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Sample records for dose mn fe

  1. High-valent [MnFe] and [FeFe] cofactors in ribonucleotide reductases.

    PubMed

    Leidel, Nils; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Havelius, Kajsa G V; Chernev, Petko; Voevodskaya, Nina; Gräslund, Astrid; Haumann, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are essential for DNA synthesis in most organisms. In class-Ic RNR from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), a MnFe cofactor in subunit R2 forms the site required for enzyme activity, instead of an FeFe cofactor plus a redox-active tyrosine in class-Ia RNRs, for example in mouse (Mus musculus, Mm). For R2 proteins from Ct and Mm, either grown in the presence of, or reconstituted with Mn and Fe ions, structural and electronic properties of higher valence MnFe and FeFe sites were determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and complementary techniques, in combination with bond-valence-sum and density functional theory calculations. At least ten different cofactor species could be tentatively distinguished. In Ct R2, two different Mn(IV)Fe(III) site configurations were assigned either L(4)Mn(IV)(μO)(2)Fe(III)L(4) (metal-metal distance of ~2.75Å, L = ligand) prevailing in metal-grown R2, or L(4)Mn(IV)(μO)(μOH)Fe(III)L(4) (~2.90Å) dominating in metal-reconstituted R2. Specific spectroscopic features were attributed to an Fe(IV)Fe(III) site (~2.55Å) with a L(4)Fe(IV)(μO)(2)Fe(III)L(3) core structure. Several Mn,Fe(III)Fe(III) (~2.9-3.1Å) and Mn,Fe(III)Fe(II) species (~3.3-3.4Å) likely showed 5-coordinated Mn(III) or Fe(III). Rapid X-ray photoreduction of iron and shorter metal-metal distances in the high-valent states suggested radiation-induced modifications in most crystal structures of R2. The actual configuration of the MnFe and FeFe cofactors seems to depend on assembly sequences, bound metal type, valence state, and previous catalytic activity involving subunit R1. In Ct R2, the protonation of a bridging oxide in the Mn(IV)(μO)(μOH)Fe(III) core may be important for preventing premature site reduction and initiation of the radical chemistry in R1. PMID:22222354

  2. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0).

    PubMed

    Igarashi, R N; Miranda, I P; Eleno, L T F; Klautau, A B; Petrilli, H M

    2016-08-17

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0). PMID:27346457

  3. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0).

    PubMed

    Igarashi, R N; Miranda, I P; Eleno, L T F; Klautau, A B; Petrilli, H M

    2016-08-17

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  4. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  5. Low hysteresis FeMn-based top spin valve.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, V V; Krinitsina, T P; Milyaev, M A; Naumova, L I; Proglyado, V V

    2012-09-01

    FeMn-based top spin valves Ta/[FeNi/CoFe]/Cu/CoFe/FeMn/Ta with different Cu and FeMn layers thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was shown that low field hysteresis due to free layer magnetization reversal can be reduced down to (0.1 divided by 0.2) Oe keeping the GMR ratio higher 8% by using both layers thicknesses optimization and non-collinear geometry of magnetoresistance measurements. Dependence of low field hysteresis and GMR ratio on the angle between applied magnetic field and pinning direction are presented. PMID:23035516

  6. Compressibilities of MnFe2O4 polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lijin; Zhai, Shuangmeng; Wu, Xiang; Xu, Chaowen; Yang, Ke; Higo, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    The high-pressure behavior and stability of synthetic jacobsite MnFe2O4 have been investigated up to 39.55 GPa at room temperature by means of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction using diamond anvil cell and multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus. The MnFe2O4 spinel undergoes a phase transition at about 18 GPa to form a denser antiferromagnetic CaMn2O4-type (CM afm ) polymorph. The CM afm MnFe2O4 is stable up to 39.55 GPa in this study and remains after decompression. Fitting the pressure-volume data using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the isothermal bulk modulus values and the first pressure derivatives were obtained as K 0 = 169.7 (35) GPa, = 2.87 (40) for spinel-type MnFe2O4 and K 0 = 149.2 (24) GPa, = 3.98 (19) for CM afm MnFe2O4, respectively. If is fixed to 4, K 0 was obtained as 160.6 (11) GPa for spinel-type MnFe2O4 and 148.9 (7) GPa for CM afm MnFe2O4. The effects of cation substitution on the isothermal bulk modulus and pressure for phase transition of Fe3+-bearing spinels were discussed.

  7. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS–LMTO–ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn–Mn and Mn–Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  8. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  9. Fe/Mn in olivine of carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now

  10. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  11. Molecular orbital (SCF-X-α-SW) theory of Fe2+-Mn3+, Fe3+-Mn2+, and Fe3+-Mn3+ charge transfer and magnetic exchange in oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-metal charge-transfer and magnetic exchange interactions have important effects on the optical spectra, crystal chemistry, and physics of minerals. Previous molecular orbital calculations have provided insight on the nature of Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions in oxides and silicates. In this work, spin-unrestricted molecular orbital calculations on (FeMnO10) clusters are used to study the nature of magnetic exchange and electron delocalization (charge transfer) associated with Fe3+-Mn2+, Fe3+-Mn3+, and Fe2+-Mn3+ interactions in oxides and silicates. 

  12. Study of intergranular embrittlement in Fe-12Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Auger microscopic study has been performed on the intergranular fracture surfaces of Fe-12Mn steels in the as-austenitized condition. Fracture mode below the ductile-brittle transition temperature was intergranular whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field. The intergranular fracture surface failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, As, O, or N. The occasional appearance of S or O on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO/sub 2/ along the prior austenite boundaries. An AES study with Ar/sup +/ ion-sputtering showed no evidence of manganese enrichment along the prior austenite boundaries, but a slight segregation of carbon which does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. Addition of 0.002% B with a 1000/sup 0/C/1h/WQ treatment yielded a high Charpy impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature, preventing the intergranular fracture. High resolution AES studies showed that 3 at. % B on the prior austenite grain boundaries is most effective in increasing the grain boundary cohesive strength in an Fe-12Mn alloy. Trace additions of Mg, Zr, or V had negligible effects on the intergranular embrittlement. A 450/sup 0/C temper of the boron-modified alloys was found to cause tempered martensite embrittlement, leading to intergranular fracture. The embrittling treatment of the Fe-12Mn alloys with and without boron additions raised the ductile-brittle transition by 150/sup 0/C. This tempered martensite embrittlement was found to be due to the Mn enrichment of the fracture surface to 32 at. % Mn in the boron-modified alloy and 38 at. % Mn in the unmodified alloy. The Mn-enriched region along the prior austenite grain boundaries upon further tempering is believed to cause nucleation of austenite and to change the chemistry of the intergranular fracture surfaces. 61 figures.

  13. Arsenate uptake and arsenite simultaneous sorption and oxidation by Fe-Mn binary oxides: influence of Mn/Fe ratio, pH, Ca2+, and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Jefferson, William

    2012-01-15

    Arsenate retention, arsenite sorption and oxidation on the surfaces of Fe-Mn binary oxides may play an important role in the mobilization and transformation of arsenic, due to the common occurrence of these oxides in the environment. However, no sufficient information on the sorption behaviors of arsenic on Fe-Mn binary oxides is available. This study investigated the influences of Mn/Fe molar ratio, solution pH, coexisting calcium ions, and humic acids have on arsenic sorption by Fe-Mn binary oxides. To create Fe-Mn binary oxides, simultaneous oxidation and co-precipitation methods were employed. The Fe-Mn binary oxides exhibited a porous crystalline structure similar to 2-line ferrihydrite at Mn/Fe ratios 1:3 and below, whereas exhibited similar structures to δ-MnO(2) at higher ratios. The As(V) sorption maximum was observed at a Mn/Fe ratio of 1:6, but As(III) uptake maximum was at Mn/Fe ratio 1:3. However, As(III) adsorption capacity was much higher than that of As(V) at each Mn/Fe ratio. As(V) sorption was found to decrease with increasing pH, while As(III) sorption edge was different, depending on the content of MnO(2) in the binary oxides. The presence of Ca(2+) enhanced the As(V) uptake under alkaline pH, but did not significantly influence the As(III) sorption by 1:9 Fe-Mn binary oxide; whereas the presence of humic acid slightly reduced both As(V) and As(III) uptake. These results indicate that As(III) is more easily immobilized than As(V) in the environment, where Fe-Mn binary oxides are available as sorbents and they represent attractive adsorbents for both As(V) and As(III) removal from water and groundwater.

  14. Effect of on-site Coulomb interaction (U) on the electronic and magnetic properties of Fe2MnSi, Fe2MnAl and Co2MnGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sonu; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structures, density of states' plots and magnetic moments of Fe2MnSi, Fe2MnAl, and Co2MnGe are studied by using the first principles calculation. The FM solutions using LSDA without U show the presence of half-metallic ferromagnetic (HFM) ground state in Fe2MnSi, whereas the ground state of Fe2MnAl is found to be metallic. In both compounds the maximum contribution to the total magnetic moment is from the Mn atom, while the Fe atom contributes very less. The electronic structures and magnetic moments of Fe-based compounds are affected significantly by U under around-the-mean-field (AMF) double counting scheme, whereas its effect is very less on Co2MnGe. The magnetic moment of Fe atom in Fe2MnSi (Fe2MnAl) increased by ∼70% (∼75%) and in Mn atom it decreases by ∼50% (∼70%) when the value of U is increased from 1 to 5 eV. Hund's like exchange interactions are increasing in Fe atom while decreasing in Mn atom with increase in U. The Fe and Mn moments are ferromagnetically coupled in Fe2MnSi for all values of U, whereas in Fe2MnAl they are coupled antiferromagnetically below U=2 eV and ferromagnetically above it. Above U=2 eV the metallic ground state of Fe2MnAl changes to semiconducting ground state and the ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Mn atoms appears to be responsible for this. This shows that the validity of AFM double counting scheme is not robust for the entire range of U in the Fe2MnAl compound.

  15. Paramagnetic properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys: a DMFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, Alexander S.; Anisimov, Vladimir I.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bcc Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys by two different approaches. The first approach employs the coherent potential approximation (CPA) combined with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The material-specific Hamiltonians in the Wannier function basis are obtained by density functional theory. In the second approach, we construct supercells modeling the binary alloys and study them using DMFT. Both approaches lead to a qualitative agreement with experimental data. In particular, the decrease of Curie temperature with Mn content and a maximum at about 10 at.% V are well described in units of the Curie temperature of pure iron. In contrast to the Mn impurities, the V ones are found to be antiferromagnetically coupled to Fe atoms. Our calculations for the two-band Anderson–Hubbard model indicate that the antiferromagnetic coupling is responsible for a maximum in the concentration dependence of Curie temperature in Fe-V alloys.

  16. Paramagnetic properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys: a DMFT study.

    PubMed

    Belozerov, Alexander S; Anisimov, Vladimir I

    2016-09-01

    We calculate magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bcc Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys by two different approaches. The first approach employs the coherent potential approximation (CPA) combined with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The material-specific Hamiltonians in the Wannier function basis are obtained by density functional theory. In the second approach, we construct supercells modeling the binary alloys and study them using DMFT. Both approaches lead to a qualitative agreement with experimental data. In particular, the decrease of Curie temperature with Mn content and a maximum at about 10 at.% V are well described in units of the Curie temperature of pure iron. In contrast to the Mn impurities, the V ones are found to be antiferromagnetically coupled to Fe atoms. Our calculations for the two-band Anderson-Hubbard model indicate that the antiferromagnetic coupling is responsible for a maximum in the concentration dependence of Curie temperature in Fe-V alloys. PMID:27355416

  17. Paramagnetic properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys: a DMFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, Alexander S.; Anisimov, Vladimir I.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bcc Fe-Mn and Fe-V alloys by two different approaches. The first approach employs the coherent potential approximation (CPA) combined with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The material-specific Hamiltonians in the Wannier function basis are obtained by density functional theory. In the second approach, we construct supercells modeling the binary alloys and study them using DMFT. Both approaches lead to a qualitative agreement with experimental data. In particular, the decrease of Curie temperature with Mn content and a maximum at about 10 at.% V are well described in units of the Curie temperature of pure iron. In contrast to the Mn impurities, the V ones are found to be antiferromagnetically coupled to Fe atoms. Our calculations for the two-band Anderson-Hubbard model indicate that the antiferromagnetic coupling is responsible for a maximum in the concentration dependence of Curie temperature in Fe-V alloys.

  18. Magnetic properties and atomic ordering of BCC Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, atomic disorder and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. BCC Fe2MnGa ribbon samples were prepared. Experimentally, a saturation magnetic moment (3.68 μB at 5 K) much larger than the theoretical value (2.04 μB) has been reported. First-principles calculations indicate that the difference is related to the Fe-Mn disorder between A, B sites, as can also be deduced from the XRD pattern. L21 type Fe2MnGa is a ferrimagnet with antiparallel Fe and Mn spin moments. However, when Fe-Mn disorder occurs, part of Mn moments will be parallel to Fe moments, and the Fe moments also clearly increase simultaneously. All this results in a total moment of 3.74 μB, close to the experimental value.

  19. Multiferroicity in Mn-deficient Ca3CoMnO6: The consequence of Fe substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, M. F.; Guo, Y. J.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2013-07-01

    We present careful experiments on the multiferroicity in Ca3CoMn0.92O6 by Fe substitution of Mn. It is revealed that a proper Fe substitution modulates the Co/Mn spin order, favoring the ferroelectricity. The multifold interactions between the intra-chain spins and inter-chain spins are analyzed. It is suggested that the Mn deficiency and Fe substitution can break the inter-chain interactions to some extent, resulting in the delicate competition between these mutual interactions. The modulation of the ionic (charge) disorder and spin frustration order is the core physics for improving the ferroelectric performance.

  20. Fe-Mn nodules of the Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, E. S.; Skolotnev, S. G.

    2015-10-01

    The results of study of Fe-Mn crusts from the Mendeleev Ridge in the Arctic Ocean sampled with manipulators from a submarine are presented. In almost all the samples, the ore phase is significantly enriched in some valuable trace elements (Ni, Co, Cu, etc.), the contents of which exceed those in ores from the pelagic zones of other oceans. The high ore potential of the Arctic pelagic zone is stated and substantiated.

  1. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Fe Ions for Induction ofMicro-Nuclei at Low Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Groesser, Torsten; Chun, Eugene; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2007-01-16

    Dose-response curves for induction of micro-nuclei (MN) was measured in Chinese hamster V79 and xrs6 (Ku80-) cells and in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells in the dose range of 0.05-1 Gy. The Chinese Hamster cells were exposed to 1 GeV/u Fe ions, 600 MeV/u Fe ions, and 300 MeV/u Fe ions (LETs of 151, 176 and 235 keV/{micro}m respectively) as well as with 320 kVp X-rays as reference. Second-order polynomials were fitted to the induction curves and the initial slopes (the alpha values) were used to calculate RBE. For the repair proficient V79 cells the RBE at these low doses increased with LET. The values obtained were 3.1 (LET=151 keV/{micro}m), 4.3 (LET = 176 keV/{micro}m) and 5.7 (LET = 235 keV/{micro}m), while the RBE was close to 1 for the repair deficient xrs6 cells regardless of LET. For the MCF10A cells the RBE was determined for 1 GeV/u Fe ions and found to be 5.4, slightly higher than for V79 cells. To test the effect of shielding, the 1 GeV/u Fe ion beam was intercepted by various thickness of high-density polyethylene plastic absorbers, which resulted in energy loss and fragmentation. It was found that the MN yield for V79 cells placed behind the absorbers decreased in proportion to the decrease in dose both before and after the Fe ion Bragg peak (excluding the area around the Fe-ion Bragg peak itself), indicating that RBE did not change significantly due to shielding. At the Bragg peak the effectiveness for MN formation per unit dose was decreased, indicating an 'overkill' effect by low-energy very high-LET Fe ions.

  2. Electrochemical sensing property of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2013-02-01

    The Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were examined using uric acid (UA) as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards UA.

  3. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  4. Development of Fe-Mn-Al-X-C alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a low cost Cr-free, iron-base alloy for aerospace applications involves both element substitution and enhancement of microstructural strengthening. When Mn is substituted for Ni and Al or Si is substituted for Cr, large changes occur in the mechanical and thermal stability of austenite in FeMnAlC alloys. The in situ strength of MC or M2C (M = Ti, V, Hf, Ta, or Mo) in FeMnAlC alloys was determined. The high temperature tensile strength depends more on the distribution of carbides than the carbide composition. Precipitation of a high volume percent-ordered phase was achieved in Fe2OMnlONi6Al6Ti (lC) alloys. As case, these alloys have a homogeneous austenitic structure. After solutioning at 1100 C for 5 hr followed by aging at 600 C for 16 hr, gamma prime or a perovskite carbide is precipitated. Overaging occurs at 900 C where eta is precipitated.

  5. Towards a Superplastic Forming of Fe-Mn-Al Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guanabara, Paulo Jr.; Bueno, Levi de O.; Ferreira Batalha, Gilmar

    2011-01-17

    The aim is to study the characteristics of superplasticity, mostly on non qualified materials, such as austenitic steel of the Fe-Mn-Al alloy, which has some of the specific material parameters closely related to microstructural mechanisms. These parameters are used as indicators of material superplastic potentiality. The material was submitted to hot tensile testing, within a temperature range from 600 deg. C to 1000 deg. C and strain-rates varying from 10{sup -6} to 1 s{sup -1}. The strain rate sensitivity parameter (m) and observed maximum elongation until rupture ({epsilon}{sub r}) could be determined and also obtained from the hot tensile test. The experiments stated a possibility of superplastic behaviour in a Fe-Mn-Al alloy within a temperature range from 700 deg. C to 900 deg. C with grain size around 3 {mu}m (ASTM grain size 12) and average strain rate sensitivity of m {approx} 0.54, as well as a maximum elongation at rupture around 600%. The results are based on a more enhanced research from the authors; however, this paper has focused just on the hot tensile test, as further creep tests results are not available herein. There are rare examples of superplasticity study of an austenitic steel Fe-Mn-Al alloy, thus this work showed some possibility of exploring the potential use of such materials in this regime at temperatures {>=}700 deg. C.

  6. Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shufeng; Li, Run-Wei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yao, Kui; Wu, Yihong

    2016-03-01

    Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt bilayers with ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn has been characterized through planar Hall effect measurements. A large effective field of 2.05 ×10-5 to 2.44 ×10-5Oe (A-1cm2) is obtained for FeMn in the thickness range of 2-5 nm. The experimental observations can be reasonably accounted for by using a macrospin model under the assumption that the FeMn layer is composed of two spin sublattices with unequal magnetizations. The large effective field corroborates the spin Hall origin of the effective field, considering the much smaller uncompensated net moments in FeMn as compared to NiFe. The effective absorption of spin current by FeMn is further confirmed by the fact that spin current generated by Pt in NiFe/FeMn/Pt trilayers can only travel through the FeMn layer with a thickness of 1-4 nm. By quantifying the fieldlike effective field induced in NiFe, a spin diffusion length of 2 nm is estimated in FeMn, consistent with values reported in the literature by ferromagnetic resonance and spin-pumping experiments.

  7. The Mn-Fe negative correlation in olivines in ALHA 77257 ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Furuta, T.; Fujii, N.; Mckay, D. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Duke, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    An electron probe microanalyzer is used to measure the Mn, Fe, and oxygen zoning profiles of olivines in the ALHA 77257 ureilite. This is done to study the effects of reduction on the Mn-Fe value, as ureilite olivines exhibit thin reduced rims. Since the Mn content gradually increases toward the rim of ureilite olivines, while the Fa (= 100 x Fe/(Mg + Fe), mol percent) component decreases, the Mn-Fe content of olivine is likely related to redox conditions. The results of melting experiments suggest that the Mn-Fe positive correlation is related to temperature and that the negative correlation of Mn-Fe in olivine and low-Ca pyroxene is related to reduction.

  8. Influence of Partial Pressure of Sulfur and Oxygen on Distribution of Fe and Mn between Liquid Fe-Mn Oxysulfide and Molten Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Joong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Takekawa, Jun; Kitamura, Shin-Ya; Yamaguchi, Katsunori; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2012-10-01

    The authors proposed an innovative process for recovering Mn from steelmaking slag. The process starts with the sulfurization of steelmaking slag to separate P from Mn by the formation of a liquid sulfide phase (matte). Then, the obtained matte is weakly oxidized to make a Mn-rich oxide phase without P. High-purity Fe-Mn alloys can therefore be produced by the reduction of the Mn-rich oxide phase. However, to the authors' knowledge, the sulfurization of molten slag containing P and Mn has not been sufficiently investigated. It was recently found that P was not distributed to the matte in equilibrium with the molten slag. To gain knowledge of the process's development, it is important to investigate the influence of the partial pressures of sulfur and oxygen on the equilibrium distribution of Mn and Fe between the matte and the molten slag. In the current work, a mineralogical microstructure analysis of the matte revealed that the existence of the oxysulfide and metal phases was dependent on the partial pressure of sulfur and oxygen. The Mn content of the matte increased with partial pressure of sulfur while the O content of the matte decreased. In contrast, the ratio of Mn/Fe in the matte was constant when the metal phase of the matte was observed at a log P_{{{{O}}2 }} below -11. These results also corresponded to the relationship between the activity coefficient ratio of MnS/FeS and the mole fraction of MnS/FeS in the matte. The γ MnS/ γ FeS value decreased exponentially as the mole fraction of MnS/FeS increased.

  9. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmaldinov, K.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V.

    2014-05-01

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (TB) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate TB are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a TB larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the TB distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  10. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    SciTech Connect

    Akmaldinov, K.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V.

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  11. Variation in the structural and magnetic properties of heterovalent Mn2+-Si4+ substituted MnCrFeO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, R. H.; Desai, Kirti; Kadam, Supriya R.; Shirsath, Sagar E.

    2013-12-01

    We have synthesized heterovalent Mn2+-Si4+ substituted MnCrFeO nanoparticles with a nominal composition Mn1+xSixCrFe1-2xO4 (x = 0.0-0.3) via sol-gel auto-combustion method. X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization measurements were used to study the effects of Mn2+-Si4+ heterovalent ions on the structural and magnetic properties of MnCrFeO. As a result, it was found that the Mn2+-Si4+ ions affect the crystalline structures and magnetic properties of MnCrFeO. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the samples have the single phase cubic spinel structure of which the lattice constant slightly increased upon Mn2+-Si4+ substitution. The mean crystallite size of the samples was in the range of 21-27 nm as deduced from the XRD line broadening. Cation distribution was estimated using XRD data and it shows that Mn2+ and Si4+ ions prefer tetrahedral A-site. Magnetic measurement shows that saturation magnetization and magneton number decreased with Mn2+-Si4+ substitution with the formation of a collinear spin arrangement.

  12. Chemistry of arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Arsenic removal during coagulation or Fe-Mn oxidation is examined to aid utilities that desire to improve arsenic removal. Fundamental mechanisms of arsenic removal are discussed, optimization strategies are forwarded, and some new insights are provided to guide future research. Specifically, As(III) removals by coagulation are primarily controlled by coagulant dose and relatively unaffected by solution pH, whereas the converse is true for As(V). When compared on the basis of moles iron or aluminum hydroxide solid formed during coagulation, iron and aluminum coagulants are of demonstrably equal effectiveness in removing As(V) at pH < 7.5. However, iron-based coagulants are advantageous if soluble metal residuals are problematic, if pH is > 7.5, or if the raw water contains As(III). Arsenic removal during Fe-Mn oxidation is controlled by the quantity of iron removed [Fe(OH)[sub 3] formed] and is relatively independent of the quantity of manganese removed (MnOOH formed). 63 refs.

  13. Origin of concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides in stream sediments of Maine, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.; McHugh, J.B.; Hessin, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of stream and sediment-pore waters largely explain the genesis of concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides in Maine. Waters of two small streams near Jackman, Maine, were studied in terms of pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved Mn, total dissolved Fe, and ferrous and ferric Fe. Pyrite Creek has profuse concretions and coatings of Mn-Fe-oxides, whereas West Pyrite Creek has only sparse Mn-Fe-oxide stains. Pyrite Creek drains boggy terrain and West Pyrite Creek drains well-drained terrain. In West Pyrite Creek, stream and subjacent pore waters have chemical characteristics that do not differ greatly. However, dissolved Mn, ferrous Fe, dissolved oxygen, and in situ Eh measurements show that a steep Eh gradient exists between stream and subjacent pore waters of Pyrite Creek. The steep Eh gradient is manifested by the common zonation of coatings and stains on rocks in stream sediment. The bottom zone has no deposition of oxides, the middle zone is red and consists mostly of Fe-oxides, and the upper zone is black or dark-brown and consists of Mn-oxides with varying amounts of Fe-oxides. The zonation agrees with theoretical predictions of oxide stability as one moves from a reducing to an oxidizing environment. At locations where concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides form, pore waters are depleted of oxygen because of abundant decaying organic material in the stream sediment. The pore waters are charged with dissolved Mn and Fe because mechanically deposited Mn-Fe-oxides are remobilized due to the low-Eh conditions. Groundwaters also contribute dissolved Mn and Fe. Stream waters, on the other hand, are oxygenated and the high-Eh conditions result in low concentrations of dissolved Mn and Fe in stream waters because of the insolubility of Mn-Fe-oxides in high-Eh environments. Therefore, concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides form at the interface between pore and stream waters because Mn- and Fe-rich pore waters, which are undersaturated with respect to Mn-Fe-oxides, mix with

  14. Close correlation between magnetic properties and the soft phonon mode of the structural transition in BaFe>2mn>As>2mn> and SrFe>2mn>As>2mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Castellan, J. -P.; Lamago, D.; Mittal, R.; Wolf, Th.; Reznik, Dmitry

    2015-04-27

    Parent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in BaFe>2mn>As>2mn> and SrFe>2mn>As>2mn>. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.

  15. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH){sub max} of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  16. Magnetic Properties of MnFe2Ga Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgendy, Ahmed A.; Salehi-Fashami, Mohammad; Sellmyer, David; Hadjipanayis, George

    2015-03-01

    Recently, MnFe2Ga Heusler alloys have attracted significant attention due to their interesting physical properties such as large magnetic-field-induced strain, giant magnetocaloric effects,large magnetoresistance, and exchange bias behavior. These properties make them promising candidates for various practical applications in the field of smart materials, magnetic refrigeration and spintronics. In this work, we prepared MnFe2Ga alloys by melt-spinning and sputtering and studied the structural and magnetic properties. The melt-spun ribbons were prepared with a wheel speed of 30 m/s. The ribbons were annealed at different temperatures for 1 hour and grinded to make fine powders. The grinded powders were also used to make the target that is used in the cluster gun for the fabrication of MnFe2Ga nanoparticles. The structure of the as made, annealed ribbons, and powders displayed a face-centered-cubic structure. The microstructure of the as-made ribbons showed equiaxed grains with an average size of 3-5 μm while the annealed ribbons showed bigger grains with small particles covering homogeneously their surface. The magnetic properties show an enhancement of magnetization while coercivity remains the same with values M(3T) and HC of 85 emu/g and 150 Oe, respectively Transmission electron microscopy with elemental mapping is currently underway to determine the structure and composition of the surface nanoparticles. The work was supported by DOE-BES-DMSE (Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER4612).

  17. Fe-species-loaded mesoporous MnO2 superstructural requirements for enhanced catalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruting; Liu, Yanyu; Chen, Zhiwen; Pan, Dengyu; Li, Zhen; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L

    2015-02-25

    In this work, a novel catalyst, Fe-species-loaded mesoporous manganese dioxide (Fe/M-MnO2) urchinlike superstructures, has been fabricated successfully in a two-step technique. First, mesoporous manganese dioxide (M-MnO2) urchinlike superstructures have been synthesized by a facile method on a soft interface between CH2Cl2 and H2O without templates. Then the M-MnO2-immobilized iron oxide catalyst was obtained through wetness impregnation and calcination. Microstructural analysis indicated that the M-MnO2 was composed of urchinlike hollow submicrospheres assembled by nanorod building blocks with rich mesoporosity. The Fe/M-MnO2 retained the hollow submicrospheres, which were covered by hybridized composites with broken and shortened MnO2 nanorods. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to determine the availability of Fe loading processes and the homogeneity of Fe in Fe/M-MnO2. Catalytic performances of the M-MnO2 and Fe/M-MnO2 were evaluated in catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of methylene blue (MB), a typical organic pollutant in dyeing wastewater. The catalytic degradation displayed highly efficient discoloration of MB when using the Fe/M-MnO2 catalyst, e.g., ca. 94.8% of MB was decomposed when the reaction was conducted for 120 min. The remarkable stability of this Fe/M-MnO2 catalyst in the reaction medium was confirmed by an iron leaching test and reuse experiments. Mechanism analysis revealed that the hydroxyl free radical was responsible for the removal of MB and catalyzed by M-MnO2 and Fe/M-MnO2. MB was transformed into small organic compounds and then further degraded into CO2 and H2O. The new insights obtained in this study will be beneficial for the practical applications of heterogeneous catalysts in wastewater treatments. PMID:25626157

  18. Cu-Mn-Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Jabal Samran area (western Saudi Arabia), secondary copper mineralization in a NE-trending shear zone in which the arc metavolcanic host rocks (dacite-rhyodacite) show conjugate fractures and extensive hydrothermal alteration and bleaching. The zones contain frequent Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides (FeOH-MnOH) that resulted from oxidation of pyrite and Mn-bearing silicates. In the bleached part, the groundmass is represented by Fe-bearing interstratified illite-smectite with up to 4.02 wt% FeOt. FeOH-MnOH are pre-weathering phases formed by hydrothermal alteration in a submarine environment prior to uplifting. Five varieties of FeOH are distinguished, four of them are exclusively hydrothermal with ∼20 wt% H2O whereas the fifth contains ∼31-33 wt% H2O and might represent reworking of earlier hydrothermal FeOH phases by weathering. FeOH fills thin fractures in the form of veinlets and crenulated laminae or as a pseudomorph for pyrite, goethite and finally ferrihydrite, and this oxyhydroxide is characterized by positive correlation of Fe2O3 with SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, MOH shows positive correlation between MnO2 and Al2O3 whereas it is negative between Fe2O3 and SiO2. Paratacamite is the most common secondary copper mineral that fills fractures and post-dates FeOH and MnOH. It is believed that Cl- in the structure of paratacamite represents inherited marine storage rather than from surfacial evaporates or meteoric water. The mineralogy of slags suggests a complicated mineral assemblage that includes native Cu prills, synthetic spinifixed Mn-rich amphiboles with 16.73 wt% MnO, brown glass and Ca-Mn-Fe phase close to the olivine structure. EMPA indicate that the some Cu prills have either grey discontinuous boarder zone of S-rich Mn-Cu alloy (with up to 21.95 wt% S and 19.45 wt% Mn) or grey Cu-Mn-Fe alloy (with up to 15.9 wt% Cu, 39. 12 wt% Mn and 61.64 wt% Fe). Mn in the Cu prills is expelled inward as Cu-Mn-Fe alloy inclusions whereas S is expelled

  19. Fe-Mg-Mn relations of ureilite olivines and pyroxenes and the genesis of ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Microprobe analyses of ureilite and pigeonite cores are studied. The Fe/Mn-Fe/Mg relationship in the olivine core is examined. It is observed that magnetic processs such as fractional crystallization and partial melting, and FeO reduction contribute to the olivine core composition. The study of the Mg/Mn and Fe/Mn distributions reveals that these two distributions are not in equilibrium in the olivine and pigeonite cores. The effect of a reducing agent, carbon, on the ureilite genesis is investigated. It is concluded that fractional crystallization and FeO reduction are the major processes of ureilite genesis.

  20. The improvement of cryogenic mechanical properties of Fe-12 Mn and Fe-8 Mn alloy steels through thermal/mechanical treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. K.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been made to improve the low temperature mechanical properties of Fe-8Mn and Fe-12Mn-0.2 Ti alloy steels. A reversion annealing heat treatment in the two-phase (alpha + gamma) region following cold working has been identified as an effective treatment. In an Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti alloy a promising combination of low temperature (-196 C) fracture toughness and yield strength was obtained by this method. The improvement of properties was attributed to the refinement of grain size and to the introduction of a uniform distribution of retained austenite (gamma). It was also shown that an Fe-8Mn steel could be grain-refined by a purely thermal treatment because of its dislocated alpha-prime martensitic structure and absence of epsilon martensite. As a result, a significant reduction of ductile to brittle transition temperature was obtained.

  1. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-09-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  2. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  3. Application of damping mechanism model and stacking fault probability in Fe-Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Wen, Y.H.; Li, N. Teng, J.; Ding, S.; Xu, Y.G.

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, the damping mechanism model of Fe-Mn alloy was analyzed using dislocation theory. Moreover, as an important parameter in Fe-Mn based alloy, the effect of stacking fault probability on the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy after deep-cooling or tensile deformation was also studied. The damping capacity was measured using reversal torsion pendulum. The stacking fault probability of {gamma}-austenite and {epsilon}-martensite was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis. The microstructure was observed using scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results indicated that with the strain amplitude increasing above a critical value, the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy increased rapidly which could be explained using the breakaway model of Shockley partial dislocations. Deep-cooling and suitable tensile deformation could improve the damping capacity owning to the increasing of stacking fault probability of Fe-19.35Mn alloy.

  4. The synthesis of open-shell, bimetallic Mn/Fe trinuclear clusters

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Tamara M.; Gu, Nina; Fout, Alison R.; Baldwin, Anne M.; Sánchez, Raúl Hernández; Alfonso, Denise M.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant deprotonation and metallation of hexadentate ligand platform tbsLH6 (tbsLH6 = 1,3,5-C6H9(NHC6H4-o-NHSiMe2 tBu)3) with divalent transition metal starting materials Fe2(Mes)4 (Mes = mesityl) or Mn3(Mes)6 in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) resulted in isolation of homotrinuclear complexes (tbsL)Fe3(THF) and (tbsL)Mn3(THF) respectively. In the absence of coordinating solvent (THF) the deprotonation and metallation exclusively afforded dinuclear complexes of the type (tbsLH2)M2 (M = Fe or Mn). The resulting dinuclear species were utilized as synthons to prepare bimetallic trinuclear clusters. Treatment of (tbsLH2)Fe2 complex with divalent Mn source (Mn2(N(SiMe3)2)4) afforded the bimetallic complex (tbsL)Fe2Mn(THF) which established the ability of hexamine ligand tbsLH6 to support mixed metal clusters. The substitutional homogeneity of (tbsL)Fe2Mn(THF) was determined by 1H NMR, 57Fe Mössbauer, and X-ray fluorescence. Anomalous scattering measurements were critical for the unambiguous assignment of the trinuclear core composition. Heating a solution of (tbsLH2)Mn2 with a stoichiometric amount of Fe2(Mes)4 (0.5 mol equiv) affords a mixture of both (tbsL)Mn2Fe(THF) and (tbsL)Fe2Mn(THF) as a result of the thermodynamic preference for heavier metal substitution within the hexa-anilido ligand framework. These results demonstrate for the first time the assembly of mixed metal cluster synthesis in an unbiased ligand platform. PMID:23984911

  5. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4.

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance study of the misalignment between anisotropy axes in exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn/Co trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, P. G.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Alayo, W.; Litterst, F. J.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2014-05-01

    Exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn/Co trilayers were grown by dc magnetron sputtering and analyzed by in-plane ferromagnetic resonance using Q-band microwaves. The experiments revealed that distinct Co and NiFe resonance modes were excited by the microwave field. A misalignment between the anisotropy axes of the magnetic layers was deduced from the angular variations of the resonance fields, which also showed the effects of uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. A phenomenological model was used to fit the experimental results taking also into account a rotatable anisotropy field associated to the domain structure of the FeMn layer and the magnetic history of the films.

  7. Dilute ferrimagnetism of ilmenites Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazuev, G. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Golovkin, B. G.

    2016-07-01

    Metastable solid solutions (SS) Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 with the ilmenite structure (space group R bar 3) have been prepared by quenching at normal conditions. The compositions of the compounds have been justified using EDX spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of SSs have been analyzed by comparison with ferrimagnetic ilmenite Mn2FeSbO6 ( T N = 269 K) as a natural mineral and ceramics obtained at high pressure and high temperature. The solid solutions have been characterized as dilute magnetic systems formed as a result of substitution of nonmagnetic cations Ti4+ for a part of Fe3+ and Sb5+ cations. Mn3FeTiSbO9 is considered as a ferromagnetic with T N = 171 K and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 as a magnetic with the concentration of magnetic clusters below the percolation threshold.

  8. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  9. Impact of Mn on the solution enthalpy of hydrogen in austenitic Fe-Mn alloys: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    von Appen, Jörg; Dronskowski, Richard; Chakrabarty, Aurab; Hickel, Tilmann; Spatschek, Robert; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen interstitials in austenitic Fe-Mn alloys were studied using density-functional theory to gain insights into the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength Mn steels. The investigations reveal that H atoms at octahedral interstitial sites prefer a local environment containing Mn atoms rather than Fe atoms. This phenomenon is closely examined combining total energy calculations and crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis. Contributions from various electronic phenomena such as elastic, chemical, and magnetic effects are characterized. The primary reason for the environmental preference is a volumetric effect, which causes a linear dependence on the number of nearest-neighbour Mn atoms. A secondary electronic/magnetic effect explains the deviations from this linearity.

  10. Antiferromagnetic FeMn alloys electrodeposited from chloride-based electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gómez, Sandra; Ranchal, Rocío; Abuín, Manuel; Aragón, Ana María; Velasco, Víctor; Marín, Pilar; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Pérez, Lucas

    2016-03-21

    The capability of synthesizing Fe-based antiferromagnetic metal alloys would fuel the use of electrodeposition in the design of new magnetic devices such as high-aspect-ratio spin valves or new nanostructured hard magnetic composites. Here we report the synthesis of high quality antiferromagnetic FeMn alloys electrodeposited from chloride-based electrolytes. We have found that in order to grow homogeneous FeMn films it is necessary to incorporate a large concentration of NH4Cl as an additive in the electrolyte. The study of the structure and magnetic properties shows that films with composition close to Fe50Mn50 are homogeneous antiferromagnetic alloys. We have established a parameter window for the synthesis of FeMn alloys that show antiferromagnetism at room temperature.

  11. Controlling phosphate releasing from poultry litter using stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenbo; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-15

    Animal wastes contain high concentrations of phosphorus (P), most of which is lost into the environment due to uncontrolled release rates. Polysaccharide stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles were prepared and tested for phosphate adsorption from water and for controlling leachability of P from poultry litter. A water soluble starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as a stabilizer. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir models were able to adequately interpret the isotherm data. The Langmuir maximum capacity was determined at 252, 298 and 313 mg-P/g for bare, CMC- and starch-stabilized nanoparticles, respectively. The presence of the stabilizers not only enhanced the sorption capacity, but facilitated delivery and dispersion of the nanoparticles in poultry litter (PL) and in soil. High phosphate sorption capacity was observed over a broad pH range of 4-9. FTIR analyses indicated that inner sphere surface complexation (Fe-O-P) was the key mechanism for the enhanced uptake of P. When applied to poultry litter, the stabilized nanoparticles reduced water leachable phosphate by >86% at a dose of 0.2 g/L as Fe, and simultaneously, water leachable arsenic by >87-95%. Under conditions of simulated land application of PL, the nanoparticle amendment of PL reduced the water soluble P from 66% (for untreated PL) to 4.4%, and lowered the peak soluble P concentration from 300 to <20 mg/L. By transferring the peak soluble P to the nanoparticle-bound P, the nanoparticles not only greatly reduce the potential runoff loss of P from PL, but also provide a long-term slow-releasing nutrient source. Fortuitously, the nanoparticle treatment was able to immobilize arsenic from PL. With excellent adsorption capacity, easy deliverability, low cost and environmental innocuousness, the stabilized Fe-Mn nanoparticles appear promising for controlling P releases from poultry litter or other animal wastes and for phosphate recovery from water. PMID:26442720

  12. In-trap decay of 61Mn and Coulomb excitation of 61Mn/61Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Walle, J.; Bildstein, V.; Bree, N.; Cederkäll, J.; Delahaye, P.; Diriken, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gustafsson, A.; Herlert, A.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Marsh, B.; Partronis, N.; van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.; Lenzi, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    At ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) facilities, which utilize thick primary production targets, beams of neutron-rich iron isotopes are difficult to obtain due to the long extraction time of these isotopes out of the target matrix. At REX-ISOLDE, an exploratory experiment was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing a post-accelerated beam of neutron-rich iron isotopes by the in-trap decay of neutron-rich manganese isotopes, which are available at ISOLDE using the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). This production mechanism was tested for the first time at REX-ISOLDE with an intense and short-lived beam of 61Mn isotopes. In this work, the proof of principle of this method is demonstrated, although the technical details of the trapping process are currently not well understood and are still under investigation. The first physics results on the Coulomb excitation of 61Mn and 61Fe are presented and compared to shell model calculations.

  13. Adsorption of Mn2+ from aqueous solution using Fe and Mn oxide-coated sand.

    PubMed

    Kan, Chi-Chuan; Aganon, Mannie C; Futalan, Cybelle Morales; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P

    2013-07-01

    The adsorption of Mn2+ onto immobilized Mn-oxide and Fe-oxide adsorbent such as manganese oxide-coated sandl (MOCS1), manganese oxide-coated sand2 (MOCS2), iron oxide-coated sand2 (IOCS2), and manganese and iron oxide-coated sand (MIOCS) was investigated. The effects of pH (5.5 to 8.0) and temperature (25 to 45 degrees C) on the equilibrium capacity were examined. Equilibrium studies showed that there is a good fit with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm, which indicates surface heterogeneity and monolayer adsorption of the adsorbents. Kinetic data showed high correlation with the pseudo second-order model, which signifies a chemisorption-controlled mechanism. The activation energies, activation parameters (deltaG, deltaH, deltaS), and thermodynamic parameters (deltaG0, deltaH0, deltaS0) confirmed that adsorption with MIOCS was endothermic and more spontaneous at higher temperature while an opposite trend was observed for the other adsorbents. Thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption involved formation of activated complex, where MOCS 1 and MIOCS follow a physical-chemical mechanism, while MOCS2 and IOCS2 follows purely chemical mechanism. PMID:24218863

  14. Ab initio study of Fe{sub 2}MnZ (Al, Si, Ge) Heusler alloy using GGA approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vivek Kumar Jain, Vishal Lakshmi, N. Venugopalan, K.

    2014-04-24

    Density functional theory based on FP-LAPW method used to investigate the electronic structure of Fe{sub 2}MnZ, shows that the total spin magnetic moment shows a trend consistent with the Slater–Pauling curve. The Fe and Mn magnetic moment depend on choice of Z element although the magnetic moment of Z element is negative and less than 0.1 μ{sub B}. Spin polarization calculations evidence 100% spin polarization for Fe{sub 2}MnSi. Fe{sub 2}MnAl and Fe{sub 2}MnGe show metallic behavior with 93%, 98% spin polarization.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of (Fe/Mn) exchange-biased multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bahoui, A.; Genevois, C.; Juraszek, J.; Bordel, C.; Ledue, D.

    2013-05-01

    Exchange-biasing of ferromagnetic (F) Fe layers by adjacent antiferromagnetic (AF) Mn layers has been investigated in (Fe/Mn)10 multilayered films. This study has been focused on the relationship between the evolution of the exchange-bias field and the evolution of the film microstructure as a function of the deposition temperature. The increase of the deposition temperature results in the formation of an Fe-Mn alloy at the interfaces and columnar features whose size increases with the deposition temperature. In parallel, the exchange-bias field decreases significantly, due to interface roughness.

  16. Ni spin switching induced by magnetic frustration in FeMn/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2009-03-08

    Epitaxially grown FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) films are investigated by Photoemission Electron Microscopy and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect. We find that as the FeMn overlayer changes from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic state, it could switch the ferromagnetic Ni spin direction from out-of-plane to in-plane direction of the film. This phenomenon reveals a new mechanism of creating magnetic anisotropy and is attributed to the out-of-plane spin frustration at the FeMn-Ni interface.

  17. [Spatial and temporal variation of Fe and Mn in the stormwater wetland].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-feng; Shan, Bao-qing; Ma, Jun-jian; Gao, Xin-guo; Ding, Shi-gang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jing

    2011-05-01

    To study the purification mechanism and biogeochemical cycle of wetlands, the concentration of Fe/Mn and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) in the pore water were monitored in situ on the Wuhan Zoo stormwater wetland from 2004 to 2006. The results showed that the water level of the wetland was changed from -10 cm to 30 cm, and the range of ORP was-120-220 mV. The elements of sulfur, iron and manganese were the main oxidation and reduction systems in the wetland. The ranges of total Fe, Mn and Fe2+ concentration were 0.60-2.35, 0.75-1.89 and 0.20-1.25 mg x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of total Fe, Mn and Fe2+ were higher in spring and summer than that in autumn and winter, while the sulfate concentration was on the contrary and the ratio of Fe2+/Fe was slightly various in different seasons. From the surface of 10 cm to 50 cm underground, ORP and pH was decreased, whereas the concentrations of total Fe, Mn and Fe2+ were increased (except for the surface water). Through the correlation analysis, it was showed that the correlation of ORP and total Mn and Fe2+ was negative and significant, while there was no significant correlation between ORP and total Fe (R = -0.169, p < 0.0001). The order of the correlation coefficient was total Mn, Fe and Fe2+ in turn. Therefore, the systems of sulfur, iron and manganese were the important component of the oxidation and reduction system for stormwater wetland.

  18. Magnetic properties and loss separation in FeSi/MnZnFe2O4 soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauda, M.; Füzer, J.; Kollár, P.; Strečková, M.; Bureš, R.; Kováč, J.; Baťková, M.; Baťko, I.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated composites that have been prepared from FeSi powders covered with MnZnFe2O4 (MnZn ferrite), which was prepared by sol-gel synthesis accompanied with the auto-combustion process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex permeability and core losses of prepared samples with different amount of MnZn ferrite. The microstructure and the powder morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements on bulk samples were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer, an impedance analyzer and hysteresisgraphs. The results indicate that the composites with 2.6 wt% MnZn ferrite show better soft magnetic properties than the composites with about 6 wt% MnZn ferrite.

  19. Preparation of a novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite and its application for aqueous Hg(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingchun; Huang, Yao; Gong, Yanyan; Lyu, Honghong; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Jianli

    2016-10-01

    A novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (GO/Fe-Mn) composite was synthesized (molar ratio of Fe/Mn=3/1 and mass ratio of Fe/GO=1/7.5) and investigated for the sorption characteristics and mechanisms of aqueous mercury (Hg(2+)) as well as the biological effects to wheat and rice. Characterization tests showed that Fe-Mn oxides were impregnated onto GO sheets in an amorphous form through oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., CO, epoxy COC, carboxyl OCO, and CO) and π-π interactions. GO/Fe-Mn possessed large surface area, surface enhanced Raman scattering with more sp(3) defects, and greater thermal stability than GO. XPS analysis revealed that Fe2O3, FeOOH, MnO2, MnOOH, and MnO were the dominant metal oxides in GO/Fe-Mn. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Sips isotherm model fitted well with the sorption kinetic and isotherm data. The maximum sorption capacity for mercury was 32.9mg/g. Ligand exchange and surface complexation were the dominant mechanisms for mercury removal. GO/Fe-Mn greatly reduced the bioavailability of mercury to wheat and rice, even promoted the seedling growth. This work suggests that GO/Fe-Mn can be used as an effective and environmental-friendly adsorbent in heavy metal remediation. PMID:27232726

  20. Preparation of a novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite and its application for aqueous Hg(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingchun; Huang, Yao; Gong, Yanyan; Lyu, Honghong; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Jianli

    2016-10-01

    A novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (GO/Fe-Mn) composite was synthesized (molar ratio of Fe/Mn=3/1 and mass ratio of Fe/GO=1/7.5) and investigated for the sorption characteristics and mechanisms of aqueous mercury (Hg(2+)) as well as the biological effects to wheat and rice. Characterization tests showed that Fe-Mn oxides were impregnated onto GO sheets in an amorphous form through oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., CO, epoxy COC, carboxyl OCO, and CO) and π-π interactions. GO/Fe-Mn possessed large surface area, surface enhanced Raman scattering with more sp(3) defects, and greater thermal stability than GO. XPS analysis revealed that Fe2O3, FeOOH, MnO2, MnOOH, and MnO were the dominant metal oxides in GO/Fe-Mn. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Sips isotherm model fitted well with the sorption kinetic and isotherm data. The maximum sorption capacity for mercury was 32.9mg/g. Ligand exchange and surface complexation were the dominant mechanisms for mercury removal. GO/Fe-Mn greatly reduced the bioavailability of mercury to wheat and rice, even promoted the seedling growth. This work suggests that GO/Fe-Mn can be used as an effective and environmental-friendly adsorbent in heavy metal remediation.

  1. Phase stabilization of Fe substituted NdMn2O5 ceramics and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Saravana; Venkateswaran, C.

    2015-08-01

    An oxide of stoichiometry, NdFeMnO5, has been synthesized using a two-step process. First the precursor oxides are high-energy ball milled and the as-milled powders are then sintered to obtain the NdFeMnO5 phase. Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern, by replacing the Mn3+ sites with Fe3+, shows the formation of stoichiometric NdFeMnO5. Nd & Mn are found to be in +3 and +4 states, respectively from the XPS study. Agglomeration of fine grains is evident from the electron micrographs. Fe3+ has a magnetic moment higher than Mn3+, and hence affects the magnetic property. Thermo-magnetization measurements show the existence of magnetic ordering below 290 K. An increase in magnetization at low temperature is also observed due to ordering of R3+ moments in addition to Fe and Mn spin moments. A linear increase in conductivity and stable dielectric response is observed from impedance study at high temperature.

  2. FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films studied using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Li, J.; Tan, A.; Park, J.; Jin, E.; Son, H.; Doran, A.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-07-31

    FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films were grown epitaxially and investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy. We found that FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) exhibits the same properties as FeMn/Co/Cu(1,1,10) for the ferromagnetic phase of the face centered cubic (fcc) Fe film but a different property for the non-ferromagnetic phase of the fcc Fe film. This result indicates that the characteristic property reported in the literature for FeMn/Co/Cu(001) comes from the FeMn spin structure and is independent of the ferromagnetic layer.

  3. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn2FeAs alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-01

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn2FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg2CuTi-type Mn2FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn2FeAs applying in the future spintronics field.

  4. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Cyano-Bridged MA-Fe System (MA=Mn, Fe, and Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Hayato; Moritomo, Yutaka; Kosaka, Wataru; Ohkoshi, Shinichi

    2008-09-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) dynamics has been investigated for Prussian blue-type MA-Fe cyanides (MA=Mn, Fe, and Co) grown in hydrophilic cavities of a Nafion 117 film. In all the compounds, we observed the suppression of the original CT absorption between neighboring transition metals. We found that the spectral profile of the slow component for the Fe compound is similar to that for the Co compound, reflecting the photo created d6 state at the MA site.

  5. On the magnetic structure of noncollinear γ-Fe70Mn30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Ukai, T.; Mori, N.

    1988-04-01

    The approximate d bands for a noncollinear γ-FeMn alloy are formulated by using Deegan's method and the formulas of Slater and Koster, and by taking into account the exchange interaction terms to produce the multi-spin-density-wave state. The electronic energies for the noncollinear γ-Fe70Mn30 alloy with the spin directions parallel to [100], [110], and [111] are calculated and the anisotropy energy is determined. It is seen that the state with the spin direction [111] becomes the lowest and the multi-spin-density-wave state is realized in it. For other noncollinear γ-FeMn alloys some discussions are given on the magnetic structure for them. Additionally, the anisotropy energies for noncollinear and collinear γ-FeMn alloys are discussed in detail.

  6. Eutectic equilibria in the quaternary system Fe-Cr-Mn-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S.; Schuster, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution of the quaternary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-C and to a lesser extent of the quinary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-Al-C were examined for in situ composite alloy candidates. Multivariant eutectic compositions were determined from phase equilibria studies wherein M7C3 carbides (approximately 30% by volume) formed from the melt within gamma iron. An extended field of the hexagonal carbide, (Cr, Fe, Mn)7 C3, was found without undergoing transformation to the orthorhombic structure. Increasing stability for this carbide was found for higher ratios of Cr/Fe(+) Cr + Mn. Aluminum additions promoted a ferritic matrix while manganese favored the desired gamma austenitic matrix. In coexistence with the matrix phase, chromium enters preferentially the carbide phase while manganese distributes equally between the gamma matrix and the M7C3 carbide. The composition and lattice parameters of the carbide and matrix phases were determined to establish their respective stabilities.

  7. Substituting Fe for two of the four Mn ions in photosystem II-effects on water-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Semin, Boris K; Seibert, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Fe(II) cations with Ca-depleted PSII membranes (PSII[-Ca,4Mn]) in the dark and found that Fe(II) incubation removes 2 of 4 Mn ions from the tetranuclear Mn cluster of the photosynthetic O2-evolving complex (OEC). The reduction of Mn ions in PSII(-Ca,4Mn) by Fe(II) and the concomitant release of two Mn(II) cations is accompanied by the binding of newly generated Fe(III) in at least one vacated Mn site. Flash-induced chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield measurements of this new 2Mn/nFe cluster (PSII[-Ca,2Mn,nFe]) show that charge recombination in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) occurs between Qa (-) and the remaining Mn/Fe cluster (but not YZ (●)) in the OEC, and extraction of 2 Mn occurs uniformly in all PSII complexes. No O2 evolution is observed, but the heteronuclear metal cluster in PSII(-Ca,2Mn,nFe) samples is still able to supply electrons for reduction of the exogenous electron acceptor, 2,6-dichlorophrenolindophenol, by photooxidizing water and producing H2O2 in the absence of an exogenous donor as seen previously with PSII(-Ca,4Mn). Selective extraction of Mn or Fe cations from the 2Mn/nFe heteronuclear cluster demonstrates that the high-affinity Mn-binding site is occupied by one of the iron cations. It is notable that partial water-oxidation function still occurs when only two Mn cations are present in the PSII OEC.

  8. Synthesis of MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Mn) Nanoparticles with Tunable Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Lourdes I.; Somoza, Álvaro; Serna, Carlos J.; Morales, M. Puerto

    2010-10-01

    Monodisperse MFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles (with M = Fe, and Mn) of narrow size distribution has been achieved in a one step synthesis by thermal decomposition of Mn (II) oleate and Fe (III) oleate, with tunable sizes between 5 and 20 nm. These nanoparticles were functionalized with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and bis(carboxymethyl)(2-maleimidylethyl)ammonium 4-toluenesulfonate (MATS) for possible biomedical applications.

  9. Exchange anisotropy and micromagnetic properties of PtMn/NiFe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhil, Taras; Linville, Eric; Mao, Sining

    2001-06-01

    Magnetic microstructure, exchange induced uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy and structural transformation have been studied in PtMn/NiFe bilayer films and small elements as a function of annealing time. The relationship between the fcc-fct ordering phase transformation in PtMn and the development of exchange induced magnetic properties in PtMn/NiFe bilayers is complicated by the fact that the transformation occurs throughout the entire volume of the PtMn film, while the exchange between the layers is predominantly an interface effect. Consequently, the development of the exchange anisotropy should depend primarily on the character of the structural transformation at the interface between PtMn and NiFe. The purpose of this article is to correlate the volume phase transformation in PtMn to the development of exchange anisotropy and micromagnetic behavior in PtMn/NiFe bilayers. The interface structure can be inferred from the anisotropy and micromagnetic measurements, leading to a model that explains the relationship between the volume and interface transformation structures in PtMn, and magnetic properties of the bilayers. The structure and magnetic properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, and magnetic force microscopy.

  10. Degradable metallic biomaterials: design and development of Fe-Mn alloys for stents.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Hendra; Dubé, Dominique; Mantovani, Diego

    2010-04-01

    Designing materials having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key for the development of biodegradable materials for medical applications, including stents. A series of Fe-Mn alloys was developed with the objective to obtain mechanical properties similar to those of stainless steel 316L and degradation behavior more suited than pure iron. Four alloys with Mn content ranging between 20 and 35 wt % were compared in this study. Their microstructure, mechanical properties, magnetic properties as well as degradation behavior were carefully investigated. Results show that their microstructure is mainly composed of gamma phase with the appearance of epsilon phase in alloys having a lower Mn content. The yield strength and elongation of alloys was comprised between 234 MPa and 32% for Fe-35%Mn alloy to 421 MPa and 7.5% for the Fe-20%Mn alloy. All alloys show similar magnetic susceptibility ( approximately 1.8 x 10(-7) m(3)/kg) in the quenched condition. This magnetic susceptibility remains constant after plastic deformation for all the tested alloys except for the Fe-20%Mn alloy. The corrosion rate was higher than pure iron. Among the alloys studied in this work, the Fe-35%Mn alloy shows mechanical properties and degradation behavior closely approaching those required for biodegradable stents application.

  11. Degradable metallic biomaterials: design and development of Fe-Mn alloys for stents.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Hendra; Dubé, Dominique; Mantovani, Diego

    2010-04-01

    Designing materials having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key for the development of biodegradable materials for medical applications, including stents. A series of Fe-Mn alloys was developed with the objective to obtain mechanical properties similar to those of stainless steel 316L and degradation behavior more suited than pure iron. Four alloys with Mn content ranging between 20 and 35 wt % were compared in this study. Their microstructure, mechanical properties, magnetic properties as well as degradation behavior were carefully investigated. Results show that their microstructure is mainly composed of gamma phase with the appearance of epsilon phase in alloys having a lower Mn content. The yield strength and elongation of alloys was comprised between 234 MPa and 32% for Fe-35%Mn alloy to 421 MPa and 7.5% for the Fe-20%Mn alloy. All alloys show similar magnetic susceptibility ( approximately 1.8 x 10(-7) m(3)/kg) in the quenched condition. This magnetic susceptibility remains constant after plastic deformation for all the tested alloys except for the Fe-20%Mn alloy. The corrosion rate was higher than pure iron. Among the alloys studied in this work, the Fe-35%Mn alloy shows mechanical properties and degradation behavior closely approaching those required for biodegradable stents application. PMID:19437432

  12. Atomic structural and electrochemical impact of Fe substitution on nano porous LiMnPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Inseok; Senthilkumar, B.; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Youngsik; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    The atomic structural and electrochemical properties of Fe substituted nano porous LiMn1-xFexPO4 (x = 0-0.8) composites are investigated and compared. X-ray scattering method is used for atomic structural investigation. Rietveld refinement shows that all Fe substituted composites have the same olivine structure (Pnma) with lithium occupying octahedral 4a sites, Fe2+ replacing Mn2+ at the octahedral 4c sites. The a, b, c parameters and cell volume decrease with the addition of Fe2+. When the nano porous LiMn1-xFexPO4 composites are evaluated as cathode materials in lithium cells at room temperature, x = 0.6, and 0.8 resulted in the best overall electrochemical performance, exhibiting stable cycling and high discharge capacities of 149 and 154 mA h g-1, respectively. The composites with above x = 0.4 show a fast lithium ions transfer with high electronic conductivity because Fe transition metal substitution reduce the partly occupation of Mn in the M1 (LiO6) sites and thereby Mn block the lithium ion diffusion pathway. We here firstly find the antisite defect in the high Mn content in porous LiMn1-xFexPO4 composites.

  13. Influence of Mn substitution on crystal structure and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of nanocrystalline Co1- x Mn x Fe2-2 x Mn2 x O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lawrence; Kumar, Pawan; Kar, Manoranjan

    2013-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Mn substituted cobalt ferrite Co1- x Mn x Fe2-2 x Mn2 x O4 ( x = 0.0-0.4) has been synthesized by the standard citrate-gel method. The structural and magnetic characteristics of all samples have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and VSM techniques. Distributions of cations between the two interstitial sites (tetrahedral and octahedral site) have been estimated qualitatively by analyzing the powder X-ray diffraction patterns by employing the Rietveld refinement technique. All samples are found to be mixed spinel with cubic structure ( Fdmathop 3limits^{ - } m space group). The FT-IR study shows the presence of absorption bands in the range of 390-750 cm-1, which confirm the spinel structure of the sample. The stoichiometry of Co, Fe, Mn and O ions in the sample has been obtained by using energy-dispersive spectrum with help of an FE-SEM. The magnetizations in saturation have been analyzed by employing the "law of approach" technique. The saturation magnetization, coercivity and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant depend upon Mn ion concentration and crystallite size.

  14. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters.

  15. Fe and Mn removal from mining drainage using goaf filling materials obtained from coal mining process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Chen, Aolei; Qu, Hongbin; Xu, Shouqiang; Zhang, Xue; He, Xuwen

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue, sandy soil and clay (mass ratio 45:4:1) as goaf filling materials acquired from coal mining processes were applied to remove Fe and Mn effectively from mining drainage. The results of an adsorption kinetic study showed that the Fe adsorption equation was y=21.454y+8.4712, R2=0.9924 and the Mn adsorption equation was y=7.5409x+0.905, R2=0.9957. Meanwhile, the goaf filling materials had low desorption capacity (Fe 6.765 μg/g, Mn 1.52 μg/g) and desorption ratio (Fe 8.98%, Mn 11.04%). Experiments demonstrated that Fe and Mn from mining drainage could be removed stably at a flow rate of 1.2 L/min, Fe inlet concentration of less than 40 mg/L, Mn inlet concentration of less than 2 mg/L and neutral or alkaline conditions. During a procedure of continuous experiments, the effluent quality could meet the requirement of the 'Code for Engineering Design of Sewage Regeneration-GB503352-2002'. A real-application project using goaf filling materials to treat mining drainage in Shendong coal mine showed that the average cost per ton of mining drainage was about 0.55 RMB, which could bring about considerable economic benefit for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26606087

  16. Removal of tetracycline from water by Fe-Mn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Yang; Kang, Jin; Fan, Maohong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-01-01

    Significant concerns have been raised over the presence of antibiotics including tetracyclines in aquatic environments. A series of Fe-Mn binary oxide with different Fe:Mn molar ratios was synthesized by a simultaneous oxidation and coprecipitation process for TC removal. Results showed that Fe-Mn binary oxide had higher removal efficiency than that of hydrous iron oxide and hydrous manganese oxide, and that the oxide with a Fe:Mn molar ratio of 5:1 was the best in removal than other molar ratios. The tetracycline removal was highly pH dependent. The removal of tetracycline decreased with the increase of initial concentration, but the absolute removal quantity was more at high concentration. The presence of cations and anions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, CO3(2-) and SO4(2-) had no significant effect on the tetracycline removal in our experimental conditions, while SiO3(2-) and PO4(3-) had hindered the adsorption of tetracycline. The mechanism investigation found that tetracycline removal was mainly achieved by the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by the tetracycline species and formation of surface complexes at the water/oxide interface. This primary study suggests that Fe-Mn binary oxide with a proper Fe:Mn molar ratio will be a very promising material for the removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions. PMID:22655383

  17. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. PMID:25649390

  18. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  19. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of 62Fe and 62Mn following in-beam decay of 62Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, L. P.; Van de Walle, J.; Bastin, B.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkäll, J.; Darby, I.; De Witte, H.; DiJulio, D.; Diriken, J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fransen, Ch.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gustafsson, A.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Kesteloot, N.; Kröll, Th.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Reiter, P.; Seidlitz, M.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.

    2015-10-01

    Sub-barrier Coulomb excitation was performed on a mixed beam of 62Mn and 62Fe, following in-trap β - decay of 62Mn at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The trapping and charge breeding times were varied in order to alter the composition of the beam, which was measured by means of an ionisation chamber at the zero-angle position of the Miniball array. A new transition was observed at 418 keV, which has been tentatively associated to a (2+,3+)→ 1 g.s. + transition. This fixes the relative positions of the β-decaying 4+ and 1+ states in 62Mn for the first time. Population of the 2 1 + state was observed in 62Fe and the cross-section determined by normalisation to the 109Ag target excitation, confirming the B( E2) value measured in recoil-distance lifetime experiments.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of MnPd/Fe grown on MgO(100) substrate: Ab initio studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Magnoungou, J. H. J.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.; Demangeat, C.

    2016-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of ultrathin films MnPd/Fe grown on MgO(001) are investigated using a self-consistent pseudopotential plane waves method based on density functional theory in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. The results obtained reveal the presence of an antiferromagnetic coupling between successive Mn [100] rows, combined with a ripple where Mn outward atoms exhibit a positive magnetic moment, in the case of Mn overlayer on Fe/MgO(001). In the case of MnPd monolayer ordered alloy, the c(2 × 2) structure formation is more favorable than the p(1 × 2) one, exhibiting a ferromagnetic coupling between Mn neighbor atoms with a positive induced ferromagnetic moment on Pd atoms. Pd atoms are pushed outward. For 1-ML MnxPd1 - x on Fe/MgO, the Mn absolute mean magnetization per atom increases as x coverage increases, whereas the Pd mean induced magnetic moment decreases. For systems alternating Mn and Pd monolayers on Fe/MgO(001), a complex magnetic structure is shown on Mn monolayers: changing from Mn neighboring antiferromagnetic coupling to Mn [010] rows antiferromagnetic behavior. The correlation is made between the electronic structure and the magnetic properties, by comparing filled with partially filled components (Pd, Mn and Fe) d-bands. The magnetization easy-axis changes between the in-plane and the out-of-plane orientations from Fe/MgO to MnPd/Fe/MgO systems.

  1. Magnetic properties of MnBi based alloys: First-principles calculations for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe cases

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, YK; Park, J; Mryasov, ON; Kim, SG; Kim, S; Lee, J; Abo, GS; Choi, CJ; Lee, J

    2013-05-01

    First-principles calculations of fundamental magnetic properties were performed for ordered MnBi, MnBi-Co, and MnBi-Co-Fe alloys to evaluate maximum energy product (BH)(max). Full potential linear-augmented plane wave (FLAPW) and linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) were used and found to give a reasonable description of saturation magnetization (M-s), effective anisotropy constant (K-eff), and Curie temperature (T-c) for NiAs-structured MnBi crystal. We found that upon addition of Co, the M-s and K-eff increased, while T-c reduced. The magnetic anisotropy changed from weak anisotropy easy plane for MnBi to the strong easy axis anisotropy for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe. (C) 2013 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 and modified Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanling

    A novel alloy with nominal composition Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 has been found to show good room-temperature strength and significant ductility. The current project is to study the wear properties of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn35Al 15 and discuss the possibility of further improving the mechanical properties of this alloy. The dry sliding wear of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 was studied in in four different environments, i.e. air, dry oxygen, dry argon and a 4% hydrogen/nitrogen mixture. Two-body and three-body abrasive wear mechanism was found for tests in oxygen-containing environments, while plastic flow mechanisms dominated the wear behavior for tests in argon. Hydrogen embrittlement led to 1000% increase of wear loss by causing more rapid crack nucleation of the asperities. The effects of different additions of chromium (≤ 8 at. %) on both microstructure and fracture behavior of Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 were investigated. All alloys consisted of (Ni, Al)-rich B2 and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases with most of the Cr residing in the f.c.c. phase. The addition of 6 at. % Cr not only increased the room temperature ductility, but also completely suppressed the environmental embrittlement observed in the Cr-free alloy at low strain rates. The effects of varying the Al concentration on the microstructures and tensile properties of six two-phase FeNiMnAl alloys with a composition close to Fe30Ni20Mn35Al15 were studied. The increase in f.c.c. volume fraction and f.c.c. lamellar width led to an increase in ductility and a decrease in yield strength. The correlation between the yield stress and f.c.c. lamellar spacing lambda obeyed a Hall-Petch-type relationship, i.e. sigmay=252+0.00027lambda-1, where the units for sigmay and lambda are MPa and meter, respectively. FeNiMnAl alloy with B2 and f.c.c. phases aligned along was reported to show high strength at room temperature. The mechanical properties of Fe 28Ni18Mn33Al21, consisting of (Ni, Al)-enriched B2 and (Fe, Mn)-enriched f.c.c. phases with

  3. Thermal stability of spin valves based on a synthetic antiferromagnet and Fe50Mn50 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyaev, M. A.; Naumova, L. I.; Proglyado, V. V.; Chernyshova, T. A.; Blagodatkov, D. V.; Kamenskii, I. Yu.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetron sputtering was used to prepare spin valves with the Ta/Ni80Fe20/Co90Fe10/Cu/Co90Fe10/Ru/Co90Fe10/Fe50Mn50/Ta composition. Changes in the functional characteristics of the spin valves were studied in a temperature range of-180 to +160°C. The maximum temperature at which the functional characteristics of spin valve remain unchanged was shown to depend on the relationship of thicknesses of Co90Fe10 layers separated by the Ru interlayer.

  4. Synthesis and high-efficiency methylene blue adsorption of magnetic PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Zui; Cai, Minhan; Jian, Haitao; Zeng, Zhiqiao; Li, Feng; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-08-01

    MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and ultrasonic mixing process. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and VSM. XRD patterns indicate that the synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a single cubic spinel phase. SEM images confirm the existence of three types of basic morphology of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: octahedral, flower-like, and plate-like particles. High saturation magnetization Ms (up to 74.6 emu/g) of the as-synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained. Experiments demonstrate that the variation of the hydrothermal reaction time does not remarkably affect the magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. In PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites, the coating of PAA leads to a slight decrease in magnetization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Additionally, PAA coating greatly enhances the adsorption properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles for Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Especially, the removal efficiency reaches 96.3%. This research indicates that the as-synthesized PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibit excellent magnetic properties and can be taken as a promising adsorbent for removal of MB dye in industrial scale.

  5. Large energy product enhancement in perpendicularly coupled MnBi/CoFe magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, T. R.; Fang, L.; Fackler, S.; Maruyama, S.; Zhang, X. H.; Wang, L. L.; Rana, T.; Manchanda, P.; Kashyap, A.; Janicka, K.; Wysocki, A. L.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Arenholz, E.; Borchers, J. A.; Kirby, B. J.; Maranville, B. B.; Sun, K. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Antropov, V. P.; Johnson, D. D.; Skomski, R.; Cui, J.; Takeuchi, I.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate substantial enhancement in the energy product of MnBi-based magnets by forming robust ferromagnetic exchange coupling between a MnBi layer and a thin CoFe layer in a unique perpendicular coupling configuration, which provides increased resistance to magnetization reversal. The measured nominal energy product of 172 kJ /m3 at room temperature is the largest value experimentally attained for permanent magnets free of expensive raw materials. Our finding shows that exchange-coupled MnBi/CoFe magnets are a viable option for pursuing rare-earth-free magnets with energy products approaching those containing rare-earth elements.

  6. Transition metal redox and Mn disproportional reaction in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes cycled with aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zengqing; Hu, Jiangtao; Duan, Yandong; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We performed soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) and a quantitative analysis of the transition metal redox in the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes upon electrochemical cycling. In order to circumvent the complication of the surface reactions with organic electrolyte at high potential, the LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes are cycled with aqueous electrolyte. The analysis of the transitional metal L-edge spectra allows a quantitative determination of the redox evolution of Mn and Fe during the electrochemical cycling. The sXAS analysis reveals the evolving Mn oxidation states in LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4. We found that electrochemically inactive Mn2+ is formed on the electrode surface during cycling. Additionally, the signal indicates about 20% concentration of Mn4+ at the charged state, providing a strong experimental evidence of the disproportional reaction of Mn3+ to Mn2+ and Mn4+ on the surface of the charged LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 electrodes.

  7. Magnetostructural transition behavior in Fe-doped Heusler Mn-Ni-In ribbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Fang, Yue; Feng, Shutong; Zhai, Qijie; Luo, Zhiping; Zheng, Hongxing

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, we investigated magnetostructural transition behavior in Mn-rich Heusler Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2, 3 at%) ribbon materials. Microstructural observations showed that substituting Mn with Fe in Mn50Ni41In9 led to striking grain refinement from ∼50 μm to 5-10 μm, and formation of a secondary phase when Fe content was increased up to 2 at%. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermomagnetic measurements indicated that a paramagnetic→ferromagnetic transition in austenite occurred first, followed with a weak-magnetic martensitic transition upon cooling for the Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2). In case of Mn47Fe3Ni41In9, the martensitic transformation happened between paramagnetic austenite and weak-magnetic martensite, without the presence of the magnetic transition in austenite. The effective refrigeration capacity of Mn49Fe1Ni41In9 reached 137.1 J kg-1 under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe.

  8. Corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn alloys in thermally convective lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A series of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn steels was exposed to circulating lithium at temperatures up to 500/sup 0/C. Two groups of the alloys, which contained 12 to 30 wt % Mn and 2 to 20 wt % Cr, were sequentially exposed for periods greater than 3000 h in a type 316 stainless steel thermal convection loop. Mass transfer of manganese caused very large weight losses from the steels containing 30 wt % Mn. However, the actual magnitude of corrosion losses for alloys containing 12 to 20 wt % Mn was difficult to establish due to competing surface reactions involving chromium.

  9. Transferrin is required for normal distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Malecki, E A; Cook, B M; Devenyi, A G; Beard, J L; Connor, J R

    1999-11-30

    Hypotransferrinemia (hpx/hpx) is a genetic defect in mice resulting in <1% of normal plasma transferrin (Tf) concentrations; heterozygotes for this mutation (+/hpx) have low circulating Tf concentrations. These mice provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of Tf in Fe and Mn transport in the brain. Twenty weanling wild-type BALB/cJ mice, 15 +/hpx mice, and 12 hpx/hpx mice of both sexes were injected i.v. with either 54MnCl(2) or 59FeCl(3) either 1 h or 1 week before killing at 12 weeks of age. Total brain counts of 54Mn and 59Fe were measured, and regional brain distributions were assessed by autoradiography. Hypotransferrinemia did not affect total brain Mn uptake. However, 1 week after i.v. injection, hpx/hpx mice had less 54Mn in forebrain structures including cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, striatum, and substantia nigra. The +/hpx mice had the highest total brain 59Fe accumulation 1 h after i.v. injection. A striking effect of regional distribution of 59Fe was noted 1 week after injection; in hpx/hpx mice, 59Fe was located primarily in choroid plexus, whereas in +/+ and +/hpx mice 59Fe was widely distributed, with relatively high amounts in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. We interpret these data to mean that Tf is necessary for the transport of Fe but not Mn across the blood-brain barrier, and that there is a Tf-independent uptake mechanism for iron in the choroid plexus. Additionally, these data suggest that endogenous synthesis of Tf is necessary for Fe transport from the choroid plexus. PMID:10561526

  10. [Models for estimating foliar Fe and Mn Concentration of Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing using spectral reflectance].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-Zhu; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Shi-Wei; Guo, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Ding, Fan; Li, Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Aimed at providing technology for a rapid nutrition diagnosis system of micronutrients in Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing, we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar ferrum (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentration based on spectrum analysis. The foliar spectrum reflectance at various phenological periods of fruit development under different soil fertility conditions was measured by Unispec-SC spectrometer. By analyzing the correlation of foliar Fe, Mn concentration at various phenological periods of fruit development, the spectrum reflectance Rλ and its first-order differential f' (Rλ), we filtered out its sensitive bands. And we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar Fe and Mn at various phenological periods of fruit development with the linear regression model. The results showed that the spectral sensitive bands of foliar Fe in fruit setting period were 873 and 874 nm, 375 and 437 nm in fruit core-hardening period, 836 and 837 nm in maturity period and 325 and 1 054 nm in post-harvest period. However, the spectral sensitive bands of Mn were 913 and 1 129 nm, 425 and 970 nm, 390 and 466 nm, 423 and 424 nm, respectively. The Fe and Mn concentration of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing leaves were the most relevant to the first-order differential f' (RD) of its spectrum reflectance, whose linear spectrum estimation model fitting degree was the highest and reached to a significant or highly significant level. It showed that the spectral sensitive bands of Fe and Mn element varied with different phenological periods of fruit development. The spectrum estimation models for its foliar Fe and Mn concentration could be established with linear model according to its first-order differential f' (Rλ). PMID:25532350

  11. The role of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides formed in situ for arsenic oxidation and adsorption in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Yang, Tingting; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    As(III&V), Mn(II), and Fe(II) may occur simultaneously in some groundwater and surface water. Studying their redox reactions and interactions is essential to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of these metal ions in aquatic ecosystems and to find effective methods to remove them simultaneously in drinking water treatment. Here, the formation of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO, defined as a mixture of biogenic Mn oxide (BMO) and Fe oxide) as well as its oxidation and adsorption of As in a Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) system were investigated. Batch experiments and structure characterization revealed that the BFMO was formed via a sequential precipitation of Fe oxide and BMO. The first formed Fe oxide was identified as FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and the latter formed BMO was identified as MnO2 (similar to hexagonal birnessite). In the BFMO mixture, the BMO part was mainly responsible for As(III) oxidation, and the Fe oxide part dominated As adsorption. Remarkably, the BMO could oxidize Fe(II) to form FeOOH, which may improve As adsorption. The optimum Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio for As removal was approximately 1:3 (mol/mol). Taken together, in Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe ecosystems, the in situ formation of BFMO could eliminate or decrease Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(III&V) species simultaneously. Therefore, based on this study, new approaches may be developed for As removal from water containing high concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II). PMID:27088246

  12. The role of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides formed in situ for arsenic oxidation and adsorption in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Yang, Tingting; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    As(III&V), Mn(II), and Fe(II) may occur simultaneously in some groundwater and surface water. Studying their redox reactions and interactions is essential to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of these metal ions in aquatic ecosystems and to find effective methods to remove them simultaneously in drinking water treatment. Here, the formation of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO, defined as a mixture of biogenic Mn oxide (BMO) and Fe oxide) as well as its oxidation and adsorption of As in a Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) system were investigated. Batch experiments and structure characterization revealed that the BFMO was formed via a sequential precipitation of Fe oxide and BMO. The first formed Fe oxide was identified as FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and the latter formed BMO was identified as MnO2 (similar to hexagonal birnessite). In the BFMO mixture, the BMO part was mainly responsible for As(III) oxidation, and the Fe oxide part dominated As adsorption. Remarkably, the BMO could oxidize Fe(II) to form FeOOH, which may improve As adsorption. The optimum Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio for As removal was approximately 1:3 (mol/mol). Taken together, in Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe ecosystems, the in situ formation of BFMO could eliminate or decrease Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(III&V) species simultaneously. Therefore, based on this study, new approaches may be developed for As removal from water containing high concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II).

  13. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on Fe>54mn>,>56mn>,>58mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.

    2015-07-06

    Here, deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α-particle emission spectra, from d+54,56,58Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 55Co, 57Co, 55Fe, 57Fe, 52Mn, and 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)] was found to have a good agreement with our results.

  14. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, G. W. Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  15. Influence of the porewater geochemistry on Fe and Mn assimilation in Laternula elliptica at King George Island (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poigner, Harald; Monien, Patrick; Monien, Donata; Kriews, Michael; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Wilhelms-Dick, Dorothee; Abele, Doris

    2013-12-01

    A high input of lithogenic sediment from glaciers was assumed to be responsible for high Fe and Mn contents in the Antarctic soft shell clam Laternula elliptica at King George Island. Indeed, withdrawal experiments indicated a strong influence of environmental Fe concentrations on Fe contents in bivalve hemolymph, but no significant differences in hemolymph and tissue concentrations were found among two sites of high and lower input of lithogenic debris. Comparing Fe and Mn concentrations of porewater, bottom water, and hemolymph from sampling sites, Mn appears to be assimilated as dissolved species, whereas Fe apparently precipitates as ferrihydrite within the oxic sediment or bottom water layer prior to assimilation by the bivalve. Hence, we attribute the high variability of Fe and Mn accumulation in tissues of L. elliptica around Antarctica to differences in the geochemical environment of the sediment and the resulting Fe and Mn flux across the benthic boundary.

  16. Mn, Fe, Zn and As speciation in a fast-growing ferromanganese marine nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Matthew A.; Manceau, Alain; Kersten, Michael

    2004-04-01

    The speciation of Mn, Fe, As and Zn in a fast-growing (0.02mm/yr), shallow-marine ferromanganese nodule has been examined by micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This nodule exhibits alternating Fe-rich and Mn-rich layers reflecting redox variations in water chemistry. Fe occurs as two-line ferrihydrite. The As is strictly associated with Fe and is mostly pentavalent, with an environment similar to that of As sorbed on or coprecipitated with synthetic ferrihydrite. The Mn is in the form of turbostratic birnessite with {approx} 10 percent trivalent manganese in the layers and probably {approx} 8 percent corner-sharing metal octahedra in the interlayers. The Zn is enriched on the rim of the nodule, associated with Mn. The Zn is completely (>90 percent) tetrahedrally coordinated and sorbed in the interlayers of birnessite on vacant layer Mn sites. The Zn and Mn species are similar to ones found in soils, suggesting common structural principles, despite the differing formation conditions in these systems.

  17. Magnetic properties of transition metal Mn, Fe and Co dimers on monolayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-09-01

    We studied the geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutional doping and adsorption of transition metal (Mn, Fe and Co) dimers on phosphorene monolayer in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U. Electronic band structures and magnetic properties were dependent on the doping type and dopant materials. For Mn and Fe substitutional and adsorption dimers, we obtained semiconducting band structures with spin polarization. However, we found a half-metallic feature in Co substitutional dimer while the Co adsorption dimer showed a semiconducting behavior without any spin polarization. With GGA + U, all the systems showed spin polarized semiconducting band structures except Co adsorption dimer which remained unaffected. The hybridization between transition metal (TM) and phosphorene sheet contributed to suppressing the magnetic moment of TM dimers. For instance, the total magnetic moments of -2.0, 4.24 and 1.28 μ B/cell for Mn, Fe and Co substitutional dimers were obtained while the Mn and Fe adsorption dimers showed magnetic moments of -1.69 and 0.46 μ B/cell. These magnetic moments were enhanced with GGA + U. The same magnetic ground states were obtained both from GGA and GGA + U approaches except for the Mn dimers. We observed that the Mn and Fe substitutional dimers showed an out-of-plane magnetization while an in-plane magnetization was observed in Co substitutional dimer. The Mn adsorption dimer still displayed a perpendicular magnetization whereas the Fe adsorption dimer had an in-plane magnetization. We found that the both GGA and GGA + U showed the same magnetization direction in all the systems.

  18. Magnetic properties of transition metal Mn, Fe and Co dimers on monolayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-09-23

    We studied the geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutional doping and adsorption of transition metal (Mn, Fe and Co) dimers on phosphorene monolayer in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U. Electronic band structures and magnetic properties were dependent on the doping type and dopant materials. For Mn and Fe substitutional and adsorption dimers, we obtained semiconducting band structures with spin polarization. However, we found a half-metallic feature in Co substitutional dimer while the Co adsorption dimer showed a semiconducting behavior without any spin polarization. With GGA + U, all the systems showed spin polarized semiconducting band structures except Co adsorption dimer which remained unaffected. The hybridization between transition metal (TM) and phosphorene sheet contributed to suppressing the magnetic moment of TM dimers. For instance, the total magnetic moments of -2.0, 4.24 and 1.28 μ B/cell for Mn, Fe and Co substitutional dimers were obtained while the Mn and Fe adsorption dimers showed magnetic moments of -1.69 and 0.46 μ B/cell. These magnetic moments were enhanced with GGA + U. The same magnetic ground states were obtained both from GGA and GGA + U approaches except for the Mn dimers. We observed that the Mn and Fe substitutional dimers showed an out-of-plane magnetization while an in-plane magnetization was observed in Co substitutional dimer. The Mn adsorption dimer still displayed a perpendicular magnetization whereas the Fe adsorption dimer had an in-plane magnetization. We found that the both GGA and GGA + U showed the same magnetization direction in all the systems.

  19. Magnetic properties of transition metal Mn, Fe and Co dimers on monolayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-09-01

    We studied the geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutional doping and adsorption of transition metal (Mn, Fe and Co) dimers on phosphorene monolayer in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U. Electronic band structures and magnetic properties were dependent on the doping type and dopant materials. For Mn and Fe substitutional and adsorption dimers, we obtained semiconducting band structures with spin polarization. However, we found a half-metallic feature in Co substitutional dimer while the Co adsorption dimer showed a semiconducting behavior without any spin polarization. With GGA + U, all the systems showed spin polarized semiconducting band structures except Co adsorption dimer which remained unaffected. The hybridization between transition metal (TM) and phosphorene sheet contributed to suppressing the magnetic moment of TM dimers. For instance, the total magnetic moments of ‑2.0, 4.24 and 1.28 μ B/cell for Mn, Fe and Co substitutional dimers were obtained while the Mn and Fe adsorption dimers showed magnetic moments of ‑1.69 and 0.46 μ B/cell. These magnetic moments were enhanced with GGA + U. The same magnetic ground states were obtained both from GGA and GGA + U approaches except for the Mn dimers. We observed that the Mn and Fe substitutional dimers showed an out-of-plane magnetization while an in-plane magnetization was observed in Co substitutional dimer. The Mn adsorption dimer still displayed a perpendicular magnetization whereas the Fe adsorption dimer had an in-plane magnetization. We found that the both GGA and GGA + U showed the same magnetization direction in all the systems.

  20. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  1. Influence of film composition in quaternary Heusler alloy Co2(Mn,Fe)Si thin films on tunnelling magnetoresistance of Co2(Mn,Fe)Si/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-xi; Kawami, Takeshi; Moges, Kidist; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Shi, Fengyuan; Voyles, Paul M.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of off-stoichiometry on the half-metallic character of quaternary Heusler alloy thin films of Co2(Mn,Fe)Si (CMFS) was investigated by studying the composition dependence of the tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of fully epitaxial CMFS/MgO/CMFS magnetic tunnel junctions (CMFS MTJs) having Co2(Mnα‧Feβ‧)Si0.84 electrodes with various Mn and Fe compositions. It was found that with (Mn + Fe)-rich electrodes had higher TMR ratios than ones with (Mn + Fe)-deficient electrodes at 4.2 and 290 K. These results indicate that the suppression of Co antisites at nominal Mn/Fe sites is critical to obtaining half-metallic quaternary Co2(Mn,Fe)Si in a similar way as in ternary alloy Co2MnSi. CMFS MTJs with Mn-rich and lightly Fe-doped CMFS electrodes showed giant TMR ratios of 2610% at 4.2 K and 429% at 290 K. These results suggest that Co-based Heusler alloy thin films would be highly applicable to spintronic devices because of their half-metallicity and material diversity arising from not only ternary alloy but also quaternary alloy systems.

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2 and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-22

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe5PB2, Fe4CoPB2, Fe4MnPB2, Fe5SiB2, Fe4CoSiB2, and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr5B3 structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe5SiB2 is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K, and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggests smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides. Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments bymore » 16-20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe5SiB2. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe5SiB2 and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, and are in good agreement with experiment.« less

  3. Effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of co-sputtered Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.; Jin, C.; Bai, H. L.

    2014-11-07

    Motivated by the theoretical calculations that Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si can simultaneously exhibit a high spin polarization with a high Curie temperature to be applied in spintronic devices, and in order to further study the effect of Mn contents on the physical properties of Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si, we have investigated the effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si (0≤x≤1) films systematically. The Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si films were epitaxially grown on MgO(001) plane with 45° rotation. The magnetization for various x shows enhanced irreversibility, implying the antiferromagnetic ordering induced by the substitution of Mn. A metal-semiconductor crossover was observed due to the enhanced disorders of interactions and the local lowering of symmetry induced by the substitution of Mn. The single-domain state in the Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si films leads to twofold symmetric curves of the anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall resistivity.

  4. Thermal decomposition study of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Tasmira J.; Chaki, S. H.; Tailor, J. P.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fe3O4 is an excellent magnetic material among iron oxides. It has a cubic inverse spinel structure exhibiting distinguished electric and magnetic properties. In this paper the authors report the synthesis of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles by wet chemical reduction technique at ambient temperature and its thermal characterization. Ferric chloride hexa-hydrate (FeCl3•6H2O), manganese chloride tetra-hydrate (MnCl2•4H2O) and sodium boro-hydrate (NaBH4) were used for synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles at ambient temperature. The elemental composition of the as-synthesized Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) technique. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were carried out on the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the temperature range of ambient to 1124 K. The thermo-curves revealed that the particles decompose by four steps. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using non-mechanistic equations for the thermal decomposition.

  5. Raman Spectroscopy of Ba(Fe1- x Mn x )2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Fabio Teixeira; Pinheiro, Lincoln Brum Leite Gusmão; Jurelo, Alcione Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Raman scattering measurements on iron-pnictide Mn-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals are reported. Single crystals were grown out of a FeAs self-flux using conventional high-temperature solution growth and characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and Raman. Raman spectra were obtained at room temperature and 77 K on ab- and a( b) c-planes. Two of four phonon modes allowed by symmetry were found and identified. It was observed that the scattering intensity of A1g mode and the frequencies of the A1g and B1g phonons are dependent upon doping of Mn. The dependence of scattering intensity and frequency of A1g mode on Mn doping might indicate that the Mn ion also occupies the As site.

  6. Kinetic-arrest-induced phase coexistence and metastability in (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. F.; Mitsui, Y.; Dugulan, A. Iulian; Caron, L.; Thang, N. V.; Manuel, P.; Koyama, K.; Takahashi, K.; van Dijk, N. H.; Brück, E.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetometry, and in-field x-ray diffraction are employed to investigate the magnetoelastic phase transition in hexagonal (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) compounds. (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) compounds undergo for certain compositions a second-order paramagnetic (PM) to a spin-density-wave (SDW) phase transition before further transforming into a ferromagnetic (FM) phase via a first-order phase transition. The SDW-FM transition can be kinetically arrested, causing the coexistence of FM and untransformed SDW phases at low temperatures. Our in-field x-ray diffraction and magnetic relaxation measurements clearly reveal the metastability of the untransformed SDW phase. This unusual magnetic configuration originates from the strong magnetoelastic coupling and the mixed magnetism in hexagonal (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) compounds.

  7. First-principles investigation of MnFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. J.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.

    2002-02-01

    Spinel structure MnFe2O4 is investigated using density functional calculations. The ground state is a high spin ferrimagnet in agreement with experiment. The band structure shows a low carrier density half metal in the fully ordered state, in contrast to experimental characterizations of partially disordered samples as small band gap insulators. However, we find a strong coupling of the energy bands at the Fermi energy to the internal structural parameter u as well as strong effects on the electronic structure upon partial interchange of Fe and Mn atoms. This indicates that the insulating character may be due to Anderson localization associated with the intersite Mn-Fe disorder. This possibility is discussed in terms of the relation between other calculated properties and experimental data.

  8. Spark plasma sintering and microwave electromagnetic properties of MnFe2O4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penchal Reddy, M.; Mohamed, A. M. A.; Venkata Ramana, M.; Zhou, X. B.; Huang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    MnFe2O4 ferrite powder was synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal route and then consolidated into dense nanostructured compacts by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The effect of sintering temperature, on densification, morphology, magnetic and microwave absorption properties was examined. Spark plasma sintering resulted in uniform microstructure, as well as maximum relative density of 98%. The magnetic analysis indicated that the MnFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles showed ferrimagnetic behavior. Moreover, the dielectric loss and magnetic loss properties of MnFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were both enhanced due to its better dipole polarization, interfacial polarization and shape anisotropy. It is believed that such spark plasma sintered ceramic material will be applied widely in microwave absorbing area.

  9. Rotational hysteresis of the exchange anisotropy direction in Co /FeMn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olamit, Justin; Liu, Kai

    2007-05-01

    The effects of rotating an applied field on the exchange anisotropy in Co /FeMn thin films have been investigated. When the applied field is initially along the cooling field direction, the longitudinal hysteresis loop has a maximum coercivity and the transverse hysteresis loop is flat, indicating that the exchange field is along the cooling field direction. When the applied field angle is rotated away and then restored to the original field cooling direction, the exchange anisotropy direction has changed. The rotation of the exchange field direction trails the applied field and is hysteretic. The rotational hysteresis of the exchange field direction is due to the weak anisotropy in thin FeMn layers and decreases with increasing FeMn thickness.

  10. Supramolecular interactions of fullerenes with (Cl)Fe- and Mn porphyrins. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Meng-Sheng; Watts, John D; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2009-08-01

    The electronic structure and bonding in the noncovalent, supramolecular complexes of fullerenes (C(60), C(70)) with (Cl)Fe- and Mn porphyrins [(Cl)FeP, MnP] were investigated in detail with DFT methods. A dispersion correction was made for the fullerene-porphyrin binding energy through an empirical approach. Several density functionals were employed in the calculations in order to obtain reliable results. Our calculated results differ from those obtained in a previous paper (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2005, 109, 3704). The ground state of (Cl)FeP*C(60) is predicted to be high spin (S = 5/2), in agreement with the experimental results. MnP*C(70) is calculated to have a high-spin (S = 5/2) ground state as well; this is similar to (Cl)FeP*C(60), but at variance with the assignment of a low-spin (S = 1/2) state for this complex. According to the calculations, C(70) in MnP*C(70) does not have sufficient ligand-field strength to cause a high- to low-spin state change in MnP. An additional calculation on a comparable, high-spin (Py)MnP complex gives support for the calculated results on MnP*C(70). More detailed experimental investigations are desirable, which might help to resolve the question of the MnP*C(70) electronic structure. The estimated dispersion energies (E(disp)) in the fullerene-porphyrin systems are rather large, ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 eV. Including E(disp) improves the calculated binding energy considerably.

  11. Interfacial strain and defects in asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayence, Arnaud; Wéry, Madeleine; Tran, Dung Trung; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds.Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials characterization, powder X-ray diffraction, EFTEM images, EELS spectra, HAADF-STEM. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01373b

  12. Structural And Magnetic Properties Of Mn And Zn Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Verma, Kavita; Yogi, A.

    2011-07-01

    Mn and Zn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size 7.36 and 12.52 nm were prepared by co precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern infers that both the samples are in single phase with Fd3m space group, which was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Transmission Mössbauer spectra reveals ferrimagnetic nature for Mn doping concentration while into that for Zn doping concentration it shows diamagnetic behaviour. Zn doped nanoparticles shows the superparamagnetic property.

  13. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel by Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R. A.; Miller, M. K.; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 °C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe)3Ti and (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for ~60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  14. Preparation of a nanosized as(2)o(3)/mn(0.5)zn(0.5)fe(2)o(4) complex and its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Manganese-zinc-ferrite nanoparticles (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4), MZF-NPs) prepared by an improved co-precipitation method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then thermodynamic testing of various doses of MZF-NPs was performed in vitro. The cytotoxicity of the Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles in vitro was tested by the MTT assay. A nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex was made by an impregnation process. The complex's shape, component, envelop rate and release rate of As(2)O(3) were measured by SEM, EDS and atom fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. The therapeutic effect of nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on human hepatocelluar cells were evaluated in vitro by an MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results indicated that Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) and nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex were both prepared successfully. The Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles had powerful absorption capabilities in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field, and had strong magnetic responsiveness. Moreover, Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) didn't show cytotoxicity in vitro. The therapeutic result reveals that the nanosized As(2)O(3)/Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) complex can significantly inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cells.

  15. Preparation of a Nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Complex and Its Anti-Tumor Effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Manganese-zinc-ferrite nanoparticles (Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, MZF-NPs) prepared by an improved co-precipitation method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then thermodynamic testing of various doses of MZF-NPs was performed in vitro. The cytotoxicity of the Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles in vitro was tested by the MTT assay. A nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex was made by an impregnation process. The complex’s shape, component, envelop rate and release rate of As2O3 were measured by SEM, EDS and atom fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. The therapeutic effect of nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on human hepatocelluar cells were evaluated in vitro by an MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results indicated that Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex were both prepared successfully. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles had powerful absorption capabilities in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field, and had strong magnetic responsiveness. Moreover, Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 didn’t show cytotoxicity in vitro. The therapeutic result reveals that the nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex can significantly inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cells. PMID:22399986

  16. Preparation and Mixed Conductivity of Mn-DOPED Bi-Sr-Fe-BASED Perovskite Type Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Doohyun; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Bi0.7Sr0.3FeO3-δ (BSF) with perovskite structure and Mn-doped BSFs were prepared by solid-state reaction and their mixed conductivities were discussed based on results of electrical conductivity and oxygen permeation measurement through membranes of those compounds. BSF showed only 2 S/cm at 800 °C suggesting that its charge unbalance is likely to be compensated by generation of oxygen vacancies. However, Mn-doping caused the increase of electrical conductivity and the decrease of oxygen permeation rate, that is, the extent of charge compensation by electron holes increased through Mn-doping.

  17. DFT calculation and experimental investigation of Mn doping effect in Fe16N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Himmetoglu, Burak; Cococcioni, Matteo; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-05-01

    An effective dopant to improve the thermal stability of a Fe16N2 permanent magnet is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that manganese is a promising candidate as dopant in Fe16N2 magnet to improve the thermal stability. Firstly, the atomic moments of the Fe ions with respect to N is investigated by using first-principles DFT calculation. Two possible candidates of elements, including Co and Mn, are compared in terms of its preferred position and magnetic coupling mode. It is found that Mn prefers Fe1 position and ferromagnetic coupling in the Fe16N2 lattice. So Mn is considered as a promising dopant in Fe16N2 magnet to improve its thermal stability. Based on theoretical results, experiments are conducted by a cold-crucible method to prepare (Fe1-xMnx) N bulk samples. The samples are thermal treated at different temperatures to observe their thermal stabilities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are characterized on the samples.

  18. Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material properties at room and cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínková, H.; Doroshenko, M. E.; Osiko, V. V.; Němec, M.; Å ulc, J.; Jelínek, M.; Vyhlídal, D.; Kubecek, V.; Čech, M.; Kovalenko, N. O.; Gerasimenko, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Fe:Zn(1-x)Mn(x)Se solid solution spectroscopic and laser properties were investigated in the temperature range 80- 290 K. Two novel samples with different zinc - manganese (Zn-Mn) ratio described by the Mn content x (0.1 or 0.2) were used and the results were compared to the known Fe:ZnSe crystal. The samples had a broad absorption spectra with the maximum around 3 μm and therefore an Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm, 10 mJ, 120 ns) was used as a pump radiation source. The Fe:ZnMnSe fluorescence spectra are generally broad in the range 3.5 - 5.5 μm. In the case of Fe:ZnMnSe x = 0.1, the fluorescence spectrum at 290 K is ranging from 3.5 to 5.5 μm. Lowering the temperature down to 80 K lead to the spectral narrowing mainly in the mid-IR part, but the fluorescence is still up to 5 μm at 80 K. In the case of Fe:ZnMnSe x = 0.2 the fluorescence is shifted towards mid-IR up to 5.2 μm even at 80 K. The fluorescence lifetime decreases from tens of us at 80 K down to 1 us at 240 K. The laser oscillations were successfully achieved with both novel Fe:ZnMnSe crystals in the temperature range 80- 290 K. In the case of x = 0.1, the central wavelength was ~4.2 μm at 80 K and the temperature increase up to 290 K led to almost linear increase of the wavelength up to ~4.75 μm. The tendency was similar in the case of Fe:ZnMnSe x = 0.2: the output wavelength increased from ~4.3 μm up to ~4.8 μm with the temperature increase from 80 to 290 K. The laser spectral linewidth was about 300 nm. In comparison with the Fe:ZnSe crystal, the laser output wavelength shift toward mid-IR region without any spectrally tunable element in the laser cavity can be clearly observed.

  19. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Callori, S. J. Bertinshaw, J.; Cortie, D. L.; Cai, J. W. Zhu, T.; Le Brun, A. P.; Klose, F.

    2014-07-21

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  20. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  1. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  2. Adsorption of antimony(V) onto Mn(II)-enriched surfaces of manganese-oxide and FeMn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Xu, Wei; He, Zan; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Prasai, Tista

    2015-11-01

    Manganese(IV) oxide [Mn(IV)] potentially oxidizes antimony(III) [Sb(III)] to antimony(V) [Sb(V)] and improves Sb removal by FeMn binary oxide (FMBO) through an oxidation-adsorption mechanism. This study focused on the effect of Mn(IV) reductive dissolution by potassium sulfite (K2SO3) on Sb(V) adsorption onto manganese oxide (Mn-oxide) and FMBO. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption (Qmax,Sb(V)) increased from 1.0 to 1.1 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and from 0.4 to 0.6 mmol g(-1) for Mn-oxide after pretreatment with 10 mmol L(-1) K2SO3. The addition of 2.5 mmol L(-1) Mn(2+) also significantly improved Sb(V) adsorption, and the observed Qmax,Sb(V) increased to 1.4 and 1.0 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and Mn-oxide, respectively, with pre-adsorbed Mn(2+). Neither K2SO3 nor Mn(2+) addition had any effect on Sb(V) adsorption onto iron oxide (Fe-oxide). Mn(2+) introduced by either Mn(IV) dissolution or addition tended to form outer-sphere surface complexes with hydroxyl groups on Mn-oxide surfaces (MnOOH). Mn(2+) at 2.5 mmol L(-1) shifted the isoelectric point (pHiep) from 7.5 to 10.2 for FMBO and from 4.8 to 9.2 for Mn-oxide and hence benefited Sb(V) adsorption. The adsorption of Sb(V) onto Mn(2+)-enriched surfaces contributed to the release of Mn(2+), and the X-ray photoelectron spectra also indicated increased binding energy of Mn 2p3/2 after the adsorption of Sb(V) onto K2SO3-pretreated FMBO and Mn-oxide. Sb(V) adsorption involved the formation of inner-sphere complexes and contributed to the release of Mn(2+). In the removal of Sb(III) by Mn-based oxides, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by Mn(IV) oxides had an effect; however, Mn(IV) dissolution and Mn(2+)-enrichment also played an important role.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and phosphate removal and recovery of magnetic MnFe2O4 nano-particles as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shumei; Xu, Xiaoming; Xu, Changsong; Wang, Hongshuai; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate removal is an important method for controlling eutrophication in bodies of water. Adsorption is an effective phosphate removal approach. In this research, the adsorbent, namely, MnFe2O4, was prepared through the improved co-precipitation method and investigated in terms of phosphate removal. MnFe2O4 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phosphate adsorption by MnFe2O4, desorption of adsorbed MnFe2O4 with the regeneration of desorbed MnFe2O4, and phosphate recovery were researched. Experimental results showed that adding the appropriate amount of polyethylene glycol to MnFe2O4 precursors during preparation inhibited the agglomeration of MnFe2O4 between particles because of the magnetic property of MnFe2O4 etc. High crystallinity and strong magnetism were achieved by MnFe2O4 at low temperatures. Average particle size was 5.1 nm. The hysteresis loops confirmed the ferrimagnetic behaviour of MnFe2O4 with a high saturation magnetization (i.e. 26.27 emu/g). The adsorption mechanism of phosphate was mainly physical. The prepared MnFe2O4 had a spinel structure. The proposed technique achieved a phosphate removal rate of 96.06%. A considerable amount of phosphate was desorbed from the adsorbed MnFe2O4 in 15 w/v% NaOH solution. The adsorption capacity of the desorbed MnFe2O4 could be restored to 96.73% in 10 w/v% NaNO3 solution through ion exchange. A sustainable phosphate source was recovered via hydroxyapatite crystallization in the desorption solution, which contained an abundant amount of phosphate as seed for suitable recovery condition. This finding suggested that MnFe2O4 could be a promising adsorbent for efficient phosphate removal.

  4. Preparation, characterization, and phosphate removal and recovery of magnetic MnFe2O4 nano-particles as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shumei; Xu, Xiaoming; Xu, Changsong; Wang, Hongshuai; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate removal is an important method for controlling eutrophication in bodies of water. Adsorption is an effective phosphate removal approach. In this research, the adsorbent, namely, MnFe2O4, was prepared through the improved co-precipitation method and investigated in terms of phosphate removal. MnFe2O4 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phosphate adsorption by MnFe2O4, desorption of adsorbed MnFe2O4 with the regeneration of desorbed MnFe2O4, and phosphate recovery were researched. Experimental results showed that adding the appropriate amount of polyethylene glycol to MnFe2O4 precursors during preparation inhibited the agglomeration of MnFe2O4 between particles because of the magnetic property of MnFe2O4 etc. High crystallinity and strong magnetism were achieved by MnFe2O4 at low temperatures. Average particle size was 5.1 nm. The hysteresis loops confirmed the ferrimagnetic behaviour of MnFe2O4 with a high saturation magnetization (i.e. 26.27 emu/g). The adsorption mechanism of phosphate was mainly physical. The prepared MnFe2O4 had a spinel structure. The proposed technique achieved a phosphate removal rate of 96.06%. A considerable amount of phosphate was desorbed from the adsorbed MnFe2O4 in 15 w/v% NaOH solution. The adsorption capacity of the desorbed MnFe2O4 could be restored to 96.73% in 10 w/v% NaNO3 solution through ion exchange. A sustainable phosphate source was recovered via hydroxyapatite crystallization in the desorption solution, which contained an abundant amount of phosphate as seed for suitable recovery condition. This finding suggested that MnFe2O4 could be a promising adsorbent for efficient phosphate removal. PMID:26292922

  5. Influence of FeO and sulfur on solid state reaction between MnO-SiO2-FeO oxides and an Fe-Mn-Si solid alloy during heat treatment at 1473 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-song; Yang, Shu-feng; Kim, Kyung-ho; Li, Jing-she; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the influence of FeO and sulfur on solid state reaction between an Fe-Mn-Si alloy and MnO-SiO2-FeO oxides under the restricted oxygen diffusion flux, two diffusion couples with different sulfur contents in the oxides were produced and investigated after heat treatment at 1473 K. The experimental results were also compared with previous work in which the oxides contained higher FeO. It was found that although the FeO content in the oxides decreased from 3wt% to 1wt% which was lower than the content corresponding to the equilibrium with molten steel at 1873 K, excess oxygen still diffused from the oxides to solid steel during heat treatment at 1473 K and formed oxide particles. In addition, increasing the sulfur content in the oxides was observed to suppress the diffusion of oxygen between the alloy and the oxides.

  6. Biocompatibility of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles and Their Thermotherapy on VX2-Carcinoma-Induced Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Yan; Tang, Qiu-Sha; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors are the most serious threat to human health. Much research has focused on revealing the characteristics of this disease and developing methods of treatment. Because tumor cells are more sensitive to heat than normal cells, thermotherapy for the treatment of tumors has attracted much attention. In this paper, we presented functional Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles with the molecular composition of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 as the magnetic response material for the thermotherapy. The suggested Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles were with a self-regulation temperature of 43 degrees C which was ideal for tumor thermotherapy. The biocompatibility and anti-tumor effect of this material were well investigated. It was found that the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles have no hemolysis activity, no genotoxic effects and cytotoxicity. Its Median Lethal Dose (LD50) arrived at 6.026 g/kg and it did not induce any abnormal clinical signs in laboratory animals. Moreover, the suggested nanoparticles can increase the inhibitory ratio of weight and volume of tumors, cause tumor tissues necrosis and show the therapeutic effect on the xenograft live cancers in vivo. Based on these results, we could envision the valuable application of the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles for the practical thermotherapy. PMID:26328307

  7. Biocompatibility of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles and Their Thermotherapy on VX2-Carcinoma-Induced Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Yan; Tang, Qiu-Sha; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors are the most serious threat to human health. Much research has focused on revealing the characteristics of this disease and developing methods of treatment. Because tumor cells are more sensitive to heat than normal cells, thermotherapy for the treatment of tumors has attracted much attention. In this paper, we presented functional Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles with the molecular composition of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 as the magnetic response material for the thermotherapy. The suggested Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles were with a self-regulation temperature of 43 degrees C which was ideal for tumor thermotherapy. The biocompatibility and anti-tumor effect of this material were well investigated. It was found that the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles have no hemolysis activity, no genotoxic effects and cytotoxicity. Its Median Lethal Dose (LD50) arrived at 6.026 g/kg and it did not induce any abnormal clinical signs in laboratory animals. Moreover, the suggested nanoparticles can increase the inhibitory ratio of weight and volume of tumors, cause tumor tissues necrosis and show the therapeutic effect on the xenograft live cancers in vivo. Based on these results, we could envision the valuable application of the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles for the practical thermotherapy.

  8. Effects of Mn content on the deformation behavior of Fe-Mn-Al-C TWIP steels — A computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuan; Sun, Xin; Wang, Y. D.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a double-slip/double-twin polycrystal plasticity model using finite element solution to investigate the kinetics of deformation twinning of low-to-medium manganese (Mn) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels. Empirical equations are employed to estimate the stacking fault energy (SFE) of TWIP steels and the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for dislocation slip and deformation twinning, respectively. The results suggest that the evolution of twinning in Fe-xMn-1.4Al-0.6C (x=11.5, 13.5, 15.5, 17.5 and 19.5) TWIP steels, and its relation to the Mn content, can explain the effect of Mn on mechanical properties.the stress-strain. By comparing the double-slip/double-twin model to a double-slip model, the predicted results essentially reveal that the interaction behavior between dislocation slip and deformation twinning can lead to an additional work hardening. Also, numerical simulations are carried out to study the influence of boundary conditions on deformation behavior and twin formation. The nucleation and growth of twinning are found to depend on internal properties (e.g., mismatch orientation of grains and stress redistribution) as well as on external constraints (e.g., the applied boundary conditions) of the material.

  9. Charge and magnetic states of Mn-, Fe-, and Co-doped monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xianqing; Ni, Jun

    2014-07-28

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2} substitutionally doped with Mn, Fe, and Co in possible charge states (q). We find that the Mn, Fe, and Co dopants substituting for a Mo atom in monolayer MoS{sub 2} (Mn@Mo, Fe@Mo, and Co@Mo) are all magnetic in their neutral and charge states except in the highest positive charge states. Mn@Mo, Fe@Mo, and Co@Mo have the same highest negative charge states of q=−2 for chemical potential of electron just below the conduction band minimum, which corresponds to the electron doping. In the q=−2 state, Mn@Mo has a much larger magnetic moment than its neutral state with the antiferromagnetic coupling between the Mn dopant and its neighboring S atoms maintained, while Fe@Mo and Co@Mo have equal or smaller magnetic moments than their neutral states. The possible charge states of Mn@Mo, Fe@Mo, and Co@Mo and the variation of the magnetic moments for different dopants and charge states are due to the change of the occupation and energy of the anti-bonding defect levels in the band gap. The rich magnetic properties of the neutral and charge states suggest possible realization of the substitutionally Mn-, Fe-, and Co-doped monolayer MoS{sub 2} as dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  10. Microstructure and degradation behavior of forged Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang; Hodgson, Michael A.; Cao, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a comparative study of a series of Fe-Mn-Si alloys proposed as degradable biomaterials for medical applications. Five Fe-28wt.%Mn-xSi (where x = 0 to 8 wt.%) alloys were fabricated by an arc-melting method. All the as-cast alloys were subsequently subjected to homogenization treatment and hot forging. The microstructure and phase constituents were investigated. It is found that the grain size of the as-forged alloys ranged approximately from 30 to 50 μm. The as-forged Fe-Mn-Si alloys containing Si from 2 to 6 wt.% was comprised of duplex martensitic ɛ and austenitic γ phases; however, the Si-free and 8 wt.% Si alloys only consisted of a single γ phase. After 30 days of static immersion test in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium, it is found that pitting and general corrosion occur on the sample surfaces. Potentiodynamic analysis reveals that the degradation rate of the Fe-Mn-Si alloys increased gradually with Si content up to 6 wt.%, beyond which the degradation slows down.

  11. Microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and cytotoxicity characterization of the hot forged FeMn30(wt.%) alloy.

    PubMed

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    An interest in biodegradable metallic materials has been increasing in the last two decades. Besides magnesium based materials, iron-manganese alloys have been considered as possible candidates for fabrication of biodegradable stents and orthopedic implants. In this study, we prepared a hot forged FeMn30 (wt.%) alloy and investigated its microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics as well as cytotoxicity towards mouse L 929 fibroblasts. The obtained results were compared with those of iron. The FeMn30 alloy was composed of antiferromagnetic γ-austenite and ε-martensite phases and possessed better mechanical properties than iron and even that of 316 L steel. The potentiodynamic measurements in simulated body fluids showed that alloying with manganese lowered the free corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate, compared to iron. On the other hand, the corrosion rate of FeMn30 obtained by a semi-static immersion test was significantly lower than that of iron, most likely due to a higher degree of alkalization in sample surrounding. The presence of manganese in the alloy slightly enhanced toxicity towards the L 929 cells; however, the toxicity did not exceed the allowed limit and FeMn30 alloy fulfilled the requirements of the ISO 10993-5 standard. PMID:26478385

  12. Effect of Fe doping on the electrochemical capacitor behavior of MnO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonguzhali, R.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Senthilkumar, A.; Viruthagiri, G.; Kannadasan, N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the influence of Fe doping on the capacitance behavior of MnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by chemical precipitation was investigated. During the doping process the concentration of Fe was increased from 0.025 M to 0.125 M in steps of 0.025 M. The products obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. To demonstrate the suitability of Fe-doped MnO2 for capacitor applications, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance were recorded. Among the different levels of doping, the specific capacitance of 912 F/g was delivered by 0.075 M of Fe-doped MnO2 at a scan rate of 10 mV/s, which is almost more than fourfold that of the bare MnO2 electrode (210 F/g). Moreover, for the same concentration the charge, discharge studies revealed the highest specific capacitance of 1084 F/g at a current density of 10 A/g.

  13. Bainitic microstructures formed by split isothermal transformation in an Fe-C-Si-Mn-Mo steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.

    1996-05-01

    Effect of split isothermal transformations (SITs) on bainitic microstructure has been studied in an Fe-C-Si-Mn-Mo steel by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Split isothermal transformations caused the spheroidization and coalescence of bainitic ferrite subunits, suggesting that bainite probably formed by a displacive transformation mechanism.

  14. The Formation of Crystal Defects in a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy Under Cyclic Martensitic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Vladimir I; Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2016-12-01

    Formation of crystalline defects due to cyclic martensitic transformations (CMT) in the iron-manganese Fe-18 wt.% Mn-2 wt.% Si alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Conditions for accumulation of fragment sub-boundaries with low-angle misorientations and chaotic stacking faults in crystal lattice of austenite and ε-martensite were analyzed.

  15. Microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and cytotoxicity characterization of the hot forged FeMn30(wt.%) alloy.

    PubMed

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    An interest in biodegradable metallic materials has been increasing in the last two decades. Besides magnesium based materials, iron-manganese alloys have been considered as possible candidates for fabrication of biodegradable stents and orthopedic implants. In this study, we prepared a hot forged FeMn30 (wt.%) alloy and investigated its microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics as well as cytotoxicity towards mouse L 929 fibroblasts. The obtained results were compared with those of iron. The FeMn30 alloy was composed of antiferromagnetic γ-austenite and ε-martensite phases and possessed better mechanical properties than iron and even that of 316 L steel. The potentiodynamic measurements in simulated body fluids showed that alloying with manganese lowered the free corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate, compared to iron. On the other hand, the corrosion rate of FeMn30 obtained by a semi-static immersion test was significantly lower than that of iron, most likely due to a higher degree of alkalization in sample surrounding. The presence of manganese in the alloy slightly enhanced toxicity towards the L 929 cells; however, the toxicity did not exceed the allowed limit and FeMn30 alloy fulfilled the requirements of the ISO 10993-5 standard.

  16. Superhalogen Behavior of FeO4 MnO_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, G. L.; Khanna, S. N.; Jena, P.; Rao, B. K.

    2000-03-01

    Superhalogens are a class of cluster compounds that possess electron affinities in excess of 3.6 eV which is the electron affinity of chlorine, the most electronegative element in the periodic table. For clusters containing oxygen, a superhalogen has to satisfy the composition MO_n, where 2n=k+1. Here k is the maximal valence of the central atom M and n is the number of oxygen atoms. This requirement is fulfilled for MnO4 as the maximal valence of Mn is 7. However, FeO4 should be a closed shell system as the maximal valence of Fe is 8. Consequently, it should possess a relatively low electron affinity. We have performed self-consistent calculations of the total energy and geometry of FeO4 and MnO4 clusters in the neutral and anionic configurations using gradient corrected density functional theory and molecular orbital approach. The electron affinity of MnO4 was found to be 5 eV and as expected, is a superhalogen. Contrary to expectation, FeO4 too was found to have a large electron affinity, namely 3.8 eV and thus, belongs to the superhalogen class. The origin of this large electron affinity of a closed shell system is shown to be a manifestation of the special bonding characterstic of d-electron systems.

  17. Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn chelates offer a medicinal chemistry approach to overcoming radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, John R J

    2002-03-01

    This review points out that treatment with essential metalloelement (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) chelates facilitate tissue repair processes required for recovery from radiation injury including survival of lethally irradiated mice and rats. Results of studies pertaining to successful uses of bioavailable essential metalloelement chelates and combinations of them as well as aminothiols, Ca-channel blockers, acyl Melatonin homologs, substituted anilines, and curcumin radioprotectants are included in this review to suggest their use as chelates in overcoming radiation injury. Additional reports document that non-toxic doses of essential metalloelement chelates are effective in increasing survival and repairing radiation injury when administered before irradiation, in the radiation protection paradigm, and effective in increasing survival when used to treat after irradiation, in the radiorecovery paradigm. There are no other agents known to be effective in increasing survival when they are used to treat after irradiation. These approaches to radioprotection and radiorecovery offer promising approaches to facilitating recovery from radiation-induced injury experienced by patients undergoing radiation therapy for their neoplastic disease and by individuals who experience environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. These individuals include those exposed to radiation resulting from nuclear accidents, the use of depleted uranium missiles, and astronauts undertaking space travel. Since there are no existing safe and effective treatments of radiation injury, studies of essential metalloelement chelates and combinations of them, as well as combinations of them with existing radioprotectant aminothiols, Ca-channel blockers, acyl Melatonin homologs, substituted anilines, and curcumin as radioprotectants seem worthwhile.

  18. Elasticity and magnetocaloric effect in MnFe4Si3

    DOE PAGES

    Herlitschke, Marcus; Klobes, B.; Sergueev, I.; Hering, Paul; Persson, Joerg; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2016-03-16

    The room temperature magnetocaloric material MnFe4Si3 was investigated with nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields in order to assess the infuence of the magnetic transition and the magnetocaloric effect on the lattice dynamics. The NIS data give access to phonons with energies above 3 meV, whereas RUS probes the elasticity of the material in the MHz frequency range and thus low energy, ~5 neV, phonon modes. A significant infuence of the magnetic transition on the lattice dynamics is observed only in the low energy region. Here, MnFe4Si3 and other compoundsmore » in the Mn5-xFexSi3 series were also investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, resistivity measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to study the magnetic transitions and to complement the obtained results on the lattice dynamics.« less

  19. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn- and Fe-doped indium tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, M.; Gunning, R. D.; Stamenov, P.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2008-04-01

    Undoped and transition-metal doped indium tin oxide films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique, on single crystalline c-plane (0001) and r-plane (1102) sapphire substrates maintained at 500-850°C. Magnetization measurements of films deposited at different temperatures indicate that ferromagnetism appears for deposition temperatures, Tdep>600°C, with the highest moment for films deposited around 750°C. Qualitative different ferromagnetic behavior has been observed at room temperature in Fe- and Mn-doped thin films. The stable, hysteretic ferromagnetism of the Fe-doped films is due to the presence of magnetite, as seen in transmission Mössbauer spectra. The Mn-doped films show anhysteretic ferromagnetism which decays over time. It is somehow intrinsic, but not due to the Mn ions, which remains paramagnetic down to 4K. No anomalous Hall effect is observed.

  20. Effect of CoFe insertion in Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions on spin injection properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, Yuya; Akiho, Takafumi; Liu, Hong-xi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2014-04-28

    The CoFe thickness (t{sub CoFe}) dependence of spin injection efficiency was investigated for Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions. The ΔV{sub NL}/I value, which is a measure of spin injection efficiency, strongly depended on t{sub CoFe}, where ΔV{sub NL} is the amplitude of a nonlocal spin-valve signal, and I is an injection current. Importantly, the maximum value of ΔV{sub NL}/I for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junction was one order of magnitude higher than that for a CoFe/n-GaAs junction, indicating that a Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode works as a highly polarized spin source. No clear spin signal, on the other hand, was observed for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction due to diffusion of Mn atoms into the GaAs channel. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the CoFe insertion effectively suppressed the diffusion of Mn into GaAs, resulting in improved spin injection properties compared with those for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction.

  1. Exchange bias effects in Heusler alloy Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Kubota, Takahide; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Huminiuc, Teodor; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Takanashi, Koki

    2016-06-01

    Ni2MnAl Heusler alloy thin films were epitaxially grown on MgO(1 0 0) single crystal substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the structures of all the Ni2MnAl thin films were B2-ordered regardless of the deposition temperature ranging from room temperature to 600 °C. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity showed a kink about 280 K, which was consistent with a reported value of the Néel temperature for antiferromagnetic B2-Ni2MnAl. The magnetization curves of Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayer samples showed a shift caused by the interfacial exchange interaction at 10 K. The maximum value of the exchange bias field H ex was 55 Oe corresponding to the exchange coupling energy J k of 0.03 erg cm-2.

  2. MnFe2O4@C Nanofibers as High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchang; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Chuanming; Jiao, Lifang; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-11

    MnFe2O4 nanodots (∼3.3 nm) homogeneously dispersed in porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (denoted as MFO@C) were prepared by a feasible electrospinning technique. Meanwhile, MFO@C with the character of flexible free-standing membrane was directly used as binder- and current collector-free anode for sodium-ion batteries, exhibiting high electrochemical performance with high-rate capability (305 mA h g(-1) at 10000 mA g(-1) in comparison of 504 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)) and ultralong cycling life (ca. 90% capacity retention after 4200 cycles). The Na-storage mechanism was systematically studied, revealing that MnFe2O4 is converted into metallic Mn and Fe after the first discharge (MnFe2O4 + 8Na(+) + 8e(-) → Mn + 2Fe + 4Na2O) and then to MnO and Fe2O3 during the following charge (Mn + 2Fe + 4Na2O → MnO + Fe2O3 + 8Na(+) + 8e(-)). The subsequent cycles occur through reversible redox reactions of MnO + Fe2O3 + 8Na(+) + 8e(-) ↔ Mn + 2Fe + 4Na2O, of which the reduction/oxidation of MnO/Mn takes place at a lower potential than that of Fe2O3/Fe. Furthermore, a soft package sodium-ion full battery with MFO@C anode and Na3V2(PO4)2F3/C cathode was assembled, delivering a stable capacity of ∼400 mA h g(-1) for MFO@C (with 100 cycles at 500 mA g(-1)) and a promising energy density of 77.8 Wh kg(-1) for the whole battery. This is owing to the distinctive structure of very-fine MnFe2O4 nanodots embedded in porous N-doped carbon nanofibers, which effectively improves the utilization rate of active materials, facilitates the transportation of electrons and Na(+) ions, and prevents the particle pulverization/agglomeration upon prolonged cycling.

  3. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  4. Magnetization and microstructure dynamics in Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001): Fe magnetization reversal by a femtosecond laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Spezzani, C; Ferrari, E; Allaria, E; Vidal, F; Ciavardini, A; Delaunay, R; Capotondi, F; Pedersoli, E; Coreno, M; Svetina, C; Raimondi, L; Zangrando, M; Ivanov, R; Nikolov, I; Demidovich, A; Danailov, M B; Popescu, H; Eddrief, M; De Ninno, G; Kiskinova, M; Sacchi, M

    2014-12-12

    Thin film magnetization reversal without applying external fields is an attractive perspective for applications in sensors and devices. One way to accomplish it is by fine-tuning the microstructure of a magnetic substrate via temperature control, as in the case of a thin Fe layer deposited on a MnAs/GaAs(001) template. This work reports a time-resolved resonant scattering study exploring the magnetic and structural properties of the Fe/MnAs system, using a 100 fs optical laser pulse to trigger local temperature variations and a 100 fs x-ray free-electron laser pulse to probe the induced magnetic and structural dynamics. The experiment provides direct evidence that a single optical laser pulse can reverse the Fe magnetization locally. It reveals that the time scale of the magnetization reversal is slower than that of the MnAs structural transformations triggered by the optical pulse, which take place after a few picoseconds already.

  5. Structural basis for assembly of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) cofactor in the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Dassama, Laura M K; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Rosenzweig, Amy C; Boal, Amie K

    2013-09-17

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) employs a Mn(IV)/Fe(III) cofactor in each monomer of its β2 subunit to initiate nucleotide reduction. The cofactor forms by reaction of Mn(II)/Fe(II)-β2 with O2. Previously, in vitro cofactor assembly from apo β2 and divalent metal ions produced a mixture of two forms, with Mn at site 1 (Mn(IV)/Fe(III)) or site 2 (Fe(III)/Mn(IV)), of which the more active Mn(IV)/Fe(III) product predominates. Here we have addressed the basis for metal site selectivity by determining X-ray crystal structures of apo, Mn(II), and Mn(II)/Fe(II) complexes of Ct β2. A structure obtained anaerobically with equimolar Mn(II), Fe(II), and apoprotein reveals exclusive incorporation of Mn(II) at site 1 and Fe(II) at site 2, in contrast to the more modest site selectivity achieved previously. Site specificity is controlled thermodynamically by the apoprotein structure, as only minor adjustments of ligands occur upon metal binding. Additional structures imply that, by itself, Mn(II) binds in either site. Together, the structures are consistent with a model for in vitro cofactor assembly in which Fe(II) specificity for site 2 drives assembly of the appropriately configured heterobimetallic center, provided that Fe(II) is substoichiometric. This model suggests that use of a Mn(IV)/Fe(III) cofactor in vivo could be an adaptation to Fe(II) limitation. A 1.8 Å resolution model of the Mn(II)/Fe(II)-β2 complex reveals additional structural determinants for activation of the cofactor, including a proposed site for side-on (η(2)) addition of O2 to Fe(II) and a short (3.2 Å) Mn(II)-Fe(II) interionic distance, promoting formation of the Mn(IV)/Fe(IV) activation intermediate.

  6. Phosphorites, Co-rich Mn nodules, and Fe-Mn crusts from Galicia Bank, NE Atlantic: Reflections of Cenozoic tectonics and paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Francisco Javier; Somoza, Luis; Hein, James R.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Urgorri, Victoriano; Reyes, Jesús; Martín-Rubí, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of marine mineral deposits were recovered from 750 to 1400 m water depths on Galicia Bank, Iberian margin. Mineral deposits include: (1) carbonate fluorapatite phosphorite slabs and nodules that replaced limestone and preserved original protolith fabric. (2) Ferromanganese vernadite crusts with high Mn and Fe (Mn/Fe = 1) contents, and thick stratabound layers consisting mainly of Mn (up to 27% MnO) and Fe (15% Fe2O3), which impregnated and replaced the phosphorite. (3) Co-rich Mn nodules are composed of romanechite and todorokite laminae. Mn-rich layers (up to 58% MnO) contain up to 1.8% Co. (4) Goethite nodules with Fe up to 67% Fe2O3 have low Mn and trace metals. We interpret this mineralization paragenesis to be related to major changes in oceanographic and tectonic regimes. Three phosphatization generations formed hardgrounds dated by 87Sr/86Sr isotopes as late Oligocene, early Miocene, and latest early Miocene. During the latest early Miocene, the hardground was fractured and breached due to regional intraplate tectonism, which was coeval with a widespread regional erosional unconformity. The stratabound layers and Co-rich manganese nodules were derived from low-temperature geothermally driven hydrothermal fluids, with fluid conduits along reactivated faults. During middle and late Miocene, the introduction of vigorous deep water flow from the Arctic generated growth of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Finally, growth of diagenetic Fe-rich nodules (late Pliocene) was promoted by the introduction of hypersaline Mediterranean Outflow Water into the Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Phase Field Modeling of Cyclic Austenite-Ferrite Transformations in Fe-C-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhu, Benqiang; Militzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Three different approaches for considering the effect of Mn on the austenite-ferrite interface migration in an Fe-0.1C-0.5Mn alloy have been coupled with a phase field model (PFM). In the first approach (PFM-I), only long-range C diffusion is considered while Mn is assumed to be immobile during the phase transformations. Both long-range C and Mn diffusions are considered in the second approach (PFM-II). In the third approach (PFM-III), long-range C diffusion is considered in combination with the Gibbs energy dissipation due to Mn diffusion inside the interface instead of solving for long-range diffusion of Mn. The three PFM approaches are first benchmarked with isothermal austenite-to-ferrite transformation at 1058.15 K (785 °C) before considering cyclic phase transformations. It is found that PFM-II can predict the stagnant stage and growth retardation experimentally observed during cycling transformations, whereas PFM-III can only replicate the stagnant stage but not the growth retardation and PFM-I predicts neither the stagnant stage nor the growth retardation. The results of this study suggest a significant role of Mn redistribution near the interface on reducing transformation rates, which should, therefore, be considered in future simulations of austenite-ferrite transformations in steels, particularly at temperatures in the intercritical range and above.

  8. The magneto-structural transition in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q. Y.; Hutchison, W. D.; Wang, J. L.; Studer, A. J.; Din, M. F. Md; Muñoz Pérez, S.; Cadogan, J. M.; Campbell, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Large refrigeration capacities, between 212(30) J kg-1 and 261(40) J kg-1 for a magnetic field change from 0 T to 5 T, were obtained in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) compounds. A partial magnetic phase diagram has been derived on the basis of magnetic transition and martensitic transformation temperatures determined from differential scanning calorimetry (200 K to 450 K), variable temperature x-ray diffraction (20 K to 310 K) and magnetisation measurements (5 K to 340 K 0.01 T). Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds with compositions in the range x  =  0.01 to 0.03 exhibit magneto-structural transitions. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out on the Mn0.98Fe0.02CoGe sample over the temperature range of 5 K to 450 K. The diffraction patterns were analysed based on irreducible representation theory which confirms a ferromagnetic structure in the sample with an atomic magnetic moment of 3.7(1)μ B at 5 K on the Mn sublattice, oriented along the orthorhombic c axis. More significantly, a magneto-structural transition around T M ~ 297(1) K with a full width at half maximum of 29 K is demonstrated directly via neutron diffraction. Larger magnetic entropy changes are obtained for the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) samples than for Mn0.96Fe0.04CoGe which has separate structural and magnetic transitions. In addition, it is noted that standard Arrott plots do not provide unambiguous insight to the nature of the magneto-structural transition in the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds.

  9. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  10. Tailoring Mg(x)Mn(1-x)Fe(2)O(4) superparamagnetic nanoferrites for magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-10-01

    A superparamagnetic nanoferrite (SPNF) with high magnetic moment, AC magnetically induced heating (AC-heating) capacity, and good biocompatibility is the most vital part of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for utilizing it in the clinics. Herein, we precisely tune magnetic properties and AC-heating characteristics of MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF via chemically controlling the cations' concentration and distribution to develop a tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF as a potential magnetic fluid hyperthermia agent. The magnetic and AC-heating characteristics of the tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF are strongly dependent on the Mg/Mn cations' concentration and distribution, and Mg0.285Mn0.715Fe2O4 SPNF exhibits the highest saturation magnetization and AC-heating capacity as well as high biocompatibility.

  11. Enhanced Magnetism in Field-Cooled [Ni80Fe20/Mn]3 Multilayers Studied Using Polarized Neutron Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, W.; Callori, S. J.; Cortie, D. L.; Su, H.-C.; Khaydukov, Y.; Lin, K.-W.; Klose, F.

    2016-04-01

    Here, the interfacial magnetic coupling in an exchange biased [Ni80Fe20/Mn]3 multilayer system has been studied using polarized neutron reflectometry. Previous results on this system indicate the importance of the coupling between the Fe-Mn and Ni-Mn orbitals at the layer interfaces. Magnetic depth profiles of the multilayer were measured at low temperatures under field-cooled and zero-field-cooled conditions. While no definitive interfacial state was found, a magnetic moment enhancement of roughly 20-30% in the applied field direction was observed throughout the bulk of the NiFe layers in the field-cooled state as compared to the zero-field-cooled measurements. The origin of this enhancement also likely stems from Fe-Mn and Ni-Mn orbital coupling, but due to the interfacial roughnesses of the sample, the areas where this coupling plays an important role is no longer confined to the interface.

  12. Tailoring Mg(x)Mn(1-x)Fe(2)O(4) superparamagnetic nanoferrites for magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-10-01

    A superparamagnetic nanoferrite (SPNF) with high magnetic moment, AC magnetically induced heating (AC-heating) capacity, and good biocompatibility is the most vital part of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for utilizing it in the clinics. Herein, we precisely tune magnetic properties and AC-heating characteristics of MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF via chemically controlling the cations' concentration and distribution to develop a tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF as a potential magnetic fluid hyperthermia agent. The magnetic and AC-heating characteristics of the tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF are strongly dependent on the Mg/Mn cations' concentration and distribution, and Mg0.285Mn0.715Fe2O4 SPNF exhibits the highest saturation magnetization and AC-heating capacity as well as high biocompatibility. PMID:25238143

  13. High Curie temperature of Ce-Fe-Si compounds with ThMn12 structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE; Herbst, JF

    2015-01-15

    We report the discovery of ternary CeFe(12-x)Si(x)compounds possessing the ThMn12 structure. The samples were prepared by melt spinning followed by annealing. In contrast to other known Ce Fe-based binary and ternary compounds, CeFe12-xSix compounds exhibit exceptionally high Curie temperatures whose values increase with added Si substitution. The highest T. = 583 K in CeFe10Si2 rivals that of the well-established Nd2Fe14B compound. We ascribe the T-c behavior to a combination of Si-induced 3d band structure changes and partial Ce3+ stabilization. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Incinerating volatile organic compounds with ferrospinel catalyst MnFe2O4: an example with isopropyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Tu, Yao-Jen

    2005-12-01

    This paper concerns the incineration of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using the ferrospinel catalyst MnFe2O4. It covers the preparation of the ferrospinel catalyst, the screening of catalytic activity, catalytic incineration testing, and 72-hr decay testing of the catalyst. The experimental results of catalyst screening reveal that the Mn/Fe catalyst is the best of five prepared catalysts (chromium/iron [Cr/Fe], manganese/iron [Mn/Fe], zinc/iron [Zn/Fe], nickel/iron [Ni/Fe], and pure magnetite [Fe3O4]). In tests of the catalytic incineration system used to convert IPA, 98% conversion was obtained at a space velocity of 24,000 hr(-1), an oxygen (O2) content of 21%, 1700 ppm of IPA, and a reaction temperature of 200 degrees C.

  15. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas.

  16. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal.

  17. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal. PMID:27316651

  18. Mn source effects on electrochemical properties of Fe -and Ni-substituted Li2MnO3 positive electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuchi, Mitsuharu; Kitta, Mitsunori; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Hideka; Imaizumi, Junichi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined Mn source effects on the electrochemical properties of Fe-substituted and Ni-substituted Li2MnO3 (Li1+x(Fe0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6)1-xO2, 0 < x < 1/3). Manganese sources of two kinds were selected: MnCl2·4H2O and KMnO4. Given the same preparation conditions, the chemical composition, transition metal distribution, and electrochemical properties of the two samples were compared. The sample obtained from KMnO4 exhibited better electrochemical performance, except for high-rate discharge characteristics, than that obtained from MnCl2. The origin of the different electrochemical performance was discussed to ascertain the unknown factor responsible for it. The full-cell performance was assessed using a single-layer laminate cell and mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode.

  19. Differential coordination demands in Fe vs Mn water-soluble cationic metalloporphyrins translates into remarkably different aqueous redox chemistry and biology

    PubMed Central

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Weitner, Tin; Sheng, Huaxin; Lu, MiaoMiao; Rajic, Zrinka; Warner, David S.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Reboucas, Julio S.; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2013-01-01

    on fairly similar log kcat(O2.− values, very similar effect on the growth of SOD-deficient E. coli was anticipated by both metalloporphyrins. Yet, while MnTE-2-PyP5+ was fully efficacious at ≥20 μM, the Fe analog, FeTE-2-PyP5+ supported SOD-deficient E. coli growth at 200-fold lower doses in the range of 0.1 to 1 μM. Moreover the pattern of SOD-deficient E. coli growth was different with Mn- and Fe porphyrins. Such results suggested different mode of action of these metalloporphyrins. Further exploration demonstrated that: (1) 0.1 μM FeTE-2-PyP5+ provided similar growth stimulation as 0.1 μM Fe salt, while 20 μM Mn salt provides no protection to E. coli; and (2) 1 μM Fe porphyrin is fully degraded by 12 hours in E. coli cytosol and growth medium; while Mn porphyrin is not. Stimulation of the aerobic growth of SOD-deficient E. coli by the Fe porphyrin is therefore due to iron acquisition. Our data suggest that in vivo, redox-driven degradation of Fe porphyrins resulting in Fe release plays a major role in their biological action. Possibly, iron reconstitutes enzymes bearing [4Fe-4S] clusters as active sites. Under same experimental conditions, (OH)(H2O)FePs do not cause mouse arterial hypotension, whereas (H2O)2MnPs do, which greatly limits the application of Mn porphyrins in vivo. PMID:23646875

  20. Further Observations of Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 Isotopic Systems in Sulfides from Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; Huss, G. R.; Leshin, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that short-lived Fe-60 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma) was present in some components of ordinary and enstatite chondrites when they formed. Here we report additional data on Fe-60 from sulfides in enstatite chondrites and on the potential relationship between the Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 systems.

  1. Ab initio investigation of competing antiferromagnetic structures in low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijiang; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-06-01

    The antiferromagnetic structures of a low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy were investigated by first principles calculations. One possible antiferromagnetic structure in supercell along the c-axis was revealed in FeMnP0.75Si0.25 alloy. It was found that atomic disorder occupation between Fe atom on 3f and Mn atoms on 3g sites is responsible for the formation of antiferromagnetic structures. Furthermore the magnetic competition and the coupling between possible AFM supercells along the c and a-axis can promote a non-collinear antiferromagnetic structure. These theoretical investigations help to deeply understand the magnetic order in FeMn(PSi) alloys and benefit to explore the potential magnetocaloric materials in Fe2P-type alloys.

  2. 238U-234U-230Th disequilibrium in hydrogenous oceanic Fe-Mn crusts: Palaeoceanographic record or diagenetic alteration?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chabaux, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Cohen, A.S.; Hein, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed TIMS study of (234Uexc/238U), (230Th/232Th), and Th/U ratios have been performed on the outermost margin of ten hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and west-central Indian Ocean. Th/U concentration ratios generally decrease from the crust's surface down to 0.5-1 mm depth and growth rates estimated by uranium and thorium isotope ratios are significantly different in Fe-Mn crusts from the Peru Basin and the west-central Indian Ocean. Fe-Mn crusts from the same geographical area define a single trend in plots of Ln (234Uexc/238U) vs. Ln(230Th/232Th) and Th/U ratios vs. age of the analysed fractions. Results suggest that (1) hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts remain closed-systems after formation, and consequently (2) the discrepancy observed between the 230Th and 234U chronometers in Fe-Mn crusts, and the variations of the Th/U ratios through the margin of Fe-Mn crusts, are not due to redistribution of uranium and thorium isotopes after oxyhydroxide precipitation, but rather to temporal variations of both Th/U and initial thorium activity ratios recorded by the Fe-Mn layers. Implications of these observations for determination of Fe-Mn crust growth-rates are discussed. Variations of both Th/U and initial Th activity ratios in Fe-Mn crusts might be related to changes in particle input to seawater and/or changes in ocean circulation during the last 150 ka. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Study of the Thermodynamics of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Binding to Fe3O4 and MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Steven; Brogfeld, Nathan; Kim, Jisoo; Parsons, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of chromium(III) or (VI) from aqueous solution was achieved using Fe3O4, and MnFe2O4 nanomaterials. The nanomaterials were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using XRD. The size of the nanomaterials was determined to be 22.4 ± 0.9 nm (Fe3O4) and 15.5 ± 0.5 nm (MnFe2O4). The optimal binding pH for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) were pH 6 and pH 3. Isotherm studies were performed, under light and dark conditions, to determine the capacity of the nanomaterials. The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were determined to be 7.189 and 10.63 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(III). The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were 3.21 and 3.46 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(VI). Under dark reaction conditions the binding of chromium(III) to the MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanomaterials were 5.74 and 15.9 mg/g, respectively. The binding capacity for the binding of chromium(VI) to MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 under dark reaction conditions were 3.87 and 8.54 mg/g, respectively. The thermodynamics for the reactions showed negative ΔG values, and positive ΔH values. The ΔS values were positive for the binding of chromium(III) and for chromium(VI) binding under dark reaction conditions. The ΔS values for chromium(VI) binding under the light reaction conditions were determined to be negative. PMID:23558081

  4. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-07

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (T{sub c}) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (T{sub c}(x)) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired T{sub c} in the range of 600–650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) in the range of 1041–919 emu/cm{sup 3} and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96–8.36 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930–800 emu/cm{sup 3} of M{sub s} and 7.18–5.61 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.{sup 2} areal density.

  5. Fe(II)-mediated reduction and repartitioning of structurally incorporated Cu, Co, and Mn in iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Catalano, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-16

    The reduction of trace elements and contaminants by Fe(II) at Fe(III) oxide surfaces is well documented. However, the effect of aqueous Fe(II) on the fate of redox-active trace elements structurally incorporated into iron oxides is unknown. Here, we investigate the fate of redox-active elements during Fe(II)-activated recrystallization of Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted goethite and hematite. Enhanced release of Cu, Co, and Mn to solution occurs upon exposure of all materials to aqueous Fe(II) relative to reactions in Fe(II)-free fluids. The quantity of trace element release increases with pH when Fe(II) is present but decreases with increasing pH in the absence of Fe(II). Co and Mn release from goethite is predicted well using a second-order kinetic model, consistent with the release of redox-inactive elements such as Ni and Zn. However, Cu release and Co and Mn release from hematite require the sum of two rates to adequately model the kinetic data. Greater uptake of Fe(II) by Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted iron oxides relative to analogues containing only redox-inactive elements suggests that net Fe(II) oxidation occurs. Reduction of Cu, Co, and Mn in all materials following reaction with Fe(II) at pHs 7.0-7.5 is confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. This work shows that redox-sensitive elements structurally incorporated within iron oxides are reduced and repartitioned into fluids during Fe(II)-mediated recrystallization. Such abiotic reactions likely operate in tandem with partial microbial and abiotic iron reduction or during the migration of Fe(II)-containing fluids, mobilizing structurally bound contaminants and micronutrients in aquatic systems.

  6. Formation and evolution of MnNi clusters in neutron irradiated dilute Fe alloys modelled by a first principle-based AKMC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngayam-Happy, R.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2012-07-01

    An atomistic Monte Carlo model parameterised on electronic structure calculations data has been used to study the formation and evolution under irradiation of solute clusters in Fe-MnNi ternary and Fe-CuMnNi quaternary alloys. Two populations of solute rich clusters have been observed, which can be discriminated by whether or not the solute atoms are associated with self-interstitial clusters. Mn-Ni-rich clusters are observed at a very early stage of the irradiation in both modelled alloys, whereas the quaternary alloys contain also Cu-containing clusters. Mn-Ni-rich clusters nucleate very early via a self-interstitial-driven mechanism, earlier than Cu-rich clusters; the latter, however, which are likely to form via a vacancy-driven mechanism, grow in number much faster than the former, helped by the thermodynamic driving force to Cu precipitation in Fe, thereby becoming dominant in the low dose regime. The kinetics of the number density increase of the two populations is thus significantly different. Finally the main conclusion suggested by this work is that the so-called late blooming phases might as well be neither late, nor phases.

  7. Efficient removal of trace arsenite through oxidation and adsorption by magnetic nanoparticles modified with Fe-Mn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified simultaneously with amorphous Fe and Mn oxides (Mag-Fe-Mn) were synthesized to remove arsenite [As(III)] from water. Mag-Fe-Mn particles were fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique by employing the maghemite as the magnetic core and Fe-Mn binary oxide (FMBO) as the coating materials. Powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the hybrid material. With a saturation magnetization of 23.2 emu/g, Mag-Fe-Mn particles with size of 20-50 nm could be easily separated from solutions with a simple magnetic process in short time (within 5 min). At pH 7.0, 200 μg/L of As(III) could be easily decreased to below 10 μg/L by Mag-Fe-Mn particles (0.1 g/L) within 20 min. As(III) could be effectively removed by Mag-Fe-Mn particles at initial pH range from 4 to 8 and the residual As was completely oxidized to less toxic arsenate [As(V)]. The co-occurring redox reactions between Mn oxide and As(III) was confirmed by XPS analysis. Chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, and nitrate at common concentration range had negligible influence on As(III) removal, whereas, silicate and phosphate reduced the As(III) removal by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. As(III) removal was not obviously affected by natural organic matter (up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Mag-Fe-Mn could be regenerated with ternary solution of NaOH, NaCl, and NaClO. Throughout five consecutive cycles, the adsorption and desorption efficiencies maintained above 98% and 87%, respectively. Mag-Fe-Mn had a larger adsorption capacity for As(III) (47.76 mg/g) and could remove trace As(III) more thoroughly than MNPs modified solely with either Fe or Mn oxide due to the synergistic effect of the coating Fe and Mn oxides. This research extended the potential applicability of FMBO to a great extent and provided a convenient approach to efficiently remove trace As

  8. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    PubMed

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    For decades, the extraction of minerals has intensified in order to meet the demand of industry. Iron ore deposits are important sources of metals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). The particulate ores can be dispersed during extraction, transport and storage, with potential to induce biological impacts. Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental stressors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure during the metamorphosis of Lithobates catesbeianus. Endpoints analyzed included morphological (biometrical and developmental analyses), whole body Fe and Mn concentration in, plasma ferritin concentration, erythrocyte DNA damage (measured through comet assay and micronucleus test) and liver activity of enzymes involved in oxidative status [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)]. Tadpoles were kept under control condition (no contaminant addition) or exposed to iron ore (3.79mg/L as fine particulate matter); Fe (nominal concentration: 0.51mg/L Fe as C10H12FeN2NaO8; Fe-EDTA); and Mn (nominal concentration: 5.23mg/L Mn as 4H2O.MnCl2) for 30 days. Virtually, no mortality was observed, except for one tadpole found dead in the iron ore treatment. However, tadpoles exposed to iron ore had longer tail than those kept under control conditions while tadpoles exposed to manganese chloride showed higher body length than control ones. Exposure to Fe and Mn induced a delay in tadpole metamorphosis, especially when these metals are presented not as a mixture (iron ore). Tadpoles exposed to iron ore had increased whole body Fe and Mn while those exposed to Fe and Mn accumulated each metal individually. Tadpoles exposed to any of the contaminants tested showed a significant increase in erythrocyte DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei. In addition, they showed higher liver GST activity respect with those kept under control conditions. Plasma ferritin concentration and liver CAT activity were higher only in tadpoles

  9. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    PubMed

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    For decades, the extraction of minerals has intensified in order to meet the demand of industry. Iron ore deposits are important sources of metals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). The particulate ores can be dispersed during extraction, transport and storage, with potential to induce biological impacts. Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental stressors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure during the metamorphosis of Lithobates catesbeianus. Endpoints analyzed included morphological (biometrical and developmental analyses), whole body Fe and Mn concentration in, plasma ferritin concentration, erythrocyte DNA damage (measured through comet assay and micronucleus test) and liver activity of enzymes involved in oxidative status [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)]. Tadpoles were kept under control condition (no contaminant addition) or exposed to iron ore (3.79mg/L as fine particulate matter); Fe (nominal concentration: 0.51mg/L Fe as C10H12FeN2NaO8; Fe-EDTA); and Mn (nominal concentration: 5.23mg/L Mn as 4H2O.MnCl2) for 30 days. Virtually, no mortality was observed, except for one tadpole found dead in the iron ore treatment. However, tadpoles exposed to iron ore had longer tail than those kept under control conditions while tadpoles exposed to manganese chloride showed higher body length than control ones. Exposure to Fe and Mn induced a delay in tadpole metamorphosis, especially when these metals are presented not as a mixture (iron ore). Tadpoles exposed to iron ore had increased whole body Fe and Mn while those exposed to Fe and Mn accumulated each metal individually. Tadpoles exposed to any of the contaminants tested showed a significant increase in erythrocyte DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei. In addition, they showed higher liver GST activity respect with those kept under control conditions. Plasma ferritin concentration and liver CAT activity were higher only in tadpoles

  10. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G. Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.; Tamisari, M.

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  11. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Tamisari, M.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2015-05-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  12. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation in FeMnNi alloys: A "grey alloy" object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiapetto, M.; Malerba, L.; Becquart, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    This work extends the object kinetic Monte Carlo model for neutron irradiation-induced nanostructure evolution in Fe-C binary alloys developed in [1], introducing the effects of substitutional solutes like Mn and Ni. The objective is to develop a model able to describe the nanostructural evolution of both vacancy and self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster populations in Fe(C)MnNi neutron-irradiated model alloys at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C), by simulating specific reference irradiation experiments. To do this, the effects of the substitutional solutes of interest are introduced, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" scheme. Mn and Ni solute atoms are not explicitly introduced in the model, which therefore cannot describe their redistribution under irradiation, but their effect is introduced by modifying the parameters that govern the mobility of both SIA and vacancy clusters. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proved to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable defect clusters with increasing solute content. Solute concentration is explicitly taken into account in the model as a variable determining the slowing down of self-interstitial clusters; small vacancy clusters, on the other hand, are assumed to be significantly slowed down by the presence of solutes, while for clusters bigger than 10 vacancies their complete immobility is postulated. The model, which is fully based on physical considerations and only uses a few parameters for calibration, is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental trends in terms of density and size distribution of the irradiation-induced defect populations with dose, as compared to the reference experiment, thereby providing insight into the physical mechanisms that influence the nanostructural evolution undergone by this material during irradiation.

  13. Quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and activity towards ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Easton, E. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    In this account, two series of quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts have been synthesized and characterized by ICP, XRD, XPS, TEM and cyclic voltammetry. XRD spectra of each series illustrated that PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co and Ni) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) alloys have been formed without significant free Mn, Cu, Mo or X co-catalysts. For PtMnCuSn/C and PtMnMoSn/C, in addition to alloy formation, significant free Sn-oxides are present in each catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry revealed that all quaternary showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation compared to the ternary precursor. Also, shift of the onset potential of ethanol oxidation towards less positive values were also recorded with the quaternary alloys, demonstrating a facilitated oxidation with the quaternary alloys compared to ternary alloy precursor. The magnitude of the gain in potential depend on the alloy composition and PtMnMoSn/C was found to be the best of all synthetized quaternary alloys with an onset potential of ethanol oxidation of only 0.059 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  14. Large-scale phase separation with nano-twin domains in manganite spinel (Co,Fe,Mn)3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horibe, Y.; Takeyama, S.; Mori, S.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Mn concentration on the formation of nano-domain structures in the spinel oxide (Co,Fe,Mn)3O4 was investigated by electron diffraction, bright-, and dark-field imaging technique with transmission electron microscopy. Large scale phase separation with nano-twin domains was observed in Co0.6Fe1.0Mn1.4O4, in contrast to the highly aligned checkerboard nano-domains in Co0.6Fe0.9Mn1.5O4. Diffusion of the Mn3+ ions with the Jahn-Teller distortions is suggested to play an important role in the formation of checkerboard nano-domain structure.

  15. Ferromagnetic interfacial interaction and the proximity effect in a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer.

    PubMed

    Nie, S H; Chin, Y Y; Liu, W Q; Tung, J C; Lu, J; Lin, H J; Guo, G Y; Meng, K K; Chen, L; Zhu, L J; Pan, D; Chen, C T; Xu, Y B; Yan, W S; Zhao, J H

    2013-07-12

    The magnetic properties of a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer epitaxied on GaAs (001) are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Unlike the common antiferromagnetic interfacial interaction existing in most ferromagnet-magnetic semiconductor bilayers, a ferromagnetic interfacial interaction in the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer is observed from measurements of magnetic hysteresis and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Mn ions in a 1.36 nm thick (Ga,Mn)As layer remain spin polarized up to 400 K due to the magnetic proximity effect. The minor loops of the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer shift with a small ferromagnetic interaction field of +24 Oe and -23 Oe at 15 K. The observed ferromagnetic interfacial coupling is supported by ab initio density functional calculations. These findings may provide a viable pathway for designing room-temperature semiconductor spintronic devices through magnetic proximity effect.

  16. Ferromagnetic interfacial interaction and the proximity effect in a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer.

    PubMed

    Nie, S H; Chin, Y Y; Liu, W Q; Tung, J C; Lu, J; Lin, H J; Guo, G Y; Meng, K K; Chen, L; Zhu, L J; Pan, D; Chen, C T; Xu, Y B; Yan, W S; Zhao, J H

    2013-07-12

    The magnetic properties of a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer epitaxied on GaAs (001) are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Unlike the common antiferromagnetic interfacial interaction existing in most ferromagnet-magnetic semiconductor bilayers, a ferromagnetic interfacial interaction in the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer is observed from measurements of magnetic hysteresis and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Mn ions in a 1.36 nm thick (Ga,Mn)As layer remain spin polarized up to 400 K due to the magnetic proximity effect. The minor loops of the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer shift with a small ferromagnetic interaction field of +24 Oe and -23 Oe at 15 K. The observed ferromagnetic interfacial coupling is supported by ab initio density functional calculations. These findings may provide a viable pathway for designing room-temperature semiconductor spintronic devices through magnetic proximity effect. PMID:23889435

  17. Ferromagnetic Interfacial Interaction and the Proximity Effect in a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, S. H.; Chin, Y. Y.; Liu, W. Q.; Tung, J. C.; Lu, J.; Lin, H. J.; Guo, G. Y.; Meng, K. K.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L. J.; Pan, D.; Chen, C. T.; Xu, Y. B.; Yan, W. S.; Zhao, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic properties of a Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer epitaxied on GaAs (001) are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Unlike the common antiferromagnetic interfacial interaction existing in most ferromagnet-magnetic semiconductor bilayers, a ferromagnetic interfacial interaction in the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer is observed from measurements of magnetic hysteresis and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The Mn ions in a 1.36 nm thick (Ga,Mn)As layer remain spin polarized up to 400 K due to the magnetic proximity effect. The minor loops of the Co2FeAl/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer shift with a small ferromagnetic interaction field of +24Oe and -23Oe at 15 K. The observed ferromagnetic interfacial coupling is supported by ab initio density functional calculations. These findings may provide a viable pathway for designing room-temperature semiconductor spintronic devices through magnetic proximity effect.

  18. Synergetic effects of Mn and Si in the interaction with point defects in bcc Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; He, X.; Van Neck, D.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of Mn, Si and Cr with a vacancy and self-interstitial defects in BCC Fe has been analyzed using ab initio calculations. While the interaction of the considered solute clusters with a single vacancy is linearly additive, there is a considerable synergetic effect in the case of self-interstitial atoms, found to bind strongly with Mn-Si pairs. The latter therefore act as deep trapping configurations for self-interstitials. At the same time, the presence of the point defects nearby weakly attractive Mn-Si pairs significantly enhances the solute-solute binding. The revealed effects are rationalized on the basis of charge density and local magnetic moment distributions.

  19. The effects of Ni, Mo, Ti and Si on the mechanical properties of Cr free Mn steel (Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The FeMnAlC alloys may hold potential as Cr-free replacements for high strategic material iron base superalloys, but little is known about their intermediate temperature (650 C to 870 C) mechanical properties. The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties of model FeMnAlC alloys were studied. Results showed that modified FeMnAlC alloys had promising short term, intermediate temperature properties but had relatively poor stress rupture lives at 172 MPa and 788 C. Room temperature and 788 C tensile strength of FeMnAlC alloys were better than common cast stainless steels. Changes in room temperature tensile and 788 C tensile strength and ductility, and 788 C stress rupture life were correlated with changes in Ni, Mo, Ti, and Si levels due to alloying effects on interstitial carbon levels and carbide morphology. Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C had a very poor stress rupture life at 172 MPa and 788 C. Addition of carbide-forming elements improved the stress rupture life.

  20. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kourov, N. I. Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-15

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit (H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal (R{sub 0}) and anomalous (R{sub s}) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R{sub s} in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio (R{sub s} ∝ ρ{sub 0}{sup 3.1}), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  1. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe2YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe2YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3 d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit ( H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal ( R 0) and anomalous ( R s ) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R s in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio ( R s ∝ ρ 0 3.1 ), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  2. Behavior of Fe-Mn-Al-C steels during cyclic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. S.; Acselrad, O.; Pereira, L. C.; Kalichak, T.; Khadyyev, M. S.

    2000-06-01

    Alloys of the FeMnAlC system have been used for cryogenic purposes and for applications up to 673 K. At low temperatures, they have in general a better performance than austenitic Cr-Ni steels as far as fatigue is concerned, but are inferior to martensitic Cr steels. However, since the fatigue strength of FeMnAlC alloys in the temperature range of 523 to 823 K is higher than at room temperature, the present work has been conducted to describe the behavior of such alloys under the action of cyclic loading, including elasto-plastic deformation and cyclic temperatures. It has been concluded that components can be successfully subjected to cyclic loads in the elasto-plastic regime and to periodic changes in temperature under normal service conditions.

  3. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of W- and Fe-Substituted MnSi γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, Swapnil; Hiroishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Akio; Ikuta, Hiroshi; Matsunami, Masaharu; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of heavy-element (W) substitution on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicide (HMS). Samples were prepared by arc melting followed by liquid quenching, where the latter assisted in achieving higher solubility for tungsten. We observed that Mn34.6W1.8Si63.6 was a p-type material, whereas simultaneous substitution of 12 at.% Fe made the higher manganese silicide an n-type material. The optimal carrier concentration was obtained by simultaneous substitution of Fe and W for Mn atoms. Although the samples were metastable, we successfully obtained bulk samples by a low-temperature (970 K), high-pressure (>100 MPa), long-duration sintering process. The lattice thermal conductivity was effectively reduced by W substitution, and the ZT value was improved to above 0.5 for both n- and p-type samples.

  4. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga/Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chang-Long; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A ferromagnetic shape memory composite of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ga was fabricated by using spark plasma sintering method. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Compared to the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy, the threshold field for magnetic-field-induced strain in the composite is clearly reduced owing to the assistance of internal stress generated from Fe-Ga. Meanwhile, the ductility has been significantly improved in the composite. A fracture strain of 26% and a compressive strength of 1600 MPa were achieved. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271065 and 51301054), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1253-NCET-009), the Youth Academic Backbone in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1251G022), the Projects of Heilongjiang, China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  5. Strain development during the phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Smith, Anders; Norby, Poul; Stâhl, Kenny; Bahl, Christian R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We use powder X-ray diffraction to evaluate the temperature dependence of the crystalline properties during the magnetic phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz as a function of the Fe/Mn/Si ratio. Both the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases were observed as peak overlaps in the patterns around the Curie temperature (TC) occurring continuously in a temperature range of about 5 K around TC. Using the Williamson-Hall method, we evaluate the strain developing in the crystallites during the transition and find that it is associated with the growth of the paramagnetic phase as the transition occurs. Based on our measurements and microstructure analyses, we propose that cracking during the phase transition is due to or aggravated by the small content of a La-rich phase.

  6. Corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of a new nitrogen strengthened Fe-Mn-Cr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, U.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Nitrogen alloyed, Ni-free, austenitic stainless steels with more than 1 wt.% nitrogen are a new group of alloys with promising properties. They exhibit a very interesting combination of high strength and toughness with a high corrosion resistance in various environments. This work shows the influence of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen on the corrosion resistance of Fe25Mn-alloys. According to these results Fe25Mn-alloys with approximately 20 wt.% chromium about 3 wt.% molybdenum and approximately 1.3 wt.% nitrogen have an excellent corrosion resistance. The critical pitting temperature (CPT) of 61 C and the critical crevice temperature (CCT) of 37 C when tested according to ASTM G-48 A were significantly higher than the well established AISI 316 L stainless steel.

  7. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of W- and Fe-Substituted MnSi γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, Swapnil; Hiroishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Akio; Ikuta, Hiroshi; Matsunami, Masaharu; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of heavy-element (W) substitution on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicide (HMS). Samples were prepared by arc melting followed by liquid quenching, where the latter assisted in achieving higher solubility for tungsten. We observed that Mn34.6W1.8Si63.6 was a p-type material, whereas simultaneous substitution of 12 at.% Fe made the higher manganese silicide an n-type material. The optimal carrier concentration was obtained by simultaneous substitution of Fe and W for Mn atoms. Although the samples were metastable, we successfully obtained bulk samples by a low-temperature (970 K), high-pressure (>100 MPa), long-duration sintering process. The lattice thermal conductivity was effectively reduced by W substitution, and the ZT value was improved to above 0.5 for both n- and p-type samples.

  8. Structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of MnBi:Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kharel, P.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Li, X. Z.; Shah, V. R.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Tarawneh, K.; Sabirianov, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    The structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of Mn{sub 55-x}Fe{sub x}Bi{sub 45} (x = 0, 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 16) films prepared by multilayer deposition and annealing using e-beam evaporation have been investigated. Fe doping has produced a significant change in the magnetic properties of the samples including the decrease in saturation magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy and increase in coercivity. Although the magnetization shows a smooth decrease with increasing Fe concentration, the coercivity jumps abruptly from 8.5 kOe to 22 kOe as Fe content changes from 4% to 5%, but the change in coercivity is small as the concentration goes beyond 5%. The temperature dependence of resistivity shows that the samples with low Fe concentration ({<=}4%) are metallic, but the resistivity increases unexpectedly as the concentration reaches 5%, where the resistance increases with decreasing temperature below 300 K. First-principle calculations suggest that the observed magnetic properties can be understood as the consequences of competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the interstitial atom and the rest of the MnBi lattice.

  9. Partitioning and structural role of Mn and Fe ions in ionic sulfophosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Möncke, Doris; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sirotkin, Sergey; Stavrou, Elissaios; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.

    2014-12-14

    Ionic sulfophosphate liquids of the type ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} exhibit surprising glass forming ability, even at slow or moderate cooling rate. As a concept, they also provide high solubility of transition metal ions which could act as cross-linking sites between the sulfate and phosphate entities. It is therefore investigated how the replacement of ZnO by MnO and/or FeO affects the glass structure and the glass properties. Increasing manganese levels are found to result in a monotonic increase of the transition temperature T{sub g} and most of the mechanical properties. This trend is attributed to the change of metal-ion coordination from four-fold around Zn{sup 2+} to six-fold around Mn{sup 2+} ions. The higher coordination facilitates cross-linking of the ionic structural entities and subsequently increases T{sub g}. Raman and infrared spectroscopy show that the structure of these glasses involves only SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} monomers as well as P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} dimers. Replacement of ZnO by MnO is found to favour PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} over P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} species, a trend which is enhanced by co-doping with FeO. Both transition metal ions show, like Zn{sup 2+}, a preference to selectively coordinate to phosphate anionic species, as opposed to sodium ions which coordinate mainly to sulfate anions. EPR spectroscopy finally shows that divalent Mn{sup 2+} ions are present primarily in MnO{sub 6}-clusters, which, in the studied sulfophosphate glasses, convert upon increasing MnO content from corner-sharing to edge-sharing entities.

  10. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  11. Mechanism and kinetics of interaction of Fe, Cr, Mo, and Mn atoms with molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmadov, U.S.; Zaslonko, I.S.; Smirnov, V.N.

    1988-09-01

    By means of resonance atomic absorption in shock waves, rate constants have been measured for the interaction of atoms of a number of transition metals (Fe, Cr, Mo, and Mn) with molecular oxygen. A new method is proposed and used for determining the exponent ..gamma.. in the modified Lambert-Beer law D = element of(ZN)/sup ..gamma../. The bond strength in CrO and MoO molecules has been estimated.

  12. Origin of Extended Tensile Ductility of a Fe-28Mn-10Al-1C Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J. D.; Hwang, S. W.; Park, K.-T.

    2009-07-01

    Fully austenitic Fe-28Mn-10Al-1.0C steel with high stacking fault energy exhibited exceptionally high uniform elongations (85 to 100 pct) and total elongations (100 to 110 pct) at room temperature. The origin of such exceptional room-temperature ductility was rationalized in terms of strain accommodation mechanisms of reduction of glide plane spacing in Taylor lattice (TL) formation at low strains and TL rotation forming domain boundaries (DBs) and microbands (MBs) at high strains.

  13. Compositional dependence of antiferromagnetic anisotropy in IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aley, N. P.; O'Grady, K.

    2011-04-01

    We report on a study of the effect of Ir content on the loop shift (H{sub EX}) and anisotropy constant (K{sub AF}) in the CoFe/IrMn system. The sample structure investigated was Si/NiCr(5 nm)/Ru(5 nm)/Ir{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}/CoFe(2 nm)/Ta(3 nm). All samples were produced by sputtering and the Ir and Mn levels were varied using a specially made composite target and deposited at {approx}120 deg. C. The composition of the samples was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. K{sub AF} was calculated from thermal activation measurements using the York Protocols. A plateau in H{sub EX} was found for Ir levels between 16- 20.5 at. %. H{sub EX} was found to decrease by 50% on either side of this window. This result is consistent with previous studies where the enhancement of H{sub EX} was attributed to an increase in the atomic ordering of the IrMn alloy. However, K{sub AF} decreases linearly with increasing Ir concentration and does not appear to correlate with the change in H{sub EX}.

  14. Ab initio lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe-Mn random alloys.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, T; Music, D; Hallstedt, B; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Vitos, L; Schneider, J M

    2010-07-28

    We have studied the lattice stability of face centred cubic (fcc) versus hexagonal close packed (hcp) Fe-Mn random alloys using ab initio calculations. In the calculations we considered the antiferromagnetic order of local moments, which for fcc alloys models the magnetic configuration of this phase at room temperature (below its Néel temperature) as well as their complete disorder, corresponding to paramagnetic fcc and hcp alloys. For both cases, the results are consistent with our thermodynamic calculations, obtained within the Calphad approach. For the room temperature magnetic configuration, the cross-over of the total energies of the hcp phase and the fcc phase of Fe-Mn alloys is at the expected Mn content, whereas for the magnetic configuration above the fcc Néel temperature, the hcp lattice is more stable within the whole composition range studied. The increase of the total energy difference between hcp and antiferromagnetic fcc due to additions of Mn as well as the stabilizing effect of antiferromagnetic ordering on the fcc phase are well displayed. These results are of relevance for understanding the deformation mechanisms of these random alloys.

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE IN AS-QUENCHED Fe-12Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. J.; Morris, Jr., J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Previous research in this laboratory led to the conclusion that the low temperature intergranular fracture mode in Fe-Mn alloys is microstructurally determined, and does not require metalloid segregation or other chemical contamination. That conclusion was tested in the present investigation, which used high resolution scanning Auger microscopy to study the intergranular fracture surfaces. The fracture mode at liquid nitrogen temperature was found to be intergranular fracture whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field, irrespective of the austenization time or temperature. High resolution chemical analyses of the intergranular fracture surfaces failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, 0, or N. The occasional appearance of sulfur or oxygen on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO{sub 2} along the prior austenite grain boundaries. Excepting these dispersed precipitates, there was no evidence of manganese enrichment of the prior austenite grain boundaries. A slight segregation of carbon was found along the grain boundaries, but does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. The present results hence reinforce the conclusion that the low temperature intergranular fracture of Fe-12Mn is microstructurally determined.

  16. Pack-boriding of Fe-Mn binary alloys: Characterization and kinetics of the boride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bektes, M.; Calik, A.; Ucar, N.; Keddam, M.

    2010-02-15

    In this work, the boronizing of Fe-Mn binary alloys at 0.42, 0.76 and 0.94 wt.% Mn was carried out in a solid medium using the powder pack method. In this method, commercial Ekabor-II boron source and activator (ferro-silicon) were thoroughly mixed to form the boriding medium. The samples were boronized in an electrical resistance furnace for exposure times of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 1173 K under atmospheric pressure and a series of boronized samples in the temperature range 1073-1373 K for 3 h. After the furnace process, boronized samples were removed from the furnace and cooled in air. Afterwards, the boride layers generated by the pack-boronizing process were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, Vickers microhardness and tensile testing. The generated boride layers, showing a saw-tooth morphology, had a surface microhardness in the range 1400-1270 HV0.1. It was shown that the values of yield stresses and ultimate tensile stresses were increased as the Mn content increases in the boronized Fe-Mn binary alloys. In contrast, the values of elongations determined from the stress-strain curves were decreased. Furthermore, it was found that the calculated mean value of the activation energy of boron diffusion was close to 119 J/mol.

  17. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-15

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn{sub 2}FeAs applying in the future spintronics field. - Graphical abstract: The d orbitals of Mn and Fe atoms split into multi-degenerated levels which create new bonding and nonbonding states. These exchange splitting shift the Fermi level to origin band gap.▪ - Highlights: • The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy were studied. • A total magnetic moment of 3μ{sub B} was obtained for Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy, following the SP rule M{sub t}=Z{sub t}−24. • The origin of ferrimagnetism and half-metallic character in Mn{sub 2}FeAs were discussed.

  18. Iron-base superalloys - A phase analysis of the multicomponent system (Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Lemkey, F. D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of studies on the iron-rich multicomponent system Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C, work was concentrated on pertinent quinary and six-component combinations namely Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C, Fe-Cr-Al-Si-C and Fe-Mn-Cr-Al-Si-C which had been elaborated at 65, 72, and 80 wt pct Fe. Manganese acts as a strong stabilizer for the cementite carbide. Chromium seems to stabilize the iron aluminide Fe2Al5 which forms in a considerable amount within an alloy of nominal composition Fe(65)Mn(15)Cr(12)Al(5)Si(2)C(1) (percent by weight). Although the Mn3AlC carbide is, like Fe3AlC, a perovskite carbide, manganese does not appear to favor the formation of the perovskite carbide. Because of the relatively low sintering temperature (700 C), for al large portion of the samples equilibria conditions are not always reached.

  19. A new Fe-Mn-Si alloplastic biomaterial as bone grafting material: In vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fântânariu, Mircea; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina; Strungaru, Ştefan; Şindilar, Eusebiu Viorel; Plăvan, Gabriel; Stanciu, Sergiu

    2015-10-01

    Designing substrates having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key's development of bio-materials for medical application. In orthopedics, graft material may be used to fill bony defects or to promote bone formation in osseous defects created by trauma or surgical intervention. Incorporation of Si may increase the bioactivity of implant locally, both by enhancing interactions at the graft-host interface and by having a potential endocrine like effect on osteoblasts. A Fe-Mn-Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft materials for bone implants that need long recovery time period. The surface morphology of the resulted specimens was investigated using scanning electrons microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffractions (X'Pert equipment) or X-ray dispersive energy analyze (Bruker EDS equipment). This study objective was to evaluate in vivo the mechanisms of degradation and the effects of its implantation over the main metabolic organs. Biochemical, histological, plain X radiography and computed tomography investigations showed good compatibility of the subcutaneous implants in the rat organism. The implantation of the Fe-Mn-Si alloy, in critical size bone (tibiae) defect rat model, did not induced adverse biological reactions and provided temporary mechanical support to the affected bone area. The biodegradation products were hydroxides layers which adhered to the substrate surface. Fe-Mn-Si alloy assured the mechanical integrity in rat tibiae defects during bone regeneration.

  20. Electromigration of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn with citric acid in contaminated clay.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M; Gouveia, S; Sanroman, M A; Cameselle, C

    2008-07-01

    Metal reactivity, speciation and solubility have an important influence in its transportation through a porous matrix by electrokinetics and, therefore, they dramatically affect the removal efficiency. This work deals with the effect of solubility and transport competition among several metals (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) during their transport through polluted clay. The unenhancement electrokinetic treatment results in a limited removal of the tested metals because they were retained into the kaolinite sample by the penetration of the alkaline front. Metals showed a removal degree in accordance with the solubility of the corresponding hydroxide and its formation pH. In 7 days of treatment, the removal results were: 75.6% of Mn; 68.5% of Zn, 40.6% of Cu and 14.8% of Fe. In order to avoid the negative effects of the basic front generated at the cathode, two different techniques were proposed and tested: the addition of citric acid as complexing agent to the polluted kaolinite sample and the use of citric acid to control de pH on the cathode chamber. Both techniques are based on the capability of citric acid to act as a complexing and neutralizing agent. Almost complete removal of Mn, Cu and Zn was achieved when citric acid was used (as neutralizing or complexing agent). But Fe only reached 33% of removal because it formed a negatively charged complex with citrate that retarded its transportation to the cathode.

  1. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  2. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  3. Preparation and Magnetic Properties of MnFe2O4 Octahedral Microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hua

    2011-12-01

    MnFe2O4 octahedra have been prepared by reaction of Mn2+ ions and Fe3+ in alkaline condition via heat treatment of the coprecipitation product. The as-prepared powders were characterized in detail by conventional techniques such as powder x-ray diffraction; field emission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometer was used to determine the magnetic properties at room temperature. The results show that the MnFe2O4 octahedra were single crystals with cubic jacobsite structure and a size distribution from 0.8 to 1.0 μm. The octahedra obtained at 1100 and 1200 °C exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior with the coercive force ( H c) value of 49.03 and 39.23 Oe, saturation magnetization ( M s) value of 42.93 and 47.98 emu/g and remanent magnetization ( M r) value of 2.16 and 2.55 emu/g, respectively. It is indicated that the heat treatment temperature has a significant effect on the formation of the jacobsite structure. Furthermore, a possible mechanism was also proposed to account for the growth of these products.

  4. The effect of the concentration of the Mn2+ ions on the optical and magnetic properties of the ZnS:Fe2+(1%) nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Fan, Lin; Yang, Jinghai; Yan, Yongsheng; Wei, Maobin; Yang, Lili; Feng, Bo; Han, Donglai; Wang, Bingji; Fu, Hao

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the wurtzite-type Fe/Mn co-doped ZnS nanowires were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method at 180 °C without any surface-active agent. The results showed that both the Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions were incorporated into the ZnS host and the maximum concentration of the Mn2+ ions in the ZnS:Fe2+(1%) nanowires was 5.1%. After adding Mn2+ ions into the ZnS:Fe2+(1%) nanowires, the emission peak centered at 2.14 eV corresponding to the Mn2+4T1-6A1 transition can be observed. As the Mn2+ doped ratio increased, the concentration quenching effect can be observed. The ferromagnetism property of the ZnS:Fe2+Mn2+ nanowires was observed around room temperature, which became weaker as the Mn2+ doped ratio increased.

  5. A new mineral species ferricoronadite, Pb[Mn6 4+(Fe3+, Mn3+)2]O16: mineralogical characterization, crystal chemistry and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Jančev, Simeon; Pekov, Igor V.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Nelyubina, Yuliya V.; Van, Konstantin V.

    2016-07-01

    A new mineral ferricoronadite with the simplified formula Pb(Mn6 4+Fe2 3+)O16 was discovered in the orogenetic zone related to the "Mixed Series" metamorphic complex near the Nežilovo village, Pelagonian massif, Republic of Macedonia. Associated minerals are franklinite, gahnite, hetaerolite, roméite, almeidaite, Mn-analogue of plumboferrite, zincohögbomite analogue with Fe3+ > Al, zincochromite, Zn-bearing talc, Zn-bearing muscovite, baryte, quartz and zircon. Ferricoronadite is a late hydrothermal mineral forming veinlets up to 8 mm thick in granular aggregate predominantly composed by zinc-dominant spinels. The new mineral is opaque, black, with brownish black streak. The luster is strong submetallic to metallic. The micro-indentation hardness is 819 kg/mm2. Distinct cleavage is observed on (100). Ferricoronadite is brittle, with uneven fracture. The density calculated from the empirical formula is 5.538 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferricoronadite is light gray. The reflectance values [ R max/ R min, % ( λ, nm)] are: 28.7/27.8 (470), 27.6/26.6 (546), 27.2/26.1 (589), 26.5/25.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the absence of H2O and OH groups. According to the Mössbauer spectrum, all iron is trivalent. The Mn K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that Mn is predominantly tetravalent, with subordinate Mn3+. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, Mn apportioned between MnO2 and Mn2O3 based on the charge-balance requirement): BaO 5.16, PbO 24.50, ZnO 0.33, Al2O3 0.50, Mn2O3 9.90, Fe2O3 11.45, TiO2 4.19, MnO2 44.81, total 100.84. The empirical formula based on 8 cations Mn + Fe + Ti + Al + Zn pfu is Pb1.03Ba0.32(Mn 4.85 4+ Fe 1.35 3+ Mn 1.18 3+ Ti0.49Al0.09Zn0.04)Σ8.00O16. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is tetragonal, space group I4/ m, a = 9.9043(7), c = 2.8986(9) Å, V = 284.34(9) Å3, Z = 1. In ferricoronadite, double chains of edge-sharing (Mn, Fe, Ti)-centered octahedra are connected

  6. MnFe2O4 as a gas sensor towards SO2 and NO2 gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Deepshikha; Mitra, Supratim

    2016-05-01

    The chemical co-precipitation method was used to synthesize MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The average particle size of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was found to be 10.7 nm using Scherrer formula. The ultrafine powder of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was pressed to design pellet of 10 mm diameter and 1mm thickness. Copper electrodes have been deposited on the surface of pellet using silver paste in the form of capacitor. Fabricated gas sensing device of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was tested towards SO2 and NO2 gases. Cole-Cole plot of MnFe2O4 was investigated with the help of electrochemical workstation. The performance of the sensors including sensitivity, response and recovery time was also determined. It was observed that the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles are more sensible for NO2 gas as compared to SO2 gas.

  7. Magnetism in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂ tuned by Fe/Mn ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hechang; Bozin, Emil S.; Llobet, A.; Ivanovski, V.; Koteski, V.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Petrovic, C.

    2012-09-17

    We report the evolution of structural and magnetic properties in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂. Heat capacity and bulk magnetization indicate an increased ferromagnetic component of the long-range magnetic order and possible increased degree of frustration. Atomic disorder on Fe(Mn) sites suppresses the temperature of the long-range order whereas intermediate alloys show a rich magnetic phase diagram.

  8. Moessbauer studies in Zn(2+)0.3 Mn(2+)0.7 Mn(3+) (2-y) Fe(3+) (2-y) O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. G.; Mendiratta, R. G.; Escue, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Mossbauer effect has proven to be effective in the study of nuclear hyperfine interactions. Ferrite systems having the formula (Zn(2+)0.3)(Mn(2+)0.7)(Mn(3+)y)(Fe(3+)2-y)(O4) were prepared and studied. These systems can be interpreted as mangacese-doped zinc and a part of iron ions. A systematic study of these systems is presented to promote an understanding of their microstructure for which various theories were proposed.

  9. The martensitic transformation and magnetic properties in Ni50- x Fe x Mn32Al18 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Li, H.; Han, P. D.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2015-05-01

    The martensitic transformation (MT) and magnetic properties have been investigated in a series of Ni50- x Fe x Mn32Al18 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The substitution of Fe for Ni reduces the MT temperature of Ni-Fe-Mn-Al alloys effectively, and the magnetization of the austenite was significantly enhanced in these high-doped alloys. The Fe introduction converts antiferromagnetic austenite to ferrimagnetic state, and therefore, the unique MT occurs between ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic state in these alloys. The MT temperatures decreased by about 15 K under the magnetic field of 30 kOe for x = 8 alloy. The positive value of magnetic entropy change was determined to 3.35 J/kg K around the MT in the field change of 30 kOe for x = 6 alloy. These results suggest that Ni50- x Fe x Mn32Al18 alloys would be the promising candidates for magnetic multifunctional materials.

  10. Enhanced Thermal Stability and Magnetic Properties in NaCl-Type FePt-MnO Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, AG; Chen, J; Ye, XC; Kikkawa, JM; Murray, CB

    2011-08-31

    We report the growth of NaCl-type binary nanocrystal (NC) superlattice membranes by coassembly of FePt and MnO NCs at the liquid-air interface. The constituent FePt NCs were converted into the hard magnetic L1(0) phase by thermal annealing at 650 degrees C without degradation of the long-range NC ordering. In contrast, both FePt-only NC superlattices and FePt-MnO disordered NC mixtures showed substantial FePt sintering under the same annealing conditions. Our results demonstrate that the incorporation of FePt NCs into binary superlattices can solve the problems of FePt sintering during conversion to the L1(0) phase, opening a new route to the fabrication of ordered ferromagnetic NC arrays on a desired substrate for high-density data storage applications.

  11. Synthesis of MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide core-shell nanoparticles and their excellent performance for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zichuan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chang, Yongfang; Xing, Shengtao; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2013-10-21

    Magnetic nanomaterials that can be easily separated and recycled due to their magnetic properties have received considerable attention in the field of water treatment. However, these nanomaterials usually tend to aggregate and alter their properties. Herein, we report an economical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully coated with amorphous Mn-Co oxide shells. The synthesized MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles have highly negatively charged surface in aqueous solution over a wide pH range, thus preventing their aggregation and enhancing their performance for heavy metal cation removal. The adsorption isotherms are well fitted to a Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximal adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide are 481.2, 386.2 and 345.5 mg g(-1), respectively. All the metal ions can be completely removed from the mixed metal ion solutions in a short time. Desorption studies confirm that the adsorbent can be effectively regenerated and reused.

  12. Synthesis of MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide core-shell nanoparticles and their excellent performance for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zichuan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chang, Yongfang; Xing, Shengtao; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2013-10-21

    Magnetic nanomaterials that can be easily separated and recycled due to their magnetic properties have received considerable attention in the field of water treatment. However, these nanomaterials usually tend to aggregate and alter their properties. Herein, we report an economical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully coated with amorphous Mn-Co oxide shells. The synthesized MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles have highly negatively charged surface in aqueous solution over a wide pH range, thus preventing their aggregation and enhancing their performance for heavy metal cation removal. The adsorption isotherms are well fitted to a Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximal adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide are 481.2, 386.2 and 345.5 mg g(-1), respectively. All the metal ions can be completely removed from the mixed metal ion solutions in a short time. Desorption studies confirm that the adsorbent can be effectively regenerated and reused. PMID:23945878

  13. Planar Hall effect in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}/IrMn films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. Zou, L. K.

    2014-12-29

    The planar Hall effect of IrMn on an yttrium iron garnet (YIG = Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was measured in the magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic field angular dependence of planar Hall resistance (PHR) was observed in YIG/IrMn bilayer at different temperatures, while the Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}/IrMn film shows constant PHR for different magnetic field angles at both 10 K and 300 K. This provides evidence that IrMn has interfacial spins which can be led by ferrimagnetic layer in YIG/IrMn structure. A hysteresis can be observed in PHR-magnetic field angle loop of YIG/IrMn film at 10 K, indicative of the irreversible switching of IrMn interfacial spins at low temperature.

  14. Enhanced half-metallicity of off-stoichiometric quaternary Heusler alloy C o2(Mn ,Fe )Si investigated through saturation magnetization and tunneling magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Kidist; Honda, Yusuke; Liu, Hong-xi; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Miura, Yoshio; Shirai, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the factors that critically affect the half-metallicity of the quaternary Heusler alloy C o2(Mn ,Fe )Si (CMFS) by examining the film composition dependence of the saturation magnetization per formula unit, μs, of CMFS thin films and the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of CMFS/MgO/CMFS magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). We also investigated the origin of the giant TMR ratio of up to 2610% at 4.2 K (429% at 290 K) obtained for CMFS MTJs with Mn-rich, lightly Fe-doped CMFS electrodes. Co antisites at the nominal Mn/Fe sites (C oMn /Fe antisites) can consistently explain the μs for (Mn + Fe)-deficient CMFS thin films being lower than the half-metallic Zt-24 value and the TMR ratio for MTJs with (Mn + Fe)-deficient CMFS electrodes being lower than that for MTJs with (Mn + Fe)-rich CMFS electrodes. It was revealed that the C oMn /Fe antisite is detrimental to the half-metallicity of the CMFS quaternary alloy, as it is in the Co2MnSi (CMS) ternary alloy. It was also shown that (Mn +Fe ) -rich compositions are critical to suppressing these harmful antisites and to retaining the half-metallic electronic state. In addition, a relatively small Fe ratio, rather than a large one, in the total (Mn +Fe ) composition led to a more complete half-metallic electronic state. Half-metallicity was more strongly enhanced by increasing the Mn composition in Mn-rich, lightly Fe-doped CMFS than in Mn-rich CMS. This phenomenon is the cause of the giant TMR ratio recently reported for CMFS MTJs. Our findings indicate that the approach to controlling off-stoichiometry and film composition is promising for fully utilizing the half-metallicity of quaternary CMFS thin films as spin source materials.

  15. Role of carbon in improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys by thermo-mechanical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Song, Fan; Wang, Shanling; Zhang, Chengyan; Wen, Yuhua

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the role of carbon in improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloys by thermomechanical treatments, we investigated the effect of optimum thermomechanical treatments on shape memory effect and microstructures of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni and Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C alloys. The Cr23C6 particles in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5S-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C more effectively prevented collisions between stress-induced ɛ martensite bands than the residual α‧ martensite in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. This result is attributed to the thinner width of stress-induced ɛ martensite bands in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5S-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C compared to optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. In addition, the Cr23C6 particles formed at more sites and provided more obstacles as compared with the residual α‧ martensite. Accordingly, the recovery strain of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C was higher than that of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. It is concluded that carbon addition is beneficial to further improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloys by thermomechanical treatments.

  16. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  17. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications.

  18. LiMO{sub 2} (M=Mn, Fe, and Co): Energetics, polymorphism and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Miaojun; Navrotsky, Alexandra . E-mail: anavrotsky@ucdavis.edu

    2005-04-15

    LiMO{sub 2} materials (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) with different structures were synthesized and their enthalpies of formation from oxides (Li{sub 2}O and M{sub 2}O{sub 3}, M=Mn and Fe), or from oxides (Li{sub 2}O and CoO) plus oxygen at 25{sup o}C were determined by high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The relative stability of the polymorphs of the compound LiMO{sub 2} was established based on their enthalpies of formation. Phase transformations in LiFeO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The phase transition enthalpies at 25{sup o}C for {beta}->{alpha}, {gamma}->{beta}, and {gamma}->{alpha} are 4.9+/-0.7, 4.3+/-0.8 and 9.2+/-0.9kJ/mol, respectively. Thus the {gamma} phase (ordered cations) is the stable form of LiFeO{sub 2} at room temperature, the {alpha} phase (disordered cations) is stable at high temperature and the {beta} phase may have a stability field at intermediate temperatures.

  19. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  20. Cyanide-bridged Fe(III)-Mn(III) bimetallic complexes with dimeric and chain structures constructed from a newly made mer-Fe tricyanide: structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Il; Kwak, Hyun Young; Yoon, Jung Hee; Ryu, Dae Won; Yoo, In Young; Yang, Namgeun; Cho, Beong Ki; Park, Je-Geun; Lee, Hyosug; Hong, Chang Seop

    2009-04-01

    Four cyanide-linked Fe(III)-Mn(III) complexes were prepared by reacting Mn Schiff bases with a new molecular precursor (PPh(4))[Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)] [1; qcq = 8-(2-quinolinecarboxamido)quinoline anion]. They include a dimeric molecule, [Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(3-MeOsalen)(H(2)O)] x 2 H(2)O [2 x 2 H(2)O; 3-MeOsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato) dianion], and three 1D zigzag chains, [Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(5-Clsalen)] x 3 H(2)O [3 x 2 MeOH; 5-Clsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylideneiminato) dianion], [Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(5-Brsalen)] x 2 MeOH [4 x 2 MeOH; 5-Brsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-bromosalicylideneiminato) dianion], and Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(salen)].MeCN x H(2)O [5 x MeCN; salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion]. The complexes consist of extensive hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking interactions, generating multidimensional structures. Magnetic studies demonstrate that antiferromagnetic couplings are operative between Fe(III) and Mn(III) centers bridged by cyanide ligands. On the basis of an infinite chain model, magnetic coupling parameters of 2-5 range from -9.3 to -14.1 cm(-1). A long-range order is observed at 2.3 K for 3 and 2.2 K for 4, while compound 5 shows spin glass behavior possibly coupled with magnetic ordering.

  1. Fe-Ca-phosphate, Fe-silicate, and Mn-oxide minerals in concretions from the Monterey Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medrano, M.D.; Piper, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrically zoned phosphatic-enriched concretions were collected at three sites from the Monterey Formation. The following minerals were identified: vivianite, lipscombite, rockbridgeite, leucophosphite, mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite, nontronite, todorokite, and barite. The mineralogy of the concretions was slightly different at each of the three collection sites. None of the concretions contains all of the minerals, but the spatial distribution of minerals in individual concretions, overlapping mineralogies between different concretions, and the geochemical properties of the separate minerals suggest a paragenesis represented by the above order. Eh increased from the precipitation of vivianite to that of rockbridgeite/lipscombite. The precipitation of leucophosphite, then mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite and todorokite/Fe-oxide indicates increasing pH. Concretion growth culminated with the precipitation of todorokite, a Mn oxide, and minor amounts of barite along microfractures. Conspicuously absent are Fe-sulfide and Mn-phosphate minerals. The concretions are hosted by finely laminated diatomite. The laminations exhibit little to no deformation around the concretions, requiring that the concretions formed after compaction. We interpret this sediment feature and the paragenesis as recording the evolving pore-water chemistry as the formation was uplifted into the fresh-ground-water zone.

  2. BiMnFe(2)O(6) a Polysynthetically Twinned hcp MO Structure

    SciTech Connect

    T Yang; A Abakumov; J Hadermann; G Van Tendeloo; I Nowik; P Stephens; J Hemberger; A Tsirlin; K Ramanujachary; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The most efficient use of spatial volume and the lowest potential energies in the metal oxide structures are based on cubic close packing (ccp) or hexagonal close packing (hcp) of anions with cations occupying the interstices. A promising way to tune the composition of close packed oxides and design new compounds is related to fragmenting the parent structure into modules by periodically spaced planar interfaces, such as twin planes at the unit cell scale. The unique crystal chemistry properties of cations with a lone electron pair, such as Bi{sup 3+} or Pb{sup 2+}, when located at interfaces, enables them to act as 'chemical scissors', to help relieve configurational strain. With this approach, we synthesized a new oxide, BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where fragments of the hypothetical hcp oxygen-based MO structure (the NiAs structure type), for the first time, serve as the building modules in a complex transition metal oxide. Mn{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions are randomly distributed in two crystallographically independent sites (M1 and M2). The structure consists of quasi two-dimensional blocks of the 2H hexagonal close packed MO structure cut along the (114) crystal plane of the hcp lattice and stacked along the c axis. The blocks are related by a mirror operation that allows BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} to be considered as a polysynthetically twinned 2H hcp MO structure. The transition to an AFM state with an incommensurate spin configuration at {approx}212 K is established by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and low temperature powder neutron diffraction.

  3. BiMnFe2O6 a Polysynthetically Twinned hcp MO Structure

    SciTech Connect

    T Yang; A Abakumov; J Hadermann; G Van Tendeloo; I Nowik; P Stephens; J Hemberger; M Croft; A Ignatov; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The most efficient use of spatial volume and the lowest potential energies in the metal oxide structures are based on cubic close packing (ccp) or hexagonal close packing (hcp) of anions with cations occupying the interstices. A promising way to tune the composition of close packed oxides and design new compounds is related to fragmenting the parent structure into modules by periodically spaced planar interfaces, such as twin planes at the unit cell scale. The unique crystal chemistry properties of cations with a lone electron pair, such as Bi{sup 3+} or Pb{sup 2+}, when located at interfaces, enables them to act as 'chemical scissors', to help relieve configurational strain. With this approach, we synthesized a new oxide, BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where fragments of the hypothetical hcp oxygen-based MO structure (the NiAs structure type), for the first time, serve as the building modules in a complex transition metal oxide. Mn{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions are randomly distributed in two crystallographically independent sites (M1 and M2). The structure consists of quasi two-dimensional blocks of the 2H hexagonal close packed MO structure cut along the (114) crystal plane of the hcp lattice and stacked along the c axis. The blocks are related by a mirror operation that allows BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} to be considered as a polysynthetically twinned 2H hcp MO structure. The transition to an AFM state with an incommensurate spin configuration at {approx}212 K is established by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and low temperature powder neutron diffraction.

  4. Influence of Fe@MnAl2O4 and synthesis of novel compound Mn0.83Fe0.21Al1.96O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiekhani, A.; SaeidFirozeh, H.

    2013-07-01

    This communication demonstrates iron substitution in galaxite and the synthesis of a novel composite, Mn0.83Fe0.21Al1.96O4, by a simple thermal method. Hence, metal powders were heated at 1100 °C temperature for 72 h. When cooled down gradually to room temperature, the sample delaminated. Interestingly, on the sample surface, microwires were formed as timber shape with a rectangular cross-section (length>150 μm and diameter of 5-20 μm). Moreover, nanowires (77-97 nm) were observed and the surface of the sample was greenish. However, nanowires (38-53 nm) were observed on the substrate. The crystallinity and average size of the structure were formed increased by substitutions of iron ions. We discovered that the influence of temperature is very important in the wire formation process.

  5. Is the enrichment of metals in Mn-Fe nodules from the central Pacific correlated with glacial-interglacial stages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegorzewski, A.; Kuhn, T.

    2012-12-01

    Polymetallic nodules and crusts contain high concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and HFSE. The BGR has been exploring a German license area between the Clarion- and Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the Pacific for nodule abundance and metal content. Nodules are Mn-Fe oxy-hydroxide precipitations consisting of concentrically banded microlayers of different chemical and mineralogical composition. There are layers with high Mn/Fe ratios (3-400) and high Ni+Cu (2-6 wt%) but low Co contents (0.01-0.2 wt%). Mineralogically these layers consists of todorokite and birnessite. In contrast there are layers with low Mn/Fe ≤ 3 and low Ni+Cu (~1 wt%) but increased Co content (0.2-0.5 wt%) and consist mineralogically of Fe-rich vernadite which is epitaxial intergrown with feroxyhyte nanoparticles (Bodei et al., 2007). The different composition of the layers is depending on different growth processes, such as hydrogenetic (metal precipitation from the water column under oxic conditions; Mn/Fe ≤ 3) or diagenetic (metal precipitation from the sediment pore water under oxic (Mn/Fe 3-10) or suboxic (Mn/Fe ≥ 10) conditions; Halbach et al., 1988). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analyses of recently precipitated outer layers show low Mn/Fe ratios (1.4-2.8). The Ni+Cu content range from 0.34-1.86 wt% and Co shows concentrations between 0.33-1.42 wt%. These results are typical for hydrogenetic processes. They may indicate that in the oxic pore water the same metal enrichment processes prevail as in oxic seawater. Oxygen measurements of near-bottom and pore water proved that the nodules are currently growing under oxic conditions (Mewes, K.,unpub. data). Layers with Mn/Fe ratios of 3-400 cannot grow under such oxic conditions. The high fractionation of Mn and Fe is only possible under suboxic conditions as they are currently predominating in the Peru Basin (PB). Similar growth structures and Mn/Fe ratios of individual layers from CCFZ and PB nodules indicate suboxic conditions

  6. Enhancement of electrochemical performance by simultaneous substitution of Ni and Mn with Fe in Ni-Mn spinel cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Yavuz, Murat; Indris, Sylvio; Bramnik, Natalia N.; Knapp, Michael; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Das, Bijoy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Bhaskar, Aiswarya

    2016-09-01

    LiNi0.5-xFe2xMn1.5-xO4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) spinel cathode materials are synthesized using citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with final calcination temperature of 1000 °C. The structure and morphology of the materials are characterized by using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy. Different from the parent LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) material, the Fe-doped spinels do not contain a rock-salt type impurity phase. However, they contain additional layered (C2/m) and spinel Fe3O4 (Fd 3 bar m) phases in small amounts. The substitution of Fe into the spinel structure has been confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Fe-doped spinels exhibit improved cycling stability (with a C/2 charge-discharge rate) and rate capability compared to the parent LNMO at room temperature in a voltage range 3.5-5.0 V. Among all these samples, the composition LiNi0.4Fe0.2Mn1.4O4 shows the best room temperature cycling stability (capacity retention of 92% after 300 cycles) as well as the highest initial discharge capacity (134 mAh g-1). The delivered capacities at high C-rates (especially at 10C and 20C) with respect to the capacity delivered at C/2 are higher for all Fe-doped samples compared to the parent LNMO. Furthermore, Fe-doping improves the thermal stability of the Ni-Mn spinels in the delithiated state.

  7. Electrochemical characterization on MnFe 2O 4/carbon black composite aqueous supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shin-Liang; Wu, Nae-Lih

    MnFe 2O 4-carbon black (CB) composite powders synthesized by a co-precipitation method have been characterized and optimized for their electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. The composite shows pseudocapacitance in electrolyte solutions of alkali and alkaline chlorides, sulfates and sulfites. For the chlorides and sulfates electrolytes, the pseudocapacitance has been identified, by in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy study, to involve charge-transfer at both the Mn and Fe sites of the ferrite. In 1 M NaCl (aq), the composite electrode exhibits an operating potential window of 1.0 V with a maximum leakage current of 0.3 mA F -1, and it exhibits far superior cycling stability to amorphous MnO 2 electrode. Both the specific capacitance and self-discharge behavior of the composite electrode depend strongly on the composite composition. The optimum capacitance occurs at ferrite:CB weight ratio of 7:3, which gives reduced self-discharge rate as compared with CB. The composite electrode also demonstrates capability of high-power delivery.

  8. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cu (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.

  9. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cumore » (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.« less

  10. Crystal structure and magnetism of YbFeMnO 5: A neutron diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Retuerto, M.; Alonso, J. A.; García-Hernández, M.; Krezhov, K.; Spirov, I.; Ruskov, T.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    We have studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of Y bFeMnO 5 obtained by substituting Fe 3+ for Mn 3+ in the parent Y bMn 2O 5 compound, through x-ray (XRD) and neutron (NPD) powder diffraction, magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were prepared in polycrystalline form by a soft chemistry route, followed by thermal treatments under high-oxygen pressure. The Rietveld analysis of diffraction data shows that Y bFeMnO 5 is isostructural with the oxides of stoichiometry RMn 2O 5 (R=rare earth, Y or Bi); the crystal structure is orthorhombic, Pbam space group, formed by chains of edge-sharing Mn 4+O 6 octahedra linked together by dimer groups of square pyramids Fe 3+O 5 and Y b 3+O 8 scalenohedra. A low level of disorder was established between the two transition metal positions 4 f and 4 h, occupied ideally by Mn 4+ and by Fe 3+: about 6% of Mn cations is replaced by Fe and 16% of Fe by Mn. Mössbauer spectroscopy data confirm the existence of two distinct crystallographic sites for Fe 3+. One of them corresponds to almost regular octahedra (at 4 f positions), characterized by nearly equal Mn/Fe-O distances of 1.890 Å at RT (from NPD data), giving a quadrupole doublet in the Mössbauer spectra at RT, broadened by the Fe/Mn disorder over this site. The second environment for Fe 3+ contributes to a less broadened, but more intensive doublet in the Mössbauer spectra, which corresponds to a distorted square pyramid Fe 3+O 5 (at 4h sites), for which NPD data demonstrates an axial distortion with three sets of Fe-O distances at 2.010(2) Å, 1.859(5) Å and 1.925(3) Å. Magnetic studies and the thermal evolution of the NPD patterns show that below a transition temperature Tc˜178 K a long-range magnetic order is developed, resolved from NPD data as a ferrimagnetic structure with propagation vector k=0. The spin arrangements for the Mn 4+ ions ( 4f site) and Fe 3+ ions ( 4h site) are given by the basis vectors ( 0,0,Fz) and ( 0,0,Fz

  11. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-C Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-02-01

    The solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-C steel ingots containing different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by Thermo-Calc to assist development of the continuous casting technology of Fe-Mn-C steels. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is higher than that of the 3Mn steel. The thermal conductivity of the 6Mn steel is the lowest in the three kinds of steels below 1023 K (750 °C) and the highest above 1173 K (900 °C). The 0Mn steel has the highest value of the proportion of equiaxed grain zone area in the three kinds of steels, whereas the 3Mn steel has the lowest value of it in the steels. Manganese has the effect of promoting the coarsening of grains. The microstructure is martensite and a little retained austenite (3.8 mass pct) in the 6Mn steel, whereas the microstructure is bainite in the 3Mn steel. The 0Mn steel is characterized by ferrite and pearlite. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.6 × 10-5 K-1, and the determinations of mold tapers of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels can refer to low-carbon steel. Using RA <60 pct as the criterion, the third brittle temperature region of the 6Mn steel is 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C), whereas those of the 3Mn steel and the 0Mn steel are 873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C) and 873 K to 1173 K (600 °C to 900 °C), respectively. In the 6Mn and 3Mn steels, the deformation-induced ferrite (DIF) forms in sufficient quantities cause the recovery of the ductility at the low temperature end. However, since low strains are present when straightening, sufficient quantities of DIF cannot be formed. Thus, the ductility of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels cannot be improved during the continuous casting process. Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region.

  12. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O3, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than ∼8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals. PMID:20046215

  13. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-08-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

  14. Effects of Fe content on the microstructure and properties of CuNi10FeMn1 alloy tubes fabricated by HCCM horizontal continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-bin; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xin-hua; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-04-01

    Heating-cooling combined mold (HCCM) horizontal continuous casting technology developed by our research group was used to produce high axial columnar-grained CuNi10FeMn1 alloy tubes with different Fe contents. The effects of Fe content (1.08wt%-2.01wt%) on the microstructure, segregation, and flushing corrosion resistance in simulated flowing seawater as well as the mechanical properties of the alloy tubes were investigated. The results show that when the Fe content is increased from 1.08wt% to 2.01wt%, the segregation degree of Ni and Fe elements increases, and the segregation coefficient of Ni and Fe elements falls from 0.92 to 0.70 and from 0.92 to 0.63, respectively. With increasing Fe content, the corrosion rate of the alloy decreases initially and then increases. When the Fe content is 1.83wt%, the corrosion rate approaches the minimum and dense, less-defect corrosion films, which contain rich Ni and Fe elements, form on the surface of the alloy; these films effectively protect the α-matrix and reduce the corrosion rate. When the Fe content is increased from 1.08wt% to 2.01wt%, the tensile strength of the alloy tube increases from 204 MPa to 236 MPa, while the elongation to failure changes slightly about 46%, indicating the excellent workability of the CuNi10FeMn1 alloy tubes.

  15. Distribution of Al-, Fe- and Mn-pools and their correlation in soils from two acid deposition small catchments in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Nandong; Seip, Hans Martin; Guo, Jinheng; Liao, Bohan; Zeng, Qingru

    2006-12-01

    Distribution of Al-, Fe- and Mn-pools was investigated in five forest soil profiles (consisting of four horizons) in each of two Hunan catchments (BLT and LKS) where acid deposition has been considered critical. Al- and Fe-pools were higher in BLT than those in LKS, but Mn-pools much lower in BLT. Mn-pools vary from topsoils to bottom soils, but there are different trends for different Mn speciation. Al- and Fe-pools, except amorphous Fe(ox), were positively correlated to contents of soil organic matter (OM) showed by the loss on ignition in the two catchments. Accumulation of Al- and Fe-pools may occur in the area where soil organic matter was enriched (e.g. in top soil and rhizosphere soil). However, no direct correlation is observed between Mn and OM. Acidic atmospheric deposition may affect transforming among speciations of Al-, Fe- and Mn-pools and leaching of soil Al, Fe and Mn through formation of soluble organo-metal dissolved Al which was potentially toxic, increased. There were significant correlations between Al-pools complexes or change of oxidation-reduction conditions. Mn(ex) (exchangeable Mn) and Mn(ox) (amorphous and organic Mn) were highly linearly correlation with soil pH values at LKS but at BLT. Under acid deposition, the availability of the nutrient Fe increased with the amount of dissolved Al, which was potentially toxic, in the two catchments. There are no significant correlations between Al(ex) (exchangeable Al) and Mn(ex), Fe(ex) (exchangeable Fe) and Mn(ex) in this work, indicating potentially toxic Mn increase seldom accompanying with Al increase in the two catchments.

  16. Strain Localization in Thin Films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 Due to the Formation of Stepped Mn(4+)-Rich Antiphase Boundaries.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, I; Sala, B; Andersson, S M L; Pennycook, T J; Xiong, J; Jia, Q X; Choi, E-M; MacManus-Driscoll, J L

    2015-12-01

    The atomic structure and chemistry of thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 (BFMO) films with a target composition of Bi2FeMnO6 on SrTiO3 are studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that Mn(4+)-rich antiphase boundaries are locally nucleated right at the film substrate and then form stepped structures that are approximately pyramidal in three dimensions. These have the effect of confining the material below the pyramids in a highly strained state with an out-of-plane lattice parameter close to 4.1 Å. Outside the area enclosed by the antiphase boundaries, the out-of-plane lattice parameter is much closer to bulk values for BFMO. This suggests that to improve the crystallographic perfection of the films whilst retaining the strain state through as much of the film as possible, ways need to be found to prevent nucleation of the antiphase boundaries. Since the antiphase boundaries seem to form from the interaction of Mn with the Ti in the substrate, one route to perform this would be to grow a thin buffer layer of pure BiFeO3 on the SrTiO3 substrate to minimise any Mn-Ti interactions.

  17. Strain localization in thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 due to the formation of stepped Mn4+-rich antiphase boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    MacLaren, I.; Sala, B.; Andersson, S. M. L.; Pennycook, T. J.; Xiong, Jia; Jia, Q. X.; Choi, E. -M.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.

    2015-10-17

    Here, the atomic structure and chemistry of thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 (BFMO) films with a target composition of Bi2FeMnO6 on SrTiO3 are studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that Mn4+-rich antiphase boundaries are locally nucleated right at the film substrate and then form stepped structures that are approximately pyramidal in three dimensions. These have the effect of confining the material below the pyramids in a highly strained state with an out-of-plane lattice parameter close to 4.1 Å. Outside the area enclosed by the antiphase boundaries, the out-of-plane lattice parameter is muchmore » closer to bulk values for BFMO. This suggests that to improve the crystallographic perfection of the films whilst retaining the strain state through as much of the film as possible, ways need to be found to prevent nucleation of the antiphase boundaries. Since the antiphase boundaries seem to form from the interaction of Mn with the Ti in the substrate, one route to perform this would be to grow a thin buffer layer of pure BiFeO3 on the SrTiO3 substrate to minimise any Mn-Ti interactions.« less

  18. Strain Localization in Thin Films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 Due to the Formation of Stepped Mn(4+)-Rich Antiphase Boundaries.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, I; Sala, B; Andersson, S M L; Pennycook, T J; Xiong, J; Jia, Q X; Choi, E-M; MacManus-Driscoll, J L

    2015-12-01

    The atomic structure and chemistry of thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 (BFMO) films with a target composition of Bi2FeMnO6 on SrTiO3 are studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that Mn(4+)-rich antiphase boundaries are locally nucleated right at the film substrate and then form stepped structures that are approximately pyramidal in three dimensions. These have the effect of confining the material below the pyramids in a highly strained state with an out-of-plane lattice parameter close to 4.1 Å. Outside the area enclosed by the antiphase boundaries, the out-of-plane lattice parameter is much closer to bulk values for BFMO. This suggests that to improve the crystallographic perfection of the films whilst retaining the strain state through as much of the film as possible, ways need to be found to prevent nucleation of the antiphase boundaries. Since the antiphase boundaries seem to form from the interaction of Mn with the Ti in the substrate, one route to perform this would be to grow a thin buffer layer of pure BiFeO3 on the SrTiO3 substrate to minimise any Mn-Ti interactions. PMID:26474888

  19. Magnetism of hexagonal Mn{sub 1.5}X{sub 0.5}Sn (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Fuglsby, R.; Kharel, P.; Zhang, W.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Valloppilly, S.; Huh, Y.

    2015-05-07

    Mn{sub 1.5}X{sub 0.5}Sn (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) nanomaterials in the hexagonal Ni{sub 2}In-type crystal structure have been prepared using arc-melting and melt spinning. All the rapidly quenched Mn{sub 1.5}X{sub 0.5}Sn alloys show moderate saturation magnetizations with the highest value of 458 emu/cm{sup 3} for Mn{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Sn, but their Curie temperatures are less than 300 K. All samples except the Cr containing one show spin-glass-like behavior at low temperature. The magnetic anisotropy constants calculated from the high-field magnetization curves at 100 K are on the order of 1 Merg/cm{sup 3}. The vacuum annealing of the ribbons at 550 °C significantly improved their magnetic properties with the Curie temperature increasing from 206 K to 273 K for Mn{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Sn.

  20. Temporal and spatial variability of Fe and Mn in perched groundwater flowing through weathered argillite underlying a steep forested hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flowing through weathered bedrock dictates the runoff chemistry to streams in many catchments yet; its chemical evolution has been rarely documented. In particular, observations of Fe and Mn dynamics in groundwater are extremely challenging due to their high reactivity. To preserve the sample integrity for these elements we have developed a new sampling scheme that is applicable to autosamplers; a gravitational filtration system (GFS). GFS is capable of filtering samples by gravity within 30 minutes after the sampling. The GFS samples showed a good agreement with reference samples, which were collected following the standard sampling method for trace metals (i.e. immediate filtration and acidification). Since October 2011, GFS has been employed to monitor Fe and Mn in perched groundwater that moves through weathered argillite in an intensively instrumented hillslope (Rivendell), in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve. The study site is located at the headwaters of the Eel River, northern California, characterized by a typical coastal Californian Mediterranean climate. We collected groundwater samples at 3 wells along the hillslope (upslope (W10), mid-slope (W3) and near the creek (W1)) with 1-3 day intervals. Additionally, rainwater and throughfall samples were collected at a meadow near the hillslope and at the middle of the hillslope, respectively. The results from our observations indicate that Fe and Mn exhibit distinct spatial and temporal behavior under variable hydrologic conditions. The concentrations of Fe in throughfall vs. rainwater were similar (0.45μM vs. 0.49μM), but Mn in throughfall was 10-fold higher than that in rainwater (1.2 μM vs. 0.1 μM). In the early rainy season, W10's water table was deep (-18m) and Fe and Mn in W10 were 30-150 nM and 1-2 μM, respectively. As the rainy season proceeds, W10's water table rose by 4-6m, indicating the arrival of new water. At this time, Mn in W10 decreased to ~0.1 μM, synchronizing with the water

  1. A specific type of Fe-Mn mineralization on the Arctic seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, G. N.; Dubinchuk, V. T.; Ivanov, G. I.; Siraev, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    Three samples of Fe-Mn crusts overgrown on the surface of rocks are studied from the Mendeleev submarine rise located in the northern subpolar part of the Chukchi Sea. A massive crust up to 4-5 cm thick consists of an upper dense and lower denser layers similar in composition to the main one and contains 31-37% FeO and 11-13% MnO. Thin crusts and films are depleted in both components. Fe-vernadite is a major mineral of the crusts. The comparison of the major and trace element composition of the crusts with oceanic and marine nodules and hydrothermal crusts shows that they are mostly similar in composition to the nodules of the Bering Sea and are significantly distinct from the oceanic hydrothermal crusts. A small inclusion of the Pt-, Pd-, and Ru-rich (up to 1-2%) rock in one of the thin crusts points to the possible role of igneous rocks as a source of precious metals.

  2. Numerical Study of Microstructural Evolution During Homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee; Johnson, David R.; Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Microstructural evolution during homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn alloys occurs in two stages at different length scales: while holding at the homogenization temperature (diffusion on the scale of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in micrometers) and during quenching to room temperature (dispersoid precipitation at the nanometer to submicron scale). Here a numerical study estimates microstructural changes during both stages. A diffusion-based model developed to simulate evolution at the SDAS length scale predicts homogenization times and microstructures matching experiments. That model is coupled with a Kampmann Wagner Neumann-based precipitate nucleation and growth model to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during posthomogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. A homogenization schedule of 853 K (580 °C) for 8 hours, followed by cooling at 250 K/h, is suggested to optimize microstructures for easier extrusion, consisting of minimal α-Al(FeMn)Si, no β-AlFeSi, and Mg2Si dispersoids <1 μm size.

  3. Exchange bias of MnPt/CoFe films prepared by ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickart, M.; Freitas, P. P.; Trindade, I. G.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Salgueiro, M.; Muga, N.; Ventura, J.; Sousa, J. B.; Proudfoot, G.; Pearson, D.; Davis, M.

    2004-06-01

    We report on exchange bias of Mn100-xPtx/Co90Fe10 bottom-pinned bilayers prepared by ion beam deposition. The Pt content in the film was varied 6 at. % with x between 46 and 52 at. % by changing the angle of substrate relative to the target in a range of 40°. Exchange coupling for a Mn100-xPtx(20 nm)/Co90Fe10(5 nm) bilayer was found to be maximum (Jex=0.34 erg/cm2) at a composition with x=50 at. %. Structure and magnetic properties of the bilayers deposited on Ta, Ta/Ru, and Ta/Ni81Fe19 seed layers were studied by vibrating sample magnetometry, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Exchange bias and coercive field can be tuned as functions of the seed layer. The effect of different annealing conditions on exchange bias is discussed to improve thermal stability of the bilayers. Maximum exchange coupling is obtained at an annealing temperature TA⩾280 °C, while the blocking temperature TB keeps increasing with annealing up to TA=420 °C.

  4. Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in FeMnP0.8Si0.2

    DOE PAGES

    Sales, Brian C.; Susner, Michael A.; Conner, Benjamin S.; Yan, Jiaqiang Q.; May, Andrew F.

    2015-09-25

    Compounds based on the Fe2P structure have continued to attract interest because of the interplay between itinerant and localized magnetism in a noncentrosymmetric crystal structure, and because of the recent developments of these materials for magnetocaloric applications. We report the growth and characterization of millimeter-sized single crystals of FeMnP0.8Si0.2 with the Fe2P structure. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, magnetization, resistivity, and Hall and heat capacity data are reported. The crystals exhibit itinerant antiferromagnetic order below 158 K with no hint of ferromagnetic behavior in the magnetization curves and with the spins ordered primarily in the ab plane. The room-temperature resistivity is closemore » to the Ioffe-Regel limit for a metal. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction indicates a strong preference for Mn to occupy the larger pyramidal 3g site. The cation site preference in the as-grown crystals and the antiferromagnetism were not changed after high-temperature anneals and a rapid quench to room temperature« less

  5. Immobilization of selenite in soil and groundwater using stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenbo; Liang, Qiqi; Qian, Tianwei; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-03-01

    Stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and tested for removal and in-situ immobilization of Se(IV) in groundwater and soil. A water-soluble starch or food-grade carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as a stabilizer to facilitate in-situ delivery of the particles into contaminated soil. While bare and stabilized nanoparticles showed rapid sorption kinetics, starch-stabilized Fe-Mn offered the greatest capacity for Se(IV). The Langmuir maximum capacity was determined to be 109 and 95 mg-Se/g-Fe for starch- and CMC-stabilized nanoparticles, respectively, and the high Se(IV) uptake was observed over the typical groundwater pH range of 5-8. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the stabilized nanoparticles were deliverable in a model sandy soil while non-stabilized particles were not. When a Se(IV)-spiked soil was treated in situ with the nanoparticles, >90% water leachable Se(IV) was transferred to the nanoparticle phase, and thereby immobilized as the particles were retained in the downstream soil matrix. The nanoparticle amendment reduced the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) leachability and the California WET (waste extraction test) leachability of Se(IV) by 76% and 71%, respectively. The technology holds the potential to fill a major technology gap in remediation of metals-contaminated soil and groundwater.

  6. Initial magnetic susceptibility of Sn films with Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henger, U.; Korn, D.

    1986-04-01

    Sn alloys with additions of 3d elements are artificially produced by vapour quenching on a liquid helium cooled substrate. The magnetic susceptibility of the as produced films is measured in situ by a sensitive ac magnetic induction method. The experimental result demonstrates that all mentioned 3d atoms have no localized magnetic moment in Sn except crystalline SnMn ( S = {4}/{2}), amorphous SnMn ( S = {3}/{2}) and crystalline SnCr ( S = 1). SnFe and SnCo become magnetic at the percolation limit of 25 at % of the 3d element, SnNi does not. The Sn systems with localized magnetic moment show spinglass behaviour.

  7. Carbides in iron-rich Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Al-Si-C systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of high carbon iron-base superalloy properties with duplex microstructure gamma + M7C3 carbide requires analysis in the context of a seven-component system. Data are first provided here for the Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C quinary system, at 30 at. pct carbon. A characterization of competing carbides, according to a pseudoternary phase diagram at 35 wt pct iron, is made from isothermal sections. It is noted that while M7C3 and M3C carbides' occurrences are respectively favored at the Cr and Mn corners, the M2C carbide and molybdenum cementite are predominant with increasing amounts of Mo. Lattice parameters are reported for the various carbides.

  8. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism on La2/3Ca1/3Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Adriana I.; Campillo, Gloria E.; Baker, Alexander A.; Osorio, Jaime A.; Arnache, Oscar L.; van der Laan, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    The element-selective technique of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has been used to study the magnetic properties of La2/3Ca1/3Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 (LCMFO) thin films. XMCD measurements below the ferromagnetic ordering temperature at the Mn and Fe L2,3 absorption edges allow the determination of the contributions and relative orientations of the Mn and Fe magnetic moments. A reduction in the Mn L2,3 XMCD signal of the LCMFO sample compared to that for the parent La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) system reveals important modifications in the electronic and magnetic properties with the presence of Fe. The Fe L2,3 X-ray absorption (XAS) for the LCMFO film is characteristic of Fe3+, and the comparison with multiplet calculations shows that the Fe dopants occupy octahedral sites in the crystal, which is consistent with Fe3+ substituting Mn3+ in LCMO. The magnetic moments of Mn and Fe are found to align antiparallel, which suggests the presence of Mn-O-Fe superexchange coupling. This result is consistent with macroscopic magnetometry measurements on the LCMFO system, which show a decrease in saturation magnetization of LCMO with Fe doping.

  9. Synthesis and study of the crystallographic and magnetic structure of DyFeMnO{sub 5}: A new ferrimagnetic oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Retuerto, M.; Alonso, J.A. Pomjakushin, V.

    2008-09-15

    The title oxide has been obtained by replacing Mn{sup 3+} by Fe{sup 3+} in the parent oxide DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The crystallographic and magnetic structures have been analysed from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data, in complement with susceptibility and magnetic measurements. DyFeMnO{sub 5} is orthorhombic, belonging to the Pbam space group as the parent compound. The crystal structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra, interconnected by dimer units of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. There is a certain antisite disorder in the crystal structure, with 8.0% of the Mn{sup 4+} sites occupied by Fe cations, and 8.2% of the Fe{sup 3+} positions occupied by Mn{sup 3+} cations. The magnetization measurements show that DyFeMnO{sub 5} presents magnetic order below T{sub C}{approx}178 K; a study of the magnetic structure from the low-temperature NPD patterns indicates an antiferromagnetic coupling of the Mn{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+} spins, with the polarization of the Dy{sup 3+} magnetic moments parallel to the those of the Fe sublattice. - Graphical abstract: DyFeMnO{sub 5} is orthorhombic (Pbam) as the parent DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxide. The crystal structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra, interconnected by dimer units of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. It is ferrimagnetic below T{sub C}{approx}178 K; a NPD study indicated an antiferromagnetic coupling of the Mn{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+} spins, with Dy{sup 3+} magnetic moments parallel to those of Fe.

  10. The effect of substitution of Mn by Fe and Cr on the martensitic transition in the Ni50Mn34In16 alloy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Chattopadhyay, M K; Nath, S K; Sokhey, K J S; Kumar, R; Tiwari, P; Roy, S B

    2010-12-01

    The potential shape memory alloy Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) is studied with partial substitution of Mn with Fe and Cr to investigate the effect of such substitution on the martensitic transition in the Ni-Mn-In alloy system. The results of ac susceptibility, magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements show that while the substitution with Cr increases the martensitic transition temperature, the substitution with Fe decreases it. Possible reasons for this shift in martensitic transition are discussed. Evidence of kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the Fe substituted alloys is also presented. Unlike the kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the parent Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) alloy which takes place in the presence of high external magnetic field, the kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the Fe doped alloy occurs even in zero magnetic field. The Cr substituted alloys, on the other hand, show no signature of kinetic arrest of this phase transition.

  11. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe0.5Mn0.5Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (Tc) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (Tc(x)) of Fe1-xMnxPt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired Tc in the range of 600-650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (Ms) in the range of 1041-919 emu/cm3 and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96-8.36 × 106 J/m3 at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930-800 emu/cm3 of Ms and 7.18-5.61 × 106 J/m3 of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.2 areal density.

  12. Coexistence of Fe(II)- and Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria govern the formation of deep sea umber deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Ta, Kaiwen; Chen, Shun; Zhang, Lijuan; Xu, Hengchao

    2015-11-01

    The genesis of umber deposits has remained controversial for several decades. Recently, microbial Fe(II) oxidation associated with low-temperature diffuse venting has been identified as a key process for the formation of umber deposits, but the exact biogeochemical mechanisms involved to the precipitation of Mn oxides in umber deposits still remain unknown. Here, we used nano secondary ion mass spectrometer, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques to demonstrate the coexistence of two types of metal-oxidizing bacteria within deep-sea hydrothermal umber deposits at the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where we found unique spheroids composed of biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides in the deposits. Our data show that Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides are metabolic by-products of lithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. The hydrothermal vents fuel lithotrophic microorganisms, which constitute a trophic base that might support the activities of heterogenic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The biological origin of umber deposits shed light on the importance of geomicrobiological interaction in triggering the formation of metalliferous deposits, with important implications for the generation of submarine Mn deposits and crusts.

  13. Thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi{sub γ} (γ~1.73)

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, S.A.; Downie, R.A.; Popuri, S.R.; Decourt, R.; Pollet, M.; Bos, J.W.G.

    2015-07-15

    Two series of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi{sub γ} chimney ladders with a nominal valence electron count, VEC=14 per transition metal were prepared (γ=1.75). Simultaneous replacement of Mn with Fe and Si with Al yielded the Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1.75−x}Al{sub x} series while the second Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1.75–1.75x}Al{sub 2x} series follows the pseudo-binary between MnSi{sub 1.75} and FeAl{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping revealed that ~60% of the nominal Al content ends up in the product with the remainder lost to sublimation, and that up to 7% Al can be substituted in the main group sublattice. Profile analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data revealed gradual changes in the cell metrics, consistent with the simultaneous substitution of Fe and Al in a fixed ratio. All samples are p-type with VEC≈13.95 from the structural data and ~1×10{sup 21} holes cm{sup −3} from variable temperature Seebeck measurements. The substituted samples have lower electrical resistivities (ρ{sub 300} {sub K}=2–5 mΩ cm) due to an improved microstructure. This leads to increased thermoelectric power factors (largest S{sup 2}/ρ=1.95 mW m{sup −1} K{sup −2}) compared to MnSi{sub γ}. The thermal conductivity for the Mn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}Si{sub 1.66}Al{sub 0.1} sample is 2.7 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} between 300 and 800 K, and is comparable to literature data for the parent material. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure, microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi{sub γ} (γ~1.73) have been investigated. - Highlights: • Up to 7% Al can be substituted in MnSi{sub γ} when co-doped with Fe. • Improved microstructure and reduced electrical resistivities for Al substituted samples. • Largest power factor 1.95 mW m{sup −1} K{sup −2} and best estimated ZT=0.5.

  14. Enhanced Stability of the Fe(II)/Mn(II) State in a Synthetic Model of Heterobimetallic Cofactor Assembly.

    PubMed

    Kerber, William D; Goheen, Joshua T; Perez, Kaitlyn A; Siegler, Maxime A

    2016-01-19

    Heterobimetallic Mn/Fe cofactors are found in the R2 subunit of class Ic ribonucleotide reductases (R2c) and R2-like ligand binding oxidases (R2lox). Selective cofactor assembly is due at least in part to the thermodynamics of M(II) binding to the apoprotein. We report here equilibrium studies of Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination in the biomimetic model system H5(F-HXTA) (5-fluoro-2-hydroxy-1,3-xylene-α,α'-diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). The homobimetallic F-HXTA complexes [Fe(H2O)6][1]2·14H2O and [Mn(H2O)6][2]2·14H2O (1 = [Fe(II)2(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-); 2 = [Mn(II)2(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-)) were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. NMR data show that 1 retains its structure in solution (2 is NMR silent). Metal exchange is facile, and the heterobimetallic complex [Fe(II)Mn(II)(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-) (3) is formed from mixtures of 1 and 2. (19)F NMR was used to quantify 1 and 3 in the presence of excess M(II)(aq) at various metal ratios, and equilibrium constants for Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination were calculated from these data. Fe(II) is preferred over Mn(II) with K1 = 182 ± 13 for complete replacement (2 ⇌ 1). This relatively modest preference is attributed to a hard-soft acid-base mismatch between the divalent cations and the polycarboxylate ligand. The stepwise constants for replacement are K2 = 20.1 ± 1.3 (2 ⇌ 3) and K3 = 9.1 ± 1.1 (3 ⇌ 1). K2 > K3 demonstrates enhanced stability of the heterobimetallic state beyond what is expected for simple Mn(II) → Fe(II) replacement. The relevance to Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination in R2c and R2lox proteins is discussed.

  15. The electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present study of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe using density functional theory. The compound is half-metallic with half-metallic gap of 0.13 eV. The total magnetic moment of this compound is 3.96 μB which is in close agreement with Slater-Pauling rule. The effect of lattice compression and expansion shows the robustness of half-metallicity. A large value of half-metallic gap and 100% spin-polarization makes this material interesting for spin dependent applications.

  16. TEM and Moessbauer Study of Nano Sized Fe{sub 2}MnAl Flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Vinesh, A.; Sudheesh, V. D.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

    2011-07-15

    Magnetic and structural properties of L21 ordered Fe{sub 2}MnAl Heusler alloy have been studied by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Moessbauer spectroscopy and DC magnetization. Structural texturing induced by ball milling is destroyed on heating while Moessbauer and DC magnetization studies show magnetic texturing persists after thermal treatment. TEM shows large distribution in particle size with an average size of 27 nm. Thermal annealing of ball milled sample results L2{sub 1} ordering and the needle shaped particle contributes spin texturing.

  17. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    DOE PAGES

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; Shen, Guoyin; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  18. Synthesis, structural and dielectric properties of double perovskite Ho2FeMnO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-05-01

    A new double perovskite Ho2FeMnO6 was grown by nitrate route. Temperature dependent dielectric response was recorded at different frequencies. Relaxor-like-behavior is observed whose activation energy was calculated using Arrhenius equation. The dispersion is very small at room temperature. The Nyquist plot over a broad frequency range at room temperature provides evidence for the presence of three relaxations from sample electrode interface, grain boundary and grain. The corresponding values of resistance and capacitance were calculated from the equivalent circuit model analysis of the Nyquist plot.

  19. Fe-Mn nodule field indicated by GLORIA, north of the Puerto Rico Trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, K.M.; Masson, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    A 2,500-km2 area of sea floor on the south-eastern flank of the Greater Antilles Outer Ridge north of the Puerto Rico Trench displays anomalously high acoustic backscattering properties on GLORIA longrange sidescan-sonar data. Previously collected dredges, bottom photographs, and sediment cores indicate the presence of Fe-Mn nodules within the area of high backscatter. We were able to map the extent of the inferred nodule field on the basis of acoustic property contrast between the nodule-covered sediment and the surrounding nodule-free sediment. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. Aspects of thermal martensite in a FeNiMnCo alloy.

    PubMed

    Güler, M; Güler, E; Kahveci, N

    2010-07-01

    Thermal martensite characteristics in Fe-29%Ni-2%Mn-2%Co alloy were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization techniques. SEM observations obviously revealed the lath martensite morphology in the prior austenite phase of examined alloy. As well, the martensitic transformation kinetics was found to be as athermal type. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy offered the paramagnetic austenite phase and ferromagnetic martensite phase with their volume fractions. Also, the internal magnetic field of the martensite was measured as 32.9T from the Mössbauer spectrometer.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  2. Role of charge transfer configurations in LaMnO3, CaMnO3, and CaFeO3.

    PubMed

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Broer, Ria; de Graaf, Coen

    2007-04-01

    A simple scheme is proposed to analyze the N-electron wave function obtained in embedded cluster calculations in valence bond terms such as ligand-to-metal charge transfer and non-charge-transfer determinants. The analysis is based on a unitary transformation of pairs of natural orbitals to optimal atomiclike orbitals. The procedure is applied to compare the degree of ionicity in NiO and MnO and to explain the existence or absence of Jahn-Teller distortions in LaMnO3, CaMnO3, and CaFeO3. The authors find that the ground state of LaMnO3 is dominated by non-charge-transfer configurations, whereas the charge transfer configurations dominate the ground state wave function in the other two perovskites.

  3. [Environment effects of algae-caused black spots: impacts on Fe-Mn-S cycles in water-sediment interface].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Feng; He, Jun; Fan, Cheng-Xin; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Qiu-Shi; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Yan, Shao-Hua

    2010-11-01

    The driving effects of algal cells settlement in the water-sediment interface on Fe, Mn, S biogeochemistry in laboratory through static cultivation device. Results showed that dissolved oxygen would be exhausted by algae cells in 50 min after the cyanobacteria cells settled to the sediment surface. Soon the water-sediment interface formed the severe anoxia and Fe-Mn oxides and sulfides were deoxidized quickly in the strong reducing environment. The Fe2+, Mn2+ content in interface increased to the summit at the 4th day and their concentrations were 4.40 mg/L and 2.35 mg/L, respectively. When it comes to the end of the experiment, the Fe2+ content had a little reduction and Mn2+ reduced quickly, their concentrations were 3.37 mg/L and 0.97 mg/L at the end of experiment. However, S2- concentration in interface reached the highest at the 2nd day and its content was 0.63 mg/L, and its concentration was only 0.12 mg/L at the end since it has been reduced. The ORP was--150 mV in the sediment surface and indicated that the sediment environment was a strong reducing environment. Phenomenon of algal cells induced black spots in water bodies was the main driving factors on Fe/Mn oxides and sulfides biogeochemistry cycle, and also the extreme anoxia environment would have great harm on the water body's ecology.

  4. Enhanced arsenic removal by in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide in the aeration-direct filtration process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Liu, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hui-Juan; Lan, Hua-Chun; Qu, Jiu-Hui

    2012-11-15

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of an in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide (in situ FMBO) for improving arsenic (As) removal in the aeration-direct filtration process. The transformation and transportation of As, Fe, and Mn in the filter bed were also investigated. The in situ FMBO increased the As removal efficiency by 20-50% to keep the residual As below 10 μg/L. The optimum FMBO dosage was determined to be 0.55 mg/L with the Fe/Mn ratio as 10:1. The removal of Fe, Mn, turbidity, and particles was also improved to a large extent. The in situ FMBO favored the transformation of soluble As, Fe, and Mn into the solid phases, benefiting the removal of these pollutants by the subsequent filtration. Moreover, the deposited precipitates onto the filter media were characterized, as indicated by the analyses of SEM/EDS and particle size distribution. The long-term experiments exhibited decreased head loss growth and prolonged run length, suggesting an enhanced pollutant catching capacity of the filter media. The full-scale field study with a flow of 10,000 m3/d confirmed positive effects of in situ FMBO on As removal, with the average effluent As concentration reduced from 20 μg/L to 6 μg/L (reagent cost=0.006 ¥/m3). PMID:23017236

  5. Enhanced arsenic removal by in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide in the aeration-direct filtration process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Liu, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hui-Juan; Lan, Hua-Chun; Qu, Jiu-Hui

    2012-11-15

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of an in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide (in situ FMBO) for improving arsenic (As) removal in the aeration-direct filtration process. The transformation and transportation of As, Fe, and Mn in the filter bed were also investigated. The in situ FMBO increased the As removal efficiency by 20-50% to keep the residual As below 10 μg/L. The optimum FMBO dosage was determined to be 0.55 mg/L with the Fe/Mn ratio as 10:1. The removal of Fe, Mn, turbidity, and particles was also improved to a large extent. The in situ FMBO favored the transformation of soluble As, Fe, and Mn into the solid phases, benefiting the removal of these pollutants by the subsequent filtration. Moreover, the deposited precipitates onto the filter media were characterized, as indicated by the analyses of SEM/EDS and particle size distribution. The long-term experiments exhibited decreased head loss growth and prolonged run length, suggesting an enhanced pollutant catching capacity of the filter media. The full-scale field study with a flow of 10,000 m3/d confirmed positive effects of in situ FMBO on As removal, with the average effluent As concentration reduced from 20 μg/L to 6 μg/L (reagent cost=0.006 ¥/m3).

  6. Using granular C0-AI2O3 spacer for optimization of functional parameters of the FeMn/Fe20Ni80 magnetoresistive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkovenko, A. N.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Adanakova, O. A.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we studied the possibility of tailoring the functional properties of the multilayer magnetoresistive medium with unidirectional anisotropy and the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR). Objects of the research were composite Co-Al2O3 films and Ta/Fe20Ni80/Fe50Mn50/Fe20Ni80/Co-Al2O3/Fe20Ni80/Ta multilayers structures obtained by magnetron sputtering and selectively subjected vacuum annealing. Structure, magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the films in the temperature range 77÷440 K were investigated.

  7. Metal- and ligand-centered monoelectronic oxidation of mu-nitrido[((tetraphenylporphyrinato)manganese)phthalocyaninatoiron)], [(TPP)Mn-N-FePc]. X-ray crystal structure of the Fe(IV)-containing species [(THF)(TPP)Mn-N-FePc(H(2)O)](I(5))02THF.

    PubMed

    Donzello, M P; Ercolani, C; Russo, U; Chiesi-Villa, A; Rizzoli, C

    2001-06-18

    The reaction of mu-nitrido[((tetraphenylporphyrinato)manganese)(phthalocyaninatoiron)], [(TPP)Mn-N-FePc], with I(2) in THF develops with the formation of two different species, i.e., [(THF)(TPP)Mn-N-FePc(H(2)O)](I(5)).2THF (I) and [(TPP)Mn(IV)-N-Fe(III)Pc](I(3)) (II). On the basis of single-crystal X-ray work and Mössbauer, EPR, Raman, and magnetic susceptibility data, I, found to be isostructural with the corresponding Fe-Fe complex, is shown to contain a low-spin triatomic Mn(IV)=N=Fe(IV) system (metal-centered oxidation). Data at hand for II (Mössbauer, EPR, Raman) show, instead, that oxidation takes place at one of the two macrocycles, very likely TPP (ligand-centered oxidation). The same cationic fragment present in I, and containing the Mn(IV)=N=Fe(IV) bond system, is also obtained when (TPP)Mn-N-FePc is allowed to react in THF with (phen)SbCl(6) (molar ratio 1:1). There are indications that the use of (phen)SbCl(6) in excess (2:1 molar ratio), in benzene, probably determines further oxidation with the formation of a species showing the combined presence of the Mn(IV)-Fe(IV) couple and of a pi-cation radical.

  8. Tuning of structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Stuti; Varma, G. D.

    2015-06-24

    In the present manuscript, Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanoparticles have been synthesized with co-precipitation method by annealing at 900 °C and studied the structural and magnetic properties. X ray diffraction pattern reveals the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure with the space group Fd-3m. An impurity peak of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been observed in the XRD patterns of samples with Mn composition, x ≥ 0.4. However, this impurity phase of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not observed in the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample synthesized by annealing at 500 °C. FESEM results indicate the formation of nano-sized particles. Magnetic measurements show ferrimagnetic interaction in Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x≥0) nanoparticles at room temperature. However, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample synthesized by annealing at 500 °C shows superparamagnetic behavior. We have fitted the M-H curve of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by annealing at 500 °C with modified Langvenin function to confirm superparamagnetism. The correlation between the structural and observed magnetic properties of as synthesized samples nanoparticles will be described and discussed in this paper.

  9. Mn(ii) mediated degradation of artemisinin based on Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres for cancer therapy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Weijie; Zhang, Min; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Haibao; He, Mengni; Xu, Pengping; Zhou, Jiajia; Liu, Zhenbang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-07-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe2+ mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn2+ could substitute for Fe2+ to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn2+ was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in improving the survival of chemotherapy patients, providing a novel method for clinical tumor therapy.Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe2+ mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn2+ could substitute for Fe2+ to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn2+ was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in

  10. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Alayo, W.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.

    2011-04-15

    The Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80}/Co/Ru/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  11. Million-Fold Electrical Conductivity Enhancement in Fe2(DEBDC) versus Mn2(DEBDC) (E = S, O)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of FeCl2 and H4DSBDC (2,5-disulfhydrylbenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) leads to the formation of Fe2(DSBDC), an analogue of M2(DOBDC) (MOF-74, DOBDC4– = 2,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate). The bulk electrical conductivity values of both Fe2(DSBDC) and Fe2(DOBDC) are ∼6 orders of magnitude higher than those of the Mn2+ analogues, Mn2(DEBDC) (E = O, S). Because the metals are of the same formal oxidation state, the increase in conductivity is attributed to the loosely bound Fe2+ β-spin electron. These results provide important insight for the rational design of conductive metal–organic frameworks, highlighting in particular the advantages of iron for synthesizing such materials. PMID:25932955

  12. Million-Fold Electrical Conductivity Enhancement in Fe2(DEBDC) versus Mn2(DEBDC) (E = S, O).

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Hendon, Christopher H; Minier, Mikael A; Walsh, Aron; Dincă, Mircea

    2015-05-20

    Reaction of FeCl2 and H4DSBDC (2,5-disulfhydrylbenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) leads to the formation of Fe2(DSBDC), an analogue of M2(DOBDC) (MOF-74, DOBDC(4-) = 2,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate). The bulk electrical conductivity values of both Fe2(DSBDC) and Fe2(DOBDC) are ∼6 orders of magnitude higher than those of the Mn(2+) analogues, Mn2(DEBDC) (E = O, S). Because the metals are of the same formal oxidation state, the increase in conductivity is attributed to the loosely bound Fe(2+) β-spin electron. These results provide important insight for the rational design of conductive metal-organic frameworks, highlighting in particular the advantages of iron for synthesizing such materials.

  13. Fe-Mn substance in ocean as reason of regulation radionuclide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Martynov, Konstantin; Konstantinova, Lia

    2013-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclide in marine sediments as yet little studied [Choppin & Wong 1998]. The work mainly focused on effects of nuclear test fallout. In the works are examined isotopes of Pu - 238; Th - 232; U -234;238; Pu - 239,240,241; Am - 241; Np - 237; Cm -244 [Holm 1995]. It has been shown that seems to accumulate radionuclides in marine sediments. In particular, the importance attached to carbonate complexes (corals, etc.). But questions about the possibility of re-mobilization of radionuclide, forms their concentration, their participation in global geochemical cycles in the ocean, remain open. We believe a major factor controlling the distribution of heavy metals is the formation of ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules hydrogenic at the bottom of the ocean and seamounts. It is likely that the process of formation of Fe-manganese hydrogenic can play a major role in the control of radioactive contamination in the oceanic sediment. At least for the U number of works on the subject [Sherman et al. 2008]. The high sensitivity of the Fe-manganese crust is known to the isotopic composition of lead [Loranger & Zayed 1994, Collen et al 2011]. Recent work [Wilkins etal 2006, Renshaw etal 2009] show a large role; Fe (III)-and Mn (IV)-reducing organisms that anaerobic bacteria in oxidation and therefore changes in mobility systems U and Pu. So much interest is data for sorption of radionuclide on hydroxides Fe and Mn. Unfortunately we are not aware of works on the subject. We have therefore taken their own experimental studies on sorption of radionuclide on natural Fe-Mn crusts (sample from Magellan seamount Pacific ocean) [Martynov et al 2012]. The results showed high sorption ability of material crusts for fixation of radionuclides: U-233, Np-237, Pu-238, Am-241. For all radionuclide experiment absorption has been reached already in the first hour it was 96.0% of total substance radionuclide absorbed from the solution, and after the first day it was reached

  14. Evolution of Intermetallics, Dispersoids, and Elevated Temperature Properties at Various Fe Contents in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chen, X.-G.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, great interests are rising on aluminum alloys for the applications at elevated temperature, driven by the automotive and aerospace industries requiring high strength, light weight, and low-cost engineering materials. As one of the most promising candidates, Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloys have been found to possess considerably high mechanical properties and creep resistance at elevated temperature resulted from the precipitation of a large number of thermally stable dispersoids during heat treatment. In present work, the effect of Fe contents on the evolution of microstructure as well as high-temperature properties of 3004 alloys has been investigated. Results show that the dominant intermetallic changes from α-Al(MnFe)Si at 0.1 wt pct Fe to Al6(MnFe) at both 0.3 and 0.6 wt pct Fe. In the Fe range of 0.1-0.6 wt pct studied, a significant improvement on mechanical properties at elevated temperature has been observed due to the precipitation of dispersoids, and the best combination of yield strength and creep resistance at 573 K (300 °C) is obtained in the 0.3 wt pct Fe alloy with the finest size and highest volume fraction of dispersoids. The superior properties obtained at 573 K (300 °C) make 3004 alloys more promising for high-temperature applications. The relationship between the Fe content and the dispersoid precipitation as well as the materials properties has been discussed.

  15. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on the structural and electrical transport properties of PrFe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, Khalid Ikram, M.; Asokan, K.

    2014-04-24

    The effect of gamma ray irradiation on the structural and transport properties of polycrystalline bulk samples of PrFe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.5) were investigated. The samples were synthesized by solid state reaction method and exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation to accumulated dose of 625 KGy. From the Raman study, the modes exhibit a blue shift with broadening of spectral features in the irradiated samples. The dielectric constant (ε′) was also studied as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases with Mn doping but decrease on irradiation. Exposure to gamma radiation results in substantial modification in the physical properties of these compounds.

  16. Bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in hazelnut and walnut kernels investigated by an enzymolysis approach.

    PubMed

    Arpadjan, Sonja; Momchilova, Svetlana; Venelinov, Tony; Blagoeva, Elitsa; Nikolova, Magdalena

    2013-06-26

    Bioaccessibility of four essential (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) and two toxic (Cd, Pb) elements in kernels of four walnut and four hazelnut cultivars was investigated using sequential enzymolysis approach and atomic absorption spectrometry. It was found that the assimilable part of elements was not dependent on nut cultivar. The bioaccessible fraction of Cu, Mn, and Zn was definitely higher for hazelnuts (62% Cu, 39% Mn, 58% Zn) than for walnuts (14% Cu, 21% Mn, 15% Zn). Bioaccessible Fe was 20-24% from its total content for both nut types. Solubility in the simulated intestinal juice is affected by both formation of stable soluble complexes and back sorption of dissolved elements on nut solid residues. Lead shows strong insolubility due to the high sorption affinity of lead ions to the insoluble fraction of nuts. Thus, walnuts and hazelnuts could act as effective biosorbents for lead detoxication.

  17. Magnetic properties of Co 1- xM xPt 3 (M  Mn, Fe) compounds with competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Dinia, A.; Cadeville, M. C.

    1995-02-01

    Magnetic properties of the pseudo-binary Co 1- xM xPt 3 (M  Mn, Fe) compounds have been investigated. Under adequate preparation conditions, these compounds display the L1 2 structure. For M  Mn the magnetic phase diagram presents a continuous ferromagnetic region from CoPt 3 to MnPt 3 with a re-entrant spin glass (RSG) phase emerging at low T and H between x = 0.2 and 0.6. For M  Fe, a spin glass (SG) phase separates the ferromagnetic region on the Co-rich side, from the antiferromagnetic region on the Fe-rich side. The results are qualitatively discussed in terms of the three dominant competing magnetic interactions JCoCo, JCoM, JMM.

  18. Investigation of the mechanical properties of FeNiCrMnSi high entropy alloy wear resistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buluc, G.; Florea, I.; Chelariu, R.; Popescu, G.; Carcea, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we investigated microstructure, hardness and wear resistance for FeNiCrMnAl, high entropy alloy. The FeNiCrMnSi, high entropy alloy was elaborated in a medium induction furnace, by choosing the silicon, as an alliance element within the equi- atomic high entropy alloy, we managed to obtain a dendritic structure, the formation of intermetallic compounds or separated silicon. The medium hardness value of the investigated alloy was 948.33 HV and the medium value of the friction coefficient was 0.6655 in the first 20 seconds and 0.5425 for 1667 seconds. The volume loss of the high entropy alloy FeNiCrMnSi was 0.0557 mm3.

  19. Calculations of structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and phonon properties of FeNiMnAl by the first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Uğur, Şule; İyigör, Ahmet

    2014-10-06

    The electronic, elastic and dynamical properties of the quaternary alloy FeNiMnAl have been investigated using a pseudopotential plane wave method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We determined the lattice parameters and the bulk modulus B. In addition, the elastic properties such as elastic constans (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}), the shear modulus G, the young modulus E, the poisson's ratio σ and the B/G ratio are also given. The FeNiMnAl Heusler alloy exhibit a ferromagnetic half-metallic behavior with the total magnetic moment of 4.02 μ{sub B}. The phonon dispersion of FeNiMnAl has been performed using the density functional theory and the direct method with 2×2×2 supercell.

  20. Modeling specific heat and entropy change in La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzi, Marco; Bennati, Cecilia; Curcio, Carmen; Kuepferling, Michaela; Basso, Vittorio

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we model the magnetocaloric effect of LaFexMnySiz-H1.65 compound (x + y + z = 13), a system showing a transition temperature finely tunable around room temperature by Mn substitution. The thermodynamic model takes into account the coupling between magnetism and specific volume as introduced by Bean and Rodbell. We find a good qualitative agreement between experimental and modeled entropy change - Δs(H , T). The main result is that the magnetoelastic coupling drives the phase transition of the system, changing it from second to first order by varying a model parameter η. It is also responsible for a decrease of - Δs at the transition, due to a small lattice contribution to the entropy counteracting the effect of the magnetic one. The role of Mn is reflected exclusively in a decrease of the strength of the exchange interaction, while the value of the coefficient β, responsible for the coupling between volume and exchange energy, is independent on the Mn content and it appears to be an intrinsic property of the La(Fe-Si)13 structure.

  1. Electrochemical study of aqueous asymmetric FeWO4/MnO2 supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubard-Bretesché, Nicolas; Crosnier, Olivier; Buvat, Gaëtan; Favier, Frédéric; Brousse, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The concept of an asymmetric FeWO4/MnO2 electrochemical capacitor cycled in a neutral aqueous electrolyte is presented for the first time. Commercially available cryptomelane-type MnO2 and synthesized nanocrystalline FeWO4 were used as positive and negative electrode materials, respectively. Prior to assembling the cell, the electrodes have been individually tested in a 5 M LiNO3 electrolyte solution to define both the adequate balance of active material in the supercapacitor and the proper working voltage window. Then, the full asymmetric device has been cycled between 0 and 1.4 V for over 40,000 cycles and subjected to accelerated ageing tests under floating conditions at different voltages, without any significant change on its electrochemical behavior. This remarkable stability shows the interest of developing full oxide-based asymmetric supercapacitors operating in non-toxic aqueous electrolytes that could compete with commercial carbon-based electrochemical double-layer capacitors.

  2. Multi-teraflops spin dynamics studies of the magnetic structure of FeMn/Co interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, Andrew; Ujfalussy, B.; Schulthess, T.C.; Zhang, X.-G.; Shelton, W.A.; Nicholson, D.M.C.; Stocks, G.M.; Wang, Yang; Dirks, T.

    2002-11-30

    The authors have used the power of massively parallel computers to perform first principles spin dynamics (SD) simulations of the magnetic structure of Iron-Manganese/Cobalt (FeMn/Co) interfaces. These large scale quantum mechanical simulations, involving 2016-atom super-cell models, reveal details of the orientational configuration of the magnetic moments at the interface that are unobtainable by any other means. Exchange bias, which involves the use of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer such as FeMn to pin the orientation of the magnetic moment of a proximate ferromagnetic (FM) layer such as Co, is of fundamental importance in magnetic multilayer storage and read head devices. Here the equation of motion of first principles SD is used to perform relaxations of model magnetic structures to the true ground (equilibrium) state. Our code is intrinsically parallel and has achieved a maximum execution rate of 2.46 Teraflops on the IBM SP at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  3. PdMn and PdFe: New Materials for Temperature Measurement Near 2K

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaans, M.J.; Aselage, T.L.; Day, P.K.; Duncan, R.V.; Klemme, B.J.; Sergatskov, D.A.

    1999-05-17

    Interest in the critical dynamics of superfluid 4 He in microgravity conditions has motivated the development of new high resolution thermometry technol- ogy for use in space experiments near 2K. The current material commonly used as the temperature sensing element for high resolution thermometers (HRTs) is copper ammonium bromide [Cu(NH4)2Br42H20) or "CAB", which undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition at 1.8K1. HRTs made from CAB have demonstrated low drift (< 10fK/s) and a temperature resolu- tion of O.lnK. Unfortunately, paramagnetic salts such as CAB are difficult to prepare and handle, corrosive to most metals, and become dehydrated if kept, under vacuum conditions at room temperature. We have developed a magnetic thermometer using dilute magnetic alloys of Mn or Fe dissolved in a pure Pd matrix. These metallic thermometers are easy to fabricate, chemically inert, and mechanically robust. Unlike salts, they may be directly soldered to the stage to be measured. Also, the Curie temperature can be varied by changing the concentration of Fe or Mn, making them available for use in a wide temperature range. Susceptibility measurements, as well as preliminary noise and drifl measurements, show them, to have sub-nK resolution, with a drift of less than 10-13 K/s.

  4. PdMn and PdFe: New Materials for Temperature Measurement Near 2K

    SciTech Connect

    Aselage, T.L.; Duncan, R.V.; Klemme, B.J.; Sergatskov, D.A.; Adriaans, M.J.; Day, P.K.

    1999-02-01

    Interest in the critical dynamics of superfluid He in microgravity conditions has motivated the development of new high resolution thermometry technology for use in space experiments near 2K. The current material commonly used as the temperature sensing element for high resolution thermometers (HRTs) is copper ammonium bromide (Cu(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Br{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) or CAB, which undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition at 1.8K. HRTs made from CAB have demonstrated low drift (<10fK/s) and a temperature resolution of 0.1nK. Unfortunately, paramagnetic salts such as CAB are difficult to prepare and handle, corrosive to most metals, and become dehydrated if kept under vacuum conditions at room temperature. We have developed a magnetic thermometer using dilute magnetic alloys of Mn or Fe dissolved in a pure Pd matrix. These metallic thermometers are easy to fabricate, chemically inert, and mechanically robust. Unlike salts, they may be directly soldered to the stage to be measured. Also, the Curie temperature can be varied by changing the concentration of Fe or Mn, making them available for use in a wide temperature range. Susceptibility measurements, as well as preliminary noise and drift measurements, show them to have sub-nK resolution with a drift of less than 10{sup {minus}13} K/s.

  5. A dedicated AMS setup for 53Mn/60Fe at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, M.; Dewald, A.; Feuerstein, C.; Altenkirch, R.; Stolz, A.; Heinze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Following demands for AMS measurements of medium mass isotopes, especially for 53Mn and 60Fe, we started to build a dedicated AMS setup at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator. This accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 10 MV can be reliably operated at a terminal voltage of 9.5 MV which corresponds to energies of 93-102 MeV for 60Fe or 53Mn beams using the 9+ or 10+ charge state. These charge states can be obtained by foil stripping with efficiencies of 30% and 20%, respectively. Energies around 100 MeV are sufficient to effectively suppress the stable isobars 60Ni and 53Cr by (dE/dx) techniques using combinations of energy degrader foils and dispersive elements like electrostatic analyzers and time of flight (TOF) systems as well as (dE/dx)E ion detectors. In this contribution we report on the actual status of the AMS setup and discuss details and expected features.

  6. Thermodynamic modeling of oxide phases in the Fe-Mn-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-11-01

    A critical evaluation and thermodynamic modeling for thermodynamic properties of all oxide phases and phase diagrams in the Fe-Mn-O system are presented. Optimized Gibbs energy parameters for the thermodynamic models of the oxide phases were obtained which reproduce all available and reliable experimental data within error limits from 298 K to above the liquidus temperatures at all compositions covering from known oxide phases, and oxygen partial pressure from metal saturation to 0.21 bar. The optimized thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams are believed to be the best estimates presently available. Two spinel phases (cubic and tetragonal) were modeled using Compound Energy Formalism (CEF) with the use of physically meaningful parameters. The present Fe-Mn spinel solutions can be integrated into a larger spinel solution database, which has been already developed. The database of the model parameters can be used along with a software for Gibbs energy minimization in order to calculate any type of phase diagram section and thermodynamic properties.

  7. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Li, C.

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.« less

  8. Arsenic-bridged magnetic interactions in an emerging two-dimensional FeAs nanostructure on MnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, Christian; Ferrari, Valeria; Llois, Ana Maria

    2015-08-01

    The extreme case of an Fe monolayer deposited onto a manganese arsenide (MnAs) substrate is analyzed using density functional theory. We find that an FeAs quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnetic surface nanostructure emerges. This nanostructure, which is magnetically nearly decoupled from the substrate, is due to bonding effects arising from the arsenic atoms bridging the Fe magnetic interactions. These interactions are studied and modeled using a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian. They display an angular dependence which is characteristic of superexchange-like interactions, which are of the same order of magnitude as those appearing in Fe-based pnictides.

  9. Secondary Fe- and Mn-Oxides Associated with Faults Near Moab, Utah: Records of Past Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V. H.; Reiners, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary Fe- and Mn-oxides are locally common near faults and fractures, and as cements within sandstones of the Colorado Plateau, and provide evidence of past fluid-flow. Here we describe textural, mineralogic, and geochronologic observations from fault-zone Fe- and Mn-oxide mineralization in Flat Iron Mesa, near Moab, Utah. Several hypotheses have been proposed for their origin, including reactions associated with the mixing of deep reduced and near-surface oxygenated waters. We integrate field observations, detailed SEM and petrographic observations, geochemical models, (U-Th)/He and Ar/Ar dating, and other data to develop interpretations of the formation of these deposits. SEM imaging shows that sandstone matrix cement adjacent to the faults follows two precipitation sequences: Fe-oxide followed by barite and Fe-oxide followed by Mn-oxide. Dense oxide layers also accumulated in cm-scale fractures near faults, and show the following precipitation sequence: Fe-oxide, barite, Ba rich Mn-oxide, and pure Mn-oxide. The latter sequence is observed at larger scale across faults in one site in Flat Iron Mesa. Our new He dates for Mn-oxides are 1.7-2.9 Ma while Fe-oxide dates are 2.7-3.0 Ma. If these dates represent formation ages, they are consistent with the interpreted precipitation sequence but would require protracted mineralization over Ma-timescales. Alternatively, they may represent varying degrees of He retentivity in earlier formed deposits. Previous Ar/Ar dates have been interpreted as a 20-25 Ma formation age. Ongoing Ar/Ar and He diffusion studies will resolve this discordance. Assuming the previous Ar dates do not reflect contamination by detrital K-bearing phases and do reflect oxide formation, potential interpretations for the younger He ages include recent U-Th addition, recrystallization, later oxide growth, or large diffusive He loss at low temperatures.

  10. Low-temperature heat capacity upon the transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2 MeAl ( Me = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The heat capacity of band magnets Fe2 MeAl ( Me = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) ordered in crystal structure L21 has been measured in the range 2 K ≤ T ≤ 50 K. The dependences of the Debye temperature ΘD, the Sommerfeld coefficient γ, and the temperature-independent contribution to heat capacity C 0 on the number of valence electrons z in the alloys have been determined.

  11. High-field magnetization of heusler alloys Fe2 XY ( X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; Y = Al, Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    The magnetization curves of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2 XY (where X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are transition 3 d elements and Y = Al, Si are the s and p elements of the third period of the Periodic Table) have been measured at T = 4.2 K in the field range H ≤ 70 kOe. It has been shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  12. Plasma-Sprayed High Entropy Alloys: Microstructure and Properties of AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Berndt, Christopher C.; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Anupam, Ameey; S, Praveen; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Murty, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a new class of materials that present novel phase structures and properties. Apart from bulk material consolidation methods such as casting and sintering, HEAs can also be deposited as a surface coating. In this work, thermal sprayed HEA coatings are investigated that may be used as an alternative bond coat material for a thermal barrier coating system. Nanostructured HEAs that were based on AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi were prepared by ball milling and then plasma sprayed. Splat studies were assessed to optimise the appropriate thermal spray parameters and spray deposits were prepared. After mechanical alloying, aluminum-based and manganese-based HEA powders revealed contrary prominences of BCC and FCC phases in their X-ray diffraction patterns. However, FCC phase was observed as the major phase present in both of the plasma-sprayed AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings. There were also minor oxide peaks detected, which can be attributed to the high temperature processing. The measured porosity levels for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings were 9.5 ± 2.3 and 7.4 ± 1.3 pct, respectively. Three distinct phase contrasts, dark gray, light gray and white, were observed in the SEM images, with the white regions corresponding to retained multicomponent HEAs. The Vickers hardness (HV0.3kgf) was 4.13 ± 0.43 and 4.42 ± 0.60 GPa for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi, respectively. Both type of HEAs coatings exhibited anisotropic mechanical behavior due to their lamellar, composite-type microstructure.

  13. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  14. Kinetic modeling of 52Fe/52mMn-citrate at the blood-brain barrier by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Calonder, C; Würtenberger, P I; Maguire, R P; Pellikka, R; Leenders, K L

    1999-11-01

    The kinetics of iron at the blood-brain barrier of the monkey were studied in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and the tracer 52Fe/52mMn-citrate. 52mMn is the beta(+)-emitting daughter nuclide of 52Fe and therefore contributes to the observed signal and background in the PET images and may influence the quantification of physiological relevant iron parameters. The kinetics of pure (52m)Mn-citrate at the blood-brain barrier of the monkey were studied experimentally, and the analysis of the data with a reasonable compartment model led to equal efflux and influx parameters for Mn (1.35 +/- 0.3 x 10(-2) min(-1)). By using complexes between Mn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, the validity of the proposed model could be confirmed. To describe the observed kinetics of 52Fe/(52m)Mn-citrate, the manganese model was coupled to an iron model, which finally allowed the quantification of two iron-specific parameters: an input rate into global brain tissue of 7.15 +/- 2.6 x 10(-4) min(-1) and a time delay of roughly 24 min to account for the observed activities. The simpler linearization procedure has been proposed and could be applied to all our data sets and is able to replace the complicated nonlinear iron/manganese tracer kinetic model neglecting any influence of manganese on the analysis. PMID:10537064

  15. Atomic structure and magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles produced by reverse micelle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Everett E.; O'Connor, Charles J.; Harris, Vincent G.

    1999-04-01

    Using the aqueous cores of reverse micelles as nanoreactors, nanoparticles (d˜10 nm) of the mixed ferrite MnFe2O4 were produced. Seven processing trials were performed where the concentration of ammonium hydroxide, reaction temperature, and the oxidizing agent were varied. All trials result in Mn-ferrite particles with varying chemistry and structure. The Mn concentration in the resulting ferrite is strongly enhanced by both the presence of H2O2 as an oxidizing agent and a surplus of ammonium hydroxide. The increased Mn concentration correlates with a higher fraction of octahedrally coordinated Mn cations. When near-stoic amounts of ammonium hydroxide are used, the resulting ferrites are nearly stoichiometric with a more equitable distribution of Mn cations on the octahedral and tetrahedral sublattices. In all ferrite nanoparticles, the Mn cations have a preference for octahedral site occupancy that is larger than the 20% measured in bulk Mn-ferrite. We attribute the cation filling trends to the stabilization of excess trivalent Mn during processing.

  16. Characterization of Fe-Mn concretions from a Luvisol irrigated by mine water in a semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Kribek, Bohdan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Sracek, Ondra; Vanek, Ales; Penizek, Vit; Mapani, Ben; Kamona, Fred

    2016-04-01

    We studied Fe-Mn concretions from Cutanic Luvisol in the northern part of Namibia, where agricultural fields are irrigated with the drainage water from the Kombat Cu-Pb-Zn mine (pH 7, metal concentrations in ug/L: Fe 7, Mn 10, Zn 7, Cu 18). Concretions (0.5-2 cm in size) were mostly found towards the basis of the soil profile (BC horizon, depth 100-120 cm). Comparisons with the bulk chemical composition of the soil matrix indicated that Fe-Mn concretions were enriched with metals, metalloids and other trace elements (enrichment factor EFs varied in the range 1.3-6.4). Concentrations of the elements of interest in the Fe-Mn concretions were the following (mg/kg): As 23.1, Ba 3840, Cd 6.83, Cu 450, Pb 597, Zn 137. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that concretions were composed of quartz, goethite, hematite, illite/mica, lithiophorite (LiAl2Mn3O6(OH)6) and birnessite. The SEM observation confirmed that internal structure with concentric rings reflecting seasonal changes in redox conditions occurred within the concretions. Spot analyses and X-ray elemental maps performed using EDS spectrometry showed that concentrations of metalloids were rather low and slightly elevated Ba concentrations were only observed within the Mn-oxide zones. Selective extractions were used to understand the binding of trace elements onto individual target phases. Whereas Mn-oxide phases sequestered the majority of Cd (up to 98%), Ba, Pb and REEs (up to 78%), other metals such as Cu and Zn exhibited much lower values (47-65%) and were also significantly bound to Fe-oxides. The pH-static leaching test conducted in the pH range of 2-12 indicated that the majority of trace elements were mostly leached under acidic conditions with the exception of As, which was highly solubilized at pH 12 (up to 17%). Whereas Ba, Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly released under acidic conditions (up to 12%), the leaching of Pb was almost negligible over the entire pH range. Our results show that Fe-Mn

  17. Improving the High-Voltage Li2FeMn3O8 Cathode by Chlorine Doping.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lihui; Han, Xiaogang; Carter, Marcus; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-05-01

    High-capacity and high-voltage cathode materials are desirable for high-energy-density lithium ion batteries. Among various cathode materials, Li2FeMn3O8 is attractive due to its high working voltage, low toxicity, and low cost. However, its superior electrochemical properties are significantly limited by the intrinsic defects in the Li2FeMn3O8 cathode, which makes the theoretical working voltage (4.9 V) and capacity (148 mAh/g) hard to reach. In this paper, we demonstrated that Cl doping can effectively increase the capacity and working voltage of the Li2FeMn3O8 cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Cl doping reduced the valence state and increased the electron binding energy in cations and thus increased the voltage and enhanced the capacity of the Li2FeMn3O8 cathode. Our results also indicate that Cl doping can be a promising low-cost method to improve the electrochemical performance of various oxide cathode materials, including LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn50Fe50-xSnx (x=10, 15 and 20) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanmoy; Agarwal, Sandeep; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report measurements and comparisons of the structural, magnetic and transport properties of a series of Mn50Fe50-xSnx alloys (x=10, 15 and 20). We found that while the lower Sn composition sample stabilized in β-Mn-type crystallographic phase, the higher Sn composition alloys contained both β-Mn-type as well as Mn3Sn-type hexagonal DO19 phases. Through d.c. and a.c. magnetic property measurements we have established the existence of a ferromagnetic transition near room temperature followed by a spin reorientation at lower temperature in the Mn3Sn-type crystallographic phase of the alloys. Our resistivity study also revealed an interesting behavior with negative temperature coefficient (TCR) in these alloys.

  19. Perpendicularly magnetized ferrimagnetic [Mn50Ga50/Co2FeAl] superlattice and the utilization in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-08-01

    The ferrimagnetic superlattice (SL) [MnGa/Co2FeAl]n exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy opened a new method for spintronics materials used in magnetic random access memory, because of the high anisotropy, small damping constant and tunable magnetization. In this work, we fabricated SLs with different MnGa composition and studied the MnGa composition dependence of the structure and magnetic properties of the SLs. Furthermore, we fabricated fully perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with SLs as both top and bottom electrodes. A clear tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect with TMR ratio of 1.3% at room temperature was observed.

  20. The character of FeMn-1# powder catalyst and its influence on the synthesis of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Ma, H. A.; Han, Q. G.; Hu, M. H.; Li, R.; Zeng, M. F.; Jia, X.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper industrial diamond crystal was synthesized using FeMn-1# powder catalyst in China-type cubic high-pressure apparatus at 5.7 GPa and 1400-1600 °C. The growth feature of diamond in the graphite-FeMn-1# system was researched. Optical microscope observation showed that all the diamond crystals were light yellow octahedral with grain size of 0.3-0.5 mm. There are also plenty of bubbles in the crystals. By SEM, we can see that the surface of diamond is smooth and the crystal is intact. Mössbauer spectrum was used to detect the impurity in the diamonds.

  1. Tuning the period of elastic MnAs/GaAs(001) {alpha}-{beta} pattern by Fe deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, F.; Marangolo, M.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Spezzani, C.; Breitwieser, R.; Sacchi, M.

    2010-12-20

    The {alpha}-{beta} elastic striped pattern of MnAs/GaAs(001) is shown to be perturbed by Fe overlayer growth. After nanometric Fe thin film deposition, the elastic pattern is still present in the 10-45 deg. C temperature range, but the period of the pattern increases by up to 40% for MnAs epilayers 70 to 400 nm thick. This observation can be interpreted within a simple model calculation of the pattern elastic energy, providing quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Oxidation behavior of Mn and Mo alloyed Fe-16Ni-(5-8)Cr-3. 2Si-1. 0Al

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Oh, J.M.; Dunning, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Oxidation tests were conducted on a master alloy, Fe-16Ni-(5-8)Cr-3Si-1Al, to which (0-4) wt/o pct Mn and/or Mo were added. Tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 1,073-1,273 K for times up to 1,000 hr. Additions of Mn resulted in formation of a dual oxide structure and decreased oxidation protection. Addition of Mo significantly improved oxidation protection by formation of an intermetallic Fe(Mo)Si precipitate that eventually formed a protective SiO{sub 2} oxide sublayer. The oxidation protection was related to the alloy components and concentration.

  3. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  4. Correlation between particle size and magnetic characteristics of Mn-substituted ZnFe2O4 ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawar, Sidra; Atiq, Shahid; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad

    2016-05-01

    We report synthesis of Zn1-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 & 0.5) ferrites using sol-gel auto-combustion route while citric acid is used as a fuel. The study is aimed to explore the influence of Mn contents on structural parameters, morphological characteristics and magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 ferrite samples while the impact of average grain dimensions on magnetic properties inferred from multi domain and single domain particle's effect is also analyzed. X-ray diffraction confirmed the configuration of single phase pure crystalline structure with low concentration of Mn while some impurity peaks were found for higher Mn contents. Lattice parameter was found to increase with increasing Mn contents while crystallite size was decreased. Average grain size was decreased from 240 to 150 nm with increasing Mn concentration which directly affected the magnetic properties. A decrease in saturation magnetization (from 52.35 to 45.80 emu/g) and an increase in coercivity (from 44 to 262 Oe) was observed with increasing Mn contents. A decrease in initial permeability and increase in hysteresis loss with increasing Mn contents was also evident. Coercive field and hysteresis losses were increased with decreasing average grain size while initial permeability was found to decrease with decrease in average grain size.

  5. The effects of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Fanling; Qiu, Jingwen; Baker, Ian; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-08-20

    In this paper, As-cast Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21, which consists of aligned, 50 nm, (Ni, Al)-rich B2, and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases, was annealed at a variety of temperatures up to 1423 K and the microstructure and mechanical properties were examined. It was shown that the as-cast microstructure arises from a eutectoid transformation at ~1300 K. Annealing at temperatures ≤1073 K produces β-Mn-structured precipitates and hardness values up to 816 HV, while annealing at temperatures >1073 K leads to dramatic coarsening of the two-phase B2/f.c.c. microstructure (up to 5.5 µm after 50 h at 1273 K), but does not lead to β-Mn precipitation.more » Interestingly, annealing at temperatures >1073 K delays the onset of β-Mn precipitation during subsequent anneals at lower temperatures. Coarsening the B2/f.c.c. lamellar structure by annealing at higher temperatures softens it and leads to increases in ductility from fracture before yield to ~8 % elongation. Finally, the presence of β-Mn precipitates makes the very fine, brittle B2/f.c.c. microstructures even more brittle, but significant ductility (8.4 % elongation) is possible even with β-Mn precipitates present if the B2/f.c.c. matrix is coarse and, hence, more ductile.« less

  6. Thermally induced magnetization switching in Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001): selectable magnetic configurations by temperature and field control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzani, Carlo; Vidal, Franck; Delaunay, Renaud; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Etgens, Victor H.; Popescu, Horia; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Spintronic devices currently rely on magnetization control by external magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents. Developing temperature-driven magnetization control has potential for achieving enhanced device functionalities. Recently, there has been much interest in thermally induced magnetisation switching (TIMS), where the temperature control of intrinsic material properties drives a deterministic switching without applying external fields. TIMS, mainly investigated in rare-earth-transition-metal ferrimagnets, has also been observed in epitaxial Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001), where it stems from a completely different physical mechanism. In Fe/MnAs temperature actually modifies the surface dipolar fields associated with the MnAs magnetic microstructure. This in turn determines the effective magnetic field acting on the Fe overlayer. In this way one can reverse the Fe magnetization direction by performing thermal cycles at ambient temperatures. Here we use element selective magnetization measurements to demonstrate that various magnetic configurations of the Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001) system are stabilized predictably by acting on the thermal cycle parameters and on the presence of a bias field. We show in particular that the maximum temperature reached during the cycle affects the final magnetic configuration. Our findings show that applications are possible for fast magnetization switching, where local temperature changes are induced by laser excitations.

  7. Thermally induced magnetization switching in Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001): selectable magnetic configurations by temperature and field control

    PubMed Central

    Spezzani, Carlo; Vidal, Franck; Delaunay, Renaud; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Etgens, Victor H.; Popescu, Horia; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Spintronic devices currently rely on magnetization control by external magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents. Developing temperature-driven magnetization control has potential for achieving enhanced device functionalities. Recently, there has been much interest in thermally induced magnetisation switching (TIMS), where the temperature control of intrinsic material properties drives a deterministic switching without applying external fields. TIMS, mainly investigated in rare-earth–transition-metal ferrimagnets, has also been observed in epitaxial Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001), where it stems from a completely different physical mechanism. In Fe/MnAs temperature actually modifies the surface dipolar fields associated with the MnAs magnetic microstructure. This in turn determines the effective magnetic field acting on the Fe overlayer. In this way one can reverse the Fe magnetization direction by performing thermal cycles at ambient temperatures. Here we use element selective magnetization measurements to demonstrate that various magnetic configurations of the Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001) system are stabilized predictably by acting on the thermal cycle parameters and on the presence of a bias field. We show in particular that the maximum temperature reached during the cycle affects the final magnetic configuration. Our findings show that applications are possible for fast magnetization switching, where local temperature changes are induced by laser excitations. PMID:25631753

  8. Preparation and application of Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH for oxidative adsorption of As(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, C.; Yang, H.; Cho, D.; Kim, Y.; Schwartz, F.; Lee, E.; Jeon, B.; Song, H.

    2013-12-01

    Iron oxides are one of the commonly used media for arsenic treatment, but they have significantly low adsorption capacity for As(III) than As(V), rendering limited applicability to treat groundwater possessing relatively high level of As(III). In this study, we prepared a Mn-substituted iron oxyhydroxide and demonstrated its applicability for enhancing As(III) removal. Four synthetic samples of Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH (MSF) with different ratios of Mn:Fe (0, 10, 30, and 50%) were prepared by oxidative hydrolysis of Fe(II) and Mn(II) salts with very rapid oxidation using H2O2. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement analysis revealed that the crystal structures of MSFs resembles those of feroxyhyte (δ'-FeOOH), with the c unit cell parameter proportionally decreasing with increasing Mn-substitution, resulting in formation of δ-(Fe1-x, Mnx)OOH like structure. Adsorption batch experiments with MSF revealed that As(III) was oxidized into As(V) by surface oxidation of MSF, suggesting Mn-mediated oxidative adsorption of As(III). This oxidative removal of As(III) is consistent with previous studies that reported removal of As(III) by iron minerals containing MnOOH or reduced species of Mn. However, the adsorption capacities decreased from 20.0 to 10.8 mg/g with increasing Mn ratio from 0 to 50%. This indicates the loss of available adsorption sites by increased occupancy of Mn on the surface sites. Arsenic removal by iron oxides has been reported to occur via co-precipitation of As(III) and an inner-sphere complexation of As(V) that involves Fe atoms on the surface. Therefore, it appears Mn-substitution on Fe is for the decrease of arsenic sorption.. The adsorption of arsenic on MSF containing 10% Mn exhibited 93.8 % removal within the first 70 min and reaching sorption equilibrium after 530 min for initial As(III) concentration of 19.5 mg/L. Adsorption capacities of MSF were 18.3, 44.5, and 55.3 mg/g for the initial concentrations of 19.5, 52.7 and 96.7 mg

  9. Mechanism of N2O formation during the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over Mn-Fe spinel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shijian; Xiong, Shangchao; Liao, Yong; Xiao, Xin; Qi, Feihong; Peng, Yue; Fu, Yuwu; Shan, Wenpo; Li, Junhua

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of N2O formation during the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction reaction (SCR) over Mn-Fe spinel was studied. The in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and transient reaction studies demonstrated that the Eley-Rideal mechanism (i.e., the reaction of adsorbed NH3 species with gaseous NO) and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism (i.e., the reaction of adsorbed NH3 species with adsorbed NOx species) both contributed to N2O formation. However, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was much less than that through the Eley-Rideal mechanism. The ratio of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism remarkably increased; therefore, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel decreased with the decrease of the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV). As the gaseous NH3 concentration increased, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel increased because of the promotion of NO reduction through the Eley-Rideal mechanism. Meanwhile, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel decreased with the increase of the gaseous NO concentration because the formation of NH on Mn-Fe spinel was restrained. Therefore, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel was related to the GHSV and concentrations of reactants.

  10. Free-standing and single-crystalline Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires with room-temperature ferromagnetism and excellent magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsiu; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Tang, Jianshi; Lin, Ching-Chun; Hou, Te-Chien; Jiang, Xiaowei; Wang, Kang L; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2012-06-26

    High-aspect-ratio Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires with room-temperature ferromagnetism were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method in one step. This is the first report of ternary silicide nanowires using magnetic Mn ions to partially replace metal sites in the host matrix. Here we report the excellent magnetic characteristics of Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires, which exhibit strong ferromagnetism at room temperature and high magnetoresistance (MR) variation. As-synthesized Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires show a hyperbranched morphology and a spin-disorder behavior. The strong spin interaction in Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires, induced by the substitution of Fe sublattices for magnetic Mn ions, was revealed in the hysteresis loops. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curves of Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires are much less sensitive to the temperature variation from 10 to 300 K than those of FeSi nanowires. Remarkably, the excellent MR performance, -41.6% at 25 K with a magnetic field of 9 T, was demonstrated in an individual Fe(0.88)Mn(0.12)Si nanowire.

  11. Setting temperature effect in polycrystalline exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Outon, L. E.; Araujo Filho, M. S.; Araujo, R. E.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2013-05-07

    We study the effect of atomic interdiffusion on the exchange bias of polycrystalline IrMn/({sup 57}Fe + CoFe) multilayers due to the thermal setting process of exchange coupling during field annealing. Depth-resolved {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to quantify atomic interdiffusion. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to monitor the variation of exchange bias and magnetisation. It was found that interface sharpness is only affected above {approx}350 Degree-Sign C. Three different stages for the setting of exchange bias can be inferred from our results. At the lower setting temperatures (up to 350 Degree-Sign C), the effect of field annealing involves alignment of spins and interfacial coupling due to the setting of both antiferromagnetic (AF) bulk and interface without significant interdiffusion. At a second stage (350-450 Degree-Sign C), where AF ordering dominates over diffusion effects, atomic migration and increased setting of AF spins co-exist to produce a peak in exchange bias field and coercivity. On a third stage (>450 Degree-Sign C), severe chemical intermixing reduces significantly the F/AF coupling.

  12. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, A. M. Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Ohodnicki, P. R.

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to ∼2 kJ/m{sup 3}. Higher anisotropies up to ∼10 kJ/m{sup 3} result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co{sub 80−x−y}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub y}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 14}Si{sub 2} soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to ∼50 kJ/m{sup 3} and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  13. The sloABCR Operon of Streptococcus mutans Encodes an Mn and Fe Transport System Required for Endocarditis Virulence and Its Mn-Dependent Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Sehmi; Brown, Arunsri; Munro, Cindy L.; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau; Kitten, Todd

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans belongs to the viridans group of oral streptococci, which is the leading cause of endocarditis in humans. The LraI family of lipoproteins in viridans group streptococci and other bacteria have been shown to function as virulence factors, adhesins, or ABC-type metal transporters. We previously reported the identification of the S. mutans LraI operon, sloABCR, which encodes components of a putative metal uptake system composed of SloA, an ATP-binding protein, SloB, an integral membrane protein, and SloC, a solute-binding lipoprotein, as well as a metal-dependent regulator, SloR. We report here the functional analysis of this operon. By Western blotting, addition of Mn to the growth medium repressed SloC expression in a wild-type strain but not in a sloR mutant. Other metals tested had little effect. Cells were also tested for aerobic growth in media stripped of metals then reconstituted with Mg and either Mn or Fe. Fe at 10 μM supported growth of the wild-type strain but not of a sloA or sloC mutant. Mn at 0.1 μM supported growth of the wild-type strain and sloR mutant but not of sloA or sloC mutants. The combined results suggest that the SloABC proteins transport both metals, although the SloR protein represses this system only in response to Mn. These conclusions are supported by 55Fe uptake studies with Mn as a competitor. Finally, a sloA mutant demonstrated loss of virulence in a rat model of endocarditis, suggesting that metal transport is required for endocarditis pathogenesis. PMID:14526007

  14. Microwave adsorption of Sr(MnTi)xFe12-2xO19 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, C. L.; Tuo, Y. S.

    2013-09-01

    MnTi-substituted strontium ferrite particles of Sr(MnTi)xFe12-2xO19, (x=0-2.0), were synthesized using the aqueous combustion method. The structural character and the thermal properties of the sol-gel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, and the effects of the chemical composition and annealing temperature on the crystalline structure, the magnetic properties, and the morphology of ZnTi-substituted strontium ferrite particles were studied using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer measurements, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction indicated that M-type and Y-type hexagonal phases coexist in Sr-ferrites annealed at 1000 °C/2 h. However, a single phase of M-type hexagonal ferrite was obtained by heating the prepared powder at 1200 °C/2 h. The saturation magnetization at 300 K was found to greatly increase from 43.7 emu/g in SrFe12O19 ferrite to 59.0 emu/g in Sr(MnTi)0.5Fe11O19 ferrite. In contrast, the intrinsic coercivity was found to rapidly decrease from 4.32 kG in SrFe12O19 ferrite to 3.25 kG in Sr(MnTi)0.5Fe11O19 ferrite. The composite specimens of Sr(MnTi)xFe12-2xO19 and thermal plastic resin showed wide-band microwave absorption due to reflection losses from -15.7 to -22.7 dB at frequencies between 18 and 40 GHz as observed by a high-frequency network analyzer.

  15. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-Al-C Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-04-01

    To assist developments of the continuous-casting technology of Fe-Mn-Al-C steels, the solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C steel ingots with different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by FactSage (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada). The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is the highest, whereas the thermal conductivity of the 8Mn steel is slightly higher than that of the 17Mn steel. Increasing the manganese content promotes a columnar solidification structure and coarse grains in steel. With the increase of manganese content, the mass fraction of austenite phase is increased. Finally, a single austenite phase is formed in the 17Mn steel. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.3 × 10-5 to 2.3 × 10-5 K-1, and these values increase with the increase of manganese content. The ductility of the 17Mn steel and the 8Mn steel are higher than 40 pct in the temperature range from 873 K to 1473 K (600 °C to 1200 °C), and the cracking during the straightening operation should be avoided. However, the ductility of the 0Mn steel is lower than 40 pct at 973 K and 1123 K (700 °C and 850 °C), which indicates that the temperature of the straightening operation during the continuous-casting process should be above 1173 K (900 °C). Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region. At the 2.1 mass pct aluminum level, the precipitate temperature of AlN is high. Thus, the formed AlN is too coarse to deteriorate the hot ductility of steel.

  16. Magnetic properties of Fe0.4Mn0.6/Co2FeAl bilayers grown on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, K. K.; Nie, S. H.; Yu, X. Z.; Wang, S. L.; Yan, W. S.; Zhao, J. H.

    2011-11-01

    Polycrystalline Fe0.4Mn0.6 layers with the different thickness are deposited on 4-nm-thick single-crystalline Co2FeAl layers, which are grown on GaAs (001) substrates at room temperature by molecular-beam epitaxy. Both the exchange bias and the in-plane magnetic anisotropies of the bilayers are strongly dependent on the thickness of the Fe0.4Mn0.6 layer. The former is described using a granular level model. A modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model is used to explain the in-plane magnetic anisotropies observed at 5 K, while one possible reason for the magnetic anisotropies measured at 300 K is the complex interfacial magnetic properties proved by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements.

  17. Synthesis and characterizations of water-based ferrofluids of substituted ferrites [Fe 1-xB xFe 2O 4, B=Mn, Co ( x=0-1)] for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Jyotsnendu; Pradhan, Pallab; Somani, Vaibhav; Chelawat, Hitesh; Chhatre, Shreerang; Banerjee, Rinti; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    Nanomagnetic particles have great potential in the biomedical applications like MRI contrast enhancement, magnetic separation, targeting delivery and hyperthermia. In this paper, we have explored the possibility of biomedical applications of [Fe 1-xB xFe 2O 4, B=Mn, Co] ferrite. Superparamagnetic particles of substituted ferrites [Fe 1-xB xFe 2O 4, B=Mn, Co ( x=0-1)] and their fatty acid coated water base ferrofluids have been successfully prepared by co-precipitation technique using NH4OH/TMAH (Tetramethylammonium hydroxide) as base. In vitro cytocompatibility study of different magnetic fluids was done using HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) cell lines. Co 2+-substituted ferrite systems (e.g. CoFe 2O 4) is more toxic than Mn 2+-substituted ferrite systems (e.g. MnFe 2O 4, Fe 0.6Mn 0.4Fe 2O 4). The later is as cytocompatible as Fe 3O 4. Thus, Fe 1-xMn xFe 2O 4 could be useful in biomedical applications like MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  18. Mn(II) mediated degradation of artemisinin based on Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres for cancer therapy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Weijie; Zhang, Min; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Haibao; He, Mengni; Xu, Pengping; Zhou, Jiajia; Liu, Zhenbang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe(2+) mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn(2+) could substitute for Fe(2+) to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn(2+) was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in improving the survival of chemotherapy patients, providing a novel method for clinical tumor therapy.

  19. Effect of Ti addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a cast Fe-Ni-Mo-Mn maraging steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejad, S. Hossein; Nili Ahmadabadi, M.

    2003-10-01

    To study the effect of Ti on the age hardening behavior of Fe-Ni-Mn maraging steels, a Fe-Ni-Mo-Mn steel was alloyed with Ti then mechanical properties and aging behavior of two cast steels were investigated. In this regard, two heats of nominal compositions of Fe-10Ni-6Mo-3Mn and Fe-lONi-6Mo-3Mn-0. 7Ti were induction melted in air and vacuum respectively and cast in iron mold. After homogenizing at 1473K for 21.6ks and water quenching, solution annealing was performed at 1223K for 3.6ks followed by air cooling. Age hardening behavior at 773Kin the range of 0.36-172. 8 ks was determined. Tensile properties and Charpy impact toughness were measured in the solution annealed and peak-aged conditions. Fractographic features were studied by scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX microanalyses. Tensile properties of the alloys in the peakaged condition were in the range of grade 200 standard maraging steel. It has been found that Ti addition resulted in increasing of hardness and strength in aged condition and decreasing of Charpy impact toughness in both solution annealed and aged conditions. Ti addition also changes type and morphology of inclusions and fracture mechanism from semi-ductile intergranular mode to semi-ductile transgranular one.

  20. Tip Growth Of Carbon Nanotubes Obtained By Pyrolyzation Of Camphor Oil With Zeolite Embedded With Fe/Ni/Mn Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Zainal, N. F. A.; Nik, S. F.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of camphor oil, on a zeolite support impregnated with Fe/Ni/Mn (molar ratio of Fe:Ni:Mn = 1:1:1) catalyst in the temperature range from 550-950° C by the thermal CVD method. Besides the surface fluidization of the catalyst nanoparticles themselves, assistance of the metal oxides embedded in zeolite supports is supposed to be responsible for high activity and selectivity of the Fe/Ni/Mn catalyst over which carbon source (camphor oil) successfully decomposes. The CNT yield was higher at 850° C and can be considered as the optimum deposition temperature. This result demonstrates that zeolite impregnated with the catalyst Fe/Ni/Mn is a suitable support for effective formation of CNTs. The morphological studies support `tip growth mechanism' for the growth of the CNT's in our case. The as-grown CNTs were characterized by FESEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Epitaxial growth of InN on nearly lattice-matched (Mn,Zn)Fe 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, J.; Mitamura, K.; Kobayashi, A.; Honke, T.; Fujioka, H.; Oshima, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have grown InN films on nearly lattice-matched (Mn,Zn)Fe 2O 4 (111) substrates at low temperatures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and investigated their structural properties. InN films grown at substrate temperatures above 400 °C show poor crystallinity, and their in-plane epitaxial relationship is [10-10]InN//[11-2](Mn,Zn)Fe 2O 4, which means that their lattice mismatch is quite large (11%). By contrast, high quality InN films with flat surfaces can be grown at growth temperatures lower than 150 °C with the ideal in-plane epitaxial relationship of [11-20]InN//[11-2](Mn,Zn)Fe 2O 4, which produces lattice mismatches of as low as 2.0%. X-ray reflectivity measurements have revealed that the thickness of the interfacial layer between the InN and the substrates is reduced from 14 to 8.4 nm when the growth temperature is decreased from 400 °C to room temperature. This suppression of the interface reactions by reducing the growth temperature is probably responsible for the improvement in crystalline quality. These results indicate that the use of (Mn,Zn)Fe 2O 4 (111) substrates at low growth temperatures allows us to achieve nearly lattice matched epitaxial growth of InN.

  2. Observed And Modeled Seasonal Trends In Dissolved And Particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, And Zn In A Mining-Impacted Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) in Colorado, an acid-mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream, was chosen to examine the distribution of dissolved and particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the water column, with respect to seasonal hydrologic controls. NFCC is a high-gradient stream with d...

  3. The design of an Fe-12Mn-O.2Ti alloy steel for low temperature use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. K.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made to improve the low temperature mechanical properties of Fe-8 approximately 12% Mn-O 2Ti alloy steels. A two-phase(alpha + gamma) tempering in combination with cold working or hot working was identified as an effective treatment. A potential application as a Ni-free cryogenic steel was shown for this alloy. It was also shown that an Fe-8Mn steel could be grain-refined by a purely thermal treatment because of its dislocated martensitic structure and absence of epsilon phase. A significant reduction of the ductile-brittle transition temperature was obtained in this alloy. The nature and origin of brittle fracture in Fe-Mn alloys were also investigated. Two embrittling regions were found in a cooling curve of an Fe-12Mn-O 2Ti steel which was shown to be responsible for intergranular fracture. Auger electron spectroscopy identified no segregation during solution-annealing treatment. Avoiding the embrittling zones by controlled cooling led to a high cryogenic toughness in a solution-annealed condition.

  4. Solidification Microstructure, Segregation, and Shrinkage of Fe-Mn-C Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel by Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Peng; Tang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-06-01

    A 3D cellular automaton finite element model with full coupling of heat, flow, and solute transfer incorporating solidification grain nucleation and growth was developed for a multicomponent system. The predicted solidification process, shrinkage porosity, macrosegregation, grain orientation, and microstructure evolution of Fe-22Mn-0.7C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel match well with the experimental observation and measurement. Based on a new solute microsegregation model using the finite difference method, the thermophysical parameters including solid fraction, thermal conductivity, density, and enthalpy were predicted and compared with the results from thermodynamics and experiment. The effects of flow and solute transfer in the liquid phase on the solidification microstructure of Fe-22Mn-0.7C TWIP steel were compared numerically. Thermal convection decreases the temperature gradient in the liquid steel, leading to the enlargement of the equiaxed zone. Solute enrichment in front of the solid/liquid interface weakens the thermal convection, resulting in a little postponement of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The CET behavior of Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel during solidification was fully described and mathematically quantized by grain morphology statistics for the first time. A new methodology to figure out the CET location by linear regression of grain mean size with least-squares arithmetic was established, by which a composition design strategy for Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel according to solidification microstructure, matrix compactness, and homogeneity was developed.

  5. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Mn and Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, C. Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K.

    2015-08-15

    Mn and Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by a simple precipitation method. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. XRD analysis showed the cubic structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of interconnected nanoparticles. Mn and Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} showed broad absorption in the visible region compared to undoped sample and the band gap values are red shifted. Five Raman active modes were observed from the Raman spectra. FTIR spectra confirmed the spinel structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the doping of Mn and Fe shifts the vibrational modes to lower wave number region. The magnetic measurements confirmed that Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} shows a little ferromagnetic behavior compared to undoped and Mn-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which could be related to the uncompensated surface spins and the finite size effects.

  6. Biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Rice Husk Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiaying; Jiang, Zhao; Shan, Dexin; Lu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural waste, was used as biosorbent for the removal of Iron(II) and Manganese(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The structural and morphological characteristics of RHA and its elemental compositions before and after adsorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration on the removal of Fe(II) and Mn(II) ions. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by RHA. The correlation coefficient (R2) of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models equals 0.995 and 0.901 for Fe(II), 0.9862 and 0.8924 for Mn(II), respectively, so the Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. The mean free energy values evaluated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) onto RHA was physical in nature. Experimental data also showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions complied with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:24982918

  7. Improvement of (31)P NMR spectral resolution by 8-hydroxyquinoline precipitation of paramagnetic Fe and Mn in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Li, Bin; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2010-04-01

    Solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is currently the main method for the characterization of phosphorus (P) forms in environment samples. However, identification and quantification of P compounds may be hampered by poor resolution of spectra caused by paramagnetic Fe and Mn. In this study, a novel technique was developed to improve spectral resolution by removing paramagnetic Fe and Mn from alkaline extracts via 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ) precipitation. Batch experiments showed that both Fe and Mn were effectively removed by the precipitation at pH 9.0, with the removal efficiencies of 83-91% for Fe and 67-78% for Mn from the extracts of five different environmental samples, while little effect was found on concentration of total P. The (31)P NMR analysis of a model P solution showed that addition of 8-HOQ and its precipitation with metal ions did not alter P forms. Further analyses of the five extracts with (31)P NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the 8-HOQ precipitation was an ideal method compared with the present postextraction techniques, such as bicarbonate dithionate (BD), EDTA and Chelex-100 treatments, by improving spectral resolution to a large extent with no detrimental effects on P forms. PMID:20201571

  8. Structural transitions, magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Co(Fe)-doped MnNiSi compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K. Wang, S. G.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, G. D.

    2015-05-07

    The structural transitions, magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Co(Fe)-doped MnNiSi compounds are investigated by x-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic measurements, and first-principles calculations. Results indicate that all samples undergo a martensitic transition from the Ni{sub 2}In-type parent phase to TiNiSi-type orthorhombic phase at high temperatures. The substitution of Co(Fe) for Mn in Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}NiSi (x = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) and Mn{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}NiSi (y = 0.26, 0.30, 0.36, 0.46, and 0.55) samples decreases the structural transition temperature and Curie temperature of martensite. The martensite phases show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with saturation field being basically unchanged with increasing Co(Fe) content, while the saturation magnetization shows a decreasing tendency. The theoretically calculated moments are in good agreement with the experimentally measured results. The orbital hybridizations between different 3d elements are analyzed from the distribution of density of states.

  9. Effects of Mn and Fe impurities on the TL and EPR properties of artificial spodumene polycrystals under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, S. O.; Ferraz, G. M.; Watanabe, S.

    2004-06-01

    It is known that natural spodumene crystals LiAlSi 2O 6 can vary in color due to contents of impurities. With the aim to study how the Fe and Mn impurities influence their thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, we produced synthetic spodumene polycrystals with controlled amount of Fe and Mn. A mixture of SiO 2, Al 2O 3 and Li 2CO 3 was melted and cooled slowly to obtain a pure polycrystal, while a small amount of Fe or Mn has been added during this process. This way we produced the polycrystals which quality are fully adequate for present investigation, by low cost and quickly (comparing to sol-gel technique). We performed then the TL measurements in the temperature range from 0 to 500 °C, as well as the EPR at room temperature. Analyzing the TL glow curves and the EPR spectra, we concluded that the Fe "kills" the thermoluminescent centers in spodumene, while the Mn improves its TL response.

  10. Single crystal EPR measurements of the Fe8 and Mn_12 molecular magnetic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Randall; Dalal, Naresh; Maccagnano, Sara; Negusse, Ezana; Lussier, Alex; Hill, Stephen

    2001-03-01

    We report high sensitivity, high field/frequency (up to 9 tesla/210 GHz) EPR measurements for oriented single crystals of the Fe8 and Mn_12 molecular magnetic clusters. Extrapolating the frequency dependence of transitions to zero-field allows us to directly, and accurately (to within 0.5%), determine the zero-field splittings, which are in reasonable agreement with other studies. Subsequent analysis of EPR spectra for field parallel and perpendicular to the easy axis enables us to independently deduce g-values and the spin Hamiltonian parameters up to fourth order. Analysis of individual resonances, which we can assign to known transitions, reveals a pronounced MS dependence of the resonance line widths. Furthermore, the line positions exhibit complex (again MS dependent) temperature dependences which cannot be reconciled with the standard spin Hamiltonian.

  11. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew.

  12. In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Guang; Zhang, Yu-long; Hu, Hai-jiang; Zhou, Lin-xin; Xue, Zheng-liang

    2013-11-01

    In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel were conducted on a high-temperature laser scanning confocal microscope during continuous heating and subsequent isothermal holding at 850, 1000, and 1100°C for 30 min. A grain growth model was proposed based on experimental results. It is indicated that the austenite grain size increases with austenitizing temperature and holding time. When the austenitizing temperature is above 1100°C, the austenite grains grow rapidly, and abnormal austenite grains occur. In addition, the effect of heating rate on austenite grain growth was investigated, and the relation between austenite grains and bainite morphology after bainitic transformations was also discussed.

  13. Synthesis of Co/MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) Core/Shell Nanocomposite Particles.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Xie, Jin; Sun, Shouheng

    2008-01-01

    Monodispersed cobalt nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable size (8-14 nm) have been synthesized using thermal decomposition of dicobaltoctacarbonyl in organic solvent. The as-synthesized high magnetic moment (125 emu/g) Co NPs are dispersible in various organic solvents, and can be easily transferred into aqueous phase by surface modification using phospholipids. However, the modified hydrophilic Co NPs are not stable as they are quickly oxidized, agglomerated in buffer. Co NPs are stabilized by coating the MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) ferrite shell. Core/shell structured bimagnetic Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites are prepared with tunable shell thickness (1-5 nm). The Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites retain the high magnetic moment density from the Co core, while gaining chemical and magnetic stability from the ferrite shell. Comparing to Co NPs, the nanocomposites show much enhanced stability in buffer solution at elevated temperatures, making them promising for biomedical applications.

  14. Neutron diffraction analysis of Nd3Fe29 - xTx (T=Ti, Cr, Mn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelon, W. B.; Hu, Z.

    1996-02-01

    Rietveld analysis of neutron-diffraction data from Nd3Fe29-xTx (T=Ti, Cr, and Mn) has been used to determine the location of the substitutional atoms and the magnetic moments. Reanalysis of the T=Ti data confirms that the space group A2/m is a better choice than P21/c, which had previously been used to describe the structure. The Ti atom locations and concentrations remain unaffected in the two space groups, but for the other substituents the refined concentrations are well behaved in A2/m, whereas in P21/c the refinements were unstable due to the symmetry relations between certain substituted sites. The site occupancies are analyzed in terms of steric and environment effects. A possible explanation for the high Curie temperature of the Cr compound is proposed.

  15. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ ofmore » the tested alloy.« less

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic properties in bilayer BiFeO3/Bi-Mn-O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Nechache, Riad; Harnagea, Catalin; Li, Shun; Rosei, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We report an external solar power conversion efficiency of ˜1.43% in BiFeO3(BFO)/BiMnO3(BMO) bilayer thin films. Both films are epitaxially grown on (111) oriented niobium doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. By illuminating the BFO/BMO films under 1 Sun (AM 1.5 G), we found a remarkably high fill factor of ˜0.72, much higher than values reported for devices based on BFO or BMO alone. In addition, we demonstrate that the photocurrent density and photovoltage are tunable by changing the polarization direction in the BFO/BMO bilayer, as confirmed by the macroscopic polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loop. This effect is described in terms of a more favorable energy band alignment of the electrode/bilayer/NSTO heterostructure junction, which controls photocarrier separation.

  17. Process of prototyping coronary stents from biodegradable Fe-Mn alloys.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Hendra; Mantovani, Diego

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable stents are considered to be a recent innovation, and their feasibility and applicability have been proven in recent years. Research in this area has focused on materials development and biological studies, rather than on how to transform the developed biodegradable materials into the stent itself. Currently available stent technology, the laser cutting-based process, might be adapted to fabricate biodegradable stents. In this work, the fabrication, characterization and testing of biodegradable Fe-Mn stents are described. A standard process for fabricating and testing stainless steel 316L stents was referred to. The influence of process parameters on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the stents, and the quality of the produced stents, were investigated. It was found that some steps of the standard process such as laser cutting can be directly applied, but changes to parameters are needed for annealing, and alternatives are needed to replace electropolishing.

  18. Magnetic-field-induced transformation in FeMnGa alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.; Liu, E. K.; Feng, L.; Tang, X. D.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, H. Y.; Meng, F. B.; Luo, H. Z.

    2009-11-30

    A kind of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy with off-stoichiometric composition of Heusler alloy Fe{sub 2}MnGa has been synthesized. By optimizing composition, the martensitic transformation has been modified to occur at about 163 K accompanying spontaneous magnetization, which enables a magnetic field-induced structural transition from a paramagnetic parent phase to a ferromagnetic martensite with high magnetization of 93.8 emu/g. The material performs a quite large lattice distortion through the transformation, (c-a)/c=33.5%, causing a shape memory strain upto 3.6%. Such large lattice distortions strongly influence the electron structures, and thus some special physical behavior related to the transport and conductive properties is investigated.

  19. Phase transformations in multiferroics Bi1- x Ca x Fe1- x Mn x O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanchuk, I. O.; Bushinsky, M. V.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Chobot, A. N.; Tereshko, N. V.; Franz, A.

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure and the magnetic properties of multiferroics Bi1- x Ca x Fe1- x Mn x O3 ( x ≤ 0.22) have been studied. It has been found that the stoichiometric compositions undergo a crystal-structure transformation from the rhombohedral (space group R3 c) polar phase ( x ≤ 0.18) to the orthorhombic (space group Pnma) nonpolar phase ( x ≥ 0.20) via a two-phase structural state. The polar phase is antiferromagnetic at x < 0.10 and exhibits a metamagnetic behavior. The polar ( x ≥ 0.10) and nonpolar phases are weak ferromagnets at room temperature with a spontaneous magnetization close to 0.07 emu/g ( x = 0.18 and 0.22). A decrease in temperature leads to the transition to a state close to an antiferromagnetic one.

  20. Antiparallel interface coupling evidenced by negative rotatable anisotropy in IrMn/NiFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.; Grande, P. L.; Pereira, L. G.; Azevedo, G. M.; Harres, A.; Geshev, J.; Sousa, M. A. de; Pelegrini, F.

    2015-06-07

    Negative rotatable anisotropy is estimated via ferromagnetic resonance measurements in as-made, annealed, and ion-irradiated IrMn{sub 3}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers. Opposite to previous observations, inverse correlation between rotatable anisotropy and coercivity is observed. The exchange-bias field, determined from hysteresis loop measurements, is higher than that obtained from ferromagnetic resonance for all samples. The results are discussed in terms of majority antiparallel coupling and magnetic-field-induced transitions from antiparallel to parallel states of uncompensated spins at ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface. We affirm that an observation of negative rotatable anisotropy evidences antiparallel coupling even in systems presenting conventional exchange bias.

  1. Enhanced photovoltaic properties in bilayer BiFeO3/Bi-Mn-O thin films.

    PubMed

    Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Nechache, Riad; Harnagea, Catalin; Li, Shun; Rosei, Federico

    2016-05-27

    We report an external solar power conversion efficiency of ∼1.43% in BiFeO3(BFO)/BiMnO3(BMO) bilayer thin films. Both films are epitaxially grown on (111) oriented niobium doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. By illuminating the BFO/BMO films under 1 Sun (AM 1.5 G), we found a remarkably high fill factor of ∼0.72, much higher than values reported for devices based on BFO or BMO alone. In addition, we demonstrate that the photocurrent density and photovoltage are tunable by changing the polarization direction in the BFO/BMO bilayer, as confirmed by the macroscopic polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loop. This effect is described in terms of a more favorable energy band alignment of the electrode/bilayer/NSTO heterostructure junction, which controls photocarrier separation. PMID:27094952

  2. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew. PMID:25842341

  3. Irreversible response in spin-glasses: An experimental study in amorphous Fe-Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeshurun, Y.; Sompolinsky, H.

    1982-08-01

    The equilibrium and nonequilibrium susceptibilities χe and χne of the spin-glass (Fe0.64Mn0.36)75P16B6Al3 have been measured as functions of temperature (4.2<=T<=80 K) and a cooling field (8 Oe<=H<=2 kOe). A phase transition occurs at a temperature Tc(H) below which the irreversible response Δ(T)~T(χe-χne) appears. Tc(H) decreases from the freezing temperature (Tf=41.6 K) as H0.75+/-0.1. For small τ≡1-TTc(H), Δ behaves as Aτ+Bτ2 with field-dependent coefficients A and B and A(H=0)=0. The results are compared with the predictions of the mean-field theory of spin-glasses.

  4. High spin polarization in CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Manivel Raja, M.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Hono, K.

    2014-11-28

    We report the structure, magnetic property, and spin polarization of CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy. The alloy was found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (prototype LiMgPdSn) with considerable amount of DO{sub 3} disorder. Thermal analysis result indicated the Curie temperature is about 750 K without any other phase transformation up to melting temperature. The magnetization value was close to that predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. Current spin polarization of P = 0.70 ± 0.01 was deduced using point contact andreev reflection measurements. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been fitted in the temperature range of 5–300 K in order to check for the half metallic behavior. Considering the high spin polarization and Curie temperature, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  5. Competing effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial Fe/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Bowden, Mark E.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2011-03-01

    We systematically investigated the possible magnetization reversal behavior in well-characterized, epitaxial, Fe/IrMn exchange-biased bilayers as a function of the antiferromagnetic (AF) layer thickness. Several kinds of multi-step loops were observed for the samples measured at various field orientations. The angular dependence of the switching fields, observed using longitudinal and transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE), were shown to depend on the competition between the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the exchange bias (EB). A modified ‘effective field’ model was applied to quantitatively describe the evolution of the magnetic behavior and correctly predict the occurrence of different magnetic switching processes. The dependence of the effective anisotropy fields on the AF layer thickness directly reflects the competing effects of the pinned and rotatable antiferromagnetic spins at the EB interface.

  6. Surface structures of Al-Pd-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.

    1999-02-12

    In this dissertation, the author reports on the surface structure of i-Al-Pd-Mn twofold, threefold, fivefold and i-Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surfaces. The LEED studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages in the regrowth of all four surfaces after Ar{sup +} sputtering. In the first stage, upon annealing at relatively low temperature: 500K--800K (depending on different surfaces), a cubic phase appears. The cubic LEED patterns transform irreversibly to unreconstructed quasicrystalline patterns upon annealing to higher temperatures, indicating that the cubic overlayers are metastable. Based upon the data for three chemically-identical, but symmetrically-inequivalent surfaces, a model is developed for the relation between the cubic overlayers and the quasicrystalline substrate. The model is based upon the related symmetries of cubic close-packed and icosahedral-packed materials. These results may be general among Al-rich, icosahedral materials. STM study of Al-Pd-Mn fivefold surface shows that terrace-step-kink structures start to form on the surface after annealing above 700K. Large, atomic ally-flat terraces were formed after annealing at 900K. Fine structures with fivefold icosahedral symmetry were found on those terraces. Data analysis and comparison of the STM images and structure model of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn suggest that the fine structures in the STM images may be the pseudo Mackay (PMI) clusters which are the structure units of the structure model. Based upon his results, he can conclude that quasicrystalline structures are the stable structures of quasicrystal surfaces. In other words, quasicrystalline structures extend from the bulk to the surface. As a result of the effort reported in this dissertation, he believes that he has increased his understanding of the surface structure of icosahedral quasicrystals to a new level.

  7. Removal of phosphate from water by a Fe-Mn binary oxide adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Liu, Ruiping; Qu, Jiuhui

    2009-07-15

    Phosphate removal is important in the control of eutrophication of water bodies and adsorption is one of the promising approaches for this purpose. A Fe-Mn binary oxide adsorbent with a Fe/Mn molar ratio of 6:1 for phosphate removal was synthesized by a simultaneous oxidation and coprecipitation process. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics and equilibrium, in batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters, namely contact time, initial phosphate concentration, solution pH, and ionic strength on the phosphate adsorption were investigated. The adsorption data were analyzed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and the data were well fit by the Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, suggesting that the adsorption process might be chemical sorption. The maximal adsorption capacity was 36 mg/g at pH 5.6. The phosphate adsorption was highly pH dependent. The effects of anions such as Cl(-),SO42-, and CO32- on phosphate removal were also investigated. The results suggest that the presence of these ions had no significant effect on phosphate removal. The phosphate removal was mainly achieved by the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by the phosphate species and formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at the water/oxide interface. In addition, the adsorbed phosphate ions can be effectively desorbed by dilute NaOH solutions. This adsorbent, with large adsorption capacity and high selectivity, is therefore a very promising adsorbent for the removal of phosphate ions from aqueous solutions.

  8. Controlling disorder-mediated exchange bias in (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaan, U. S.; Sreenivasulu, G.; Yu, K. M.; Jenkins, C.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.; Srinivasan, G.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We report exchange bias in (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 thin films that are compositionally homogeneous. We show that exchange bias in these Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) films can be tuned quite easily through annealing of the as-deposited films. The annealing process increases the crystallinity, as measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). This improvement in crystallinity is accompanied by lower coercive fields, lower exchange bias fields, and higher saturation magnetizations. Exchange bias in these nominally homogeneous ferrite films is correlated with the degree of both structural and magnetic disorder. Based on the annealing experiments, we believe that these MZFO films may consist of crystalline regions that are separated from one another by disordered regions of the same nominal composition. The disordered regions serve to exchange bias the more structurally and magnetically ordered crystalline MZFO grains, leading to a shift of the magnetic hysteresis loop. Together these results indicate that the magnitude of the exchange bias can be controlled by tuning the degree of crystallinity in the system.

  9. Microstructural Developments and Tensile Properties of Lean Fe-Mn-Al-C Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, B.-J.; Kwak, J.-H.

    2014-09-01

    Concepts of Fe-Al-Mn-C-based lightweight steels are fairly simple, but primary metallurgical issues are complicated. In this study, recent studies on lean-composition lightweight steels were reviewed, summarized, and emphasized by their microstructural development and mechanical properties. The lightweight steels containing a low-density element of Al were designed by thermodynamic calculation and were manufactured by conventional industrial processes. Their microstructures consisted of various secondary phases as κ-carbide, martensite, and austenite in the ferrite matrix according to manufacturing and annealing procedures. The solidification microstructure containing segregations of C, Mn, and Al produced a banded structure during the hot rolling. The (ferrite + austenite) duplex microstructure was formed after the annealing, and the austenite was retained at room temperature. It was because the thermal stability of austenite nucleated from fine κ-carbide was quite high due to fine grain size of austenite. Because these lightweight steels have outstanding properties of strength and ductility as well as reduced density, they give a promise for automotive applications requiring excellent properties.

  10. Low-temperature specific heat in hydrogenated and Mn-doped La (Fe,Si ) 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Edmund; Ghivelder, Luis; Nicotina, Amanda; Turcaud, Jeremy; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-10-01

    It is now well established that the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition in the magnetocaloric La (FeSi) 13 is a cooperative effect involving spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom. However, the influence of this correlated behavior on the ferromagnetic state is as yet little studied. Here we measure the specific heat at low temperatures in a systematic set of LaF exM nyS iz samples, with and without hydrogen, to extract the Sommerfeld coefficient, the Debye temperature, and the spin-wave stiffness. Substantial and systematic changes in magnitude of the Sommerfeld coefficient are observed with Mn substitution and introduction of hydrogen, showing that over and above the changes to the density of states at the Fermi energy there are significant enhanced d -band electronic interactions at play. The Sommerfeld coefficient is found to be 90 -210 mJ mo l-1K-2 , unusually high compared to that expected from band-structure calculations. The Debye temperature determined from the specific heat measurement is insensitive to Mn and Si doping but increases when hydrogen is introduced into the system. The Sommerfeld coefficient is reduced in magnetic field for all compositions that have a measurable spin-wave contribution. These results move our understanding of the cooperative effects forward in this important and interesting class of materials significantly and provide a basis for future theoretical development.

  11. Distributed microbially- and chemically-mediated redox processes controlling arsenic dynamics within Mn-/Fe-oxide constructed aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Samantha C.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Griffis, Sarah D.; Webb, Samuel; Marcus, Matthew A.; Francis, Christopher A.; Fendorf, Scott

    2013-03-01

    The aggregate-based structure of soils imparts physical heterogeneity that gives rise to variation in microbial and chemical processes which influence the speciation and retention of trace elements such as As. To examine the impact of distributed redox conditions on the fate of As in soils, we imposed various redox treatments upon constructed soil aggregates composed of ferrihydrite- and birnessite-coated sands presorbed with As(V) and inoculation with the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella sp. ANA-3. Aeration of the advecting solution surrounding the aggregates was varied to simulate environmental conditions. We find that diffusion-limited transport within high dissolved organic carbon environments allows reducing conditions to persist in the interior of aggregates despite aerated advecting external solutes, causing As, Mn, and Fe to migrate from the reduced aggregate interiors to the aerated exterior region. Upon transitioning to anoxic conditions in the external solutes, pulses of As, Mn and Fe are released into the advecting solution, while, conversely, a transition to aerated conditions in the exterior resulted in a cessation of As, Mn, and Fe release. Importantly, we find that As(III) oxidation by birnessite is appreciable only in the presence of O2; oxidation of As(III) to As(V) by Mn-oxides ceases under anaerobic conditions apparently as a result of microbially mediated Mn(IV/III) reduction. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering redox conditions and the physical complexity of soils in determining As dynamics, where redox transitions can either enhance or inhibit As release due to speciation shifts in both sorbents (solubilization versus precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides) and sorbates (As).

  12. Collapse and reappearance of magnetic orderings in spin frustrated TbMnO3 induced by Fe substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Fang; Yue, Binbin; Wang, Jianli; Studer, Andrew; Fang, Chunsheng; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2016-09-01

    We studied the temperature dependent magnetic phase evolution in spin frustrated TbMnO3 affected by Fe doping via powder neutron diffraction. With the introduction of Fe (10% and 20%), the long range incommensurate magnetic orderings collapse. When the Fe content is increased to 30%, a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering develops, while a spin reorientation transition is found near 35 K from a canted G-type antiferromagnetic ordering to a collinear G-type antiferromagnetic ordering. This work demonstrates the complex magnetic interactions existing in transition metal oxides, which helps to understand the frustrated spin states in other similar systems and design magnetic materials as well.

  13. Five-coordinate M(II)-semiquinonate (M = Fe, Mn, Co) complexes: reactivity models of the catechol dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Yap, Glenn P A; Riordan, Charles G

    2014-06-01

    A series of five-coordinate M(II)-semiquinonate (M = Fe, Mn, Co) complexes were synthesized and characterized, including the first example of a mononuclear Fe(II)-semiquinonate. Intermediates were observed in the reactions of M(II)-phenSQ (M = Fe, Co) with O2. Evidence for the relevance of these intermediates to the intradiol catechol dioxygenases was obtained by characterization of the oxidized semiquinone-derived product, muconic anhydride, resulting from the reaction of [PhTt(tBu)]Co(II)(3,5-DBSQ) with O2.

  14. Mechanism of Austenite Formation from Spheroidized Microstructure in an Intermediate Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Qingquan; Gouné, Mohamed; Perlade, Astrid; Pardoen, Thomas; Jacques, Pascal; Bouaziz, Olivier; Bréchet, Yves

    2016-07-01

    The austenitization from a spheroidized microstructure during intercritical annealing was studied in a Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn alloy. The austenite grains preferentially nucleate and grow from intergranular cementite. The nucleation at intragranular cementite is significantly retarded or even suppressed. The DICTRA software, assuming local equilibrium conditions, was used to simulate the austenite growth kinetics at various temperatures and for analyzing the austenite growth mechanism. The results indicate that both the mode and the kinetics of austenite growth strongly depend on cementite composition. With sufficiently high cementite Mn content, the austenite growth is essentially composed of two stages, involving the partitioning growth controlled by Mn diffusion inside ferrite, followed by a stage controlled by Mn diffusion within austenite for final equilibration. The partitioning growth results in a homogeneous distribution of carbon within austenite, which is supported by NanoSIMS carbon mapping.

  15. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice. PMID:27732669

  16. Microstructures and mechanical properties of compositionally complex Co-free FeNiMnCr18 FCC solid solution alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Z.; Bei, H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a structurally-simple but compositionally-complex FeNiCoMnCr high entropy alloy was found to have excellent mechanical properties (e.g., high strength and ductility). To understand the potential of using high entropy alloys as structural materials for advanced nuclear reactor and power plants, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of their structural stability and mechanical properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Furthermore, this requires us to develop a similar model alloy without Co because material with Co will make post-neutron-irradiation testing difficult due to the production of the 60Co radioisotope. In order to achieve this goal, a FCC-structured single-phase alloy with amore » composition of FeNiMnCr18 was successfully developed. This near-equiatomic FeNiMnCr18 alloy has good malleability and its microstructure can be controlled by thermomechanical processing. By rolling and annealing, the as-cast elongated-grained-microstructure is replaced by homogeneous equiaxed grains. The mechanical properties (e.g., strength and ductility) of the FeNiMnCr18 alloy are comparable to those of the equiatomic FeNiCoMnCr high entropy alloy. Both strength and ductility increase with decreasing deformation temperature, with the largest difference occurring between 293 and 77 K. Extensive twin-bands which are bundles of numerous individual twins are observed when it is tensile-fractured at 77 K. No twin bands are detected by EBSD for materials deformed at 293 K and higher. Ultimately the unusual temperature-dependencies of UTS and uniform elongation could be caused by the development of the dense twin substructure, twin-dislocation interactions and the interactions between primary and secondary twinning systems which result in a microstructure refinement and hence cause enhanced strain hardening and postponed necking.« less

  17. Solvothermal synthesis of MnFe2O4-graphene composite-Investigation of its adsorption and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chella, Santhosh; Kollu, Pratap; Komarala, Eswara Vara P. R.; Doshi, Sejal; Saranya, Murugan; Felix, Sathiyanathan; Ramachandran, Rajendran; Saravanan, Padmanapan; Koneru, Vijaya Lakshmi; Venugopal, Velmurugan; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Nirmala Grace, Andrews

    2015-02-01

    Graphene manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4-G) composite was prepared by a solvothermal process. The as-prepared graphene manganese ferrite composite was tested for the adsorption of lead (Pb(II)) and cadmium (Cd(II)) ions by analytical methods under diverse experimental parameters. With respect to contact time measurements, the adsorption of Pb and Cd ions increased and reached equilibrium within 120 and 180 min at 37 °C with a maximum adsorption at pH 5 and 7 respectively. The Langmuir model correlates to the experimental data showing an adsorption capacity of 100 for Pb(II) and 76.90 mg g-1 for Cd(II) ions. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of Pb and Cd ions onto MnFe2O4-G was spontaneous, exothermic and feasible in the range of 27-47 °C. Cytotoxicity behavior of graphene against bacterial cell membrane is well known. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, the antibacterial activity of graphene and MnFe2O4-G nanocomposite was compared. Under similar concentration and incubation conditions, nanocomposite MnFe2O4-G dispersion showed the highest antibacterial activity of 82%, as compared to graphene showing 37% cell loss. Results showed that the prepared composite possess good adsorption efficiency and thus could be considered as an excellent material for removal of toxic heavy metal ions as explained by adsorption isotherm. Hence MnFe2O4-G can be used as an adsorbent as well as an antimicrobial agent.

  18. Decay properties of 68,69,70Mn: Probing collectivity up to N = 44 in Fe isotopic chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzoni, G.; Morales, A. I.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Coraggio, L.; Itaco, N.; Gargano, A.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoybjor, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2015-12-01

    The β decays 68Mn →68Fe, 69Mn →69Fe and 70Mn →70Fe have been measured at the RIBF facility at RIKEN using the EURICA γ spectrometer combined with an active stopper consisting of a stack of Si detectors. The nuclei were produced as fission fragments from a beam of 238U at a bombarding energy of 345 MeV/nucleon impinging on a Be target and selected using the BigRIPS separator. Half-lives and β-delayed neutron emission probabilities have been extracted for these decays, together with first experimental information on excited states populated in 69,70Fe. The data indicate a continuously increasing deformation for Fe isotopes up to A = 70. This is interpreted, as for Cr isotopes, in terms of the interplay between the quadrupole correlations of the ν 1d5/2 and ν 0g9/2 orbitals and the monopole component of the π 0f7/2- ν 0f5/2 interaction.

  19. Thermodynamics of Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solutions at the bulk and nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sulata K; Huang, Baiyu; Lilova, Kristina; Woodfield, Brian F; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-09-14

    High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry has been performed to investigate the enthalpies of mixing (ΔmixH) of bulk and nanophase (1 -x)Fe3O4-xM3O4 (M = Co, Mn) spinel solid solutions. The entropies of mixing (ΔmixS) were calculated from the configurational entropies based on cation distributions, and the Gibbs free energies of mixing (ΔmixG) were obtained. The ΔmixH and ΔmixG for the (1 -x)Fe3O4-xCo3O4 system are negative over the complete solid solution range, for both macroscopic and nanoparticulate materials. In (1 -x)Fe3O4-xMn3O4, the formation enthalpies of cubic Fe3O4 (magnetite) and tetragonal Mn3O4 (hausmannite) are negative for Mn3O4 mole fractions less than 0.67 and slightly positive for higher manganese content. Relative to cubic Fe3O4 and cubic Mn3O4 (stable at high temperature), the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing are negative over the entire composition range. A combination of measured mixing enthalpies and reported Gibbs energies in the literature provides experimental entropies of mixing. The experimental entropies of mixing are consistent with those calculated from cation distributions for x > 0.3 but are smaller than those predicted for x < 0.3. This discrepancy may be related to the calculations, having treated Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) as distinguishable species. The measured surface energies of the (1 -x)Fe3O4-xM3O4 solid solutions are in the range of 0.6-0.9 J m(-2), similar to those of many other spinels. Because the surface energies are relatively constant, the thermodynamics of mixing at a given particle size throughout the solid solution can be considered independent of the particular particle size, thus confirming and extending the conclusions of a recent study on iron spinels. PMID:26245233

  20. Oxygen-participated electrochemistry of new lithium-rich layered oxides Li3MRuO5 (M = Mn, Fe).

    PubMed

    Laha, S; Natarajan, S; Gopalakrishnan, J; Morán, E; Sáez-Puche, R; Alario-Franco, M Á; Dos Santos-Garcia, A J; Pérez-Flores, J C; Kuhn, A; García-Alvarado, F

    2015-02-01

    We describe the synthesis, crystal structure and lithium deinsertion-insertion electrochemistry of two new lithium-rich layered oxides, Li3MRuO5 (M = Mn, Fe), related to rock salt based Li2MnO3 and LiCoO2. The Li3MnRuO5 oxide adopts a structure related to Li2MnO3 (C2/m) where Li and (Li0.2Mn0.4Ru0.4) layers alternate along the c-axis, while the Li3FeRuO5 oxide adopts a near-perfect LiCoO2 (R3[combining macron]m) structure where Li and (Li0.2Fe0.4Ru0.4) layers are stacked alternately. Magnetic measurements indicate for Li3MnRuO5 the presence of Mn(3+) and low spin configuration for Ru(4+) where the itinerant electrons occupy a π*-band. The onset of a net maximum in the χ vs. T plot at 9.5 K and the negative value of the Weiss constant (θ) of -31.4 K indicate the presence of antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions according to different pathways. Lithium electrochemistry shows a similar behaviour for both oxides and related to the typical behaviour of Li-rich layered oxides where participation of oxide ions in the electrochemical processes is usually found. A long first charge process with capacities of 240 mA h g(-1) (2.3 Li per f.u.) and 144 mA h g(-1) (1.38 Li per f.u.) is observed for Li3MnRuO5 and Li3FeRuO5, respectively. An initial sloping region (OCV to ca. 4.1 V) is followed by a long plateau (ca. 4.3 V). Further discharge-charge cycling points to partial reversibility (ca. 160 mA h g(-1) and 45 mA h g(-1) for Mn and Fe, respectively). Nevertheless, just after a few cycles, cell failure is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation of both pristine and electrochemically oxidized Li3MRuO5 reveals that in the Li3MnRuO5 oxide, Mn(3+) and Ru(4+) are partially oxidized to Mn(4+) and Ru(5+) in the sloping region at low voltage, while in the long plateau, O(2-) is also oxidized. Oxygen release likely occurs which may be the cause for failure of cells upon cycling. Interestingly, some other Li-rich layered oxides have been reported to

  1. Annealing effects on the structural and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yan; Bei, Hongbin; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Wang, Yandong; An, Ke

    2016-05-07

    Annealing plays an important role in modifying structures and properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs). The annealing effect on the structures and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe45Mn26Ga29 FSMA has been investigated at different elevated temperatures. Rietveld refinements of neutron diffraction patterns display that the formation of the γ phase in Fe45Mn26Ga29 annealed at 1073 K increases the martensitic transformation temperature and reduces the thermal hysteresis in comparison to the homogenized sample. The phase segregation of a Fe-rich cubic phase and a Ga-rich cubic phase occurs at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The atomic occupancies of the alloys aremore » determined thanks to the neutron's capability of differentiating transition metals. The annealing effects at different temperatures introduce a different magnetic characteristic that is associated with distinctive structural changes in the crystal.« less

  2. Determination of sorbed metals, amorphic Fe, oxidic Mn, and reactive particulate organic carbon in sediments and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, E.A.; Crecelius, E.A.

    1988-10-01

    A current approach to evaluating the potential toxicity of metal pollutants (MP) in sediments requires using methods for estimating sorbed metals, amorphic Fe oxide, Mn oxides, and reactive particulate organic carbon (RPOC). Methods for estimating these variables are reevaluated and extraction conditions optimized. The hydroxylamine hydrochloride method, used to estimate the quantities of sorbed metals and amorphic Fe oxide and oxidic Mn adsorbents, was found to yield excellent recovery of MP spikes added at the beginning of the extraction, and adequate precision and selectivity for amorphic over crystalline Fe oxides. Hot KOH was tentatively selected over NH/sub 4/OH for estimating RPOC because of its greater convenience; correlations with laboratory sorption experiments will be required to provide an adequate basis for selection. Determination of both sorbed metals and RPOC are relatively insensitive to solid-to-extractant ratio. Metal pollutants and RPOC extraction are also relatively insensitive to normality of HCl and KOH, respectively. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Chemical disorder determines the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule for Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys: evidences from neutron diffraction and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, J C G; Pedro, S S; Caraballo Vivas, R J; Cruz, C; Andrade, V M; Dos Santos, A M; Carvalho, A M G; Costa, M; Venezuela, P; Rocco, D L; Reis, M S

    2016-11-30

    Fe2MnSi fails to follow the Slater-Pauling rule. This phenomenon is thought to originate from either: (i) an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Mn ions at low temperature and/or (ii) chemical disorder. An important insight on this issue could be achieved by considering Fe2MnSi1-x Ga x compounds, thoroughly studied here by means of magnetization, neutron diffraction and density functional calculations (DFT). Our results indicate that chemical disorder (and not the antiferromagnetic arrangement) is responsible for the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule on Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys. Furthermore, evidences suggest that Ga substitution into Si site favors the Fe/Mn disorder, further enhancing the observed deviation. PMID:27633814

  4. Chemical disorder determines the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule for Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys: evidences from neutron diffraction and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, J C G; Pedro, S S; Caraballo Vivas, R J; Cruz, C; Andrade, V M; Dos Santos, A M; Carvalho, A M G; Costa, M; Venezuela, P; Rocco, D L; Reis, M S

    2016-11-30

    Fe2MnSi fails to follow the Slater-Pauling rule. This phenomenon is thought to originate from either: (i) an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Mn ions at low temperature and/or (ii) chemical disorder. An important insight on this issue could be achieved by considering Fe2MnSi1-x Ga x compounds, thoroughly studied here by means of magnetization, neutron diffraction and density functional calculations (DFT). Our results indicate that chemical disorder (and not the antiferromagnetic arrangement) is responsible for the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule on Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys. Furthermore, evidences suggest that Ga substitution into Si site favors the Fe/Mn disorder, further enhancing the observed deviation.

  5. Chemical disorder determines the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule for Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys: evidences from neutron diffraction and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, J. C. G.; Pedro, S. S.; Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Cruz, C.; Andrade, V. M.; dos Santos, A. M.; Carvalho, A. M. G.; Costa, M.; Venezuela, P.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Fe2MnSi fails to follow the Slater-Pauling rule. This phenomenon is thought to originate from either: (i) an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Mn ions at low temperature and/or (ii) chemical disorder. An important insight on this issue could be achieved by considering Fe2MnSi1-x Ga x compounds, thoroughly studied here by means of magnetization, neutron diffraction and density functional calculations (DFT). Our results indicate that chemical disorder (and not the antiferromagnetic arrangement) is responsible for the deviation of the Slater-Pauling rule on Fe2MnSi-based Heusler alloys. Furthermore, evidences suggest that Ga substitution into Si site favors the Fe/Mn disorder, further enhancing the observed deviation.

  6. In vitro study on apoptotic cell death by effective magnetic hyperthermia with chitosan-coated MnFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yunok; Lee, Nohyun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely investigated as a hyperthermic agent for cancer treatment. In this study, thermally responsive Chitosan-coated MnFe2O4 (Chitosan-MnFe2O4) nanoparticles were developed to conduct localized magnetic hyperthermia for cancer treatment. Hydrophobic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via thermal decomposition and modified with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for further conjugation of chitosan. Chitosan-MnFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited high magnetization and excellent biocompatibility along with low cell cytotoxicity. During magnetic hyperthermia treatment (MHT) with Chitosan-MnFe2O4 on MDA-MB 231 cancer cells, the targeted therapeutic temperature was achieved by directly controlling the strength of the external AC magnetic fields. In vitro Chitosan-MnFe2O4-assisted MHT at 42 °C led to drastic and irreversible changes in cell morphology and eventual cellular death in association with the induction of apoptosis through heat dissipation from the excited magnetic nanoparticles. Therefore, the Chitosan-MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with high biocompatibility and thermal capability can be an effective nano-mediated agent for MHT on cancer.

  7. Structural γ-ɛ phase transition in Fe-Mn alloys from a CPA  +  DMFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerov, A. S.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Skornyakov, S. L.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    We present a computational scheme for total energy calculations of disordered alloys with strong electronic correlations. It employs the coherent potential approximation combined with the dynamical mean-field theory and allows one to study the structural transformations. The material-specific Hamiltonians in the Wannier function basis are obtained by density functional theory. The proposed computational scheme is applied to study the γ-ɛ structural transition in paramagnetic Fe-Mn alloys for Mn content from 10 to 20 at.%. The electronic correlations are found to play a crucial role in this transition. The calculated transition temperature decreases with increasing Mn content and is in good agreement with experiment. We demonstrate that in contrast to the α-γ transition in pure iron, the γ-ɛ transition in Fe-Mn alloys is driven by a combination of kinetic and Coulomb energies. The latter is found to be responsible for the decrease of the γ-ɛ transition temperature with Mn content.

  8. Synthesis of Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite powder by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Salma; Ajaz-un-Nabi, M.; Jamil, Yasir; Amin, Nasir

    2014-06-01

    Ferrimagnetic substances referred to as ferrites are ionic crystals whose chemical composition is of the form XFe2 O4 where X signifies a divalent metal. Magnetic Nano sized ferrites have found a significant potential in many applications, such as magnetic recording media, Ferro fluids and radar absorbing coating. Ferrites are widely used in many industrial applications due to their spontaneous magnetization. Soft ferrites of Mn-Zn, Ni-Zn and Mg-Mn are well known for their high magnetic permeability. In the present research work we have prepared fine Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite powder with varying x concentrations (0.25-0.75) by metal chloride precursors through a co-precipitation technique by pipette drop method using aqueous NaOH solution for comparing their spontaneous magnetization and particle size. The co-precipitation technique is a high way to produce chemically homogeneous powder with fine particle size in nanometers (22.5nm-74.5nm).The effect of x-concentration on the particle size of the Mn(1-x) Zn(x) ferrite has been discussed on the basis of XRD. The crystalline phases have been identified by X-ray diffraction with Cu-Kα radiations. The XRD patterns have verified that the specimen has spinal type structure. The observable peaks are broad since the size of the particles is small. We have concluded that at constants temperature particle size increases with increasing x-concentrations. Effect of different concentrations of x (Zn+2) on the spontaneous magnetization of different Mn(1-x) Zn(x) Fe2O4 sample is determined. We have reached the conclusion that all the samples of Mn(1-x) Zn(x) Fe2 O4 ferrites were magnetic either of low or high magnetization. The maximum spontaneous magnetization and minimum particle size is obtained at x=0.25 (at digestion temperature=65°C).

  9. Electronic structural flexibility of heterobimetallic Mn/Fe cofactors: R2lox and R2c proteins.

    PubMed

    Shafaat, Hannah S; Griese, Julia J; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Roos, Katarina; Andersson, Charlotta S; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Gräslund, Astrid; Siegbahn, Per E M; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Högbom, Martin; Cox, Nicholas

    2014-09-24

    The electronic structure of the Mn/Fe cofactor identified in a new class of oxidases (R2lox) described by Andersson and Högbom [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009, 106, 5633] is reported. The R2lox protein is homologous to the small subunit of class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (R2c) but has a completely different in vivo function. Using multifrequency EPR and related pulse techniques, it is shown that the cofactor of R2lox represents an antiferromagnetically coupled Mn(III)/Fe(III) dimer linked by a μ-hydroxo/bis-μ-carboxylato bridging network. The Mn(III) ion is coordinated by a single water ligand. The R2lox cofactor is photoactive, converting into a second form (R2loxPhoto) upon visible illumination at cryogenic temperatures (77 K) that completely decays upon warming. This second, unstable form of the cofactor more closely resembles the Mn(III)/Fe(III) cofactor seen in R2c. It is shown that the two forms of the R2lox cofactor differ primarily in terms of the local site geometry and electronic state of the Mn(III) ion, as best evidenced by a reorientation of its unique (55)Mn hyperfine axis. Analysis of the metal hyperfine tensors in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggests that this change is triggered by deprotonation of the μ-hydroxo bridge. These results have important consequences for the mixed-metal R2c cofactor and the divergent chemistry R2lox and R2c perform. PMID:25153930

  10. Polyol synthesis of Mn3+ substituted Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Cation distribution, structural and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Md.; Ünal, B.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Geleri, M.; Sertkol, M.; Baykal, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, MnxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanoparticles were synthesized by polyol route and the effect of Mn3+ substitution on structural and dielectric properties of Fe3O4 was studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the single spinel ferrite phase formation (Rietveld analysis). Crystallite size of the synthesized materials lie in the range of 12-25 nm as calculated X-ray diffraction patterns using Scherrer's formula. The microstructural features were examined by SEM images. Cation distribution calculations confirmed Fe3+ ions have both tetrahedral and ochedral site preferences whereas Mn3+ ions mostly occupies tetrahedral A-site. The ac electrical and dielectric properties of Mn3+ ion substituted Fe3O4 nanoparticle show that there were significant changes in both conductivity and complex permittivity as well as dielectric loss tangent as Mn3+ ion concentration is varied from zero to unity. It is clearly seen that conductivity increases with increase in temperature which may be due to increase in hopping capability of charge carriers at higher temperatures. Detailed evaluation of analysis reveals that at higher frequencies there is less effect of temperature on conductivity which can be interpreted on the basis of interfacial, dipolar, ionic and electronic polarization as detailed above section in explanation of variation of dielectric loss. The dielectric permittivity shows dielectric behavior can be clarified on the basis of Koop's interpretations in accordance with two layer Maxwell-Wagner model by accounting for surface charges. The electrical and dielectric properties, i.e. ac/dc conductivity, real/complex dielectric permittivity, and dielectric loss (tan δ) decrease with Mn3+ ion doping in some aspects.

  11. Entropy change characteristics of LiMn0.67Fe0.33PO4 and Li4Ti5O12 electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkanen, K.; Vuorilehto, K.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of LiMn0.67Fe0.33PO4 positive and Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode is studied in terms of its entropy change behavior, which affects the reversible heat generation of a lithium-ion cell. This electrode combination is especially interesting for large applications, as it is proposed to be a very safe choice having still an adequate energy density. The entropy change of LiMn0.67Fe0.33PO4 and Li4Ti5O12 electrode materials is measured at different states of charge using a potentiometric method. The results are compared with conventional electrode materials, LiFePO4 and artificial graphite. The entropy change of LiMn0.67Fe0.33PO4 is found to follow the distinct plateaus of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ redox couples and to be clearly different from LiFePO4. This difference is suggested to be due to single-phase solid solution regions, originating from effects of substituting Mn for Fe. For Li4Ti5O12, mostly a constant entropy change typical for a two-phase reaction is observed, except for the region near 0% state of charge. The data from individual electrodes is used to simulate and compare the entropy change behavior and thus the reversible heat generation rate of different electrode combinations.

  12. Reduction of Fe(III), Mn(IV), and Toxic Metals at 100°C by Pyrobaculum islandicum

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Kazem; Lovley, Derek R.

    2000-01-01

    It has recently been noted that a diversity of hyperthermophilic microorganisms have the ability to reduce Fe(III) with hydrogen as the electron donor, but the reduction of Fe(III) or other metals by these organisms has not been previously examined in detail. When Pyrobaculum islandicum was grown at 100°C in a medium with hydrogen as the electron donor and Fe(III)-citrate as the electron acceptor, the increase in cell numbers of P. islandicum per mole of Fe(III) reduced was found to be ca. 10-fold higher than previously reported. Poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide could also serve as the electron acceptor for growth on hydrogen. The stoichiometry of hydrogen uptake and Fe(III) oxide reduction was consistent with the oxidation of 1 mol of hydrogen resulting in the reduction of 2 mol of Fe(III). The poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide was reduced to extracellular magnetite. P. islandicum could not effectively reduce the crystalline Fe(III) oxide minerals goethite and hematite. In addition to using hydrogen as an electron donor for Fe(III) reduction, P. islandicum grew via Fe(III) reduction in media in which peptone and yeast extract served as potential electron donors. The closely related species P. aerophilum grew via Fe(III) reduction in a similar complex medium. Cell suspensions of P. islandicum reduced the following metals with hydrogen as the electron donor: U(VI), Tc(VII), Cr(VI), Co(III), and Mn(IV). The reduction of these metals was dependent upon the presence of cells and hydrogen. The metalloids arsenate and selenate were not reduced. U(VI) was reduced to the insoluble U(IV) mineral uraninite, which was extracellular. Tc(VII) was reduced to insoluble Tc(IV) or Tc(V). Cr(VI) was reduced to the less toxic, less soluble Cr(III). Co(III) was reduced to Co(II). Mn(IV) was reduced to Mn(II) with the formation of manganese carbonate. These results demonstrate that biological reduction may contribute to the speciation of metals in hydrothermal environments and could

  13. Enhanced magnetic fluid hyperthermia by micellar magnetic nanoclusters composed of Mn(x)Zn(1-x)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles for induced tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Leng, Junzhao; Lin, Chao; Shi, Donglu

    2014-10-01

    Monodispersed MnxZn1-xFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles of 8 nm are synthesized and encapsulated in amphiphilic block copolymer for development of the hydrophilic magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs). These MNCs exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics, high specific absorption rate (SAR), large saturation magnetization (Ms), excellent stability, and good biocompatibility. MnFe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 are selected as optimum compositions for the MNCs (MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC) and employed for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) in vitro. To ensure biosafety of MFH, the parameters of alternating magnetic field (AMF) and exposure time are optimized with low frequency, f, and strength of applied magnetic field, Happlied. Under optimized conditions, MFH of MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC result in cancer cell death rate up to 90% within 15 min. The pathway of cancer cell death is identified as apoptosis, which occurs in mild hyperthermia near 43 °C. Both MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC show similar efficiencies on drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, those MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoclusters can serve as a promising candidate for effective targeting, diagnosis, and therapy of cancers. The multimodal cancer treatment is also possible as amphiphilic block copolymer can encapsulate, in a similar fashion, different nanoparticles, hydrophobic drugs, and other functional molecules. PMID:25204363

  14. Interfacial exchange coupling in cubic Heusler Co2FeZ (Z = Al and Si)/tetragonal Mn3Ga bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, R.; Suzuki, K.; Sugihara, A.; Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Ando, Y.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-05-01

    We have fabricated bilayer films of tetragonal Heusler-like D022 Mn3Ga and cubic Heusler Co2FeZ (Z = Si and Al) on (100) single-crystalline MgO substrates and investigated their structural and interfacial exchange coupling. The coupling in the Mn3Ga/Co2FeAl bilayer was either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, depending on annealing temperature, whereas only antiferromagnetic exchange coupling was observed in the Mn3Ga/Co2FeSi bilayers. The effects of annealing on the structure and coupling strength in the bilayers are discussed.

  15. Elevated concentrations of dissolved Ba, Fe and Mn in a mangrove subterranean estuary: Consequence of sea level rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Barcellos, Renato; Silva Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater underlying a mangrove habitat was studied to determine the geochemical nature of Ba, Fe and Mn as related to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO4 and salinity (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil). Wells were placed across geobotanic facies and sampled monthly for a year. We observed non-conservative behavior and elevated concentrations of dissolved metals relative to local end-members (i.e., fresh river water and seawater). Average Ba concentrations were near 2000 nM in an area with low salinity (˜5.3). Dissolved Fe (up to 654 μM) was two orders of magnitude greater in fresh groundwater than in the seaward sampling stations. Manganese concentrations were greatest (112 μM) in the high salinity (˜65) zone, being directly influenced by salinity. Groundwater Ba, Fe and Mn showed differing site specific concentrations, likely related to ion exchange processes and redox-controlled cycling along distinct mangrove facies. The results of this work show that metal concentrations are altered relative to conservative mixing between terrestrial and marine endmembers, illustrating the importance of mangrove subterranean estuaries as biogeochemical reactors. Roughly-estimated submarine groundwater discharge-derived dissolved Ba, Fe and Mn fluxes were at least one order of magnitude greater than river-derived fluxes into Sepetiba Bay.

  16. Specific features of the electrical resistivity of half-metallic ferromagnets Fe2MeAl (Me = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2014-03-01

    The transport properties of half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2MeAl (where Me = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni are 3 d transition elements) have been measured in the temperature range of 4-900 K. The specific features in the behavior of the electrical resistivity have been considered in terms of the two-current conduction model, which takes into account the presence of an energy gap in the electron spectrum of the alloys near the Fermi level.

  17. Combined effects of Bi deficiency and Mn substitution on the structural transformation and functionality of BiFeO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Mn-doped BiFeO3 films with Mn contents of 5 and 10 mol. % were prepared via a chemical route. A carefully controlled amount of Bi deficiency was introduced to further tune the lattice structure and the functionality of multiferroic BiFeO3. The crystal structure of Bi1-δFe1-xMnxO3 films was investigated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra; a rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic phase transition was revealed. The observed double hysteresis loops and two capacitance maxima from polarization vs electric field and capacitance-voltage measurements indicate an antiferroelectric-like behavior. Additionally, the coexistence of ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) phases in Bi1-δFe1-xMnxO3 films was revealed from the domain structures obtained by piezoelectric force microscopy. The effects of Mn substitution in conjunction with Bi deficiency on the FE-AFE phase transition and electrical behavior of BiFeO3 films are discussed in detail. Meanwhile, magnetic and photoluminescence measurements on the films illustrate that Mn substitution gives rise to the net magnetic moment and the defects induced by both Bi deficiency and Mn substitution influence the electronic structure of BiFeO3 films. This study thus shows a simple and effective way to control the functionalities of BiFeO3 films.

  18. Interlinked multiphase Fe-doped MnO2 nanostructures: a novel design for enhanced pseudocapacitive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziya; Wang, Fengping; Li, Yan; Hu, Jianlin; Lu, Yanzhen; Xu, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Structure designing and morphology control can lead to high performance pseudocapacitive materials for supercapacitors. In this work, we have designed interlinked multiphase Fe-doped MnO2 nanostructures (α-MnO2/R-MnO2/ε-MnO2) to enhance the electrochemical properties by a facile method. These hierarchical hollow microspheres assembled by interconnected nanoflakes, and with plenty of porous nanorods radiating from the spherical shells were hydrothermally obtained. The supercapacitor electrode prepared from the unique construction exhibits outstanding specific capacitance of 267.0 F g-1 even under a high mass loading (~5 mg cm-2). Obviously improved performances compared to pure MnO2 are also demonstrated with a good rate capability, high energy density (1.30 mW h cm-3) and excellent cycling stability of 100% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles at 2 A g-1. The synergistic effects of alternative crystal structures, appropriate crystallinity and optimal morphology are identified to be responsible for the observations. This rational multiphase composite strategy provides a promising idea for materials scientists to design and prepare scalable electrode materials for energy storage devices.Structure designing and morphology control can lead to high performance pseudocapacitive materials for supercapacitors. In this work, we have designed interlinked multiphase Fe-doped MnO2 nanostructures (α-MnO2/R-MnO2/ε-MnO2) to enhance the electrochemical properties by a facile method. These hierarchical hollow microspheres assembled by interconnected nanoflakes, and with plenty of porous nanorods radiating from the spherical shells were hydrothermally obtained. The supercapacitor electrode prepared from the unique construction exhibits outstanding specific capacitance of 267.0 F g-1 even under a high mass loading (~5 mg cm-2). Obviously improved performances compared to pure MnO2 are also demonstrated with a good rate capability, high energy density (1.30 mW h cm-3) and

  19. Osmium isotope variations in the oceans recorded by Fe-Mn crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, K.W.; Bourdon, B.; Birck, J.-L.; Allegre, C.J.; Hein, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This study presents osmium (Os) isotope data for recent growth surfaces of hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In general, these data indicate a relatively uniform Os isotopic composition for modern seawater, but suggest that North Atlantic seawater is slightly more radiogenic than that of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The systematic difference in the Os isotopic composition between the major oceans probably reflects a greater input of old continental material with a high Re/Os ratio in the North Atlantic Ocean, consistent with the distribution of Nd and Pb isotopes. This spatial variation in the Os isotope composition in seawater is consistent with a residence time for Os of between 2 and 60 kyr. Indian Ocean samples show no evidence of a local source of radiogenic Os, which suggests that the present-day riverine input from the Himalaya-Tibet region is not a major source for Os. Recently formed Fe-Mn crusts from the TAG hydrothermal field in the North Atlantic yield an Os isotopic composition close to that of modern seawater, which indicates that, in this area, the input of unradiogenic Os from the hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crust is small. However, some samples from the deep Pacific (???4 km) possess a remarkably unradiogenic Os isotope composition (187Os/186Os ratios as low as 4.3). The compositional control of Os incorporation into the crusts and mixing relationships suggest that this unradiogenic composition is most likely due to the direct incorporation of micrometeoritic or abyssal peridotite particles, rather than indicating the presence of an unradiogenic deep-water mass. Moreover, this unradiogenic signal appears to be temporary, and local, and has had little apparent effect on the overall evolution of seawater. These results confirm that input of continental material through erosion is the dominant source of Os in seawater, but it is not clear whether global Os variations are due to the input

  20. The Phase Transition Behaviors of Li1xMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 During Lithium Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, K.; Yoon, W; Zaghib, K; Chung, K; Yang, X

    2009-01-01

    How the structural changes take place in LiMnyFe1-yPO4-type cathode materials during lithium extraction/insertion is an important issue, especially on if they go through the single-phase reaction (i.e., solid solution reaction) or the two-phase reaction regions. Here we report the studies on the phase transition behaviors of a carbon coated Li1-xMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 (Csingle bondLi1-xMn0.5Fe0.5PO4, 0.0 less-than-or-equals, slant x less-than-or-equals, slant 1.0) sample during the first charge using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The combination of in situ XAS and XRD results clearly identify two two-phase coexistence regions at two voltage plateaus of 3.6 (Fe2+/Fe3+) and 4.2 V (Mn2+/Mn3+) and a narrow intermediate region which proceeds via single-phase reaction in between two two-phase regions. In addition, simultaneous redox reactions of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ in the narrow single-phase region are reported and discussed for the first time.

  1. Removal of Mn2+ ions from drinking water by using Clinoptilolite and a Clinoptilolite-Fe oxide system.

    PubMed

    Doula, Maria K

    2006-10-01

    Clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, was used for the synthesis of a high surface area Clinoptilolite-Iron oxide system, in order to be used for the removal of Mn2+ ions from drinking water samples. The new system was obtained by adding natural clinoptilolite in an iron nitrate solution under strongly basic conditions. The Clin-Fe system has specific surface area equal to 151.0 m2/g and is fully iron exchanged (Fe/Al = 1.23). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the effectiveness of the Clin and the Clin-Fe system in removal of manganese from drinking water. Adsorption experiments were conducted by mixing 1.00 g of each of the substrates with certain volume of water samples contaminated with 10 different Mn concentrations (from 3.64 x 10(-6) to 1.82 x 10(-2) M or from 0.2 to 1000 ppm). For the present experimental conditions, the Mn adsorption capacity of Clin was 7.69 mg/g, whereas, of Clin-Fe system was 27.12 mg/g. The main factors that contribute to difference adsorption capacity of the two solids are due to new surface species and negative charge of Clin-Fe system. In addition, the release of counterbalanced ions (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+) was examined as well as the dissolution of framework Si and Al. It was found that for the most of the samples the Clin-Fe system releases lower concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na and higher concentrations of K than Clin, while the dissolution of Si/Al was limited. Changes in the composition of water samples as well as in their pH and conductivities values were reported and explained.

  2. Depositional cycles and Fe/Mn ratio in Upper Absheron substage succession in the western flank of the South Khazarian/Caspian depression of the Azerbaijan Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    depositional environment during its sedimentation. Bedset I (a) is subdivided into 10 interbeds with total thickness 3m 82 cm. Lithologically represented by alternation of shelly sandstone, sandstone, sandy silt, sandy organogenic limestone, and sandy shales. We consider this series as transgressive system tract. Bedset I (b) is subdivided into 8 interbeds with total thickness 2m 98 cm. Lithologically represented by alternation of sandy silt, sandy organogenic limestone, shelly sandstone and sandy shales. We consider this series as transgressive system tract. In this bedset the measurement of Fe/Mn ratio was made only from 4 interbeds: Fe/Mn= 16,1 (Interbed 2); Fe/Mn = 27,8 (Interbed 4); Fe/Mn = 4,2 (Interbed 6); Fe/Mn = 15,8 (Interbed 8). Bedset I (c) is startigraphically younger portion of the same unit and displays lateral facial replacement of proximal, possible, shore face setting by distal shelf environment. Bedset consists of 22 interbeds with total thickness 1m 78 cm. Lithologically represented by alternation of sandy silts and sandstones with two interlayers of sandy limestones. Angle of dipping varies from 9° to 11°. We consider this series as transgressive system tract. In this bedset the measurement of Fe/Mn ratio was made from 19 interbeds: Fe/Mn = 17,6 (Interbed 2); Fe/Mn = 52,6 (Interbed 4); Fe/Mn = 8 (Interbed 5); Fe/Mn = 6,8 (Interbed 6); Fe/Mn = 41,3 (Interbed 7); Fe/Mn = 75,1 (Interbed 8); Fe/Mn = 22,2 (Interbed 9); Fe/Mn = 32,7 (Interbed 10); Fe/Mn = 24,4 (Interbed 11); Fe/Mn = 44,6 (Interbed 13); Fe/Mn = 12,8 (Interbed 14); Fe/Mn = 4,3 (Interbed 15); Fe/Mn = 7,6 (Interbed 16); Fe/Mn = 18,6 (Interbed 17); Fe/Mn = 59,8 (Interbed 18); Fe/Mn = 51,1 (Interbed 19); Fe/Mn = 29,1 (Interbed 20); Fe/Mn = 12,3 (Interbed 21); Fe/Mn = 48,5 (Interbed 22). Bedset II is the massive and homogeneous, thickness 80cm. Lithologically represented by organogenic limestones. Thickness of the bedset increases along striking from 22cm to 85cm. Bedset II lies with angular

  3. Temperature dependence of Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qieni; Han, Jinxin; Dai, Haitao; Ge, Baozhen; Zhao, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    We measure temperature dependence on Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal simultaneously in this work, based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). And the spatial distribution of the field-induced refractive index change can also be visualized and estimated by numerically retrieving sequential phase maps of Mn:Fe:KTN crystal from recording digital holograms in different states. The refractive indices decrease with increasing temperature and quadratic polarized optical coefficient is insensitive to temperature. The experimental results suggest that the DHI method presented here is highly applicable in both visualizing the temporal and spatial behavior of the internal electric field and accurately measuring electro-optic coefficient for electrooptical media.

  4. Synthesis of SiO2-coated ZnMnFe2O4 nanospheres with improved magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yuejin

    2005-05-01

    A core-shell structured composite, SiO2 coated ZnMnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles (average diameter of approximately 80 nm), was prepared by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of ZnMnFe2O4 nanoparticles (average diameter of approximately 10 nm) synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic measurements were carried out on a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and the measurement results indicate that the core-shell samples possess better magnetic properties at room temperature, compared with paramagnetic colloids with a magnetic core by a coprecipitation method. These core-shell nanospherical particles with self-assembly under additional magnetic fields could have potential application in biomedical systems.

  5. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1–xTx)N (T = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni)

    DOE PAGES

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1–xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane→easy axis→easy plane→easy axis when progressing from T = MnFe → Co → Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.more » As a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.« less

  6. Divergent Coupling of Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Isoelectronic Hydride Mn(I) and Fe(II) PNP Pincer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Glatz, Mathias; Gorgas, Nikolaus; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-08-22

    Herein, we describe an efficient coupling of alcohols and amines catalyzed by well-defined isoelectronic hydride Mn(I) and Fe(II) complexes, which are stabilized by a PNP ligand based on the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant non-precious metal catalysts, and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of alcohols and amines including both aromatic and aliphatic substrates were efficiently converted in good to excellent isolated yields. Although in the case of Mn selectively imines were obtained, with Fe-exclusively monoalkylated amines were formed. These reactions proceed under base-free conditions and required the addition of molecular sieves. PMID:27377955

  7. Magnetic susceptibility of SnCr, SnMn, SnFe, SnCo and SnNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henger, U.; Korn, D.

    1984-11-01

    The initial ac susceptibility χ of vapour condensed Sn films with 3d transition metals is measured in situ. SnMn is a spin glass at concentrations up to 36 at% Mn. Spin glass behaviour in SnCr is only observed after annealing to temperatures between 220 and 300 K. This can be related to crystallization in the amorphous and disordered SnCr. SnFe and SnCo exhibit either temperature independent χ or χ below experimental detection. Above the percolation limit χ is getting large and temperature dependent. That is valid for Sn with 30 at% Fe or Co. In Sn films with 50 at% Ni the susceptibility is below the experimental limit.

  8. General route to synthesize of metal (Ni, Co, Mn, Fe) oxide nanostructure and their optical and magnetic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, S; De, K; Das, S; Amaral, V S; Chatterjee, K

    2014-06-01

    Here we report a generalised way to prepare transitional metal (Ni, Co, Mn, Fe) oxide nanostructures via solvothermal route followed by controlled heat treatment. The method has been successfully involved to produce structurally uniform and well crystalline phase of the different metal (Ni, Co, Mn) oxide faceted nanoparticles and porous nanorods (Fe2O3) with highly anisotropic surfaces. The product materials were characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscope (SEM, TEM) to investigate the structural and morphological details. Optical absorption study was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the results are analysed on the basis of their electronic transitions of 3d shell and band energies. The details magnetic investigation was carried out by the measurement of magnetization with varying magnetic field and temperature. The observed magnetic behaviour is explained on the basis of uncompensated spins lying on the surface which is extremely anisotropic in the present systems of the synthesized materials. PMID:24738377

  9. Study of the effect of annealing on defects in Fe Mn Si Cr Ni C alloy by slow positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Khaled. M.; De Baerdemaeker, J.; Van Caenegem, N.; Segers, D.; Houbaert, Y.

    2008-10-01

    FeMnSi shape memory alloys (SMAs) have received much attention as one-way SMAs due to their cost-effectiveness. Variable-energy (0-30 keV) positron beam studies have been carried out on a Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-C alloy with different degrees of deformation. Doppler broadening profiles of the positron annihilation as a function of incident positron energy were shown to be quite sensitive to defects introduced by deformation. The variation of the nature and the concentration of defects are studied as a function of isochronal annealing temperature. These results are correlated with the data measured with the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The positron annihilation results are compared to XRD and optical microscopy (OM).

  10. Reply to comment on "Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, David M.; Little, Susan H.; Vance, Derek

    2015-02-01

    In our paper "Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts", we present an explanation for the observed isotopic fractionations of Cu and Zn in seawater. We hypothesise that the isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn is driven by the scavenging of these metals by particulate Fe-Mn oxides as reflected in the isotopic composition of Zn and Cu in marine ferromanganese crusts. Zn sorbed to ferromanganese crusts is isotopically heavier than dissolved Zn in seawater by 0.5‰. EXAFS spectra show that Zn in ferromanganese crusts is sorbed to birnessite and in tetrahedral coordination. Dissolved inorganic Zn in seawater, however, is primarily octahedrally coordinated as Zn(H2O)+26. The difference in the Zn coordination environment gives a qualitative explanation for the sorption (scavenging) of isotopically heavy Zn by ferromanganese crusts (predominantly birnessite).

  11. Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudi, Abbas; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Behnam, Mir Masud Jabbari

    2011-10-01

    Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels were studied. To investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile test, and hardness test were used. The results show that the solution-annealing treatment in the cold-rolled steel redounds to the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe2(Mo, Ti) Laves phase particles, which are stable at high temperatures. These secondary Laves phase particles prevent from recrystallization at high temperatures and correspond to semi-brittle fracture in the subsequent aging treatment.

  12. Impact of FeCl₃ dosing on AnMBR treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qirong; Parker, Wayne; Dagnew, Martha

    2015-09-01

    The long-term (90 days) impact of dosing FeCl3 on bioprocess performance and membrane performance in a pilot AnMBR fed with authentic sewage was evaluated. The addition of 26 mg/L of FeCl3 enhanced the performance of the AnMBR with respect to removal efficiencies of COD and BOD5, but did not have a significant influence on the removal efficiencies of TKN and TP and the methane yield. The membrane was operated at a constant flux of 17 LMH and its performance was significantly improved by dosing FeCl3. This was demonstrated by a reduction in the fouling that withstood scouring stresses to values lower than 5 kPa and negligible reversible fouling for the first 75 days. The superior membrane performance was consistent with the shift of particle size distribution to the particulate fraction and the reduced colloidal and soluble substances in the sludge, especially the soluble protein, carbohydrate, Ca and S. CLSM tests showed that the addition of FeCl3 resulted in a thicker foulant layer and the deposition of protein and carbohydrate on the membrane surface was significantly reduced. Therefore a more porous foulant layer was formed and this prevented the development of a strongly-attached cake layer and pore blocking. A recovery cleaning study indicated FeCl3 dosing enhanced the efficiency of the recovery cleaning protocol. The foulants formed with the Fe-dosed sludge had greater inorganic content, as 75% of the foulant resistance was removed by citric acid. The superior membrane performance during the operation combined with enhanced cleaning efficiency by FeCl3 dosing would significantly improve the sustainability of AnMBR in municipal wastewater treatment. PMID:26005788

  13. Impact of FeCl₃ dosing on AnMBR treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qirong; Parker, Wayne; Dagnew, Martha

    2015-09-01

    The long-term (90 days) impact of dosing FeCl3 on bioprocess performance and membrane performance in a pilot AnMBR fed with authentic sewage was evaluated. The addition of 26 mg/L of FeCl3 enhanced the performance of the AnMBR with respect to removal efficiencies of COD and BOD5, but did not have a significant influence on the removal efficiencies of TKN and TP and the methane yield. The membrane was operated at a constant flux of 17 LMH and its performance was significantly improved by dosing FeCl3. This was demonstrated by a reduction in the fouling that withstood scouring stresses to values lower than 5 kPa and negligible reversible fouling for the first 75 days. The superior membrane performance was consistent with the shift of particle size distribution to the particulate fraction and the reduced colloidal and soluble substances in the sludge, especially the soluble protein, carbohydrate, Ca and S. CLSM tests showed that the addition of FeCl3 resulted in a thicker foulant layer and the deposition of protein and carbohydrate on the membrane surface was significantly reduced. Therefore a more porous foulant layer was formed and this prevented the development of a strongly-attached cake layer and pore blocking. A recovery cleaning study indicated FeCl3 dosing enhanced the efficiency of the recovery cleaning protocol. The foulants formed with the Fe-dosed sludge had greater inorganic content, as 75% of the foulant resistance was removed by citric acid. The superior membrane performance during the operation combined with enhanced cleaning efficiency by FeCl3 dosing would significantly improve the sustainability of AnMBR in municipal wastewater treatment.

  14. Respective role of Fe and Mn oxide contents for arsenic sorption in iron and manganese binary oxide: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Fudong; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Ruiping

    2014-09-01

    In our previous studies, a synthesized Fe-Mn binary oxide was found to be very effective for both As(V) and As(III) removal in aqueous phase, because As(III) could be easily oxidized to As(V). As(III) oxidation and As(V) sorption by the Fe-Mn binary oxide may also play an important role in the natural cycling of As, because of its common occurrence in the environment. In the present study, the respective role of Fe and Mn contents present in the Fe-Mn binary oxide on As(III) removal was investigated via a direct in situ determination of arsenic speciation using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption near edge structure results indicate that Mn atoms exist in a mixed valence state of +3 and +4 and further confirm that MnOx (1.5 < x < 2) content is mainly responsible for oxidizing As(III) to As(V) through a two-step pathway [reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III) and subsequent Mn(III) to Mn(II)] and FeOOH content is dominant for adsorbing the formed As(V). No significant As(III) oxidation by pure FeOOH had been observed during its sorption, when the system was exposed to air. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure results reveal that the As surface complex on both the As(V)- and As(III)-treated sample surfaces is an inner-sphere bidentate binuclear corner-sharing complex with an As-M (M = Fe or Mn) interatomic distance of 3.22-3.24 Å. In addition, the MnOx and FeOOH contents exist only as a mixture, and no solid solution is formed. Because of its high effectiveness, low cost, and environmental friendliness, the Fe-Mn binary oxide would play a beneficial role as both an efficient oxidant of As(III) and a sorbent for As(V) in drinking water treatment and environmental remediation.

  15. Magnetic properties and anisotropic magnetoresistance of antiperovskite nitride Mn{sub 3}GaN/Co{sub 3}FeN exchange-coupled bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, H. Ando, H.; Kuroki, Y.; Kawai, S.; Ueda, K.; Asano, H.

    2015-05-07

    Epitaxial bilayers of antiferromagnetic Mn{sub 3}GaN/ferromagnetic Co{sub 3}FeN with an antiperovskite structure were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering, and their structural, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated. Exchange coupling with an exchange field H{sub ex} of 0.4 kOe at 4 K was observed for Mn{sub 3}GaN (20 nm)/Co{sub 3}FeN (5 nm) bilayers. Negative anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect in Co{sub 3}FeN was observed and utilized to detect magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled Mn{sub 3}GaN/Co{sub 3}FeN bilayers. The AMR results showed evidence for current-induced spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic Mn{sub 3}GaN.

  16. Preparation and characterization of CS-Fe3O4@ZnS:Mn magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Xiao, Ling; Zhu, Hua-Yue

    2012-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) coated magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles (CS-Fe3O4@ZnS:Mn) were synthesized in aqueous media under ambient pressure and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersion spectrum. The effects of experimental conditions on the fluorescence properties of CS-Fe3O4@ZnS:Mn were studied. It was found that the chitosan coating on the surface of Fe3O4 could effectively suppress the interaction between Fe3O4 and ZnS:Mn, as well as providing appropriate functional groups for the synthesis and modification of ZnS:Mn semiconductor nanocrystals. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles are promising candidates for applications in simultaneous biolabeling, imaging, cell sorting and separation.

  17. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry. PMID:26616965

  18. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry.

  19. Large enhancement of Blocking temperature by control of interfacial structures in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Shouguo Han, Gang; Jiang, Shaolong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Qianqian; Yu, Guanghua; Liu, Jialong; Wang, Rongming

    2015-09-15

    The Blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers was greatly enhanced from far below room temperature (RT) to above RT by inserting 1 nm thick Mg layer at IrMn/MgO interface. Furthermore, the exchange bias field (H{sub eb}) was increased as well by the control of interfacial structures. The evidence for a significant fraction of Mn-O bonding at IrMn/MgO interface without Mg insertion layer was provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bonding between Mn and O can decrease the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, leading to lower value of T{sub B} in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers. Ultrathin Mg film inserted at IrMn/MgO interface acting as an oxygen sinking layer can suppress the oxidation reactions between Mn and O and reduce the formation of Mn-O bonding greatly. The oxidation suppression results in the recovery of the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, which can enhance T{sub B} and H{sub eb}. Furthermore, the high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the Mg insertion layer can efficiently promote a high-quality MgO (200) texture. This study will enhance the understanding of physics in antiferromagnet-based spintronic devices.

  20. [Accumulation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn and Co in the ovary of Carcinus maenas L. during ovogenesis].

    PubMed

    Martin, J L; Ceccaldi, H J

    1976-01-01

    During ovogenesis the ovary of Carcinus maenas shows a continuous accumulation of Fe, Cu, Mg, Mn and Co. For Zn the accumulation seems to stop for gonad indexes near 6.5. The goal of this accumulation is not determined. Nevertheless we suppose that it is in relation with the role of organic reserves that possess the female sexual cells in decapods and with the synthesis of enzymes and hemocyanin. PMID:134766

  1. Magnetism in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂ tuned by Fe/Mn ratio

    DOE PAGES

    Lei, Hechang; Bozin, Emil S.; Llobet, A.; Ivanovski, V.; Koteski, V.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Petrovic, C.

    2012-09-17

    We report the evolution of structural and magnetic properties in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂. Heat capacity and bulk magnetization indicate an increased ferromagnetic component of the long-range magnetic order and possible increased degree of frustration. Atomic disorder on Fe(Mn) sites suppresses the temperature of the long-range order whereas intermediate alloys show a rich magnetic phase diagram.

  2. Specific heat and entropy change at the first order phase transition of La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Vittorio; Küpferling, Michaela; Curcio, Carmen; Bennati, Cecilia; Barzca, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Bratko, Milan; Lovell, Edmund; Turcaud, Jeremy; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of hydrogenated La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H with Mn substituting Fe to finely tune the transition temperature. We measured the specific heat under magnetic field cp(H, T) and the magnetic field induced isothermal entropy change Δs(H, T) of a series of compounds by direct Peltier calorimetry. Results show that increasing Mn from 0.06 to 0.46 reduces the transition temperature from 339 K to 270 K whilst the total entropy change due to a 1.5 T field is depressed from 18.7 J kg-1 K-1 to 10.2 J kg-1 K-1 and the thermal hysteresis similarly is reduced from 1.5 K to zero. In the paper, we interpret the results in terms of a magnetic phase transition changing from the first to the second order with increasing Mn content, and we discuss the value of the results for magnetic cooling applications.

  3. ABO3 (A = La, Ba, Sr, K; B = Co, Mn, Fe) perovskites for thermochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiniec, Sean M.; Coker, Eric N.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Miller, James E.

    2016-05-01

    The use of perovskite oxides as a medium for thermochemical energy storage (TCES) in concentrating solar power systems is reported. The known reduction/oxidation (redox) active perovskites LaxSr1-xCoyMn1-yO3 (LSCM) and LaxSr1-xCoyFe1-yO3 (LSCF) were chosen as a starting point for such research. Materials of the LSCM and LSCF family were previously synthesized, their structure characterized, and thermodynamics reported for TCES operation. Building on this foundation, the reduction onset temperatures are examined for LSCM and LSCF compositions. The reduction extents and onset temperatures are tied to the crystallographic phase and reaction enthalpies. The effect of doping with Ba and K is discussed, and the potential shortcomings of this subset of materials families for TCES are described. The potential for long-term stability of the most promising material is examined through thermogravimetric cycling, scanning electron microscopy, and dilatometry. The stability over 100 cycles (450-1050 °C) of an LSCM composition is demonstrated.

  4. Magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nano-aggregates dispersed in paraffin wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslibeiki, B.; Kameli, P.

    2015-07-01

    Manganese ferrite, MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with average size of ∼6.5 nm were synthesized by using a thermal decomposition method. The nanoparticles were aggregated which was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The aggregates with a diameter of ∼50 nm showed interacting superspin glass (SSG) behavior. The powders were dispersed in the molten paraffin wax by using ultrasonic bath. Samples with different paraffin/ferrite weight ratios of P/F= 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 were prepared. M-H curves of the samples revealed presence of superparamagnetic state at 300 K. Saturation magnetization (Ms) decreased from 26.6 to 1.3 emu/g by increasing the P/F value from 0 to 20, respectively. Furthermore, the VSM measurements showed a decrease in surface spin disorder of paraffin-embedded nanoparticles in comparison with bare particles. The AC magnetic susceptibility peak temperature, TP increased from 230 to >300 K with increasing the paraffin content in the samples. The present study showed that by dispersing the particles in a non-magnetic matrix, the blocking temperature could be increased.

  5. Thermal-history dependent magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si)

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, X. F. Dijk, N. H. van; Brück, E.; Caron, L.; Gercsi, Z.; Daoud-Aladine, A.

    2015-07-27

    The thermal-history dependence of the magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) compounds has been investigated using high-resolution neutron diffraction. As-prepared samples display a large difference in paramagnetic-ferromagnetic (PM-FM) transition temperature compared to cycled samples. The initial metastable state transforms into a lower-energy stable state when the as-prepared sample crosses the PM-FM transition for the first time. This additional transformation is irreversible around the transition temperature and increases the energy barrier which needs to be overcome through the PM-FM transition. Consequently, the transition temperature on first cooling is found to be lower than on subsequent cycles characterizing the so-called “virgin effect.” High-temperature annealing can restore the cycled sample to the high-temperature metastable state, which leads to the recovery of the virgin effect. A model is proposed to interpret the formation and recovery of the virgin effect.

  6. Effect of Complex Inclusion Particles on the Solidification Structure of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Seok; Lee, Changhee; Park, Joo Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The effect of combinations of several deoxidizers, i.e., Mg-Al, Mg-Ti, Al-Ti, and Ce-Al, on the solidification structure of Fe-2 mass pct Ni-1 mass pct Mn-1 mass pct Mo alloy melt was investigated using a melt sampling and quenching method. Using this method, we evaluated the catalytic potency of several complex inclusion particles by taking the inclusion evolution process into account. Fine equiaxed crystals were obtained in the Mg-Ti-deoxidized steel wherein the MgO(MgAl2O4)-TiN complex compounds formed. However, the longer the holding time at high temperatures, the larger the fraction of Ti2O3, and very fine TiN formed because of microsegregation during solidification, resulting in poor equiaxed crystals. When the steel was deoxidized with Mg-Al, the initial structure was dominantly columnar. However, the longer the holding time, the larger the fraction of MgAl2O4 spinel, resulting in the formation of fine equiaxed crystals. Ce-Al complex deoxidation provided a relatively small portion of equiaxed crystals, whereas Ti-Al deoxidation produced the fewest equiaxed crystals because of the formation of alumina. The effectiveness of each inoculant particle for the crystallization of the primary δ-iron was explained well by the lattice disregistry concept.

  7. Fe-Al-Mn-C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hansoo; Suh, Dong-Woo; Kim, Nack J.

    2013-02-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe-Al-Mn-C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.

  8. Geometric and electronic structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor in class Ic ribonucleotide reductase: correlation to the class Ia binuclear non-heme iron enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M K; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B; Liu, Lei V; Wong, Shaun D; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I

    2013-11-20

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe heterobinuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs)/circular dichroism (CD)/magnetic CD (MCD)/variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the Fe(III), whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the Mn(IV). We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with Mn(IV) at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d and oxo and OH(-) to metal charge-transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor as having a μ-oxo, μ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the Mn(IV). From DFT calculations, the Mn(IV) at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH(-) terminal ligand on this Mn(IV) provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit.

  9. Efficient removal of arsenic from water using a granular adsorbent: Fe-Mn binary oxide impregnated chitosan bead.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Gaosheng; Li, Haining

    2015-10-01

    A novel sorbent of Fe-Mn binary oxide impregnated chitosan bead (FMCB) was fabricated through impregnating Fe-Mn binary oxide into chitosan matrix. The FMCB is sphere-like with a diameter of 1.6-1.8 mm, which is effective for both As(V) and As(III) sorption. The maximal sorption capacities are 39.1 and 54.2 mg/g, respectively, outperforming most of reported granular sorbents. The arsenic was mainly removed by adsorbing onto the Fe-Mn oxide component. The coexisting SO4(2-), HCO3(-) and SiO3(2-) have no great influence on arsenic sorption, whereas, the HPO4(2-) shows negative effects. The arsenic-loaded FMCB could be effectively regenerated using NaOH solution and repeatedly used. In column tests, about 1500 and 3200 bed volumes of simulated groundwater containing 233 μg/L As(V) and As(III) were respectively treated before breakthrough. These results demonstrate the superiority of the FMCB in removing As(V) and As(III), indicating that it is a promising candidate for arsenic removal from real drinking water.

  10. Large magnetization and frustration switching of magnetoresistance in the double-perovskite ferrimagnet Mn2FeReO6.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-López, Angel M; McNally, Graham M; Attfield, J Paul

    2015-10-01

    Ferrimagnetic A2 BB'O6 double perovskites, such as Sr2 FeMoO6 , are important spin-polarized conductors. Introducing transition metals at the A-sites offers new possibilities to increase magnetization and tune magnetoresistance. Herein we report a ferrimagnetic double perovskite, Mn2 FeReO6 , synthesized at high pressure which has a high Curie temperature of 520 K and magnetizations of up to 5.0 μB which greatly exceed those for other double perovskite ferrimagnets. A novel switching transition is discovered at 75 K where magnetoresistance changes from conventional negative tunneling behavior to large positive values, up to 265 % at 7 T and 20 K. Neutron diffraction shows that the switch is driven by magnetic frustration from antiferromagnetic Mn(2+) spin ordering which cants Fe(3+) and Re(5+) spins and reduces spin-polarization. Ferrimagnetic double perovskites based on A-site Mn(2+) thus offer new opportunities to enhance magnetization and control magnetoresistance in spintronic materials.

  11. Research on residual stress inside Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy coating by laser cladding processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Heng; Lin, Cheng-xin; Zhang, Jia-qi; Liu, Zhi-jie

    2016-09-01

    The stainless Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy (SMA) coating was prepared on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel. The principal residual stress measured by the mechanical hole-drilling method indicates that the Fe-Mn-Si SMA cladding specimen possesses a lower residual stress compared with the 304 stainless steel cladding specimen. The mean stress values of the former and the latter on 10-mm-thick substrate are 4.751 MPa and 7.399 MPa, respectively. What's more, their deformation values on 2-mm-thick substrate are about 0° and 15°, respectively. Meanwhile, the variation trend and the value of the residual stress simulated by the ANSYS finite element software consist with experimental results. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows ɛ-martensite exists in Fe-Mn-Si SMA coating, which verifies the mechanism of low residual stress. That's the γ→ɛ martensite phase transformation, which relaxes the residual stress of the specimen and reduces its deformation in the laser cladding processing.

  12. Influence of MnO2 decorated Fe nano cauliflowers on microwave absorption and impedance matching of polyvinylbutyral (PVB) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Porwal, Mayuri; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a promising, polyvinyl butryl (PVB)-MnO2 decorated Fe composite was synthesised and microwave absorption properties were studied for the most important frequency ranges i.e., X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz). The microwave absorption of Fe nano cauliflower structure can be enhanced by MnO2 nanofiber coating. 10 wt% Fe-MnO2 nano cauliflower loaded PVB composite films (2 mm thick) shows an appreciable increase in microwave absorption properties. In X-band, the reflection loss (RL) of this composite decreases almost linearly to -7.5 dB, whereas in the Ku-band the minimum RL was found to be -15.7 dB at 14.7 GHz. Here it was observed that impedance matching is the primarily important factor responsible for enhanced microwave absorption. Further, enhancement of EM attenuation constant (α), dielectrics, scattering attenuation also bolsters the obtained results. This polymer composite can be considered as a novel microwave absorbing coating material.

  13. Heat capacities and entropies of rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and siderite (FeCO3) between 5 and 600 K.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat capacities of rhodochrosite, (Mn0.994Fe0.005Mg0.001)CO3, and siderite, 171(Fe0.956Mn0.042Mg0.002)CO3, were measured between 5 and 550 K by combined cryogenic-adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. These new data were used to reanalyse the thermodynamic properties of these phases.-J.A.Z.

  14. Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced performances as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaoqin; Hou, Xianhua; Yao, Lingmin; Hu, Shejun; Liu, Xiang; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode shows the highest reversible capacity of 1157 mA h g{sup −1}. • The Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode shows promising cycling stability. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) have been successfully synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in various proportions were investigated at room temperature, respectively. The Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.04) electrode in the as-synthesized samples showed the highest specific capacity of 1547 mA h g{sup −1} and 1157 mA h g{sup −1} in the initial discharge/charge process, with a coulombic efficiency of 74.8%. Additionally, excellent cycling stability was performed with a 1214 mA h g{sup −1} capacity retention at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. The corresponding mechanism was proposed which indicated that the Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles experienced an aggregation thermochemical reaction among ZnO, MnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} subparticles.

  15. Regenerable Fe-Mn-ZnO/SiO2 sorbents for room temperature removal of H2S from fuel reformates: performance, active sites, Operando studies.

    PubMed

    Dhage, Priyanka; Samokhvalov, Alexander; Repala, Divya; Duin, Evert C; Tatarchuk, Bruce J

    2011-02-14

    Fe- and Mn-promoted H(2)S sorbents Fe(x)-Mn(y)-Zn(1-x-y)O/SiO(2) (x, y = 0, 0.025) for desulfurization of model fuel reformates at room temperature were prepared, tested and characterized. Sulfur uptake capacity at 25 °C significantly exceeds that of both commercial unsupported ZnO sorbents and un-promoted supported ZnO/SiO(2) sorbents. Sulfur capacity and breakthrough characteristics remain satisfactory after multiple (∼10) cycles of adsorption/regeneration, with regeneration performed by a simple and robust heating in air. XRD shows that both "calcined" and "spent" sorbents contain nano-dispersed ZnO, and XPS confirms conversion of ZnO to ZnS. "Calcined" sorbent contains Fe(3+) and Mn(3+) that are reduced to Mn(2+) upon reaction with H(2)S, but not with H(2). Operando ESR is used for the first time to study dynamics of reduction of Mn(3+) promoter sites simultaneously with measuring sulfidation dynamics of the Fe(x)-Mn(y)-Zn(1-x-y)O/SiO(2) sorbent. Fe cations are believed to occupy the surface of supported ZnO nanocrystallites, while Mn cations are distributed within ZnO.

  16. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2 and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-22

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe5PB2, Fe4CoPB2, Fe4MnPB2, Fe5SiB2, Fe4CoSiB2, and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr5B3 structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe5SiB2 is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K, and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggests smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides. Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments by 16-20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe5SiB2. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe5SiB2 and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, and are in good agreement with experiment.

  17. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe{sub 5}PB{sub 2} and Fe{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A. Parker, David S.

    2015-10-28

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 5}PB{sub 2}, Fe{sub 4}CoPB{sub 2}, Fe{sub 4}MnPB{sub 2}, Fe{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}, Fe{sub 4}CoSiB{sub 2}, and Fe{sub 4}MnSiB{sub 2} are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3} structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggest smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides. Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments by 16%–20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe{sub 5}PB{sub 2} and Fe{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} and Fe{sub 4}MnSiB{sub 2} are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, are in good agreement with experiment.

  18. Molecular evidence for microorganisms participating in Fe, Mn, and S biogeochemical cycling in two low-temperature hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Sun, Zhilei

    2013-06-01

    We examined two low-temperature hydrothermal deposits rich in Fe-Si-Mn collected from the recently discovered hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge using mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses indicated that the low-temperature hydrothermal fields would provide a warm and chemical species-rich habitat for chemosynthetic-based hydrothermal ecosystems. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed that ζ-Proteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Leptothrix, and Pseudomonas were potential Fe and Mn oxidizers in the low-temperature hydrothermal environments, but they were not present in equal abundance among the subniches. Some potential Fe and Mn reducers were also recovered; they were more commonly found in the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides. The difference between the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides and the interior Opal-A could be related to differences in in situ physicochemical conditions. We also identified microbial players that may participate in sulfur (S) geochemical cycling in these low-temperature hydrothermal environments via analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and the aprA functional gene. The results indicated that members of γ-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria were involved in the S oxidation process, while members of δ-Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, and Archaea might participate in the S reduction process. Fe, Mn, and S oxidizers and reducers might actively participate in hydrothermal biogeochemical processes, which could influence the transfer of chemical species and the formation of biogenic minerals.

  19. Azimuthal angular dependence of exchange bias in FeMn/Py bilayers with Ta/Cu hybrid underlayers: Effect of deposition sequence and sense of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Yeon; Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; You, Chun-Yeol

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the azimuthal angular dependent exchange bias of bottom-pinned Py(5nm)/FeMn(5nm) and top-pinned FeMn(5nm)/Py(5nm) bilayers prepared at the same deposition condition except deposition order by vector MOKE experiment. It was found that exchange biased (EB) direction is not collinear with an applied magnetic field during deposition. Second, the critical angle at which the phase of a transverse loop reverses is once (160° @CCW, 170 ~ 175° @CW) for Py/FeMn bilayer and twice (155 ~ 160°, 340 ~ 345° @CCW, 10 ~ 15°, 195-200° @CW) for FeMn/Py bilayer. Therefore, phase of transverse loop remains the same as the initial transverse loop or reverse after 360° rotation, depending on deposition sequence. Third, hysteresis is observed in the transverse magnetization component only if hysteresis loops are measured consecutively between cw and ccw directions over the angular range including the critical angle. This is considered to originate from thermally activated irreversible rearrangement of uncompensated AF spins via interface exchange coupling. Fourth, exchange bias field and coercivity of top-pinned FeMn/Py bilayers with Ta/Cu underlayers are enhanced compared with those of bottom-pinned Py/FeMn bilayers. This is in consistent with our previous results.

  20. Local structure of Mn4+ and Fe3+ spin probes in layered LiAlO2 oxide by modelling of zero-field splitting parameters.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Radostina; Barra, Anne-Laure; Yoncheva, Meglena; Kuzmanova, Elitza; Zhecheva, Ekaterina

    2011-09-28

    The zero-field splitting parameters (ZFS) of Mn(4+) and Fe(3+) ions in LiAlO(2) with a layered structure are analyzed experimentally and theoretically by using high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, Neuman superposition model (NSM), DFT and multiconfigurational calculations. The interpretation of ZFS is based on the comparison of the experimentally determined values with the calculated ones. This approach allows assessing the performance of different methods for computation of ZFS of Fe(3+) and Mn(4+) in layered oxide matrices. DFT and multiconfigurational calculations are used to analyze the effect of oxygen, aluminium, and lithium neighbours on ZFS of Fe(3+) and Mn(4+). These calculations are based on a cluster comprising Fe(3+) or Mn(4+) ions in a trigonally compressed octahedron with 6 metal ions (Al(3+) or Co(3+)) as first metal neighbours and 6 O(2-) and 2 Li(+) (above and below the layer) as second neighbours. A satisfactory agreement with the experimental data is achieved when the local structure of Mn(4+) and Fe(3+) deviates from the trigonal host-site geometry. The local structure of Fe(3+) comprises an axial distortion, while trigonal environment with reduced extent of distortion appears around Mn(4+). PMID:21811741

  1. Threshold effects for resistance to optical damage and nonvolatile holographic storage properties in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Xihe; Li Qiang; Xu Yuheng

    2005-07-20

    The threshold concentration for In2O3 was found in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals by measurement of the infrared spectra of the crystals. The resistance of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals to optical damage is characterized by changes in photoinduced birefringence as well as by distortion of the transmitted beam pattern. The resistance increases remarkably when the concentration of In2O3 exceeds its threshold. The resistance to optical damage of a In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is 2 orders of magnitude higher that of a Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal. The dependence of defects on the resistance to optical damage of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed in detail. Nonvolatile holographic storage was achieved for all crystals, and the sensitivity of the In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is much higher than that of the others.

  2. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of the composites containing flaky FeSiAl powders mixed with MnO2 in 1-18 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haibing; Bie, Shaowei; Jiang, Jianjun; Yuan, Wei; Chen, Qian; Xu, Yongshun

    2016-03-01

    The flaky FeSiAl/ irregular shaped MnO2 composite with the different mass ratios were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The morphologies of the composite absorbers were characterized by a scanning electron microscope. The microwave electromagnetic properties of the composites were measured using a vector network analyzer in the range of 1-18 GHz. The effect of the mass ratio of FeSiAl/MnO2 on the microwave loss properties of the composites was investigated. The results show that the reflection loss (RL) values exceeding -20 dB from 3.5 to 16.5 GHz can be obtained for the flaky FeSiAl/MnO2 mass ratio of 1:1 from 1.5 mm to 5 mm. In addition, the FeSiAl/MnO2 composite with the FeSiAl/MnO2 mass ratio of 7:3 has -10 dB bandwidth of 6.6 GHz (from 11.4-18 GHz) with a thickness of 1.5 mm. It is found that the flaky FeSiAl/MnO2 composites can be potential microwave absorption materials.

  3. Combined effects of Bi deficiency and Mn substitution on the structural transformation and functionality of BiFeO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao Deng, Yuan

    2014-11-07

    Mn-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films with Mn contents of 5 and 10 mol. % were prepared via a chemical route. A carefully controlled amount of Bi deficiency was introduced to further tune the lattice structure and the functionality of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. The crystal structure of Bi{sub 1−δ}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} films was investigated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra; a rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic phase transition was revealed. The observed double hysteresis loops and two capacitance maxima from polarization vs electric field and capacitance-voltage measurements indicate an antiferroelectric-like behavior. Additionally, the coexistence of ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) phases in Bi{sub 1−δ}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} films was revealed from the domain structures obtained by piezoelectric force microscopy. The effects of Mn substitution in conjunction with Bi deficiency on the FE-AFE phase transition and electrical behavior of BiFeO{sub 3} films are discussed in detail. Meanwhile, magnetic and photoluminescence measurements on the films illustrate that Mn substitution gives rise to the net magnetic moment and the defects induced by both Bi deficiency and Mn substitution influence the electronic structure of BiFeO{sub 3} films. This study thus shows a simple and effective way to control the functionalities of BiFeO{sub 3} films.

  4. Effects of exogenous pyoverdines on Fe availability and their impacts on Mn(II) oxidation by Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Parker, Dorothy L.; Geszvain, Kati; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium that produces pyoverdine-type siderophores (PVDs), which facilitate the uptake of Fe(III) but also influence MnO2 formation. Recently, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase mutant that does not synthesize PVD was described. Here we identified a gene encoding the PVDGB-1 (PVD produced by strain GB-1) uptake receptor (PputGB1_4082) of strain GB-1 and confirmed its function by in-frame mutagenesis. Growth and other physiological responses of these two mutants and of wild type were compared during cultivation in the presence of three chemically distinct sets of PVDs (siderotypes n°1, n°2, and n°4) derived from various pseudomonads. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fe(III) complexes of various siderotype n°1 PVDs (including PVDGB-1) allowed growth of wild type and the synthetase mutant, but not the receptor mutant, confirming that iron uptake with any tested siderotype n°1 PVD depended on PputGB1_4082. Fe(III) complexes of a siderotype n°2 PVD were not utilized by any strain and strongly induced PVD synthesis. In contrast, Fe(III) complexes of siderotype n°4 PVDs promoted the growth of all three strains and did not induce PVD synthesis by the wild type, implying these complexes were utilized for iron uptake independent of PputGB1_4082. These differing properties of the three PVD types provided a way to differentiate between effects on MnO2 formation that resulted from iron limitation and others that required participation of the PVDGB-1 receptor. Specifically, MnO2 production was inhibited by siderotype n°1 but not n°4 PVDs indicating PVD synthesis or PputGB1_4082 involvement rather than iron-limitation caused the inhibition. In contrast, iron limitation was sufficient to explain the inhibition of Mn(II) oxidation by siderotype n°2 PVDs. Collectively, our results provide insight into how competition for iron via siderophores influences growth, iron nutrition and MnO2 formation in more complex environmental

  5. Effects of exogenous pyoverdines on Fe availability and their impacts on Mn(II) oxidation by Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Parker, Dorothy L; Geszvain, Kati; Tebo, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium that produces pyoverdine-type siderophores (PVDs), which facilitate the uptake of Fe(III) but also influence MnO2 formation. Recently, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase mutant that does not synthesize PVD was described. Here we identified a gene encoding the PVDGB-1 (PVD produced by strain GB-1) uptake receptor (PputGB1_4082) of strain GB-1 and confirmed its function by in-frame mutagenesis. Growth and other physiological responses of these two mutants and of wild type were compared during cultivation in the presence of three chemically distinct sets of PVDs (siderotypes n°1, n°2, and n°4) derived from various pseudomonads. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fe(III) complexes of various siderotype n°1 PVDs (including PVDGB-1) allowed growth of wild type and the synthetase mutant, but not the receptor mutant, confirming that iron uptake with any tested siderotype n°1 PVD depended on PputGB1_4082. Fe(III) complexes of a siderotype n°2 PVD were not utilized by any strain and strongly induced PVD synthesis. In contrast, Fe(III) complexes of siderotype n°4 PVDs promoted the growth of all three strains and did not induce PVD synthesis by the wild type, implying these complexes were utilized for iron uptake independent of PputGB1_4082. These differing properties of the three PVD types provided a way to differentiate between effects on MnO2 formation that resulted from iron limitation and others that required participation of the PVDGB-1 receptor. Specifically, MnO2 production was inhibited by siderotype n°1 but not n°4 PVDs indicating PVD synthesis or PputGB1_4082 involvement rather than iron-limitation caused the inhibition. In contrast, iron limitation was sufficient to explain the inhibition of Mn(II) oxidation by siderotype n°2 PVDs. Collectively, our results provide insight into how competition for iron via siderophores influences growth, iron nutrition and MnO2 formation in more complex environmental

  6. Mechanisms controlling Cu, Fe, Mn, and Co profiles in peat of the Filson Creek Fen, northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton-day, Katherine; Filipek, Lorraine H.; Papp, Clara S. E.

    1990-11-01

    Filson Creek Fen, located in northeastern Minnesota, overlies a Cu-Ni sulfide deposit. A site in the fen was studied to evaluate the hydrogeochemical mechanisms governing the development of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu profiles in the peat. At the study site, surface peat approximately 1 m thick is separated from the underlying mineralized bedrock by a 6-12 m thickness of lake and glaciofluvial sediments and till. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu in peat and major elements in pore water delineate a shallow, relatively oxidized, Cu-rich zone overlying a deeper, reduced, Fe-, Mn-, and Co-rich zone within the peat. Sequential metal extractions from peat samples reveal that 40-55% of the Cu in the shallow zone is associated with organic material, whereas the remaining Cu is distributed between iron-oxide, sulfide, and residual fractions. Sixty to seventy percent of the Fe, Mn, and Co concentrated in the deeper zone occur in the residual phase. The metal profiles and associations probably result from non-steady-state input of metals and detritus into the fen during formation of the peat column. The enrichment of organic-associated Cu in the upper, oxidized zone represents a combination of Cu transported into the fen with detrital plant fragments and soluble Cu, derived from weathering of outcrop and subcrop of the mineral deposit, transported into the fen, and fixed onto organic matter in the peat. The variable stratigraphy of the peat indicates that weathering processes and surface vegetation have changed through time in the fen. The Fe, Mn, and Co maxima at the base of the peat are associated with a maximum in detrital matter content of the peat resulting from a transition between the underlying inorganic sedimentary environment to an organic sedimentary environment. The chemistry of sediments and ground water collected beneath the peat indicate that mobilization of metals from sulfide minerals in the buried mineral deposit or glacial deposits is minimal. Therefore, the

  7. Mechanisms controlling Cu, Fe, Mn, and Co profiles in peat of the Filson Creek Fen, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton-Day, K.; Filipek, L.H.; Papp, C.S.E.

    1990-01-01

    Filson Creek Fen, located in northeastern Minnesota, overlies a Cu-Ni sulfide deposit. A site in the fen was studied to evaluate the hydrogeochemical mechanisms governing the development of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu profiles in the peat. At the study site, surface peat approximately 1 m thick is separated from the underlying mineralized bedrock by a 6-12 m thickness of lake and glaciofluvial sediments and till. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu in peat and major elements in pore water delineate a shallow, relatively oxidized, Cu-rich zone overlying a deeper, reduced, Fe-, Mn-, and Co-rich zone within the peat. Sequential metal extractions from peat samples reveal that 40-55% of the Cu in the shallow zone is associated with organic material, whereas the remaining Cu is distributed between iron-oxide, sulfide, and residual fractions. Sixty to seventy percent of the Fe, Mn, and Co concentrated in the deeper zone occur in the residual phase. The metal profiles and associations probably result from non-steady-state input of metals and detritus into the fen during formation of the peat column. The enrichment of organic-associated Cu in the upper, oxidized zone represents a combination of Cu transported into the fen with detrital plant fragments and soluble Cu, derived from weathering of outcrop and subcrop of the mineral deposit, transported into the fen, and fixed onto organic matter in the peat. The variable stratigraphy of the peat indicates that weathering processes and surface vegetation have changed through time in the fen. The Fe, Mn, and Co maxima at the base of the peat are associated with a maximum in detrital matter content of the peat resulting from a transition between the underlying inorganic sedimentary environment to an organic sedimentary environment. The chemistry of sediments and ground water collected beneath the peat indicate that mobilization of metals from sulfide minerals in the buried mineral deposit or glacial deposits is minimal. Therefore, the

  8. Effect of nitrate concentration, pH, and hydraulic retention time on autotrophic denitrification efficiency with Fe(II) and Mn(II) as electron donors.

    PubMed

    Su, Jun-Feng; Shi, Jing-Xin; Huang, Ting-Lin; Ma, Fang; Lu, Jin-Suo; Yang, Shao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The role of electron donors (Fe(2+) and Mn(2+)) in the autotrophic denitrification of contaminated groundwater by bacterial strain SY6 was characterized based on empirical laboratory-scale analysis. Strain SY6 can utilize Fe(2+) more efficiently than Mn(2+) as an electron donor. This study has shown that the highest nitrate removal ratio, observed with Fe(2+) as the electron donor, was approximately 88.89%. An immobilized biological filter reactor was tested by using three levels of influent nitrate (10, 30, and 50 mg/L), three pH levels (6, 7, and 8), and three levels of hydraulic retention time (HRT; 6, 8, and 12 h), respectively. An optimal nitrate removal ratio of about 95% was achieved at pH 6.0 using a nitrate concentration of 50 mg/L and HRT of 12 h with Fe(2+) as an electron donor. The study showed that 90% of Fe(2+) and 75.52% removal of Mn(2+) were achieved at pH 8.0 with a nitrate concentration of 50 mg/L and a HRT of 12 h. Removal ratio of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) is higher with higher influent nitrate and HRT. A weakly alkaline environment assisted the removal of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+). PMID:27642838

  9. Reconstructing deglacial Atlantic deep water circulation using the Nd isotopic composition of Fe-Mn oxide coatings from planktonic foraminfera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, A. M.; Galy, A.; Roberts, N. L.; Nicholl, J.; Yu, J.; Clegg, J.; Pomies, C.; Scrivner, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    During the last few decades, neodymium isotopes have been increasingly used as a paleoceanographic proxy, to reconstruct past changes in deep ocean circulation [1,2] and river outputs to the surface ocean [3]. The widespread use of the Nd isotope proxy depends on whether the Nd isotopic composition of past seawater can be reliably extracted from authigenic sediment phases. Here we show that the Fe-Mn oxide coatings which are removed from planktonic foraminifera during reductive cleaning can be used to reconstruct past deep water Nd isotopic composition. In effect, we are using the planktonic foraminiferal calcite as a low-Nd carrier phase to leach authigenic Fe-Mn oxides, which have higher Nd concentration and record the Nd isotopic composition of bottom water. Leaching experiments on northeastern North Atlantic core BOFS 8K (52N, 22W, 4045mbsl) show methodological artifacts during bulk sediment leaching, but that the Fe-Mn oxide coatings from the planktonic foraminifera have the same Nd isotopic composition as bottom water. Interestingly, the Nd isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera which have not been cleaned of Fe-Mn oxide coatings, and planktonic foraminifera which have been reductively cleaned by the Boyle and Kiegwin (1987) [4] method are within error of each other throughout the deglacial records, suggesting incomplete removal or significant re-scavenging of Nd from Fe-Mn oxides to cleaned foraminiferal calcite during reductive cleaning. There is no indication that we are incorporating a significant surface-water Nd isotopic signal. Instead, these records and laboratory tests may suggest that some published “cleaned” planktonic foraminiferal records are preserving a deep water signal, rather than a surface ocean signal. The downcore BOFS 8K record of planktonic foraminferal Fe-Mn coating Nd isotopes shows a large deglacial change consistent with benthic carbon isotopes, supporting more southern-sourced water reaching the site during the last

  10. Proteins involved in electron transfer to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter uraniireducens.

    PubMed

    Aklujkar, M; Coppi, M V; Leang, C; Kim, B C; Chavan, M A; Perpetua, L A; Giloteaux, L; Liu, A; Holmes, D E

    2013-03-01

    Whole-genome microarray analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown on insoluble Fe(III) oxide or Mn(IV) oxide versus soluble Fe(III) citrate revealed significantly different expression patterns. The most upregulated genes, omcS and omcT, encode cell-surface c-type cytochromes, OmcS being required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Other electron transport genes upregulated on both metal oxides included genes encoding putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc4 and Cbc5, periplasmic c-type cytochromes Dhc2 and PccF, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmcC, OmcG and OmcV, multicopper oxidase OmpB, the structural components of electrically conductive pili, PilA-N and PilA-C, and enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Genes upregulated on Fe(III) oxide encode putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc3 and Cbc6, periplasmic c-type cytochromes, including PccG and PccJ, and outer membrane c-type cytochromes, including OmcA, OmcE, OmcH, OmcL, OmcN, OmcO and OmcP. Electron transport genes upregulated on Mn(IV) oxide encode periplasmic c-type cytochromes PccR, PgcA, PpcA and PpcD, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmaB/OmaC, OmcB and OmcZ, multicopper oxidase OmpC and menaquinone-reducing enzymes. Genetic studies indicated that MacA, OmcB, OmcF, OmcG, OmcH, OmcI, OmcJ, OmcM, OmcV and PccH, the putative Cbc5 complex subunit CbcC and the putative Cbc3 complex subunit CbcV are important for reduction of Fe(III) oxide but not essential for Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Gene expression patterns for Geobacter uraniireducens were similar. These results demonstrate that the physiology of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria differs significantly during growth on different insoluble and soluble electron acceptors and emphasize the importance of c-type cytochromes for extracellular electron transfer in G. sulfurreducens. PMID:23306674

  11. Mn(2+)-mediated homogeneous Fenton-like reaction of Fe(III)-NTA complex for efficient degradation of organic contaminants under neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Sun, Jianhui; Sun, Sheng-Peng

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report a novel Mn(2+)-mediated Fenton-like process based on Fe(III)-NTA complex that is super-efficient at circumneutral pH range. Kinetics experiments showed that the presence of Mn(2+) significantly enhanced the effectiveness of Fe(III)-NTA complex catalyzed Fenton-like reaction. The degradation rate constant of crotamiton (CRMT), a model compound, by the Fe(III)- NTA_Mn(2+) Fenton-like process was at least 1.6 orders of magnitude larger than that in the absence of Mn(2+). Other metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) had no impacts or little inhibitory effect on the Fe(III)-NTA complex catalyzed Fenton-like reaction. The generation of hydroxyl radical (HO) and superoxide radical anion (O2(-)) in the Fe(III)-NTA_Mn(2+) Fenton-like process were suggested by radicals scavenging experiments. The degradation efficiency of CRMT was inhibited significantly (approximately 92%) by the addition of HO scavenger 2-propanol, while the addition of O2(-) scavenger chloroform resulted in 68% inhibition. Moreover, the results showed that other chelating agents such as EDTA- and s,s-EDDS-Fe(III) catalyzed Fenton-like reactions were also enhanced significantly by the presence of Mn(2+). The mechanism involves an enhanced generation of O2(-) from the reactions of Mn(2+)-chelates with H2O2, indirectly promoting the generation of HO by accelerating the reduction rate of Fe(III)-chelates to Fe(II)- chelates.

  12. The role of the (111) texture on the exchange bias and interlayer coupling effects observed in sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, I. L.; Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Larica, C.; Tafur, M.; Pelegrini, F.

    2013-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers grown on different seed layers (Cu or Ta) deposited on Si (100) substrates were investigated by magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Exchange bias effect and magnetic spring behavior have been studied by changing the IrMn thickness. As shown by X-ray diffraction, Ta and Cu seed layers provoke different degrees of (111) fcc-texture that directly affect the exchange bias and indirectly modify the exchange spring coupling behavior. Increasing the IrMn thickness, it was observed that the coupling angle between the Co and NiFe ferromagnetic layers increases for the Cu seed system, but it reduces for the Ta case. The results were explained considering (i) different anisotropies of the Co and IrMn layers induced by the different degree of the (111) texture and (ii) the distinct exchange bias set at the NiFe/IrMn and IrMn/Co interfaces in both systems. The NiFe and Co interlayer coupling angle is strongly correlated with both exchange bias and exchange magnetic spring phenomena. It was also shown that the highest exchange bias field occurs when an unstressed L1{sub 2} IrMn structure is stabilized.

  13. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals

  14. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiapetto, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe-C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe-C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  15. Observation of the large magnetocaloric effect and suppression of orbital entropy change in Fe-doped MnV{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z. H.; Luo, X. E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn; Hu, L.; Tan, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Chen, J.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P. E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn

    2014-01-21

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3), and investigate the magnetocaloric effect in those compounds. The ferrimagnetic spin ordering is enhanced with the Fe doping at Mn site of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 4}, while the orbital ordering is suppressed. Large magnetic entropy changes up to 3.8 J/kg K as well as the relative cooling power up to 110 J/kg at the field change of 0-2 T for Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} are calculated from the isothermal magnetization measurements. The large orbital entropy change of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is suppressed by the Fe doping, while the spin entropy contribution arising from the strong spin-orbit coupling remains. Moreover, the doping of Fe broadens the temperature span of the large magnetic entropy change and increases the relative cooling power of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 4} by 2.4 times.

  16. Preparation and characterization of lithium manganese oxide cubic spinel Li 1.03Mn 1.97O 4 doped with Mg and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Priti; Sil, Anjan; Nath, Mala; Ray, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Spinel powders of Li 1.03Mn 1.97O 4, Li 1.03[Mg xMn 1.97-x]O 4, Li 1.03[Fe yMn 1.97-y]O 4 and Li 1.03[Mg xFe yMn 1.97-x-y]O 4 systems were synthesized by sol-gel technique using lithium acetate, manganese acetate, magnesium acetate, iron nitrate and citric acid as the starting materials. The effect of Mg and Fe substitutions on the structure and surface morphology of spinel Li 1.03Mn 1.97O 4 has been examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). Electrochemical characteristics such as the cyclic performance was also investigated. The materials for all the compositions exhibit a phase pure cubic spinel structure as evident from the XRD analyses. The crystallinity and average particle size of the material increases by doping with Fe and Mg. The particles of doped samples have truncated octahedral shape. The discharge capacity of Li 1.03Mn 1.97O 4 is 126 mAh/g. The doping increases cyclability; however, the discharge capacity reduces.

  17. Fe(3)O(4)/MnO hybrid nanocrystals as a dual contrast agent for both T(1)- and T(2)-weighted liver MRI.

    PubMed

    Im, Geun Ho; Kim, Soo Min; Lee, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, In Su

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to develop a dual magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, Fe(3)O(4)/MnO hybrid nanocrystals were modified to integrate the T(1) and T(2) contrast-enhancing abilities of each compound, and their characteristics as MR contrast agents were investigated. In vitro and in vivo investigations revealed that the Fe(3)O(4)/MnO dumbbell-shaped nanocrystal exerted a negative T(2) contrast effect in its intact form and also gave rise to a positive contrast effect in T(1)-weighted MR imaging by releasing Mn(2+) ions in a low pH environment. This induced organ-specific contrast enhancement for both T(1)- and T(2)-weighted in vivo MR imaging. The usefulness of the Fe(3)O(4)/MnO hybrid nanocrystals as dual contrast agents was evaluated by in vivo MR imaging of an orthotopic xenograft model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After injection of the Fe(3)O(4)/MnO hybrid nanocrystals, dual contrast-enhanced MR images that synergistically combined the T(2) and T(1) contrast effects from the Fe(3)O(4) grain and released Mn(2+) ions were obtained by a single acquisition of MR imaging. This facilitated the detection of HCC with a high degree of conspicuity that could not be achieved with any single contrast agent. PMID:23246062

  18. Structural and magnetic characterization of BiFe x Mn 2- x O 5 oxides ( x =0.5, 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retuerto, M.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Krezhov, K.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.; Alonso, J. A.

    2011-09-01

    The title compounds have been synthesized by a citrate technique followed by thermal treatments in air (BiFe 0.5Mn 1.5O 5) or under high oxygen pressure conditions (BiFeMnO 5), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The crystal structures have been refined from NPD data in the space group Pbam at 295 K. These phases are isostructural with RMn 2O 5 oxides ( R=rare earths) and contain infinite chains of Mn 4+O 6 octahedra sharing edges, linked together by (Fe,Mn) 3+O 5 pyramids and BiO 8 units. These units are strongly distorted with respect to those observed in other RFeMnO 5 compounds, due to the presence of the electronic lone pair on Bi 3+. It is noteworthy the certain level of antisite disorder exhibited in both samples, where the octahedral positions are partially occupied by Fe cations, and vice versa. BiFe xMn 2- xO 5 ( x=0.5, 1.0) are short-range magnetically ordered below 20 K for x=0.5 and at 40 K for x=1.0. The main magnetic interactions seem to be antiferromagnetic (AFM); however, the presence of a small hysteresis in the magnetization cycles indicates the presence of some weak ferromagnetic (FM) interactions.

  19. Examination of the magnetism dynamics from intermixing effects in γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO core-shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Skoropata, E. Lierop, J. van; Su, T. T.; Ouyang, H.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have examined the effects of core-shell intermixing on the dynamical magnetism of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO nanoparticles. The core and shell phases were identified using x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy identified Mn ions in both octahedral and tetrahedral sites, consistent with a significant amount of substitution at the core-shell interface to form an Fe/Mn-ferrite. The dynamical response was probed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which decouples surface and core spins, and suggested a change in the relaxation behaviour among the spin populations within γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO relative to the γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} seed particles. Interestingly, the magnetic relaxation effects at the atomic scale, measured via Mössbauer spectroscopy, were enhanced, indicating that the addition of an MnO shell and intermixing affected the dynamical freezing process which altered the surface magnetism of the γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core. Our results show that both the MnO shell and the interfacial intermixed layer are important in determining the core-shell nanoparticle magnetism.

  20. Statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys and concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, FeNi, and FeCr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.; Khromov, K. Yu.; Pankratov, I. R.; Popov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys with arbitrary pairwise interatomic interactions based on the master equation approach is developed. Vacancy-atom correlations are described using both the second-shell-jump and the nearest-neighbor-jump approximations which are shown to be usually sufficiently accurate. General expressions for Onsager coefficients in terms of microscopic interatomic interactions and some statistical averages are given. Both the analytical kinetic mean-field and the Monte Carlo methods for finding these averages are described. The theory developed is used to describe sharp concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in several iron-based alloy systems. For the bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, and FeNi, we predict the notable increase of the iron self-diffusion coefficient with solute concentration c, up to several times, even though values of c possible for these alloys do not exceed some percent. For the bcc alloys FeCr at high temperatures T ≳ 1400 K, we show that the very strong and peculiar concentration dependencies of both tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients observed in these alloys can be naturally explained by the theory, without invoking exotic models discussed earlier.

  1. Experimental investigation of off-stoichiometry and 3d transition metal (Mn, Ni, Cu)-substitution in single-crystalline FePt thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Nakata, Hitoshi; Moriya, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2016-05-01

    In L10 (fct)-FePt thin films, both tuning Fe and Pt concentrations and substitution with third-metal were studied for magnetic characteristic optimization. We investigated single-crystalline FePt-X (X = Mn, Ni, Cu) thin films grown epitaxially on MgO(001) substrates at a substrate temperature of 350 °C by changing Fe, Pt, and X contents, and explored the effects of off-stoichiometry and 3d-metal-substitution. The magnetic moment per atom (m) of FePt-X films as a function of the effective number of valence electrons (neff) in 3d metal sites follows the Slater-Pauling-type trend, by which m decreases by the neff deviation from neff = 8, independently of the X metal and the Pt concentration. The magnetic anisotropy (Ku) exhibits neff dependence similar to m. This trend was almost independent of the Pt concentration after compensation using the theoretical prediction on the relation between Ku and Fe/Pt concentrations. Such a trend has been proved for stoichiometric FePt-X films, but it was clarified as robust against off-stoichiometry. The compensated Ku ( Ku comp ) of FePt-Mn and FePt-Cu followed a similar trend to that predicted by the rigid-band model, although the Ku comp of the FePt-Mn thin films dropped more rapidly than the rigid band calculation. However, it followed the recent first-principles calculation.

  2. Micromagnetic analysis of the hardening mechanisms of nanocrystalline MnBi and nanopatterned FePt intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kronmüller, H; Yang, J B; Goll, D

    2014-02-12

    The uniaxial intermetallic compounds of L10-FePt and the low temperature NiAs structure of MnBi are suitable alloys for application as high-density recording materials or as high-coercivity permanent magnets. Single domain particles of these materials are characterized by coercive fields above 1 T over a large temperature range. In particular MnBi shows a coercive field of 2 T at 450 K. Its extraordinary magnetic properties in the temperature range up to 600 K are due to an increase of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant from 1.2 MJ m(-3) at 300 K to 2.4 MJ m(-3) at 450 K. In spite of the large coercivities obtained for both type of materials their experimental values deviate considerably from the theoretical values Hc = 2K1/Js valid for a homogeneous rotation process in spherical particles. As is well known these discrepancies are due to the deteriorating effects of the microstructure. For an analysis of the coercive fields the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory has to be expanded with respect to higher anisotropy constants and to microstructural effects such as misaligned grains and grain surfaces with reduced anisotropy constants. It is shown that the temperature dependence and the angular dependence of Hc for FePt as well as MnBi can be quantitatively interpreted by taking into account the above mentioned intrinsic and microstructural effects. PMID:24469256

  3. Influence of MnO2 decorated Fe nano cauliflowers on microwave absorption and impedance matching of polyvinylbutyral (PVB) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Porwal, Mayuri; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a promising, polyvinyl butryl (PVB)-MnO2 decorated Fe composite was synthesised and microwave absorption properties were studied for the most important frequency ranges i.e., X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4–18 GHz). The microwave absorption of Fe nano cauliflower structure can be enhanced by MnO2 nanofiber coating. 10 wt% Fe–MnO2 nano cauliflower loaded PVB composite films (2 mm thick) shows an appreciable increase in microwave absorption properties. In X-band, the reflection loss (RL) of this composite decreases almost linearly to ‑7.5 dB, whereas in the Ku-band the minimum RL was found to be ‑15.7 dB at 14.7 GHz. Here it was observed that impedance matching is the primarily important factor responsible for enhanced microwave absorption. Further, enhancement of EM attenuation constant (α), dielectrics, scattering attenuation also bolsters the obtained results. This polymer composite can be considered as a novel microwave absorbing coating material.

  4. Sediment fractionation of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn, and Fe in one experimental and three natural marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, C.W.; Hossner, L.R.

    1982-07-01

    Dredged sediments from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway near Galveston, Tex., were used as a substrate material in the construction of an experimental intertidal salt marsh. Selected substrate properties were compared with those of established marshes. Clay mineralogical properties of the experimental marsh were compared with those of three nearby natural marshes. A sequential chemical extraction procedure was used to obtain data on the partitioning of micronutrients and heavy metals among selected marsh substrate fractions. Clay minerals found in the sediments of the experimental marsh were equivalent to those identified in the natural marshes. Total elemental substrate concentrations of Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Fe averaged 7.9, 8.6, 25.5, 25.2, 123, and 12,200 ..mu..g/g, respectively, over the four marsh sites. Copper, nickel, zinc, and chromium displayed only minor variations in substrate partitioning between the experimental and natural marsh samples. Micronutrients and heavy metal concentrations in the exchangeable and water-soluble fraction were low compared with other fractions. Approximately 30% of the total substrate Cu, Ni, and Zn was associated with the organic matter fraction. Metals fixed within the lattice structures of clay and silicate minerals ranged from 20% Mn for experimental marsh samples to 90% Cr for one of the natural marshes. Major differences in Mn and Fe substrate partitioning were observed when the experimental marsh samples were compared with those of the natural marshes.

  5. Arsenic release from Fe/Mn oxide-rich (model) soils/sediments - A comparison of single extraction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanek, A.; Komarek, M.; Galuskova, I.

    2012-04-01

    Arsenic extractability in As-modified Fe(III) and Mn(III,IV) oxide-coated sands was tested using five widely used 2-h single extraction procedures: deionised water, 0.01 M CaCl2, 1 M NH4NO3, 0.1 M Na2HPO4 and 0.005 DTPA. In general, the highest As recoveries reaching 39-50% of total As concentration were observed for all extracting media in the birnessite (delta-MnO2) system, indicating relatively weak adsorption of As onto the Mn oxides. The Na2HPO4 extracts from the Fe oxide systems (i.e., associated with ferrihydrite and goethite) were highest in As, accounting for up to 34% of total As amount. Surprisingly, comparable recoveries of As (14-20%) yielded deionised water, CaCl2, NH4NO3, DTPA as extracting media for both ferrihydrite and goethite coatings. Deionised water and Na2HPO4 extractions are suggested for quick estimation of easily soluble, exchangeable and/or specifically adsorbed As in real soil/sediment samples.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of High Nitrogen Nickel-Free Fe-16Cr-Mn-Mo-N Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, K. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Shyue, J. J.; Lian, S. S.

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop austenitic nickel-free stainless steels with lower chromium content and higher manganese and nitrogen contents. In order to prevent nickel-induced skin allergy, cobalt, manganese, and nitrogen were used to substitute nickel in the designed steel. Our results demonstrated that manganese content greater than 14 wt pct results in a structure that is in full austenite phase. The manganese content appears to increase the solubility of nitrogen; however, a lower corrosion potential was found in steel with high manganese content. Molybdenum appears to be able to increase the pitting potential. The effects of Cr, Mn, Mo, and N on corrosion behavior of Fe-16Cr-2Co-Mn-Mo-N high nitrogen stainless steels were evaluated with potentiodynamic tests and XPS surface analysis. The results reveal that anodic current and pits formation of the Fe-16Cr-2Co-Mn-Mo-N high nitrogen stainless steels were smaller than those of lower manganese and nitrogen content stainless steel.

  7. Boric acid flux synthesis, structure and magnetic property of MB12O14(OH)10 (M=Mn, Fe, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dingfeng; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Three new borates MB12O14(OH)10 (M=Mn, Fe, Zn) have been synthesized by boric acid flux methods, which are isotypic to NiB12O14(OH)10. Single-crystal XRD was performed to determine the crystal structures in detail. They all crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The size of MO6 (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) octahedron shows a good agreement with the Shannon effective ionic radii of M2+. Magnetic measurements indicate MnB12O14(OH)10 is antiferromagnetic without a long-range ordering down to 2 K. The values of its magnetic superexchange constants were evaluated by DFT calculations, which explain the observed magnetic behavior. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum of ZnB12O14(OH)10 suggests a band gap ˜4.6 eV. DFT calculations indicate it has a direct band gap 4.9 eV. The optical band gap is contributed by charge transfers from the occupied O 2p to the unoccupied Zn 4s states.

  8. Magnetostriction and anisotropy of twin-free single-crystals Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinghua; Wu, Guangheng; Zhao, Xuegen; Jia, Kechang; Zhan, Wenshan

    1996-04-01

    A study of the effects of substituting a small amount of Mn for Fe in the Terfenol-D system is presented. The twin-free and <111>-oriented single-crystal rods of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2 were prepared by Czochralski method. The magnetization, lattice constant, Curie temperature, and magnetostriction were examined. From the experimental results, it is possible to determine the effect of Mn substitution on magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction. Because of Mn substituting for Fe, magnetic moment values of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2 show two inflections and the easy magnetization directions also show changes from 1.5 to 300 K at an applied field of 1000 Oe. It strongly suggests that Mn substitution remarkably influences magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2. Its saturation magnetostrictions are 1.48×10-3 and 1.67×10-3, maximum d33 values are 1 and 1.5 under compressive stress of 0 and 12 MPa, respectively. These magnetostrictive properties are clearly better than those measured from the <112>-oriented twinned samples. This is the first time that the experimental data measured from the single-crystalline samples on the magnetic properties of Tb0.5Dy0.5(Fe0.9Mn0.1)2 are reported.

  9. Low-temperature Mössbauer study of heterosite, (Fe, Mn)PO4.

    PubMed

    De Grave, Eddy; da Costa, Geraldo Magela; Van Alboom, Antoine; Vandenberghe, Robert Emile

    2013-01-01

    The heterosite phase occurring in a pegmatitic rock sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The orthorhombic unit-cell parameters, expressed in Å, were found as a=9.733 (1), b=5.837 (1) and c=4.776 (1). The composition was determined to be (Fe(0.54)Mn(0.43)Mg(0.04))PO(4). Mössbauer spectra recorded at temperatures T of 65 K and higher consist of two broadened quadrupole doublets. Their isomer shifts δ are both diagnostic for the ferric state. The dominant doublet (~60% of total area) exhibits an average quadrupole splitting ΔE(Q,av) of 1.62 mm/s at room temperature, while the weaker broader doublet has ΔE(Q,av)=0.68 mm/s. For temperatures T≤60 K the spectra are composed of a broad sextet and a central quadrupole doublet. The doublet persists down to the lowest applied temperature of 17 K. It is concluded that this doublet is due to an Fe-bearing phase other than heterosite and which gives rise to the inner doublet appearing in the spectra recorded at T≥65 K. The broad sextets, attributable to the heterosite phase, were fitted with model-independent hyperfine-field distributions. However, it was consistently experienced that using the common Lorentzian-shaped elementary sextets composing the distribution, could not adequately reproduce the observed line shapes. Instead, the calculations had to be based on the diagonalization of the complete hyperfine-interaction Hamiltonian. This is due to the unusually strong quadrupole interaction. The as-such calculated hyperfine parameters of the heterosite phase at 17 K may be summarized as follows: maximum-probability hyperfine field B(hf,m)=473 kOe, isomer shift δ(Fe)=0.54 mm/s, average quadrupole coupling constant ½e(2)qQ=1.50 mm/s, asymmetry parameter of the EFG η=0.80, and polar angles of the hyperfine field with respect to the EFGs principal axes frame Ω=40° and Ψ=90°. The temperature variation of the hyperfine field was

  10. Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C cathode material prepared by ferrocene-assisted calcination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinhe; Mi, Yingying; Zhang, Weidong; Wu, Borong; Zhou, Henghui

    2015-02-01

    A ferrocene-assisted calcination process (FACP) has been applied during the preparation of LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C cathode material. Ferrocene works as a promoter to improve the quality of the coated carbon layers. The influence of ferrocene on the property of carbon layers and electrochemical performance of LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C has been investigated systematically. The LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C with FACP presents more uniformly and tightly coated carbon layers with higher graphitization degree than the sample without FACP. High-quality carbon layers can greatly enhance the electrochemical performance of cathode materials. The LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C with FACP behaves higher discharge capacities (163.6 and 120.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2C and 20C, respectively) than the LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C without FACP (158.4 and 111.5 mAh g-1 at the same rates). Furthermore, the LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C with FACP exhibits excellent cycling performance even at 60 °C, still delivering capacity retention above 96% after 100 cycles at 3C, while the retention of the controlled sample is only 70% after 75 cycles. The cycling performance of the LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C with FACP at high temperature is largely improved.

  11. Optimization of planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic bead detection using spin-valve NiFe/Cu/NiFe/IrMn structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Bui Dinh; Viet Cuong, Le; Thi Huong Giang, Do; Mau Danh, Tran; Duc, Nguyen Huu

    2009-09-01

    Present paper deals with the planar Hall effect (PHE) of Ta(5 nm)/NiFe(tf)/Cu(1.2 nm)/NiFe(tp)/IrMn(15 nm)/Ta(5 nm) spin-valve structures. Experimental investigations are performed for 50 × 50 μm2 junctions with various thicknesses of free and pinned layer tf = 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 nm and tp = 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 nm. The results show that the thicker free layers, the higher PHE signal is obtained. In addition, the thicker pinned layers, the lower PHE signal. The highest PHE sensitivity S of 15.6 mΩ/Oe is obtained in the spin-valve configuration with tf = 20 nm and tp = 2 nm. This optimum structure is rather promising for micro magnetic bead detections.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticle ferrofluids for thermo-electric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, C. L.; Jones, P.; Dorey, R. A.; Beck, C.; Stanhope-Bosumpim, A.; Peterson, J.

    2013-06-01

    Ferrofluids containing nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (MZ5) and Fe3O4 (magnetite) have been examined as potential thermal transport media and energy harvesting materials. The ferrofluids were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and characterized by EDX to determine composition and by TEM to determine particle size and agglomeration. A range of particle coatings and carrier fluids were used to complete the fluid preparation. Commercially available ferrofluids were tested in custom built rigs to demonstrate both thermal pumping (for waste heat removal applications) and power induction (for power conversion and energy harvesting applications). The results indicate that simple ferrofluids possess the necessary properties to remove waste heat, either into thermal storage or for conversion to electrical power.

  13. Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in FeMnP0.8Si0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Brian C.; Susner, Michael A.; Conner, Benjamin S.; Yan, Jiaqiang Q.; May, Andrew F.

    2015-09-25

    Compounds based on the Fe2P structure have continued to attract interest because of the interplay between itinerant and localized magnetism in a noncentrosymmetric crystal structure, and because of the recent developments of these materials for magnetocaloric applications. We report the growth and characterization of millimeter-sized single crystals of FeMnP0.8Si0.2 with the Fe2P structure. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, magnetization, resistivity, and Hall and heat capacity data are reported. The crystals exhibit itinerant antiferromagnetic order below 158 K with no hint of ferromagnetic behavior in the magnetization curves and with the spins ordered primarily in the ab plane. The room-temperature resistivity is close to the Ioffe-Regel limit for a metal. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction indicates a strong preference for Mn to occupy the larger pyramidal 3g site. The cation site preference in the as-grown crystals and the antiferromagnetism were not changed after high-temperature anneals and a rapid quench to room temperature

  14. Recycling bacteria for the synthesis of LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn) nanostructures for high-power lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanping; Yang, Dan; Zeng, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern; Yan, Qingyu; Fong, Eileen

    2014-10-15

    In this work, a novel waste-to-resource strategy to convert waste bacteria into a useful class of cathode materials, lithium metal phosphate (LiMPO4; M = Fe, Mn), is presented. Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria used for removing phosphorus contamination from wastewater are harvested and used as precursors for the synthesis of LiMPO4. After annealing, LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4 nanoparticles with dimensions around 20 nm are obtained. These particles are found to be enveloped in a carbon layer with a thickness around 3-5 nm, generated through the decomposition of the organic matter from the bacterial cell cytoplasm. The battery performance for the LiFePO4 is evaluated. A high discharge capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C with a flat plateau located at around 3.5 V is obtained. In addition, the synthesized particles display excellent stability and rate capabilities. Even under a high C rate of 10 C, a stable discharge capacity of 75.4 mAh g(-1) can still be achieved.

  15. Effect of Mn and Ti substitution on the reflection loss characteristic of Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11-zMnTizO19 (z = 0, 1, 2 and 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunanto, Y. E.; Cahyadi, L.; Adi, W. Ari

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of composition Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11-zMnTizO19 (z = 0; 1; 2 and 3) compound by solid state reaction using mechanical milling have been performed. The raw materials were BaCO3, SrCO3, Fe2O3, MnCO3, and TiO2. The mixed powder was compacted and sintered at 1000°C for 5 hours. X-ray diffraction studies indicate expansion of hexagonal unit cell and compression of atomic density with substitution of Mn2+ and Ti4+ ions. Effect of substitution upon magnetic properties revealed that total magnetization, remanence, and coercivity changed with substitution due to preferential site occupancy of substituted Mn2+ and Ti4+ ions. Since the coercivity and total magnetization may be controlled by substitution while maintaining resistive properties, this material is useful for microwave absorber.

  16. Penetration depth and absorption mechanisms of spin currents in Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} and Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 50} polycrystalline films by ferromagnetic resonance and spin pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Merodio, P.; Ghosh, A.; Lemonias, C.; Gautier, E.; Ebels, U.; Chshiev, M.; Béa, H. E-mail: helene.bea@cea.fr; Baltz, V. E-mail: helene.bea@cea.fr

    2014-01-20

    Spintronics relies on the spin dependent transport properties of ferromagnets (Fs). Although antiferromagnets (AFs) are used for their magnetic properties only, some fundamental F-spintronics phenomena like spin transfer torque, domain wall motion, and tunnel anisotropic magnetoresistance also occur with AFs, thus making AF-spintronics attractive. Here, room temperature critical depths and absorption mechanisms of spin currents in Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} and Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 50} are determined by F-resonance and spin pumping. In particular, we find room temperature critical depths originating from different absorption mechanisms: dephasing for Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} and spin flipping for Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 50}.

  17. Temperature-induced martensite in magnetic shape memory Fe{sub 2}MnGa observed by photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Catherine; Scholl, Andreas; Kainuma, R.; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Omori, Toshihiro

    2012-01-18

    The magnetic domain structure in single crystals of a Heusler shape memory compound near the composition Fe{sub 2}MnGa was observed during phase transition by photoelectron emission microscopy at Beamline 11.0.1.1 of the Advanced Light Source. The behavior is comparable with recent observations of an adaptive martensite phase in prototype Ni{sub 2}MnGa, although the pinning in the recent work is an epitaxial interface and in this work the e ective pinning plane is a boundary between martensitic variants that transform in a self-accommodating way from the single crystal austenite phase present at high temperatures. Temperature dependent observations of the twinning structure give information as to the coupling behavior between the magnetism and the structural evolution.

  18. Sequestering of As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using a novel neem leaves/MnFe2O4 composite biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Podder, M S; Majumder, C B

    2016-12-01

    An arsenic biosorbent comprising neem leaves (NL) and MnFe2O4 particles was developed and its removal potential was investigated. Physicochemical analysis of the NL/MnFe2O4 composite (MNL) was performed for the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The following parameters were optimized: pH, biosorbent dose, contact time, temperature, and initial arsenic concentration. The optimum pH values achieved for biosorption of As(III) and As(V) were 7.0 and 4.0, respectively, when the equilibrium time was 110 minutes for both. MNL was found to be efficient with 85.217% and 88.154% biosorption efficiency at a concentration of 50 mg/L of As(III) or As(V) solution, respectively. This was also proved by the FT-IR study of arsenic-loaded biosorbent. For establishing the best suitable correlation for the equilibrium curves exploiting the procedure of the nonlinear regression for curve fitting analysis, isotherm studies were conducted for As(III) and As(V) using 30 isotherm models. The pattern of biosorption fitted well with Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm model for As(III) and Langmuir-Freundlich as well as Sips isotherm models for As(V). Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm studies specified that ion exchange might play a significant role. The influence of various co-existing ions at different concentrations was examined. Desorption study was performed using various concentrations of NaOH solution.

  19. Sequestering of As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using a novel neem leaves/MnFe2O4 composite biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Podder, M S; Majumder, C B

    2016-12-01

    An arsenic biosorbent comprising neem leaves (NL) and MnFe2O4 particles was developed and its removal potential was investigated. Physicochemical analysis of the NL/MnFe2O4 composite (MNL) was performed for the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The following parameters were optimized: pH, biosorbent dose, contact time, temperature, and initial arsenic concentration. The optimum pH values achieved for biosorption of As(III) and As(V) were 7.0 and 4.0, respectively, when the equilibrium time was 110 minutes for both. MNL was found to be efficient with 85.217% and 88.154% biosorption efficiency at a concentration of 50 mg/L of As(III) or As(V) solution, respectively. This was also proved by the FT-IR study of arsenic-loaded biosorbent. For establishing the best suitable correlation for the equilibrium curves exploiting the procedure of the nonlinear regression for curve fitting analysis, isotherm studies were conducted for As(III) and As(V) using 30 isotherm models. The pattern of biosorption fitted well with Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm model for As(III) and Langmuir-Freundlich as well as Sips isotherm models for As(V). Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm studies specified that ion exchange might play a significant role. The influence of various co-existing ions at different concentrations was examined. Desorption study was performed using various concentrations of NaOH solution. PMID:27284978

  20. Local factors modify the dose dependence of 56Fe-induced atherosclerosis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucik, Dennis; Gupta, Kiran; Wu, Xing; Yu, Tao; Chang, Polly; Kabarowski, Janusz; Yu, Shaohua

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure from a number of terrestrial sources is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence establishing whether high-LET radiation has similar effects has been lacking. We recently demonstrated that 600 MeV/n 56Fe induces atherosclerosis as well. Ten-week old male apolipoprotein-E deficient mice, a well-characterized atherosclerosis animal model, were exposed to 0 (control) 2, or 5Gy 56Fe targeted to the chest and neck. In these mice, 56Fe-induced atherosclerosis was similar in character to that induced by X-rays in the same mouse model and to that resulting from therapeutic radiation in cancer patients. Atherosclerosis was exacerbated by 56Fe only in targeted areas, however, suggesting a direct effect of the radiation on the arteries themselves. This is in contrast to some other risk factors, such as high cholesterol or tobacco use, which have systemic effects. The radiation dose required to accelerate development of atherosclerotic plaques, however, differed depending on the vessel that was irradiated and even the location within the vessel. For example, atherosclerosis in the aortic arch was accelerated only by the highest dose (5 Gy), while the carotid arteries and the aortic root showed effects at 2 Gy (a dose four- to eight-fold lower than the dose of X-rays that produces similar effects in this model). Since shear stress is disrupted in the area of the aortic root, it is likely that at least part of the site-specificity is due to additive or synergistic effects of radiation and local hydrodynamics. Other factors, such as local oxidative stress or gene expression may also have been involved. Since the pro-atherogenic effects of 56Fe depend on additional local factors, this suggests that radiation exposure, when unavoidable, might be mitigated by modification of factors unrelated to the radiation itself.

  1. Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangmei; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The responses of the domain structure of the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO3-type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality.

  2. Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangmei; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The responses of the domain structure of the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO3-type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality. PMID:26775621

  3. Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangmei; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The responses of the domain structure of the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO3-type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality. PMID:26775621

  4. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some sigma phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Indicator and probability kriging methods for delineating Cu, Fe, and Mn contamination in groundwater of Najafgarh Block, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Partha Pratim; Dash, Ch Jyotiprava; Bej, Renukabala; Chandrasekharan, H

    2011-05-01

    Two non-parametric kriging methods such as indicator kriging and probability kriging were compared and used to estimate the probability of concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Mn higher than a threshold value in groundwater. In indicator kriging, experimental semivariogram values were fitted well in spherical model for Fe and Mn. Exponential model was found to be best for all the metals in probability kriging and for Cu in indicator kriging. The probability maps of all the metals exhibited an increasing risk of pollution over the entire study area. Probability kriging estimator incorporates the information about order relations which the indicator kriging does not, has improved the accuracy of estimating the probability of metal concentrations in groundwater being higher than a threshold value. Evaluation of these two spatial interpolation methods through mean error (ME), mean square error (MSE), kriged reduced mean error (KRME), and kriged reduced mean square error (KRMSE) showed 3.52% better performance of probability kriging over indicator kriging. The combined result of these two kriging method indicated that on an average 26.34%, 65.36%, and 99.55% area for Cu, Fe, and Mn, respectively, are coming under the risk zone with probability of exceedance from a cutoff value is 0.6 or more. The groundwater quality map pictorially represents groundwater zones as "desirable" or "undesirable" for drinking. Thus the geostatistical approach is very much helpful for the planners and decision makers to devise policy guidelines for efficient management of the groundwater resources so as to enhance groundwater recharge and minimize the pollution level.

  6. Ferroelectric property of (Ba,Bi)(Ti,M)O3 (M; Cu, Mn, Al, Fe, In, Y, Yb) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiroki, K.; Kumada, N.; Ogiso, H.; Yonesaki, Y.; Takei, T.; Kinomura, N.; Wada, S.

    2011-10-01

    Two types of solid solutions, (Ba1-2xBi2x)(CuxTi1-x)O3 (x <= 0.04) and (Ba1-xBix)(MxTi1-x)O3 (M; Al, Mn, Fe, In, Y, Yb; x <= 0.03) were prepared by conventional high temperature reaction. For the solid solution of (Ba1-2xBi2x)(CuxTi1-x)O3 single phases with the tetragonal cell was obtained in the region of x <= 0.04 and for the solid solutions of (Ba1-xBix)(MxTi1-x)O3 (M; Al, Mn, Fe, In, Y, Yb) single phases with the tetragonal cell was observed in the region of x <= 0.03 except the sample of M = Al in which a small amount of the second phase was contained. In these solid solutions the Tc increased with the value of x except for M = Al, and was 144.7°C for x = 0.020 of M = Cu, and the highest Tc was observed for x = 0.020 of every M atom and the order of the highest Tc was Cu (144.7°C), Y (141.4°C), Yb (140.8°C), In (138.5°C), Mn (135.5°C) and Fe (131.3°C). The highest apparent piezoelectric constant, (d33 = 258 pm/V) in these solid solutions was observed for x = 0.010 of Al.

  7. Effects of strain amplitude and temperature on the damping capacity of an Fe-19Mn alloy with different microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shuke; Zhou Danchen; Liu Jianhui; Teng Jin; Li Ning; Wen Yuhua

    2010-11-15

    The influences of strain amplitude (10{sup -5}-10{sup -4}) and temperature (25 deg. C-500 deg. C) on the internal friction of a cold-drawn and solution treated Fe-19Mn alloy were investigated. The internal friction was measured using reversal torsion pendulum and multifunction internal friction equipment. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The phase transformation temperatures were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicated that the internal friction of the solution treated alloy was related to strain amplitude, which could be explained using the movement of Shockley partial dislocations (bowing out and breaking away). But the internal friction of the cold-drawn alloy was independent of strain amplitude because of high density dislocations formed by cold forming. Moreover, when the temperature was changed between 25 deg. C and 500 deg. C, the internal friction of the cold-drawn alloy increased slowly from 25 deg. C to 375 deg. C, and then increased quickly from 375 deg. C to 500 deg. C. However, for the solution treated alloy, there was an internal friction peak at about 210 deg. C in the heating process (from 25 deg. C to 500 deg. C), and there was another internal friction peak at about 150 deg. C in the cooling process. These peaks could be explained using the heat-assisted movement of dislocations. - Research Highlights: {yields}Internal friction of solution treated Fe-19Mn alloy is related to strain amplitude. {yields}Internal friction of cold-drawn Fe-19Mn alloy is independent of strain amplitude. {yields}IF of cold-drawn alloy increases from RT to 500 deg. C. {yields}There is an IF peak of solution treated alloy in heating and cooling process separately. {yields}The results can be explained using the movement of dislocations.

  8. Indicator and probability kriging methods for delineating Cu, Fe, and Mn contamination in groundwater of Najafgarh Block, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Partha Pratim; Dash, Ch Jyotiprava; Bej, Renukabala; Chandrasekharan, H

    2011-05-01

    Two non-parametric kriging methods such as indicator kriging and probability kriging were compared and used to estimate the probability of concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Mn higher than a threshold value in groundwater. In indicator kriging, experimental semivariogram values were fitted well in spherical model for Fe and Mn. Exponential model was found to be best for all the metals in probability kriging and for Cu in indicator kriging. The probability maps of all the metals exhibited an increasing risk of pollution over the entire study area. Probability kriging estimator incorporates the information about order relations which the indicator kriging does not, has improved the accuracy of estimating the probability of metal concentrations in groundwater being higher than a threshold value. Evaluation of these two spatial interpolation methods through mean error (ME), mean square error (MSE), kriged reduced mean error (KRME), and kriged reduced mean square error (KRMSE) showed 3.52% better performance of probability kriging over indicator kriging. The combined result of these two kriging method indicated that on an average 26.34%, 65.36%, and 99.55% area for Cu, Fe, and Mn, respectively, are coming under the risk zone with probability of exceedance from a cutoff value is 0.6 or more. The groundwater quality map pictorially represents groundwater zones as "desirable" or "undesirable" for drinking. Thus the geostatistical approach is very much helpful for the planners and decision makers to devise policy guidelines for efficient management of the groundwater resources so as to enhance groundwater recharge and minimize the pollution level. PMID:20686840

  9. Comparative Studies of Spinel MnFe2O4 Nanostructures: Structural, Morphological, Optical, Magnetic and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Jacintha, A Mary; Manikandan, A; Chinnaraj, K; Antony, S Arul; Neeraja, P

    2015-12-01

    Spinel MnFe2O4 nanostructures with two different morphologies such as nanoflakes (NFs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted combustion (MACM) and conventional combustion (CCM) methods respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that the samples have pure cubic spinel phase and the average crystallite size is found to be 15.13 ± 2 nm and 24.38 ± 13 nm for NFs and NPs respectively. The calculated lattice parameter values of the samples NFs and NPs are 8.476 and 8.474 Å respectively. The morphology of the samples was recorded using high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM) analysis and was found that nanoflakes and nanoparticles morphologies by MACM and CCM methods respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed that the composition of the elements was relevant as expected from these combustion methods. The optical properties of the as-prepared nanostructures were also investigated by UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) Spectroscopy. The energy band gap (E(g)) of the sample NFs is 1.78 eV, whereas the sample NPs has 1.75 eV. The magnetic properties were investigated using the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature and the hysteresis loops confirmed the super-paramagnetic behavior for both samples with saturation magnetization (M(s)) values in the range of 59.29 ± 11 and 66.78 ± 06 emu/g for the samples NFs and NPs respectively. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde reached a maximum of 87.65% for MnFe2O4 NFs, whereas for MnFe2O4 NPs, the conversion was only 69.43% with 100% selectivity.

  10. Aluminum Deoxidation Equilibria in Liquid Iron: Part III—Experiments and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Fe-Mn-Al-O System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Min-Kyu; Do, Kyung-Hyo; Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho; Pak, Jong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Deoxidation equilibria in high-Mn- and high-Al-alloyed liquid steels were studied over the entire Fe-Mn-Al composition range by both experiments and thermodynamic modeling. Effect of Mn on the Al deoxidation equilibria in liquid iron was measured by the different experimental techniques depending on the Al content. In order to confirm the reproducibility of the experimental results, the deoxidation experiments were carried out reversibly from high oxygen state by addition of Al as a deoxidizer, and from low oxygen state by addition of Fe2O3 or MnO as an oxygen source. For the Al-rich side, CaO flux was added on top of liquid iron in order to remove suspended Al2O3 inclusions in the melt. Based on the present experimental result and available critically evaluated literature data, the Al deoxidation equilibria in Fe-Mn-Al-O liquid alloy were thermodynamically modeled. The Modified Quasichemical Model was used in order to take into account a strong short-range ordering of atoms in molten state. Deoxidation equilibria and inclusion stability diagram for entire Fe-Mn-Al melt were successfully reproduced by the present model.

  11. Stability relations in the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrecht, Jürgen

    1980-10-01

    In the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6 extensive miscibility gaps between pyroxenoids and clinopyroxenes are observed. The miscibility gap between Mn-bustamite and Mn-wollastonite has been determined experimentally by a hydrothermal technique between 400° and 1200° C at P f= 2 kbar. Further experiments have been performed at P f=9 kbar, which revealed a shifting of the miscibility gap towards more Ca-rich compositions. The bustamite phase is stabilized by high pressures and the wollastonite structure is the stable phase at high temperatures. Similar phase relations as along the join CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6 exist along the join CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 but with a more extensive two-phase field of bustamite-clinopyroxene. Possible phase relations along the joins CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6, CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 and CaFeSi2O6-CaMnSi2O6 are given in temperature-composition diagrams for low pressures, based on natural and experimental data.

  12. Ferromagnetism and Nonmetallic Transport of Thin-Film α-FeSi>2mn> : A Stabilized Metastable Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D. J.; Zhang, X. -G.; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; Wang, Wenbin; Yi, Jieyu; Cantoni, Claudia; Siemons, Wolter; Payzant, E. Andrew; Biegalski, Michael; Ward, T. Z.; Mandrus, David; Stocks, G. M.; Gai, Zheng

    2015-04-07

    The epitaxially stabilized metallic α-FeSi>2mn> thin films on Si(001) were grown using pulsed laser deposition. While the bulk material of α-FeSi>2mn> is a high temperature metastable phase and nonmagnetic, the thin film is stabilized at room temperature and shows unusual electronic transport and magnetic properties due to strain modification. The transport renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K accompanied by an onset of ferromagnetism as well as a substantial magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of α-FeSi>2mn> obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our findings provide an example of a tailored material with interesting physics properties for practical applications.

  13. Geometric and Electronic Structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) Cofactor in Class Ic Ribonucleotide Reductase: Correlation to the Class Ia Binuclear Non-Heme Iron Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M.K.; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B.; Liu, Lei V.; Wong, Shaun D.; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E. Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe hetero-binuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable MnIVFeIII cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the MnIVFeIII cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs) / circular dichroism (CD) / magnetic CD (MCD) / variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the FeIII, whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the MnIV. We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with MnIV at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d, and oxo and OH− to metal charge transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the MnIVFeIII cofactor as having a µ-oxo, µ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the MnIV. From DFT calculations, the MnIV at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH− terminal ligand on this MnIV provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit. PMID:24131208

  14. The use of diffusion multiples to explore the Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Nathaniel

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) or Multi-principal element alloys (MEAs) are a relatively new class of alloys. These alloys are defined as having at least five major alloying elements in atomic percent from 5% to 35%. There are hundreds of thousands of equiatomic compositions possible and only a fraction have been explored. This project examines diffusion multiples as a method to accelerate alloy development in these systems. The system chosen for this experiment is the Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni system. The methodology developed for creating these diffusion multiples involved a two-step process. In the first step two binary alloys (50at-% Fe-Mn and 50 at%- Ni-Co ) were diffusion bonded together. In the second step, under uniaxial compression, was used to bond Cr to diffusion couple prepared in Step I. Successful diffusion multiples were created by this method. An auxiliary method named differential melting liquid impingement (DMLI) was developed that created diffusion multiples using liquid processing methods that will be described. After creation of these multiples, the ternary and quinary interface regions were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nanoindentation. The Cr/NiCo region experienced interdiffusion but no intermediate phase formation retaining the FCC / BCC interface at the hot-pressing temperature (1200 °C). However, upon cooling from 1200 °C, the BCC region adjacent to the interface decomposed into BCC + sigma. In contrast, the Cr/FeMn interface region developed a layered structure of FCC/sigma/BCC suggesting that sigma is stable at 1200 °C in contradiction to the published 1200 °C ternary phase diagram. Upon cooling, the sigma present at 1200 °C decomposed into FCC + sigma, except in samples that were contaminated with C; in those cases, FCC + M23C6 was observed as the decomposition product. The quinary regions were evaluated using the various HEA parameters, namely

  15. Short-range magnetic correlations and spin dynamics in the paramagnetic regime of (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. F.; Caron, L.; Cedervall, J.; Gubbens, P. C. M.; Dalmas de Réotier, P.; Yaouanc, A.; Qian, F.; Wildes, A. R.; Luetkens, H.; Amato, A.; van Dijk, N. H.; Brück, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial and temporal correlations of magnetic moments in the paramagnetic regime of (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) have been investigated by means of polarized neutron diffraction and muon-spin relaxation techniques. Short-range magnetic correlations are present at temperatures far above the ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC). This leads to deviations of paramagnetic susceptibility from Curie-Weiss behavior. These short-range magnetic correlations extend in space, slow down with decreasing temperature, and finally develop into long-range magnetic order at TC.

  16. Measurement of atomic Stark parameters of many Mn I and Fe I spectral lines using GMAW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska, S.; Pellerin, S.; Dzierzega, K.; Valensi, F.; Musiol, K.; Briand, F.

    2010-11-01

    The particular character of the welding arc working in pure argon, whose emission spectrum consists of many spectral lines strongly broadened by the Stark effect, has allowed measurement, sometimes for the first time, of the Stark parameters of 15 Mn I and 10 Fe I atomic spectral lines, and determination of the dependence on temperature of normalized Stark broadening in Ne = 1023 m-3 of the 542.4 nm atomic iron line. These results show that special properties of the MIG plasma may be useful in this domain because composition of the wire-electrode may be easily adapted to the needs of an experiment.

  17. Determination of soil micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, B) extracted by Mehlich 3 using MP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    The total concentration of micronutrients in soils is not a good predictor of its bioavailability and solubility. Therefore, during the decades several methods for the determination of plant availability and extractable fraction of micro- and macronutrients in soil were developed. Among several methods Mehlich 3 is the most appropriate due to its suitability for extracting soil micro- and macronutrients simultaneously. The AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods are widely used for the analysis of microelements today. In 2011 the third method was added to this list with the appearance of the microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MP-AES). This multielemental analytical equipment has a high potential in the soil analysis. Up to now there have been made some experiments for the use of MP-AES in soil and geological material analysis. But there is no information about the analysis of soil micronutrients extracted according to Mehlich 3 method and determined with the MP-AES. Due to the differences in atomization conditions the different emission and absorption lines are used in different instrumental methods. Therefore it is very important to choose the most suitable emission lines and the best atomization conditions. From the analytical viewpoint it is important to get coincidental results with other instrumental methods and from the agronomical point of view it is important to know the difference between AAS and ICP methods. For the experiment 51 soil samples were used. The samples were collected from A horizons of agricultural lands. The pH range was from 4.7 to 7.5 and organic matter content from 1.4 to 7.8%. The content of Mehlich 3 extractable micronutrients was determined using ICP and MP instrumental methods. The micronutrient contents ranged as follows: Fe - from 170 to 470 mg kg-1, Mn - from 5 to 190 mg kg-1, Cu - from 0.3 to 4.5 mg kg-1, B - from 0.2 to 2.1 mg kg-1. The optimal instrumental settings for iron

  18. Mechanism of selenite removal by a mixed adsorbent based on Fe-Mn hydrous oxides studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chubar, Natalia; Gerda, Vasyl; Szlachta, Małgorzata

    2014-11-18

    Selenium cycling in the environment is greatly controlled by various minerals, including Mn and Fe hydrous oxides. At the same time, such hydrous oxides are the main inorganic ion exchangers suitable (on the basis of their chemical nature) to sorb (toxic) anions, separating them from water solutions. The mechanism of selenite adsorption by the new mixed adsorbent composed of a few (amorphous and crystalline) phases [maghemite, MnCO3, and X-ray amorphous Fe(III) and Mn(III) hydrous oxides] was studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy [supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data]. The complexity of the porous adsorbent, especially the presence of the amorphous phases of Fe(III) and Mn(III) hydrous oxides, is the main reason for its high selenite removal performance demonstrated by batch and column adsorption studies shown in the previous work. Selenite was bound to the material via inner-sphere complexation (via oxygen) to the adsorption sites of the amorphous Fe(III) and Mn(III) oxides. This anion was attracted via bidentate binuclear corner-sharing coordination between SeO3(2-) trigonal pyramids and both FeO6 and MnO6 octahedra; however, the adsorption sites of Fe(III) hydrous oxides played a leading role in selenite removal. The contribution of the adsorption sites of Mn(III) oxide increased as the pH decreased from 8 to 6. Because most minerals have a complex structure (they are seldom based on individual substances) of various crystallinity, this work is equally relevant to environmental science and environmental technology because it shows how various solid phases control cycling of chemical elements in the environment.

  19. Application of Graphene Oxide-MnFe2O4 Magnetic Nanohybrids as Magnetically Separable Adsorbent for Highly Efficient Removal of Arsenic from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Pham Thi Lan; Huy, Le Thanh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Huy, Tran Quang; Nam, Man Hoai; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a functional magnetic nanohybrid consisting of manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. The as-prepared GO-MnFe2O4 magnetic nanohybrids were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. Adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption capacities and efficient removal of arsenic of the nanohybrid and compared with bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. Our obtained results reveal that the adsorption process of the nanohybrids was well fitted with a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and a Freundlich isotherm model; the maximum adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of the nanohybrids obtained ~240.385 mg/g and 99.9% with a fast response of equilibrium adsorption time ~20 min. The larger adsorption capacity and shorter equilibrium time of the GO-MnFe2O4 nanohybrids showed better performance than that of bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. The advantages of reusability, magnetic separation, high removal efficiency, and quick kinetics make these nanohybrids very promising as low-cost adsorbents for fast and effective removal of arsenic from water.

  20. Fabrication of magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires with superior capability for removal of As(III) from water.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao-Jie; Cai, Jie-Kui; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Baoling; Ai, Cui-Ling; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2014-08-30

    Magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires were successfully fabricated to efficient removal of As(III) from water. The adsorption capacity of the porous nanowires for As(III) obviously increased with increasing of manganese oxide in the composite, accompanying decrease of the saturation magnetization of the adsorbents. Magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires with an initial Fe:Mn molar ratio of 1:3 exhibited the highest absorption capacity for As(III) and enable magnetic separation from water. The maximal adsorption capacity value is 171mgg(-1) at pH 7.0. In the initial pH range from 3 to 9, 200μgL(-1) of As(III) could be easily decreased to below 10μgL(-1) by the magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires (0.05gL(-1)) within 75min, and the corresponding residual As was completely oxidized to less toxic As(V). The coexisting chloride, nitrate and sulfate had no significant effect on arsenic removal, whereas, phosphate and humic acid reduced the removal of As(III) by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. The resulting magnetic porous Fe-Mn binary oxide nanowires could be a promising adsorbent for As(III) removal from water.

  1. A facile approach to fabricate flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on MnFe2O4/graphene hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Dai, Wanlin; Ye, Jianshan

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenge for the construction of flexible electrochemical capacitors is the preparation of flexible electrodes with large specific capacitance and robust mechanical strength. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to make high performance and flexible electrodes by dropping MnFe2O4/graphene hybrid inks onto flexible graphite sheets (as current collectors and substrates) and drying under an infrared lamp. MnFe2O4/graphene hybrid inks are synthesized by immobilizing the MnFe2O4 microspheres on the graphene nanosheets via a simple solvothermal route. Electrochemical studies show that MnFe2O4/graphene exhibits a high capacitance of 300 F g-1 at a current density of 0.3 A g-1. In addition, the excellent electrochemical performance of a supercapacitor consisting of a sandwich structure of two pieces of MnFe2O4/graphene hybrids modified electrodes separated by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-H2SO4 gel electrolyte is further explored. Our studies reveal that the flexible supercapacitor device with 227 μm thickness can achieve a maximum specific capacitance of 120 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and excellent cycle performance retaining 105% capacitance after 5000 cycles. This research may offer a method for the fabrication of lightweight, stable, flexible and high performance energy storage devices.

  2. Magnetic properties of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Yao, Jinlei; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi3TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi3CuSi-RNi3NiSi-RNi3CoSi-RNi3MnSi-RNi3FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi4Si ( 0.5 kOe) to TbNi3CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi3MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi3FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi3CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field.

  3. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  4. The first principle study of magnetic properties of Mn2WSn, Fe2YSn (Y=Ti, V), Co2YSn (Y=Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mn) and Ni2YSn (Y=Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mn) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Sana; Arif, Suneela; Haneef, Muhammad; Amin, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The spin polarized electronic band structures, density of states (DOS) and magnetic properties of Mn2WSn, Fe2YSn (Y=Ti, V), Co2YSn (Y=Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mn) and Ni2YSn (Y=Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mn) huesler compounds are reported. The calculations are performed by using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within density functional theory. The magnetic trend in these compounds is studied using values of magnetic moments, exchange interaction and calculated band gap. The results reveal that Mn2WSn and Ni2VSn show 100% spin polarization, Co2YSn (Y=Ti, Zr, Hf, Mn), Fe2YSn (Y=Ti, V), and Ni2MnSn exhibit metallic nature and Ni2YSn (Y=Ti, Zr, Hf) and Co2VSn show semi-conducting behavior.

  5. Thermodynamic Stability of Transition-Metal-Substituted LiMn2-x Mx O4 (M=Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) Spinels.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chenying; Chen, Jiewei; Knight, James C; Manthiram, Arumugam; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    The formation enthalpies from binary oxides of LiMn2 O4 , LiMn2-x Crx O4 (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1), LiMn2-x Fex O4 (x=0.25 and 0.5), LiMn2-x Cox O4 (x=0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) and LiMn1.75 Ni0.25 O4 at 25 °C were measured by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and were found to be strongly exothermic. Increasing the Cr, Co, and Ni content leads to more thermodynamically stable spinels, but increasing the Fe content does not significantly affect the stability. The formation enthalpies from oxides of the fully substituted spinels, LiMnMO4 (M=Cr, Fe and Co), become more exothermic (implying increasing stability) with decreasing ionic radius of the metal and lattice parameters of the spinel. The trend in enthalpy versus metal content is roughly linear, suggesting a close-to-zero heat of mixing in LiMn2 O4 -LiMnMO4 solid solutions. These data confirm that transition-metal doping is beneficial for stabilizing these potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Thermodynamic Stability of Transition-Metal-Substituted LiMn2-x Mx O4 (M=Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) Spinels.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chenying; Chen, Jiewei; Knight, James C; Manthiram, Arumugam; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    The formation enthalpies from binary oxides of LiMn2 O4 , LiMn2-x Crx O4 (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1), LiMn2-x Fex O4 (x=0.25 and 0.5), LiMn2-x Cox O4 (x=0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) and LiMn1.75 Ni0.25 O4 at 25 °C were measured by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and were found to be strongly exothermic. Increasing the Cr, Co, and Ni content leads to more thermodynamically stable spinels, but increasing the Fe content does not significantly affect the stability. The formation enthalpies from oxides of the fully substituted spinels, LiMnMO4 (M=Cr, Fe and Co), become more exothermic (implying increasing stability) with decreasing ionic radius of the metal and lattice parameters of the spinel. The trend in enthalpy versus metal content is roughly linear, suggesting a close-to-zero heat of mixing in LiMn2 O4 -LiMnMO4 solid solutions. These data confirm that transition-metal doping is beneficial for stabilizing these potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27017448

  7. Mössbauer Studies of Fe0.7-x Si0.3Mn x Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Omari, I. A.; Gismelseed, A.; Rais, A.; Widatallah, H. M.; Al Rawas, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    In this work we present Fe57 Mössbauer study for the alloy system Fe0.7-x Si0.3Mn x , where 0≤x≤0.3. Mössbauer spectroscopic results show that all the samples studied are magnetically ordered at 77 K, and at room temperature, except for x=0.3 at 300 K where it shows paramagnetic behavior. The average magnetic hyperfine field is found to decrease with increasing the manganese concentration at 77 K and 300 K. The average magnetic hyperfine field is found to increase with decreasing the temperature from 300 K to 77 K for all samples under investigation. The average isomer shift is found to decrease with increasing the manganese concentration.

  8. Enhancement of exchange bias and training effect in ion-beam sputtered Fe{sub 46}Mn{sub 54}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Fulara, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Sujeet Kashyap, Subhash C.; Granville, Simon

    2014-01-28

    We present a remarkable enhancement by 300% of the exchange-bias field at room temperature, without affecting the coercivity value, via optimum magnetic annealing (250 °C/3 kOe) in ion-beam sputtered FeMn(30 nm)/NiFe(10 nm) bilayers. This specific behavior has been attributed to a higher degree of γ-FeMn(111) orientation that offers more interfacial FeMn moments to get pinned with the moments of the adjacent NiFe layer. Unlike the absence of training effect at room temperature, a pronounced training effect and an accompanying magnetization reversal asymmetry are evidenced upon field cooling below 50 K due to the presence of biaxial exchange induced anisotropy across the interdiffused FeMn/NiFe interface. The present findings not only have technological significance but also are of relevance to the understanding of interfacial spin disorder and frustration in these exchange-biased systems.

  9. RuO2 nanoparticle-modified (Ce,Mn,Fe)O2/(La,Sr) (Fe,Mn)O3 composite oxide as an active anode for direct hydrocarbon type solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Tae Ho; Hagiwara, Hidehisa; Ida, Shintaro; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-09-01

    Composite oxide anodes have recently attracted great attention as alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell anodes because of their potential to overcome the serious performance deterioration associated with the traditional Ni-based cermet. In particular, oxide anodes show a greater tolerance to coke and reoxidation than existing Ni-based cermets. In this study, the anodic performance of a (Ce,Mn,Fe)O2/(La,Sr) (Fe,Mn)O3 composite oxide modified with additional amounts of catalytically active RuO2 nanoparticles was investigated. Heat treatment resulted in highly dispersed RuO2 particles (ca. 10 nm). Anodes containing 10 wt% added RuO2 exhibited fairly high maximum power densities of 0.3 and 1.5 W cm-2 in H2 and C3H8, respectively, at 800 °C. The cells showed stable power density and negligible carbon formation even after 50 h of operation at 1 A cm-2. The increased power density was assigned to decreased anodic overpotential and internal resistance losses because RuO2 nanoparticles contribute to the increase in electrical conductivity.

  10. Biogenic nitrogen and carbon in Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides from an Archean chert, Marble Bar, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Hashizume, Ko; Orberger, Beate; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Cloquet, Christophe; Massault, Marc

    2007-02-01

    To quantify and localize nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in Archean rocks from the Marble Bar formation, Western Australia, and to gain insights on their origin and potential biogenicity, we conducted nuclear reaction analyses (NRA) and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio measurements on various samples from the 3460-Myr-old Fe-rich Marble Bar chert. The Marble Bar chert formed during the alteration of basaltic volcanoclastic rocks with Fe- and Si-rich hydrothermal fluids, and the subsequent precipitation of magnetite, carbonates, massive silica, and, locally, sulfides. At a later stage, the magnetite, sulfides, and carbonates were replaced by Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides. Nuclear reaction analyses indicate that most of the N and C resides within these Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides, but a minor fraction is found in K-feldspars and Ba-mica dispersed in the silica matrix. The N and C isotopic composition of Fe-oxides suggests the presence of a unique biogenic source with δ 15NAIR values from +6.0 +/- 0.5‰ to 7.3 +/- 1.1‰ and a δ 13CPDB value of -19.9 +/- 0.1‰. The C and N isotope ratios are similar to those observed in Proterozoic and Phanerozoic organic matter. Diffusion-controlled fractionation of N and C released during high combustion temperatures indicates that these two elements are firmly embedded within the iron oxides, with activation energies of 18.7 +/- 3.7 kJ/mol for N and 13.0 +/- 3.8 kJ/mol for C. We propose that N and C were chemisorbed on iron and were subsequently embedded in the crystals during iron oxidation and crystal growth. The Fe-isotopic composition of the Marble Bar chert (δ 56Fe = -0.38 +/- 0.02‰) is similar to that measured in iron oxides formed by direct precipitation of iron from hydrothermal plumes in contact with oxygenated waters. To explain the N and C isotopic composition of Marble Bar chert, we propose either (1) a later addition of N and C at the end of Archean when oxygen started to rise or (2) an earlier development of localized oxygenated

  11. Kinetic arrest induced antiferromagnetic order in hexagonal FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guijiang Li, Wei; Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Delczeg-Czirjak, Erna K.; Kvashnin, Yaroslav O.; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-12-29

    The magnetic state of the FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} alloy was investigated by first principles calculations. The coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} with the same hexagonal crystal structure was revealed. It was found that kinetic arrest during the transition from the high temperature disordered paramagnetic phase to the low temperature ordered ferromagnetic phase results in the intermediate metastable and partially disordered antiferromagnetic phase. We propose that the ratio of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in the FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} sample can be tuned by adjusting the kinetic process of atomic diffusion. The investigations suggest that careful control of the kinetic diffusion process provides another tuning parameter to design candidate magnetocaloric materials.

  12. Tunable ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling in perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa/Co2FeAl Heusler bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q. L.; Mizukami, S.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report a tailorable exchange coupling (Jex) at the Mn62Ga38/Co2FeAl interface, where Mn62Ga38 and Co2FeAl alloys are tetragonal Heusler alloy with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and typical cubic Heusler alloy with soft magnetism, respectively. As the post annealing temperature (Ta) is lower than 375 °C, the Jex is ferromagnetic with strength controllable from 7.5 to 0.5 erg/cm2. Interestingly, as Ta increases higher than 400 °C, an antiferromagnetic Jex of -5.5 erg/cm2 is observed. The ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic transition is further evidenced by the spin dependent transport property of the magnetic tunnel junctions with Mn62Ga38/Co2FeAl as electrode. Based on structure characterization, the variation of Jex during annealing is discussed.

  13. Exchange-spring like magnetic behavior of the tetragonal Heusler compound Mn2FeGa as a candidate for spin-transfer torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasi, Teuta; Nayak, Ajaya K.; Winterlik, Jürgen; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Adler, Peter; Nicklas, Michael; Felser, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    We report structural, magnetic, and Mössbauer studies of the Heusler compound Mn2FeGa. Theoretical calculations predict that a tetragonal phase in Mn2FeGa could be an interesting candidate for spin torque transfer applications due to the presence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Experimentally, we found that Mn2FeGa crystallizes in a tetragonal structure after annealing at low temperatures (≤400 °C), whereas, it becomes pseudocubic for higher annealing temperatures. The sample annealed at 400 °C shows a high Curie temperature of 650 K and a hard-magnetic behavior. We observed a nonsaturating and exchange-spring type of hysteresis loops, which indicates that the sample contains two different magnetic states. The Mössbauer measurements clearly support the structural and magnetic data. All these properties make the material a potential candidate for spintronic devices, especially in thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  14. Lunar highland rocks - Element partitioning among minerals. II - Electron microprobe analyses of Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.; Hansen, E. C.; Steele, I. M.

    1980-01-01

    Lunar olivines from anorthosites, granulitic impactites, and rocks in the Mg-rich plutonic trend were subjected to electron probe measurements for Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn, which show that the FeO/MnO ratio for lunar olivines lies between 80 and 110 with little difference among the rock types. The low values of Ca in lunar olivines indicate slow cooling to subsolidus temperatures, with blocking temperatures of about 750 C for 67667 and 1000 C for 60255,73-alpha determined by the Finnerty and Boyd (1978) experiments. An important paradox is noted in the low Ti content of Fe-rich olivines from anorthosites, although both Ti and Fe tend to become enriched in liquid during fractional distillation. Except for Ca and Mn, olivine from anorthosites has lower minor element values than other rock types. Formation from a chemically distinct system is therefore implied.

  15. Abrupt transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic of interfacial exchange in perpendicularly magnetized L1(0)-MnGa/FeCo tuned by Fermi level position.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q L; Mizukami, S; Kubota, T; Zhang, X M; Ando, Y; Miyazaki, T

    2014-04-18

    An abrupt transition of the interfacial exchange coupling from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic was observed in the interface of perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa/Fe1-xCox epitaxial bilayers when x was around 25%. By considering the special band structure of the MnGa alloy, we present a model explaining this transition by the spin-polarization reversal of Fe1-xCox alloys due to the rise of the Fermi level as the Co content increases. The effect of interfacial exchange coupling on the coercive force (Hc) and the spin-dependent tunneling effect in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) based on the coupled composite were also studied. Changes from the normal spin valve to inverted magnetoresistance loops corresponding to the coupling transition were observed in pMTJs with MnGa/Fe1-xCox as an electrode. PMID:24785068

  16. Magneto-elastic coupling in La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy within the Bean-Rodbell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bez, Henrique N.; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Norby, Poul; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian R. H.

    2016-05-01

    First order magnetic phase transition materials present a large magnetocaloric effect around the transition temperature, where these materials usually undergo a large volume or structural change. This may lead to some challenges for applications, as the material may break apart during field change, due to high internal stresses. A promising magnetocaloric material is La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy, where the transition temperature can be controlled through the Mn amount. In this work we use XRD measurements to evaluate the temperature dependence of the unit cell volume with a varying Mn amount. The system is modelled using the Bean-Rodbell model, which is based on the assumption that the spin-lattice coupling depends linearly on the unit cell volume. This coupling is defined by the model parameter η, where for η > 1 the material undergoes a first order transition and for η ≤ 1 a second order transition. We superimpose a Gaussian distribution of the transition temperature with a standard deviation σ (" separators=" T 0 ) , in order to model the chemical inhomogeneity. Good agreement is obtained between measurements and model with values of η ˜ 1.8 and σ(T0) = 1.0 K.

  17. Reducing the inversion degree of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles through synthesis to enhance magnetization: evaluation of their (1)H NMR relaxation and heating efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vamvakidis, K; Katsikini, M; Sakellari, D; Paloura, E C; Kalogirou, O; Dendrinou-Samara, C

    2014-09-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles of identical size (9 nm) and with different inversion degrees were synthesized under solvothermal conditions as a candidate theranostic system. In this facile approach, a long-chain amine, oleylamine, was utilized as a reducing and surface-functionalizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were shown to have a cubic-spinel structure as characterized by TEM and XRD patterns. Control over their inversion degree was achieved by a simple change of manganese precursor from Mn(acac)2 to Mn(acac)3. The variation in the inversion degree is ascribed to the partial oxidation of Mn(2+) to Mn(3+), as was evidenced by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at both the Fe and Mn K-edges. The reduction of the inversion degree from 0.42 to 0.22 is close to the corresponding bulk value of 0.20 and led to elevated magnetization (65.7 emu g(-1)), in contrast to the Néel temperature, which was decreased owing to the weaker superexchange interactions between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites within the spinel structure. In order to evaluate the performance of these nanoprobes as a possible bifunctional targeting system, the (1)H NMR relaxation of the samples was tested together with their specific loss power under an alternating magnetic field as a function of concentration. The hydrophobic as prepared MnFe2O4 nanoparticles converted to hydrophilic nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, well-dispersed in aqueous media, were shown to have r2 relaxivity of up to 345.5 mM(-1) s(-1) and heat release of up to 286 W g(-1), demonstrating their potential use for bioapplications. PMID:25014470

  18. Critical dependence of magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect on particle size in Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rongrong; Shen, Feiran; Hu, Fengxia; Wang, Jing; Bao, Lifu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yao; Zhao, Yingying; Liang, Feixiang; Zuo, Wenliang; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetostructural coupling, which is the coincidence of crystallographic and magnetic transition, has obtained intense attention for its abundant magnetoresponse effects and promising technological applications, such as solid-state refrigeration, magnetic actuators and sensors. The hexagonal Ni2In-type compounds have attracted much attraction due to the strong magnetostructural coupling and the resulted giant negative thermal expansion and magnetocaloric effect. However, the as-prepared samples are quite brittle and naturally collapse into powders. Here, we report the effect of particle size on the magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect in the Ni2In-type Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compound, which undergoes a large lattice change across the transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite. The disappearance of martensitic transformation in a large amount of austenitic phase with reducing particle size, to our best knowledge, has not been reported up to now. The ratio can be as high as 40.6% when the MnNi0.8Fe0.2Ge bulk was broken into particles in the size range of 5~15 μm. Meanwhile, the remained magnetostructural transition gets wider and the magnetic hysteresis becomes smaller. As a result, the entropy change drops, but the effective cooling power RCeffe increases and attains to the maximum at particles in the range of 20~40 μm. These observations provide constructive information and highly benefit practical applications for this class of novel magnetoresponse materials. PMID:26883719

  19. Structural, Magnetic, and Optical Properties of A3V4(PO4)6 (A = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).

    PubMed

    Porter, Spencer H; Xiong, Jie; Avdeev, Maxim; Merz, David; Woodward, Patrick M; Huang, Zhenguo

    2016-06-20

    Combined synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction indicates that A3V4(PO4)6 (A = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds crystallize with triclinic P1̅ symmetry. Lattice parameters expand as expected with successive increases in the ionic radius of the A(2+) ion. Cation disorder on the octahedral sites increases as the ionic radii of A(2+) ion decreases. Direct-current magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that all compounds with magnetic A(2+) ions order anti-ferromagnetically with transition temperatures ranging from 12 to 15 K. Effective magnetic moments for A3V4(PO4)6 (A = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are 5.16, 11.04, 10.08, 9.76, and 7.96 μB per formula unit, respectively, in line with calculated values for high-spin transition metal ions. With the exception of Co3V4(PO4)6 the ultraviolet-visible spectra are dominated by d-d transitions of the V(3+) ions. The striking emerald green color of Co3V4(PO4)6 arises from the combined effects of d-d transitions involving both V(3+) and Co(2+). PMID:27227553

  20. Nano-twin Mediated Plasticity in Carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn High Entropy Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenggang; Bei, Hongbin; Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-14

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. Moreover, the effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. We found that these materials can be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (~70% at 77 K and ~40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys.