flow as well as vascular permeability in the growing tumor tissue. These results suggest that the sequential administrations of PEGylated liposomes in well-spaced intervals might allow the distribution to different areas and enhance the total bulk accumulation within tumor tissue, resulting in better therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated payload. This study may provide useful information for a better design of therapeutic regimens involving multiple administrations of nanocarrier drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dosimetric verification of stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dose distributions using Gafchromic EBT3

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, Davide; Fumagalli, Maria L.; Marchetti, Marcello; Fariselli, Laura; De Martin, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the new Gafchromic EBT3 film in a high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy quality assurance procedure. Owing to the reduced dimensions of the involved lesions, the feasibility of scanning plan verification films on the scanner plate area with the best uniformity rather than using a correction mask was evaluated. For this purpose, signal values dispersion and reproducibility of film scans were investigated. Uniformity was then quantified in the selected area and was found to be within 1.5% for doses up to 8 Gy. A high-dose threshold level for analyses using this procedure was established evaluating the sensitivity of the irradiated films. Sensitivity was found to be of the order of centiGray for doses up to 6.2 Gy and decreasing for higher doses. The obtained results were used to implement a procedure comparing dose distributions delivered with a CyberKnife system to planned ones. The procedure was validated through single beam irradiation on a Gafchromic film. The agreement between dose distributions was then evaluated for 13 patients (brain lesions, 5 Gy/die prescription isodose ~80%) using gamma analysis. Results obtained using Gamma test criteria of 5%/1 mm show a pass rate of 94.3%. Gamma frequency parameters calculation for EBT3 films showed to strongly depend on subtraction of unexposed film pixel values from irradiated ones. In the framework of the described dosimetric procedure, EBT3 films proved to be effective in the verification of high doses delivered to lesions with complex shapes and adjacent to organs at risk.

  8. Quality assurance for radiotherapy in prostate cancer: Point dose measurements in intensity modulated fields with large dose gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Escude, Lluis . E-mail: lluis.escude@gmx.net; Linero, Dolors; Molla, Meritxell; Miralbell, Raymond

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate an optimization algorithm designed to find the most favorable points to position an ionization chamber (IC) for quality assurance dose measurements of patients treated for prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and fields up to 10 cm x 10 cm. Methods and Materials: Three cylindrical ICs (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used with volumes of 0.6 cc, 0.125 cc, and 0.015 cc. Dose measurements were made in a plastic phantom (PMMA) at 287 optimized points. An algorithm was designed to search for points with the lowest dose gradient. Measurements were made also at 39 nonoptimized points. Results were normalized to a reference homogeneous field introducing a dose ratio factor, which allowed us to compare measured vs. calculated values as percentile dose ratio factor deviations {delta}F (%). A tolerance range of {delta}F (%) of {+-}3% was considered. Results: Half of the {delta}F (%) values obtained at nonoptimized points were outside the acceptable range. Values at optimized points were widely spread for the largest IC (i.e., 60% of the results outside the tolerance range), whereas for the two small-volume ICs, only 14.6% of the results were outside the tolerance interval. No differences were observed when comparing the two small ICs. Conclusions: The presented optimization algorithm is a useful tool to determine the best IC in-field position for optimal dose measurement conditions. A good agreement between calculated and measured doses can be obtained by positioning small volume chambers at carefully selected points in the field. Large chambers may be unreliable even in optimized points for IMRT fields {<=}10 cm x 10 cm.

  9. Calculating dose distributions and wedge factors for photon treatment fields with dynamic wedges based on a convolution/superposition method.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; McCullough, E C; Mackie, T R

    1998-01-01

    A convolution/superposition based method was developed to calculate dose distributions and wedge factors in photon treatment fields generated by dynamic wedges. This algorithm used a dual source photon beam model that accounted for both primary photons from the target and secondary photons scattered from the machine head. The segmented treatment tables (STT) were used to calculate realistic photon fluence distributions in the wedged fields. The inclusion of the extra-focal photons resulted in more accurate dose calculation in high dose gradient regions, particularly in the beam penumbra. The wedge factors calculated using the convolution method were also compared to the measured data and showed good agreement within 0.5%. The wedge factor varied significantly with the field width along the moving jaw direction, but not along the static jaw or the depth direction. This variation was found to be determined by the ending position of the moving jaw, or the STT of the dynamic wedge. In conclusion, the convolution method proposed in this work can be used to accurately compute dose for a dynamic or an intensity modulated treatment based on the fluence modulation in the treatment field.

  10. Simultaneous optimization of dose distributions and fractionation schemes in particle radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Unkelbach, Jan; Zeng, Chuan; Engelsman, Martijn

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The paper considers the fractionation problem in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Conventionally, IMPT fields are optimized independently of the fractionation scheme. In this work, we discuss the simultaneous optimization of fractionation scheme and pencil beam intensities.Methods: This is performed by allowing for distinct pencil beam intensities in each fraction, which are optimized using objective and constraint functions based on biologically equivalent dose (BED). The paper presents a model that mimics an IMPT treatment with a single incident beam direction for which the optimal fractionation scheme can be determined despite the nonconvexity of the BED-based treatment planning problem.Results: For this model, it is shown that a small α/β ratio in the tumor gives rise to a hypofractionated treatment, whereas a large α/β ratio gives rise to hyperfractionation. It is further demonstrated that, for intermediate α/β ratios in the tumor, a nonuniform fractionation scheme emerges, in which it is optimal to deliver different dose distributions in subsequent fractions. The intuitive explanation for this phenomenon is as follows: By varying the dose distribution in the tumor between fractions, the same total BED can be achieved with a lower physical dose. If it is possible to achieve this dose variation in the tumor without varying the dose in the normal tissue (which would have an adverse effect), the reduction in physical dose may lead to a net reduction of the normal tissue BED. For proton therapy, this is indeed possible to some degree because the entrance dose is mostly independent of the range of the proton pencil beam.Conclusions: The paper provides conceptual insight into the interdependence of optimal fractionation schemes and the spatial optimization of dose distributions. It demonstrates the emergence of nonuniform fractionation schemes that arise from the standard BED model when IMPT fields and fractionation scheme are optimized

  11. SU-E-T-226: Correction of a Standard Model-Based Dose Calculator Using Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M; Jiang, S; Lu, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a hybrid method that combines advantages of the model-based and measurement-based method for independent dose calculation. Modeled-based dose calculation, such as collapsed-cone-convolution/superposition (CCCS) or the Monte-Carlo method, models dose deposition in the patient body accurately; however, due to lack of detail knowledge about the linear accelerator (LINAC) head, commissioning for an arbitrary machine is tedious and challenging in case of hardware changes. On the contrary, the measurement-based method characterizes the beam property accurately but lacks the capability of dose disposition modeling in heterogeneous media. Methods: We used a standard CCCS calculator, which is commissioned by published data, as the standard model calculator. For a given machine, water phantom measurements were acquired. A set of dose distributions were also calculated using the CCCS for the same setup. The difference between the measurements and the CCCS results were tabulated and used as the commissioning data for a measurement based calculator. Here we used a direct-ray-tracing calculator (ΔDRT). The proposed independent dose calculation consists of the following steps: 1. calculate D-model using CCCS. 2. calculate D-ΔDRT using ΔDRT. 3. combine Results: D=D-model+D-ΔDRT. Results: The hybrid dose calculation was tested on digital phantoms and patient CT data for standard fields and IMRT plan. The results were compared to dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). The agreement of the hybrid and the TPS was within 3%, 3 mm for over 98% of the volume for phantom studies and lung patients. Conclusion: The proposed hybrid method uses the same commissioning data as those for the measurement-based method and can be easily extended to any non-standard LINAC. The results met the accuracy, independence, and simple commissioning criteria for an independent dose calculator.

  12. Surface dose and build-up region measurements with wedge filters for 6 and 18 MV photon beams.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Hatice; Ozbek, Nurdan; Okutan, Murat; Cakir, Aydin; Acar, Hilal

    2010-02-01

    High-energy photons are most commonly used in radiotherapy to treat cancer. Wedge filters are required to obtain homogeneous dose distribution in the patient. Different wedge filter types create different surface doses. In this study, the effect of the virtual and physical wedge filters on the surface and build-up region doses was examined for 6- and 18-MV high-energy photon beams. The measurements were made in a water equivalent phantom in the build-up region at a 100-cm source-to-surface distance for various field sizes using virtual and physical wedge filters having different angles. A parallel-plate ion chamber was used to measure the percent depth doses. The percentage dose at the surface increased as the field size increased for open, virtual, and physical wedged beams. For open, physical, and virtual wedged beams, the surface doses were found to be 15.4%, 9.9%, and 15.9% with 6-MV photons and 10.6%, 8.8%, 11.9% with 18-MV photons, respectively, at 10 x 10 cm(2) field size. Build-up doses of virtual wedged beams were similar to those of open beams. Surface and buildup doses of physical wedged beams were lower than those of open and virtual wedged beams.

  13. Proton radiography and proton computed tomography based on time-resolved dose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Mauro; Verburg, Joost M.; Rose, Mark; Min, Chul Hee; Tang, Shikui; Hassane Bentefour, El; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2013-11-01

    We present a proof of principle study of proton radiography and proton computed tomography (pCT) based on time-resolved dose measurements. We used a prototype, two-dimensional, diode-array detector capable of fast dose rate measurements, to acquire proton radiographic images expressed directly in water equivalent path length (WEPL). The technique is based on the time dependence of the dose distribution delivered by a proton beam traversing a range modulator wheel in passive scattering proton therapy systems. The dose rate produced in the medium by such a system is periodic and has a unique pattern in time at each point along the beam path and thus encodes the WEPL. By measuring the time dose pattern at the point of interest, the WEPL to this point can be decoded. If one measures the time-dose patterns at points on a plane behind the patient for a beam with sufficient energy to penetrate the patient, the obtained 2D distribution of the WEPL forms an image. The technique requires only a 2D dosimeter array and it uses only the clinical beam for a fraction of second with negligible dose to patient. We first evaluated the accuracy of the technique in determining the WEPL for static phantoms aiming at beam range verification of the brain fields of medulloblastoma patients. Accurate beam ranges for these fields can significantly reduce the dose to the cranial skin of the patient and thus the risk of permanent alopecia. Second, we investigated the potential features of the technique for real-time imaging of a moving phantom. Real-time tumor tracking by proton radiography could provide more accurate validations of tumor motion models due to the more sensitive dependence of proton beam on tissue density compared to x-rays. Our radiographic technique is rapid (˜100 ms) and simultaneous over the whole field, it can image mobile tumors without the problem of interplay effect inherently challenging for methods based on pencil beams. Third, we present the reconstructed p

  14. Proton radiography and proton computed tomography based on time-resolved dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mauro; Verburg, Joost M; Rose, Mark; Min, Chul Hee; Tang, Shikui; Bentefour, El Hassane; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2013-11-21

    We present a proof of principle study of proton radiography and proton computed tomography (pCT) based on time-resolved dose measurements. We used a prototype, two-dimensional, diode-array detector capable of fast dose rate measurements, to acquire proton radiographic images expressed directly in water equivalent path length (WEPL). The technique is based on the time dependence of the dose distribution delivered by a proton beam traversing a range modulator wheel in passive scattering proton therapy systems. The dose rate produced in the medium by such a system is periodic and has a unique pattern in time at each point along the beam path and thus encodes the WEPL. By measuring the time dose pattern at the point of interest, the WEPL to this point can be decoded. If one measures the time–dose patterns at points on a plane behind the patient for a beam with sufficient energy to penetrate the patient, the obtained 2D distribution of the WEPL forms an image. The technique requires only a 2D dosimeter array and it uses only the clinical beam for a fraction of second with negligible dose to patient. We first evaluated the accuracy of the technique in determining the WEPL for static phantoms aiming at beam range verification of the brain fields of medulloblastoma patients. Accurate beam ranges for these fields can significantly reduce the dose to the cranial skin of the patient and thus the risk of permanent alopecia. Second, we investigated the potential features of the technique for real-time imaging of a moving phantom. Real-time tumor tracking by proton radiography could provide more accurate validations of tumor motion models due to the more sensitive dependence of proton beam on tissue density compared to x-rays. Our radiographic technique is rapid (~100 ms) and simultaneous over the whole field, it can image mobile tumors without the problem of interplay effect inherently challenging for methods based on pencil beams. Third, we present the reconstructed p

  15. A summary of light dose distribution using an IR navigation system for Photofrin-mediated Pleural PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi-Hong; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C.; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Uniform delivery of light fluence is an important goal for photodynamic therapy. We present summary results for an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, 8 detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. A MATLAB-based GUI program is developed to display the light dose in real-time during PDT to guide the PDT treatment delivery to improve the uniformity of the light dose. A dualcorrection algorithm is used to improve the agreement between calculations and in-situ measurements. A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of light fluence during PDT is presented in both phantom conditions and in clinical cases. PMID:28690354

  16. A summary of light dose distribution using an IR navigation system for Photofrin-mediated Pleural PDT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Timothy C; Kim, Michele M; Ong, Yi-Hong; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith A

    2017-01-28

    Uniform delivery of light fluence is an important goal for photodynamic therapy. We present summary results for an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, 8 detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. A MATLAB-based GUI program is developed to display the light dose in real-time during PDT to guide the PDT treatment delivery to improve the uniformity of the light dose. A dualcorrection algorithm is used to improve the agreement between calculations and in-situ measurements. A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of light fluence during PDT is presented in both phantom conditions and in clinical cases.

  17. A summary of light dose distribution using an IR navigation system for Photofrin-mediated Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi-Hong; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C.; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith A.

    2017-02-01

    Uniform delivery of light fluence is an important goal for photodynamic therapy. We present summary results for an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, 8 detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. A MATLAB-based GUI program is developed to display the light dose in real-time during PDT to guide the PDT treatment delivery to improve the uniformity of the light dose. A dualcorrection algorithm is used to improve the agreement between calculations and in-situ measurements. A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of light fluence during PDT is presented in both phantom conditions and in clinical cases.

  18. Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse treatment planning system for effects on dose distribution of the hip prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Çatlı, Serap; Tanır, Güneş

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber