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Sample records for dose mn fe

  1. Longitudinal and perpendicular exchange bias in FeMn/(FeNi/FeMn)n multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Zhou, S. M.; Searson, P. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2003-05-01

    Exchange bias in ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AF) bilayers is usually investigated in the longitudinal configuration with the exchange coupling established in the film plane. In this work, we report on the perpendicular exchange bias in FeMn(8 nm)/[FeNi(2 nm)/FeMn(8 nm)]n multilayers induced by perpendicular field cooling. The thin FeNi layers give rise to large values of the exchange field and coercivity, and n=15 allows a sufficiently large magnetization for the measurements. Even though the soft FeNi layers have an intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, perpendicular exchange bias has been observed after cooling in a perpendicular external field. The exchange field in the perpendicular configuration is about 0.85 that of the longitudinal case. In both the longitudinal and perpendicular configurations, the exchange field decreases quasilinearly with temperature. The squareness of perpendicular hysteresis loops decreases with increasing temperature.

  2. Electronic structure of Mn and Fe oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Walter

    2008-03-01

    We present a clear, simple tight-binding representation of the electronic structure and cohesive energy (energy of atomization) of MnO, Mn2O3, and MnO2, in which the formal charge states Mn^2+, Mn^3+, and Mn^4+, respectively, occur. It is based upon localized cluster orbitals for each Mn and its six oxygen neighbors. This approach is fundamentally different from local-density theory (or LDA+U), and perhaps diametrically opposite to Dynamical Mean Field Theory. Electronic states were calculated self-consistently using existing parameters [1], but it is found that the charge density is quite insensitive to charge state, so that the starting parameters are adequate. The cohesive energy per Mn is dominated by the transfer of two s electrons to oxygen p states, the same for all three compounds. The differing transfer of majority d electrons to oxygen p states, and the coupling between them, accounts for the observed variation in cohesion in the series. The same description applies to the perovskites, such as LaxSr1-xMnO3, and can be used for FeO, Fe2O3 (and FeO2), Because the formulation is local, it is equally applicable to impurities, defects and surfaces. [1] Walter A. Harrison, Elementary Electronic Structure, World Scientific (Singapore, 1999), revised edition (2004).

  3. Tough cryogenic alloys from the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanfein, M. J.; Zackay, V. F.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    By adjusting composition, metastable gamma (austenite) and epsilon (hexagonal) martensite may be retained in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr alloys and used to impact toughness through the TRIP mechanism. The resulting alloys have excellent toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The best alloys obtained to date are: Fe-20Mn, with sigma (sub y) = 79ksi and K sub IC = 275ksi square root of (in) at 77 K, and Fc-16Mn-8Cr, with sigma sub y = 85ksi and K sub IC = 72ksi square root of (in) at 77 K.

  4. Absorption and Transfer of Fe and Mn in Germinating Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Seshadri; Joseph, Benedict

    1975-01-01

    The absorption of Fe from FeSO4, FeEDTA, and FeEDDHA (ferric ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate)), and Mn from MnSO4, MnEDTA, and MnEDDHA, by germinating sorghum (Sorghum vulgarie Pers. var. M 35-1) was studied. The seeds were found to absorb Fe and Mn from all the sources, and these ions moved to the scutellum, shoot, and root. EDDHA facilitated greater translocation of Fe and Mn from the seed to the shoot and root. The translocation of Fe was more towards the root than to the shoot, whereas it was the reverse in the case of Mn. We observed that the leaves of seedlings treated with Mn were slightly chlorotic. Further studies revealed that Mn did not affect the translocation of Fe, and possibly interfered with Fe utilization in chlorophyll synthesis. PMID:16659199

  5. Exchange anisotropy in NiFe layers coupled with multilayered MnFe/MnFeCr (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Kenneth T.-Y.; Campbell, Richard T.

    1991-11-01

    The exchange anisotropy in a ferromagnetic NiFe layer coupled with an antiferromagnetic MnFe layer can be used to stabilize the single domain state of a magnetoresistive sensor,1 but this technology may be limited by the high corrosion sensitivity of MnFe. It is possible to improve the corrosion resistance of MnFe through impurity doping, e.g., MnFeCr with Cr concentrations of 3-12 at. %,2 but this technique will at the same time degrade the exchange anisotropy. In this work, we have investigated the exchange anisotropy in NiFe layers coupled with multilayered MnFe/MnFeCr. The samples had a configuration of glass substrates, followed by a NiFe (300 Å) layer, followed by a MnFe(x Å)/MnFeCr(y Å) multilayer, where the antiferromagnetic multilayer had either MnFe or MnFeCr interfacing with the NiFe and had a fixed total thickness of 240 Å. They were prepared by rf diode sputtering and, after a Ta (200 Å) protective layer deposition, were thermally cycled to a maximum temperature of 250 °C. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The anisotropy energy, EUA, near the room temperature ranged from 0.03 to 0.10 erg/cm2; it was determined mostly by the antiferromagnetic layer (MnFe or MnFeCr) at the NiFe interface and was essentially independent of the rest of antiferromagnetic structure. (2) The critical temperature, TC, range from 90 to 160 °C; it was determined mostly by the relative amounts of MnFe and MnFeCr in the entire antiferromagnetic structure and not just at the NiFe interface. These results implied that, while one could improve the anisotropy energy at lower temperatures simply by improving the antiferromagnetic layer near the NiFe interface, to improve the anisotropy energy at higher temperatures one must improve the entire antiferromagnetic layer.

  6. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt %) to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al-5Mg-Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al-5Mg-Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  7. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt %) to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  8. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2008-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  9. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  10. Low hysteresis FeMn-based top spin valve.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, V V; Krinitsina, T P; Milyaev, M A; Naumova, L I; Proglyado, V V

    2012-09-01

    FeMn-based top spin valves Ta/[FeNi/CoFe]/Cu/CoFe/FeMn/Ta with different Cu and FeMn layers thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was shown that low field hysteresis due to free layer magnetization reversal can be reduced down to (0.1 divided by 0.2) Oe keeping the GMR ratio higher 8% by using both layers thicknesses optimization and non-collinear geometry of magnetoresistance measurements. Dependence of low field hysteresis and GMR ratio on the angle between applied magnetic field and pinning direction are presented.

  11. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  12. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  13. Fe/Mn in olivine of carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now

  14. Fe/Mn in olivine of carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now

  15. Revisiting Mn and Fe removal in humic rich estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Véronique E.; Miller, Megan T.; Jensen, Laramie T.; Luther, George W.

    2017-07-01

    Metal removal by estuarine mixing has been studied for several decades, but few studies emphasize dissolved metal speciation and organic ligand complexation. Findings from the last decade indicate that metal-humic complexation can be significant for dissolved metals including Cu(II), Al(III) and Fe(III), but little consideration is given to the precipitation of these complexes with humic material at pH < 2. Given that total soluble metal analysis involves an acidification step for sample preservation, we show that Mn and other metal concentrations may have been underestimated in estuaries, especially when humic substance concentrations are high. A competitive ligand assay of selected samples from our study site, a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands (Broadkill River, DE), showed that Mn(III)-humic complexation is significant, and that some Mn(III)-L complexes precipitate during acidification. In the oxygenated surface waters of the Broadkill River, total dissolved Mn (dMnT) was up to 100% complexed to ambient ligands as Mn(III)-L, and we present evidence for humic-type Mn(III)-L complexes. The Mn(III) complexes were kinetically stabilized against Fe(II) reduction, even when [Fe(II)] was 17 times higher than [dMnT]. Unlike typical oceanic surface waters, [Fe(II)] > [Fe(III)-L] in surface waters, which may be attributed to high rates of photoreduction of Fe(III)-L complexes. Total [Mn(III)-L] ranged from 0.22 to 8.4 μM, in excess of solid MnOx (below 0.28 μM in all samples). Filtration of samples through 0.02 μm filters indicated that all Mn(III)-L complexes pass through the filters and were not colloidal species in contrast to dissolved Fe. Incubation experiments indicated that the reductive dissolution of solid MnOx by ambient ligands may be responsible for Mn(III) formation in this system. Unlike previous studies of estuarine mixing, which demonstrated metal removal during mixing, we show significant export of dMn and dissolved Fe (dFe) in the summer and fall

  16. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  17. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in N i80F e20/FeMn /W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. Using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. The latter can extend to relatively large distances (≈9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  18. Bioresorbable Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-HA Materials for Orthopedic Implantation: Enhancing Degradation through Porosity Control.

    PubMed

    Heiden, Michael; Nauman, Eric; Stanciu, Lia

    2017-07-01

    Resorbable, porous iron-manganese-hydroxyapatite biocomposites with suitable degradation rates for orthopedic applications are prepared using salt-leaching for the first time. These transient biomaterials have the potential to replace inert, permanent implants that can suffer from long-term complications, or have to be surgically removed, leaving an unfavorable void. Fe30Mn-10HA materials are newly developed to address inadequate resorption rates of degradable materials proposed for orthopedic environments in the past. In this study, controllable porosities with 300 µm diameter pores are introduced into Fe30Mn alloys and Fe30Mn-10HA composites, which enhance tissue ingrowth. For the composites, a Ca2 Mn7 O14 phase generated within the Fe30Mn matrix during the sintering process greatly increases degradability. The combination of this second phase and added porosity is found to contribute to increased bone-like apatite layer formation, mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell attachment, and reduction of detrimental oxide layer flaking. Remarkably, after thirty days in vitro, there is a significant increase in degradation up to 0.82 ± 0.04 mm per year for 30 wt% porous Fe30Mn-10HA biocomposites, compared to 0.02 ± 0.00 mm per year for traditional nonporous Fe30Mn, thereby increasing the viability of these materials for future clinical studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Molecular orbital (SCF-X-α-SW) theory of Fe2+-Mn3+, Fe3+-Mn2+, and Fe3+-Mn3+ charge transfer and magnetic exchange in oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-metal charge-transfer and magnetic exchange interactions have important effects on the optical spectra, crystal chemistry, and physics of minerals. Previous molecular orbital calculations have provided insight on the nature of Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions in oxides and silicates. In this work, spin-unrestricted molecular orbital calculations on (FeMnO10) clusters are used to study the nature of magnetic exchange and electron delocalization (charge transfer) associated with Fe3+-Mn2+, Fe3+-Mn3+, and Fe2+-Mn3+ interactions in oxides and silicates. 

  20. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed

    Lovley, Derek R; Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P

    2004-01-01

    Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction has an important influence on the geochemistry of modern environments, and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, most notably those in the Geobacteraceae family, can play an important role in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with organic or metal contaminants. Microorganisms with the capacity to conserve energy from Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction are phylogenetically dispersed throughout the Bacteria and Archaea. The ability to oxidize hydrogen with the reduction of Fe(III) is a highly conserved characteristic of hyperthermophilic microorganisms and one Fe(III)-reducing Archaea grows at the highest temperature yet recorded for any organism. Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to oxidize a wide variety of organic compounds, often completely to carbon dioxide. Typical alternative electron acceptors for Fe(III) reducers include oxygen, nitrate, U(VI) and electrodes. Unlike other commonly considered electron acceptors, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, the most prevalent form of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in most environments, are insoluble. Thus, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms face the dilemma of how to transfer electrons derived from central metabolism onto an insoluble, extracellular electron acceptor. Although microbiological and geochemical evidence suggests that Fe(III) reduction may have been the first form of microbial respiration, the capacity for Fe(III) reduction appears to have evolved several times as phylogenetically distinct Fe(III) reducers have different mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction. Geobacter species, which are representative of the family of Fe(III) reducers that predominate in a wide diversity of sedimentary environments, require direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them. In contrast, Shewanella and Geothrix species produce chelators that solubilize Fe(III) and release electron-shuttling compounds that transfer electrons from the cell surface to

  1. Structure and magnetism of antiferromagnetic FeMN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat, Stefan

    2000-09-01

    The magnetic and electronic structure of bulk fcc Fe 50Mn50 was studied by first principles calculations using the layer-version of the Korringa- Kohn-Rostocker method with the local spin density approximation and the coherent potential approximation to treat chemical disorder. The self-consistent calculations suggest a non-collinear spin-structure for Fe50Mn50 as the magnetic ground state, which can be understood from the electronic structure. Possible spin-structures identified are the 3Q structure with spins pointing along the body diagonals and the 2Q structure with spins pointing along the face diagonals. The collinear 1Q structure with spins pointing along the cube edges was found to be energetically unstable. Epitaxial FeMn/Cu multilayers were grown epitaxially by sputtering onto a thick buffer layer of twinned Cu(111) on H-terminated Si(110). The growth was characterized in situ by Auger electron spectroscopy and electron diffraction techniques and ex situ by X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed on these multilayers to investigate the spin structure of thin Fe50Mn50 films. The measurements confirmed that Fe50Mn50 has either a 3Q structure or equally populated domains of 2Q or 1Q structures. Hysteresis loops of polycrystalline and epitaxial exchange-biased Ni 80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 films were measured as a function of Fe50Mn50 layer thickness with the longitudinal Kerr effect. The variation of the loop-shift and the coercivity were observed over a full 360° in plane rotation and Fourier analyzed. Coercivities and loop shifts show a strong dependence on the antiferromagnetic layer thickness. Examination of the angular dependent results within different models of exchange bias verified that the Fourier coefficients obey necessary conditions to achieve energetic stability together with spontaneous magnetization.

  2. Topological frustrations in Mn films on Fe(001).

    PubMed

    Wulfhekel, Wulf; Schlickum, Uta; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    The high lateral resolution of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy allows new insights into the spin structure of antiferromagnets on the nanometer range. We demonstrate the capability to image a well-defined in-plane component of the sample spin polarization and discuss the spin structure of antiferromagnetic bct Mn in contact with the ferromagnetic Fe(001) substrate. Mn atoms couple ferromagnetically within a Mn atomic plane, while normal to the surface a layer-wise antiferromagnetic order was found. Magnetic frustrations arise in this system at Fe substrate steps at the interface, where topologically induced 180 degrees domain walls are created in the Mn film. A clear widening of the enforced domain walls with increasing Mn thickness was found. The measured widths could be fitted with a linear function and are explained on the basis of a Heisenberg model.

  3. Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Fe-Mn Binary Alloys with High Mn Content: Effects of Stable and Metastable ɛ-Martensite, and Mn Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Motomichi; Okazaki, Shota; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2016-06-01

    To obtain a basic understanding of hydrogen embrittlement associated with ɛ-martensite, we investigated the tensile behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys with high Mn content under cathodic hydrogen charging. We used Fe-20Mn, Fe-28Mn, Fe-32Mn, and Fe-40Mn alloys. The correlation between the microstructure and crack morphology was clarified through electron backscatter diffraction measurements and electron channeling contrast imaging. ɛ-martensite in the Fe-20Mn alloy critically deteriorated the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement owing to transformation to α'-martensite. However, when ɛ-martensite is stable, hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility became low, particularly in the Fe-32Mn alloys, even though the formation of ɛ-martensite plates assisted boundary cracking. The Fe-40Mn alloys, in which no martensite forms even after fracture, showed higher hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility compared to the Fe-32Mn alloy. Namely, in Fe-Mn binary alloys, the Mn content has an optimal value for hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility because of the following two reasons: (1) The formation of stable ɛ-martensite seems to have a positive effect in suppressing hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity, but causes boundary cracking, and (2) an increase in Mn content stabilizes austenite, suppressing martensite-related cracking, but probably decreases the cohesive energy of grain boundaries, causing intergranular cracking. As a consequence, the optimal Mn content was 32 wt pct in the present alloys.

  4. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    SciTech Connect

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-19

    Here, we investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in Ni80Fe20/FeMn/W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. By using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. Furthermore, the latter can extend to relatively large distances (approximate to 9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  5. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    DOE PAGES

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Here, we investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in Ni80Fe20/FeMn/W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. By using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. Furthermore, the latter can extend to relatively large distances (approximate to 9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close tomore » the measurement temperature.« less

  6. Ferrous Carbonyl Dithiolates as Precursors to FeFe, FeCo, and FeMn Carbonyl Dithiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reported are complexes of the formula Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and their use to prepare homo- and heterobimetallic dithiolato derivatives. The starting iron dithiolates were prepared by a one-pot reaction of FeCl2 and CO with chelating diphosphines and dithiolates, where dithiolate = S2(CH2)22– (edt2–), S2(CH2)32– (pdt2–), S2(CH2)2(C(CH3)2)2– (Me2pdt2–) and diphos = cis-C2H2(PPh2)2 (dppv), C2H4(PPh2)2 (dppe), C6H4(PPh2)2 (dppbz), C2H4[P(C6H11)2]2 (dcpe). The incorporation of 57Fe into such building block complexes commenced with the conversion of 57Fe into 57Fe2I4(iPrOH)4, which then was treated with K2pdt, CO, and dppe to give 57Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe). NMR and IR analyses show that these complexes exist as mixtures of all-cis and trans-CO isomers, edt2– favoring the former and pdt2– the latter. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with the Fe(0) reagent (benzylideneacetone)Fe(CO)3 gave Fe2(dithiolate)(CO)4(diphos), thereby defining a route from simple ferrous salts to models for hydrogenase active sites. Extending the building block route to heterobimetallic complexes, treatment of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) with [(acenaphthene)Mn(CO)3]+ gave [(CO)3Mn(pdt)Fe(CO)2(dppe)]+ ([3d(CO)]+). Reduction of [3d(CO)]+ with BH4– gave the Cs-symmetric μ-hydride (CO)3Mn(pdt)(H)Fe(CO)(dppe) (H3d). Complex H3d is reversibly protonated by strong acids, the proposed site of protonation being sulfur. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with CpCoI2(CO) followed by reduction by Cp2Co affords CpCo(dithiolate)Fe(CO)(diphos) (4), which can also be prepared from Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and CpCo(CO)2. Like the electronically related (CO)3Fe(pdt)Fe(CO)(diphos), these complexes undergo protonation to afford the μ-hydrido complexes [CpCo(dithiolate)HFe(CO)(diphos)]+. Low-temperature NMR studies indicate that Co is the kinetic site of protonation. PMID:24803716

  7. Magnetic interactions in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M.; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y. B.; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces. PMID:25766744

  8. Study of intergranular embrittlement in Fe-12Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Auger microscopic study has been performed on the intergranular fracture surfaces of Fe-12Mn steels in the as-austenitized condition. Fracture mode below the ductile-brittle transition temperature was intergranular whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field. The intergranular fracture surface failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, As, O, or N. The occasional appearance of S or O on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO/sub 2/ along the prior austenite boundaries. An AES study with Ar/sup +/ ion-sputtering showed no evidence of manganese enrichment along the prior austenite boundaries, but a slight segregation of carbon which does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. Addition of 0.002% B with a 1000/sup 0/C/1h/WQ treatment yielded a high Charpy impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature, preventing the intergranular fracture. High resolution AES studies showed that 3 at. % B on the prior austenite grain boundaries is most effective in increasing the grain boundary cohesive strength in an Fe-12Mn alloy. Trace additions of Mg, Zr, or V had negligible effects on the intergranular embrittlement. A 450/sup 0/C temper of the boron-modified alloys was found to cause tempered martensite embrittlement, leading to intergranular fracture. The embrittling treatment of the Fe-12Mn alloys with and without boron additions raised the ductile-brittle transition by 150/sup 0/C. This tempered martensite embrittlement was found to be due to the Mn enrichment of the fracture surface to 32 at. % Mn in the boron-modified alloy and 38 at. % Mn in the unmodified alloy. The Mn-enriched region along the prior austenite grain boundaries upon further tempering is believed to cause nucleation of austenite and to change the chemistry of the intergranular fracture surfaces. 61 figures.

  9. Electronic structure of disordered α-FeMn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduani, C.; da Silva, E. G.

    1996-08-01

    Cluster calculations were performed with the first-principles discrete variational method, in the LSD approximation and spin-polarized case, to investigate the electronic structure of the ferromagnetic disordered α-FeMn alloys. We investigated the effect on the local magnetic properties at iron sites of the introduction of Mn atoms in their first and second neighborhoods. The calculated magnetic moment and hyperfine magnetic field ( Hc) for an isolated Mn atom in a bcc iron host were obtained as -3.15 μB and -230 kG, respectively, in good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Magnetic properties of NixFe100-x layers in exchange-coupled FeMn/NixFe100-x film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adanakova, Olga; Lepalovskij, Vladimir; Svalov, Andrey; Larrañaga, Aitor; Trubin, Anton; Vas'kovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Thin Fe20Ni80/FeMn/NixFe100-x multilayers were prepared using magnetron sputtering. The influence of composition on crystalline structure, exchange bias, magnetic hysteresis, and spontaneous magnetization of FeNi ferromagnetic layers coupled with the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer was investigated.

  11. Magnetic properties and atomic ordering of BCC Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, atomic disorder and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. BCC Fe2MnGa ribbon samples were prepared. Experimentally, a saturation magnetic moment (3.68 μB at 5 K) much larger than the theoretical value (2.04 μB) has been reported. First-principles calculations indicate that the difference is related to the Fe-Mn disorder between A, B sites, as can also be deduced from the XRD pattern. L21 type Fe2MnGa is a ferrimagnet with antiparallel Fe and Mn spin moments. However, when Fe-Mn disorder occurs, part of Mn moments will be parallel to Fe moments, and the Fe moments also clearly increase simultaneously. All this results in a total moment of 3.74 μB, close to the experimental value.

  12. Magnetism of monomer MnO and heterodimer FePt@MnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Klapper, A.; Su, Y.; Nemkovski, K.; Wildes, A.; Bauer, H.; Köhler, O.; Schilmann, A.; Tremel, W.; Petracic, O.; Brückel, Th.

    2017-04-01

    We report about the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic (AF) MnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different sizes (6-19 nm). Using a combination of polarized neutron scattering and magnetometry, we were able to resolve previously observed peculiarities. Magnetometry, on the one hand, reveals a peak in the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves at low temperatures (˜25 K) but n o feature around the Néel temperature at 118 K. On the other hand, polarized neutron scattering shows the expected behavior of the AF order parameter vanishing around 118 K. Moreover, hysteresis curves measured at various temperatures reveal an exchange-bias effect, indicating a coupling of an AF core to a ferromagnetic (FM)-like shell. ZFC data measured at various fields exclude a purely superparamagnetic (SPM) scenario. We conclude that the magnetic behavior of MnO particles can be explained by a superposition of SPM-like thermal fluctuations of the AF-Néel vector inside the AF core and a magnetic coupling to a ferrimagnetic Mn2O3 or Mn3O4 shell. In addition, we have studied heterodimer ("Janus") particles, where a FM FePt particle is attached to the AF MnO particle. Via the exchange-bias effect, the magnetic moment of the FePt subunit is stabilized by the MnO.

  13. β decay of 61Mn to levels in 61Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulov, D.; Chiara, C. J.; Darby, I. G.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Huyse, M.; Köster, U.; Marsh, B. A.; Pauwels, D.; Popescu, L.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Walters, W. B.; Wimmer, K.

    2013-07-01

    A detailed β-decay study of 61Mn is presented, yielding extended information on the level structure of 61Fe. Pure beams were obtained at ISOLDE, CERN, after selective laser ionization and mass separation of fission products from the bombardment of a UCx target by 1.4-GeV protons. The β and γ information was detected by two MiniBall clusters and three ΔE plastic scintillators. The new 61Mn decay scheme reveals 48 γ transitions, distributed over 20 excited states. A comparison to the decay scheme of 59Mn and excited states in 59Fe is made. Shell-model calculations with two different interactions are performed in order to compare the nuclear structure of the two neighboring odd-A iron isotopes. Tentative spin and parities of several excited states in 61Fe are assigned on the basis of β-decay feeding patterns in both 59,61Fe and of results from the theoretical shell-model calculations.

  14. Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pre-treatment for Microcystis aeruginosa removal by Al coagulation: simultaneous enhanced cyanobacterium removal and residual coagulant control.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-11-15

    A novel Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pre-treatment was proposed to simultaneously enhance the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa by aluminum chloride (AlCl3) coagulation and enabled lowering the dose of Al as effective coagulation can be achieved only by Al, however, at higher doses. In this process, permanganate [Mn(VII)] and ferrous sulfate [Fe(II)] were dosed sequentially prior to Al. The application of Fe(II) not only avoids the extensive oxidation of M. aeruginosa by Mn(VII) but also introduces Fe(III) formed in situ into the system. Results show that, at Al doses of 83.3-108.3 μM, Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pretreatment (Mn(VII) dose: 8.3-16.7 μM; Fe(II) dose: 39.5 μM) is capable of enhancing M. aeruginosa removal by 73.4-81.4%. In contrast, only 0-65.4% and 2.7-8.2% increase in M. aeruginosa removal is achieved by Mn(VII) and Fe(II) pre-treatment, respectively. The ESI-MS spectrum shows that the freshly formed Fe(III) hydrolyzes much more slowly than pre-formed Fe(III) does, and this effect results in its higher efficiency towards the removal of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, in the co-existing system, Fe tends to hydrolyze preferentially and the presence of Fe salts improves the precipitation of Al and vice versa. Thus, the use of Fe and Al as dual-coagulants is practically valuable to control the residual level of coagulant(s) besides its improvement on the removal of M. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strong anisotropy and magnetostriction in the two-dimensional Stoner ferromagnet Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Kent, P. R. C.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2016-04-06

    Computationally characterizing magnetic properies of novel two-dimensional (2D) materials serves as an important first step of exploring possible applications. Using density-functional theory, we show that single-layer Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn> is a potential 2D material with sufficiently low formation energy to be synthesized by mechanical exfoliation from the bulk phase with a van der Waals layered structure. In addition, we calculated the phonon dispersion demonstrating that single-layer Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn>is dynamically stable. Furthermore, we find that similar to the bulk phase, 2D Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn> exhibits amagnetic moment that originates from a Stoner instability. In contrast to other 2D materials, we find that single-layer Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn> exhibits a significant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of 920μ eV per Fe atom originating from spin-orbit coupling. In conclusion, we show that applying biaxial tensile strains enhances the anisotropy energy, which reveals strong magnetostriction in single-layer Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn> with a sizable magneostrictive coefficient. Our results indicate that single-layer Fe>3mn>GeTe>2mn> is potentially useful for magnetic storage applications.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Performance Observed in Mn-Doped BiFeO3 Heterostructured Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao-Min; Wang, Huanchun; Shi, Ji; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Pure BiFeO3 and heterostructured BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (5% Mn-doped BiFeO3) thin films have been prepared by a chemical deposition method. The band structures and photosensitive properties of these films have been investigated elaborately. Pure BiFeO3 films showed stable and strong response to photo illumination (open circuit potential kept −0.18 V, short circuit photocurrent density was −0.023 mA·cm−2). By Mn doping, the energy band positions shifted, resulting in a smaller band gap of BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 layer and an internal field being built in the BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 interface. BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 and BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 thin films demonstrated poor photo activity compared with pure BiFeO3 films, which can be explained by the fact that Mn doping brought in a large amount of defects in the BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 layers, causing higher carrier combination and correspondingly suppressing the photo response, and this negative influence was more considerable than the positive effects provided by the band modulation. PMID:28335343

  17. Photoelectrochemical Performance Observed in Mn-Doped BiFeO₃ Heterostructured Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao-Min; Wang, Huanchun; Shi, Ji; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Cewen

    2016-11-16

    Pure BiFeO₃ and heterostructured BiFeO₃/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O₃ (5% Mn-doped BiFeO₃) thin films have been prepared by a chemical deposition method. The band structures and photosensitive properties of these films have been investigated elaborately. Pure BiFeO₃ films showed stable and strong response to photo illumination (open circuit potential kept -0.18 V, short circuit photocurrent density was -0.023 mA·cm(-2)). By Mn doping, the energy band positions shifted, resulting in a smaller band gap of BiFe0.95Mn0.05O₃ layer and an internal field being built in the BiFeO₃/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O₃ interface. BiFeO₃/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O₃ and BiFe0.95Mn0.05O₃ thin films demonstrated poor photo activity compared with pure BiFeO₃ films, which can be explained by the fact that Mn doping brought in a large amount of defects in the BiFe0.95Mn0.05O₃ layers, causing higher carrier combination and correspondingly suppressing the photo response, and this negative influence was more considerable than the positive effects provided by the band modulation.

  18. Low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 over Fe-Mn based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Long, Richard Q; Yang, Ralph T; Chang, Ramsay

    2002-03-07

    Fe-Mn based transition metal oxides (Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Zr and Fe-Mn-Ti) show nearly 100% NO conversion at 100-180 degrees C for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 under the applied conditions with a space velocity of 15,000 h-1.

  19. Prototypical topological orbital ferromagnet γ-FeMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Jan-Philipp; Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    We predict from first principles an entirely topological orbital magnetization in the noncoplanar bulk antiferromagnet γ-FeMn originating in the nontrivial topology of the underlying spin structure, without any reference to spin-orbit interaction. Studying the influence of strain, composition ratio, and spin texture on the topological orbital magnetization and the accompanying topological Hall effect, we promote the scalar spin chirality as key mechanism lifting the orbital degeneracy. The system is thus a prototypical topological orbital ferromagnet, the macroscopic orbital magnetization of which is prominent even without spin-orbit coupling. One of the remarkable features of γ-FeMn is the possibility for pronounced orbital magnetostriction mediated by the complex spin topology in real space.

  20. Prototypical topological orbital ferromagnet γ-FeMn

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Jan-Philipp; Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    We predict from first principles an entirely topological orbital magnetization in the noncoplanar bulk antiferromagnet γ-FeMn originating in the nontrivial topology of the underlying spin structure, without any reference to spin-orbit interaction. Studying the influence of strain, composition ratio, and spin texture on the topological orbital magnetization and the accompanying topological Hall effect, we promote the scalar spin chirality as key mechanism lifting the orbital degeneracy. The system is thus a prototypical topological orbital ferromagnet, the macroscopic orbital magnetization of which is prominent even without spin-orbit coupling. One of the remarkable features of γ-FeMn is the possibility for pronounced orbital magnetostriction mediated by the complex spin topology in real space. PMID:28106133

  1. Prototypical topological orbital ferromagnet γ-FeMn.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Jan-Philipp; Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2017-01-20

    We predict from first principles an entirely topological orbital magnetization in the noncoplanar bulk antiferromagnet γ-FeMn originating in the nontrivial topology of the underlying spin structure, without any reference to spin-orbit interaction. Studying the influence of strain, composition ratio, and spin texture on the topological orbital magnetization and the accompanying topological Hall effect, we promote the scalar spin chirality as key mechanism lifting the orbital degeneracy. The system is thus a prototypical topological orbital ferromagnet, the macroscopic orbital magnetization of which is prominent even without spin-orbit coupling. One of the remarkable features of γ-FeMn is the possibility for pronounced orbital magnetostriction mediated by the complex spin topology in real space.

  2. Micromagnetism of MnBi:FeCo thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, T. H.; Manchanda, P.; Balamurugan, B.; Kashyap, A.; Gao, T. R.; Takeuchi, I.; Cun, J.; Biswas, S.; Sabirianov, R. F.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, R.

    2016-02-01

    MnBi:FeCo hard-soft bilayers are investigated using micromagnetic simulations with open boundary conditions and two-dimensional (2D) periodic boundary conditions (PBC). Open and PBC yield similar coercivities of about 1.01 T, in agreement with experiment, but the hysteresis-loop shape is very different in the two theoretical approaches. The difference is ascribed to edge effects, which occur in open boundary conditions but not in PBC and experiment. Near the nucleation field, a curling or vortex mode develops in dots with circular cross sections. The curling mode, which is caused by magnetostatic self-interaction, does not negatively affect the high coercivity of 1.01 T. The magnetostatic self-interaction contributes to the favorable second-quadrant behavior of the MnBi:FeCo thin films.

  3. NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr spin valves studied by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sobolev, N. A.; Pogorelov, Y. G.; Bunyaev, S. A.; Teixeira, J. M.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Kakazei, G. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ion-beam deposited (Glass/Ta/NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr/Ta) spin valves (SVs) with a Cu-spacer thickness (tCu) varying from 14 to 28 Å have been studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. With respect to the interlayer coupling strength between the free and fixed ferromagnetic layers, the samples have been divided in those with a weak coupling (for tCu > 16 Å) and a strong coupling regimes (for tCu ≤ 16 Å). The FMR behavior in these two regimes is quite different. For the weakly coupled series, there are two well-defined FMR peaks stemming from the free and fixed layers. Their in-plane angular dependences exhibit 180° and 360° symmetries, respectively. For the strongly coupled SVs, the resonance modes are hybridized and possess features of both layers simultaneously. The main coupling mechanism between the two layers, as concluded from the FMR and MR measurements, is the Néel "orange-peel" magnetostatic interaction, accompanied by a direct exchange due to pinholes in the Cu spacer for tCu < 17 Å.

  4. Scavenging of Cd through Fe/Mn oxides within natural surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Huang, Guo-he; Zhang, Bai-yu; Guo, Shu-hai

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of Cd scavenging from solutions by Fe/Mn oxides in natural surface coatings (NSCs) was investigated under laboratory conditions. Selective extraction methods were employed to estimate the contributions of Fe/Mn oxides, where hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.01 mol/L NH2OH x HCl + 0.01 mol/L HNO3), sodium dithionite (0.4 mol/L Na2S2O4) and nitric acid (10% HNO3) were used as extraction reagents. The Cd scavenging was accomplished with developing periods of the NSCs (totally 21 data sets). The resulting process dynamics fitted well to the Elovich equation, demonstrating that the amount of Cd scavenged was proportional to the increments of Fe/Mn oxides that were accumulated in the NSCs. The amount of Cd bound to Fe oxides (M,,) and Mn oxides (MCdMn could be quantified by solving two equations based on the properties of two extraction reagents. The amount of Cd scavenged by Fe/Mn oxides could also be estimated using MCdFe and MCdMn, divided by the total amounts of Fe and Mn oxides in the NSCs, respectively. The results indicated that the Cd scavenging by Fe/Mn oxides was dominated by Fe oxides, with less roles attributed to Mn oxides. The estimated levels of Cd scavenging through Fe and Mn oxides agreed well with those predicted through additive-adsorption and linear-regression models.

  5. Fe-Mn nodules of the Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, E. S.; Skolotnev, S. G.

    2015-10-01

    The results of study of Fe-Mn crusts from the Mendeleev Ridge in the Arctic Ocean sampled with manipulators from a submarine are presented. In almost all the samples, the ore phase is significantly enriched in some valuable trace elements (Ni, Co, Cu, etc.), the contents of which exceed those in ores from the pelagic zones of other oceans. The high ore potential of the Arctic pelagic zone is stated and substantiated.

  6. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  7. Towards a Superplastic Forming of Fe-Mn-Al Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guanabara, Paulo Jr.; Bueno, Levi de O.; Ferreira Batalha, Gilmar

    2011-01-17

    The aim is to study the characteristics of superplasticity, mostly on non qualified materials, such as austenitic steel of the Fe-Mn-Al alloy, which has some of the specific material parameters closely related to microstructural mechanisms. These parameters are used as indicators of material superplastic potentiality. The material was submitted to hot tensile testing, within a temperature range from 600 deg. C to 1000 deg. C and strain-rates varying from 10{sup -6} to 1 s{sup -1}. The strain rate sensitivity parameter (m) and observed maximum elongation until rupture ({epsilon}{sub r}) could be determined and also obtained from the hot tensile test. The experiments stated a possibility of superplastic behaviour in a Fe-Mn-Al alloy within a temperature range from 700 deg. C to 900 deg. C with grain size around 3 {mu}m (ASTM grain size 12) and average strain rate sensitivity of m {approx} 0.54, as well as a maximum elongation at rupture around 600%. The results are based on a more enhanced research from the authors; however, this paper has focused just on the hot tensile test, as further creep tests results are not available herein. There are rare examples of superplasticity study of an austenitic steel Fe-Mn-Al alloy, thus this work showed some possibility of exploring the potential use of such materials in this regime at temperatures {>=}700 deg. C.

  8. Development of Fe-Mn-Al-X-C alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a low cost Cr-free, iron-base alloy for aerospace applications involves both element substitution and enhancement of microstructural strengthening. When Mn is substituted for Ni and Al or Si is substituted for Cr, large changes occur in the mechanical and thermal stability of austenite in FeMnAlC alloys. The in situ strength of MC or M2C (M = Ti, V, Hf, Ta, or Mo) in FeMnAlC alloys was determined. The high temperature tensile strength depends more on the distribution of carbides than the carbide composition. Precipitation of a high volume percent-ordered phase was achieved in Fe2OMnlONi6Al6Ti (lC) alloys. As case, these alloys have a homogeneous austenitic structure. After solutioning at 1100 C for 5 hr followed by aging at 600 C for 16 hr, gamma prime or a perovskite carbide is precipitated. Overaging occurs at 900 C where eta is precipitated.

  9. Morphological evolution and strengthening behavior of α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si in Al-6Si-2Fe-xMn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Hu, Kaiqi; Wang, Longshuai; Zhang, Bangran; Liu, Xiangfa

    β-Al5FeSi is preferred to form in Al-Si-Fe alloys, normally exhibiting needlelike, which is harmful for the mechanical properties. In this paper, with the addition of 1%, 1.5% and 3% Mn into an Al-6Si-2Fe alloy, β-Al5FeSi phase was found to transform to skeleton, flower-like and coarse dendritic α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si, respectively. The novel flower-like α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si crystals contain developed branches with the average diameter of ∼200 nm, performing strengthening effect on the tensile property. Detailed morphologies of α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si phase and the formation mechanism were discussed.

  10. Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shufeng; Li, Run-Wei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yao, Kui; Wu, Yihong

    2016-03-01

    Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt bilayers with ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn has been characterized through planar Hall effect measurements. A large effective field of 2.05 ×10-5 to 2.44 ×10-5Oe (A-1cm2) is obtained for FeMn in the thickness range of 2-5 nm. The experimental observations can be reasonably accounted for by using a macrospin model under the assumption that the FeMn layer is composed of two spin sublattices with unequal magnetizations. The large effective field corroborates the spin Hall origin of the effective field, considering the much smaller uncompensated net moments in FeMn as compared to NiFe. The effective absorption of spin current by FeMn is further confirmed by the fact that spin current generated by Pt in NiFe/FeMn/Pt trilayers can only travel through the FeMn layer with a thickness of 1-4 nm. By quantifying the fieldlike effective field induced in NiFe, a spin diffusion length of 2 nm is estimated in FeMn, consistent with values reported in the literature by ferromagnetic resonance and spin-pumping experiments.

  11. Effect of MnCuFe2O4 content on magnetic and dielectric properties of poly (O-Phenylenediamine)/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannapiran, Nagarajan; Muthusamy, Athianna; Chitra, Palanisamy

    2016-03-01

    Poly o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites with three different ratios of MnCuFe2O4 (10%, 20%, 30% w/w) were synthesized by in-situ oxidative chemical polymerization method ammonium persulphate used as oxidant, while MnCuFe2O4 nanoparticles was prepared by auto-combustion method. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of synthesized PoPD/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, UV-visible absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FTIR spectra and XRD were confirmed the formation of the PoPD/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites. The morphology of PoPD/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites is visualized through SEM and TEM. The spherical morphology of the PoPD was confirmed using SEM analysis. Dielectric properties of PoPD/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites at different temperatures have been performed in the frequency range of 50 Hz-5 MHz. The optical absorption experiments of PoPD/MnCuFe2O4 nanocomposites reveal that the direct transition with an energy band gap is around 2 eV.

  12. The Mn-Fe negative correlation in olivines in ALHA 77257 ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Furuta, T.; Fujii, N.; Mckay, D. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Duke, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    An electron probe microanalyzer is used to measure the Mn, Fe, and oxygen zoning profiles of olivines in the ALHA 77257 ureilite. This is done to study the effects of reduction on the Mn-Fe value, as ureilite olivines exhibit thin reduced rims. Since the Mn content gradually increases toward the rim of ureilite olivines, while the Fa (= 100 x Fe/(Mg + Fe), mol percent) component decreases, the Mn-Fe content of olivine is likely related to redox conditions. The results of melting experiments suggest that the Mn-Fe positive correlation is related to temperature and that the negative correlation of Mn-Fe in olivine and low-Ca pyroxene is related to reduction.

  13. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Fe Ions for Induction ofMicro-Nuclei at Low Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Groesser, Torsten; Chun, Eugene; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2007-01-16

    Dose-response curves for induction of micro-nuclei (MN) was measured in Chinese hamster V79 and xrs6 (Ku80-) cells and in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells in the dose range of 0.05-1 Gy. The Chinese Hamster cells were exposed to 1 GeV/u Fe ions, 600 MeV/u Fe ions, and 300 MeV/u Fe ions (LETs of 151, 176 and 235 keV/{micro}m respectively) as well as with 320 kVp X-rays as reference. Second-order polynomials were fitted to the induction curves and the initial slopes (the alpha values) were used to calculate RBE. For the repair proficient V79 cells the RBE at these low doses increased with LET. The values obtained were 3.1 (LET=151 keV/{micro}m), 4.3 (LET = 176 keV/{micro}m) and 5.7 (LET = 235 keV/{micro}m), while the RBE was close to 1 for the repair deficient xrs6 cells regardless of LET. For the MCF10A cells the RBE was determined for 1 GeV/u Fe ions and found to be 5.4, slightly higher than for V79 cells. To test the effect of shielding, the 1 GeV/u Fe ion beam was intercepted by various thickness of high-density polyethylene plastic absorbers, which resulted in energy loss and fragmentation. It was found that the MN yield for V79 cells placed behind the absorbers decreased in proportion to the decrease in dose both before and after the Fe ion Bragg peak (excluding the area around the Fe-ion Bragg peak itself), indicating that RBE did not change significantly due to shielding. At the Bragg peak the effectiveness for MN formation per unit dose was decreased, indicating an 'overkill' effect by low-energy very high-LET Fe ions.

  14. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    SciTech Connect

    Akmaldinov, K.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V.

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  15. Effectiveness of hypolimnetic oxygenation for preventing accumulation of Fe and Mn in a drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Munger, Zackary W; Carey, Cayelan C; Gerling, Alexandra B; Hamre, Kathleen D; Doubek, Jonathan P; Klepatzki, Spencer D; McClure, Ryan P; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2016-12-01

    The accumulation of Fe and Mn in seasonally stratified drinking water reservoirs adversely impacts water quality. To control issues with Fe and Mn at the source, some drinking water utilities have deployed hypolimnetic oxygenation systems to create well-oxygenated conditions in the water column that are favorable for the oxidation, and thus removal, of Fe and Mn. However, in addition to being controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO), Fe and Mn concentrations are also influenced by pH and metal-oxidizing microorganisms. We studied the response of Fe and Mn concentrations to hypolimnetic oxygenation in a shallow drinking water reservoir in Vinton, Virginia, USA by sequentially activating and deactivating an oxygenation system over two summers. We found that maintaining well-oxygenated conditions effectively prevented the accumulation of soluble Fe in the hypolimnion. However, while the rate of Mn oxidation increased under well-oxygenated conditions, soluble Mn still accumulated in the slightly acidic to neutral (pH 5.6 to 7.5) hypolimnion. In parallel, we conducted laboratory incubation experiments, which showed that the presence of Mn-oxidizing microorganisms increased the rate of Mn oxidation in comparison with rates under oxic, abiotic conditions. Combined, our field and laboratory results demonstrate that increasing DO concentrations in the water column is important for stimulating the oxidation of Fe and Mn, but that the successful management of Mn is also tied to the activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms in the water column and favorable (neutral to alkaline) pH.

  16. Antimony oxidation and adsorption by in-situ formed biogenic Mn oxide and Fe-Mn oxides.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Jefferson, William A; Liang, Jinsong; Yang, Tingting; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-04-01

    Antimony (Sb), which can be toxic at relatively low concentrations, may co-exist with Mn(II) and/or Fe(II) in some groundwater and surface water bodies. Here we investigated the potential oxidation and adsorption pathways of Sb (III and V) species in the presence of Mn(II) and Mn-oxidizing bacteria, with or without Fe(II). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the oxidation and adsorption characteristics of Sb species in the presence of biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs), which were formed in-situ via the oxidation of Mn(II) by a Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1). Results indicated that Sb(III) ions could be oxidized to Sb(V) ions by BMO, but only Sb(V) originating from Sb(III) oxidation was adsorbed effectively by BMO. Introduced Fe(II) was chemically oxidized to FeOOH, the precipitates of which mixed with BMO to form a new compound, biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO). The BMO part of the BFMO mainly oxidized and the FeOOH of the BFMO mainly adsorbed the Sb species. In aquatic solutions containing both As(III) and Sb(III), the BFMO that formed in-situ preferentially oxidized Sb over As but adsorbed As more efficiently. Chemical analysis and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the presence of Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) accelerated the oxidation of Mn(II) but inhibited the activity of Mn-oxidizing bacteria. These results provide significant insights into the biogeochemical pathways of Sb, Mn(II) in aquatic ecosystems, with or without Fe(II). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A Mn(IV)/Fe(IV) Intermediate in Assembly of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) Cofactor of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Hoffart, Lee M.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2008-01-01

    We recently showed that the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from the human pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, uses a MnIV/FeIII cofactor to generate protein and substrate radicals in its catalytic mechanism [Jiang, W., Yun, D., Saleh, L., Barr, E. W., Xing, G., Hoffart, L. M., Maslak, M.-A., Krebs, C., and Bollinger, J. M., Jr. (2007) Science 316, 1188-1191]. Here, we have dissected the mechanism of formation of this novel heterobinuclear redox cofactor from the MnII/FeII cluster and O2. An intermediate with a g = 2 EPR signal that shows hyperfine coupling to both 55Mn and 57Fe accumulates almost quantitatively in a second order reaction between O2 and the reduced R2 complex. The otherwise slow decay of the intermediate to the active MnIV/FeIII-R2 complex is accelerated by the presence of the one-electron reductant, ascorbate, implying that the intermediate is more oxidized than MnIV/FeIII. Mössbauer spectra show that the intermediate contains a high-spin FeIV center. Its chemical and spectroscopic properties establish that the intermediate is a MnIV/FeIV-R2 complex with an S = 1/2 electronic ground state arising from antiferromagnetic coupling between the MnIV (SMn = 3/2) and high-spin FeIV (SFe = 2) sites. PMID:17616152

  18. Origin of concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides in stream sediments of Maine, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.; McHugh, J.B.; Hessin, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of stream and sediment-pore waters largely explain the genesis of concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides in Maine. Waters of two small streams near Jackman, Maine, were studied in terms of pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved Mn, total dissolved Fe, and ferrous and ferric Fe. Pyrite Creek has profuse concretions and coatings of Mn-Fe-oxides, whereas West Pyrite Creek has only sparse Mn-Fe-oxide stains. Pyrite Creek drains boggy terrain and West Pyrite Creek drains well-drained terrain. In West Pyrite Creek, stream and subjacent pore waters have chemical characteristics that do not differ greatly. However, dissolved Mn, ferrous Fe, dissolved oxygen, and in situ Eh measurements show that a steep Eh gradient exists between stream and subjacent pore waters of Pyrite Creek. The steep Eh gradient is manifested by the common zonation of coatings and stains on rocks in stream sediment. The bottom zone has no deposition of oxides, the middle zone is red and consists mostly of Fe-oxides, and the upper zone is black or dark-brown and consists of Mn-oxides with varying amounts of Fe-oxides. The zonation agrees with theoretical predictions of oxide stability as one moves from a reducing to an oxidizing environment. At locations where concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides form, pore waters are depleted of oxygen because of abundant decaying organic material in the stream sediment. The pore waters are charged with dissolved Mn and Fe because mechanically deposited Mn-Fe-oxides are remobilized due to the low-Eh conditions. Groundwaters also contribute dissolved Mn and Fe. Stream waters, on the other hand, are oxygenated and the high-Eh conditions result in low concentrations of dissolved Mn and Fe in stream waters because of the insolubility of Mn-Fe-oxides in high-Eh environments. Therefore, concretionary Mn-Fe-oxides form at the interface between pore and stream waters because Mn- and Fe-rich pore waters, which are undersaturated with respect to Mn-Fe-oxides, mix with

  19. Arsenate uptake and arsenite simultaneous sorption and oxidation by Fe-Mn binary oxides: influence of Mn/Fe ratio, pH, Ca2+, and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Jefferson, William

    2012-01-15

    Arsenate retention, arsenite sorption and oxidation on the surfaces of Fe-Mn binary oxides may play an important role in the mobilization and transformation of arsenic, due to the common occurrence of these oxides in the environment. However, no sufficient information on the sorption behaviors of arsenic on Fe-Mn binary oxides is available. This study investigated the influences of Mn/Fe molar ratio, solution pH, coexisting calcium ions, and humic acids have on arsenic sorption by Fe-Mn binary oxides. To create Fe-Mn binary oxides, simultaneous oxidation and co-precipitation methods were employed. The Fe-Mn binary oxides exhibited a porous crystalline structure similar to 2-line ferrihydrite at Mn/Fe ratios 1:3 and below, whereas exhibited similar structures to δ-MnO(2) at higher ratios. The As(V) sorption maximum was observed at a Mn/Fe ratio of 1:6, but As(III) uptake maximum was at Mn/Fe ratio 1:3. However, As(III) adsorption capacity was much higher than that of As(V) at each Mn/Fe ratio. As(V) sorption was found to decrease with increasing pH, while As(III) sorption edge was different, depending on the content of MnO(2) in the binary oxides. The presence of Ca(2+) enhanced the As(V) uptake under alkaline pH, but did not significantly influence the As(III) sorption by 1:9 Fe-Mn binary oxide; whereas the presence of humic acid slightly reduced both As(V) and As(III) uptake. These results indicate that As(III) is more easily immobilized than As(V) in the environment, where Fe-Mn binary oxides are available as sorbents and they represent attractive adsorbents for both As(V) and As(III) removal from water and groundwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemistry of arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Arsenic removal during coagulation or Fe-Mn oxidation is examined to aid utilities that desire to improve arsenic removal. Fundamental mechanisms of arsenic removal are discussed, optimization strategies are forwarded, and some new insights are provided to guide future research. Specifically, As(III) removals by coagulation are primarily controlled by coagulant dose and relatively unaffected by solution pH, whereas the converse is true for As(V). When compared on the basis of moles iron or aluminum hydroxide solid formed during coagulation, iron and aluminum coagulants are of demonstrably equal effectiveness in removing As(V) at pH < 7.5. However, iron-based coagulants are advantageous if soluble metal residuals are problematic, if pH is > 7.5, or if the raw water contains As(III). Arsenic removal during Fe-Mn oxidation is controlled by the quantity of iron removed [Fe(OH)[sub 3] formed] and is relatively independent of the quantity of manganese removed (MnOOH formed). 63 refs.

  1. Properties of the roughness in NiFe/FeMn exchange-biased system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Biondo, A.; Nunes, V. B.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2007-05-01

    X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (5 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering. Layer-by-layer analyses were done in order to have interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. X-ray reflectivity results indicate that the successive layer deposition gives rise to a cumulative roughness. In addition, the atomic force microscopic images analyses have revealed that the roughness enhancement caused by the successive layer deposition can be associated with an appearance of a longer wavelength roughness induced by the NiFe layer deposition.

  2. Close correlation between magnetic properties and the soft phonon mode of the structural transition in BaFe>2mn>As>2mn> and SrFe>2mn>As>2mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Castellan, J. -P.; Lamago, D.; Mittal, R.; Wolf, Th.; Reznik, Dmitry

    2015-04-27

    Parent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in BaFe>2mn>As>2mn> and SrFe>2mn>As>2mn>. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.

  3. Superplasticity in a lean Fe-Mn-Al steel.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongho; Kang, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kawasaki, Megumi; Lee, Han-Joo; Ponge, Dirk; Raabe, Dierk; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-09-29

    Superplastic alloys exhibit extremely high ductility (>300%) without cracks when tensile-strained at temperatures above half of their melting point. Superplasticity, which resembles the flow behavior of honey, is caused by grain boundary sliding in metals. Although several non-ferrous and ferrous superplastic alloys are reported, their practical applications are limited due to high material cost, low strength after forming, high deformation temperature, and complicated fabrication process. Here we introduce a new compositionally lean (Fe-6.6Mn-2.3Al, wt.%) superplastic medium Mn steel that resolves these limitations. The medium Mn steel is characterized by ultrafine grains, low material costs, simple fabrication, i.e., conventional hot and cold rolling, low deformation temperature (ca. 650 °C) and superior ductility above 1300% at 850 °C. We suggest that this ultrafine-grained medium Mn steel may accelerate the commercialization of superplastic ferrous alloys.Research in new alloy compositions and treatments may allow the increased strength of mass-produced, intricately shaped parts. Here authors introduce a superplastic medium manganese steel which has an inexpensive lean chemical composition and which is suited for conventional manufacturing processes.

  4. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH)max of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  5. Determination of the deformation mechanism of Fe-Mn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Minho; Koo, Yang Mo; Kwon, Se Kyun

    2015-03-01

    The energy parameters of planar defects are decisive for understanding the deformation mechanisms of metals. The stacking fault energy has been regarded as a key parameter to determine the activation of the deformation mechanisms of the face-centered cubic metals and alloys. However, it is still under a long debate why the stacking fault energy can be treated to be such an exclusive parameter among the general planar fault energies. We have employed molecular dynamics method to examine the effects of Mn alloying on the deformation behavior of austenitic Fe-Mn systems. The energies of stable and unstable states are calculated by sliding the (111) plane and are analyzed in two different schemes, stacking fault energy and energy barriers, which leads to a contradiction between them. We show that a linear relationship can be identified among the energy barriers. This finding is used to identify the activated deformation mechanism. A new parameter is also suggested to characterize the material deformation.

  6. Critical Evaluations and Thermodynamic Optimizations of the MnO-Mn2O3-SiO2 and FeO-Fe2O3-MnO-Mn2O3-SiO2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho

    2017-06-01

    A critical evaluation and thermodynamic modeling for thermodynamic properties of all oxide phases and phase diagrams in the Fe-Mn-Si-O system (MnO-Mn2O3-SiO2 and FeO-Fe2O3-MnO-Mn2O3-SiO2 systems) are presented. Optimized Gibbs energy parameters for the thermodynamic models of the oxide phases were obtained which reproduce all available and reliable experimental data within error limits from 298 K (25°C) to above the liquidus temperatures at all compositions covering from known oxide phases, and oxygen partial pressure from metal saturation to 0.21 bar. The optimized thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams are believed to be the best estimates presently available. Slag (molten oxide) was modeled using the modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation. Olivine (Fe2SiO4-Mn2SiO4) was modeled using two-sublattice model in the framework of the compound energy formalism (CEF), while rhodonite (MnSiO3-FeSiO3) and braunite (Mn7SiO_{12} with excess Mn2O3) were modeled as simple Henrian solutions. It is shown that the already developed models and databases of two spinel phases (cubic- and tetragonal-(Fe, Mn)3O4) using CEF [Kang and Jung, J. Phys. Chem. Solids (2016), vol. 98, pp. 237-246] can successfully be integrated into a larger thermodynamic database to be used in practically important higher order system such as silicate. The database of the model parameters can be used along with a software for Gibbs energy minimization in order to calculate any type of phase diagram section and thermodynamic properties.

  7. Critical Evaluations and Thermodynamic Optimizations of the MnO-Mn2 O3 -SiO2 and FeO-Fe2 O3 -MnO-Mn2 O3 -SiO2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho

    2017-03-01

    A critical evaluation and thermodynamic modeling for thermodynamic properties of all oxide phases and phase diagrams in the Fe-Mn-Si-O system (MnO-Mn2 O3 -SiO2 and FeO-Fe2 O3 -MnO-Mn2 O3 -SiO2 systems) are presented. Optimized Gibbs energy parameters for the thermodynamic models of the oxide phases were obtained which reproduce all available and reliable experimental data within error limits from 298 K (25°C) to above the liquidus temperatures at all compositions covering from known oxide phases, and oxygen partial pressure from metal saturation to 0.21 bar. The optimized thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams are believed to be the best estimates presently available. Slag (molten oxide) was modeled using the modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation. Olivine (Fe2 SiO4 -Mn2 SiO4 ) was modeled using two-sublattice model in the framework of the compound energy formalism (CEF), while rhodonite (MnSiO3 -FeSiO3 ) and braunite (Mn7 SiO_{12} with excess Mn2 O3 ) were modeled as simple Henrian solutions. It is shown that the already developed models and databases of two spinel phases (cubic- and tetragonal-(Fe, Mn)3 O4 ) using CEF [Kang and Jung, J. Phys. Chem. Solids (2016), vol. 98, pp. 237-246] can successfully be integrated into a larger thermodynamic database to be used in practically important higher order system such as silicate. The database of the model parameters can be used along with a software for Gibbs energy minimization in order to calculate any type of phase diagram section and thermodynamic properties.

  8. Crystal Structures at Atomic Resolution of the Perovskite-Related GdBaMnFeO5 and Its Oxidized GdBaMnFeO6.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Susana; Manabe, Keisuke; Urones-Garrote, Esteban; Ávila-Brande, David; Ichikawa, Noriya; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2017-02-06

    Perovskite-related GdBaMnFeO5 and the corresponding oxidized phase GdBaMnFeO6, with long-range layered-type ordering of the Ba and Gd atoms have been synthesized. Oxidation retains the cation ordering but drives a modulation of the crystal structure associated with the incorporation of the oxygen atoms between the Gd layers. Oxidation of GdBaMnFeO5 increases the oxidation state of Mn from 2+ to 4+, while the oxidation state of Fe remains 3+. Determination of the crystal structure of both GdBaMnFeO5 and GdBaMnFeO6 is carried out at atomic resolution by means of a combination of advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. Crystal structure refinements from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data support the structural models proposed from the TEM data. The oxidation states of the Mn and Fe atoms are evaluated by means of EELS and Mössbauer spectroscopy, which also reveals the different magnetic behavior of these oxides.

  9. Enhanced magnetic properties of self-assembled FePt nanoparticles with MnO shell.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shishou; Miao, G X; Shi, S; Jia, Z; Nikles, David E; Harrell, J W

    2006-02-01

    Self-assembled FePt/MnO nanoparticles with different morphology and size were synthesized with a polyol process. With the MnO coating, FePt nanoparticles exhibit a high blocking temperature and magnetic moment. The low-temperature hysteresis loop of FePt nanoparticles can be shifted through the AFM pinning of the MnO shell. The aggregation of FePt nanoparticles during the L10 phase transformation can be significantly decreased by coating with the MnO shell.

  10. Stress oscillations and surface alloy formation during the growth of FeMn on Cu(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Sander, Dirk; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2003-12-01

    In situ stress and medium-energy electron-diffraction (MEED) measurements have been performed simultaneously during the deposition of FeMn on Cu(001). For a thickness above 5 layers, stress and MEED exhibit coherent layer-by-layer oscillations with a period of one atomic layer, where the largest compressive stress corresponds to the filled layer. In this thickness regime, the average stress is -0.59±0.02 GPa. From this, we deduce the biaxial modulus of FeMn layers as 148 (±5) GPa, which agrees well with the respective bulk value. For a FeMn thickness below 1.5 layers, the resulting stress is qualitatively ascribed to the sum of the individual stress contributions from Fe on Cu(001) and Mn on Cu(001). A c(2×2) low-energy electron diffraction pattern in this thickness regime indicates the formation of a c(2×2) MnCu surface alloy in the initial growth of FeMn on Cu(001), which induces a compressive surface stress of -0.7 N/m for the initial deposition of the FeMn alloy. This surface alloy formation leads to a Fe-rich FeMn alloy near the Cu interface. This compositional change might modify the antiferromagnetic coupling of the 1:1 FeMn alloy.

  11. Magnetic epoxy nanocomposites with superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangnan; Cao, Yonghai; Zhang, Xi; Li, Yutong; Guo, Jiang; Wei, Suying; Peng, Xiangfang; Shen, Tong D.; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-09-01

    Manganese iron oxide (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles successfully served as nanofillers for obtaining magnetic epoxy nanocomposites. The viscosities of MnFe2O4/epoxy resin liquid suspensions increased with increasing the nanoparticles loading except the suspension with 5.0 and 1.0 wt% loading, whose viscosities were lower than that of pure epoxy. The introduction of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles showed a lower onset decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg), which decreased with increasing the nanoparticles loading. The storage modulus and tensile strength of 1.0 wt% MnFe2O4/epoxy were a little higher than that of pure epoxy. The coercivity of MnFe2O4/epoxy nanocomposites with 5.0 wt% (44.7 Oe) and 10.0 wt% (43.9 Oe) displayed much higher than that of pure MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (14.94 Oe). The magnetic moment (m) of nanocomposites (1.354 μB for 10 wt% MnFe2O4/epoxy) are higher than that of pure MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (1.244 μB). The increased real permittivity observed in the nanocomposites was attributed to the interfacial polarization. The intrinsic permittivity of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was also calculated.

  12. Magnetic Properties of MnFe2Ga Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgendy, Ahmed A.; Salehi-Fashami, Mohammad; Sellmyer, David; Hadjipanayis, George

    2015-03-01

    Recently, MnFe2Ga Heusler alloys have attracted significant attention due to their interesting physical properties such as large magnetic-field-induced strain, giant magnetocaloric effects,large magnetoresistance, and exchange bias behavior. These properties make them promising candidates for various practical applications in the field of smart materials, magnetic refrigeration and spintronics. In this work, we prepared MnFe2Ga alloys by melt-spinning and sputtering and studied the structural and magnetic properties. The melt-spun ribbons were prepared with a wheel speed of 30 m/s. The ribbons were annealed at different temperatures for 1 hour and grinded to make fine powders. The grinded powders were also used to make the target that is used in the cluster gun for the fabrication of MnFe2Ga nanoparticles. The structure of the as made, annealed ribbons, and powders displayed a face-centered-cubic structure. The microstructure of the as-made ribbons showed equiaxed grains with an average size of 3-5 μm while the annealed ribbons showed bigger grains with small particles covering homogeneously their surface. The magnetic properties show an enhancement of magnetization while coercivity remains the same with values M(3T) and HC of 85 emu/g and 150 Oe, respectively Transmission electron microscopy with elemental mapping is currently underway to determine the structure and composition of the surface nanoparticles. The work was supported by DOE-BES-DMSE (Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER4612).

  13. Antiferromagnetic Mn 50Fe 50 wire with large magnetostriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Aina; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Wei; Yan, Mi

    2009-11-01

    This work presents a study on the relation between the fiber texture and the magnetostrictive performance in an antiferromagnetic Mn 50Fe 50 alloy wire, which was prepared through the combining process of hot rolling and cold drawing. The face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure can be retained during the plastic deformation process. Mixed fiber textures consisting of both <1 1 0> and <1 0 0> components were formed along the drawing direction (DD) in the wire. A large magnetostriction of 750 ppm was obtained along DD under 1.2 T, which can be ascribed to the single γ phase and the formation of preferred crystal orientation.

  14. Reduction of nitrate by NaY zeolite supported Fe, Cu/Fe and Mn/Fe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yubin; Walker, Harold; Zhu, Qingzhi

    2017-02-15

    Nano particles Fe, Cu/Fe and Mn/Fe supported on NaY zeolite (F@Y, CF@Y, and MF@Y) were prepared by two-step processes consisting of ion exchange and liquid-phase reduction. The characterization by XRD, SEM-EDX and BET-N2 adsorption demonstrated that Fe, Cu/Fe and Mn/Fe nano particles were successfully loaded onto NaY zeolite and exhibited larger BET surface area compared to nano-Fe(0) (nZVI). Laboratory experiments showed that nitrate removal by metals@Y in unbuffered conditions reached nearly 100% at a dosage of 4g/L after 6h of reaction. Moreover, the nitrate removal was not sensitive to the initial solution pH. Even at a high pH of 9.0, metals@Y exhibited nitrate reduction above 94%. CF@Y demonstrated high N2 selectivity, due to the high content of Cu (20wt%) and Fe (41wt%) in CF@Y and the highly active metallic sites on its surface with positive charge. Kinetic data showed a good fit to a first-order kinetic model during early reaction times. A close fit to both a second-order and an nth-order kinetic model was shown for the whole of the reaction period. The data suggest that both liquid phase mass transfer and the intrinsic reaction rate control the process of nitrate reduction by metals@Y.

  15. Effects of Mn doping on temperature-dependent magnetic properties of L10 FeMnPt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D. B.; Chen, J. S.; Zhou, T. J.; Chow, G. M.

    2011-04-01

    We report the effect of Mn doping on temperature-dependent magnetic properties of L10 FeMnPt (001) epitaxial films. (001) textured L10 Fe50-xMnxPt50 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 at. %) films were prepared by cosputtering Fe, Pt, and Mn onto MgO single crystal substrates at 550 °C. θ-2θ XRD scans indicated the lattice parameter c increased whereas the ordering parameter S decreased with Mn doping. The thermal magnetic properties measured using a superconducting quantum interference device showed that Curie temperature TC could be reduced to 500 K with 15 at. % Mn doping, but Ku was decreased to 1.6 × 107 erg/cm3. The relation of temperature-dependent anisotropy and saturation magnetization showed that it did not obey the Callen-Callen theory.

  16. Cu-Mn-Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Jabal Samran area (western Saudi Arabia), secondary copper mineralization in a NE-trending shear zone in which the arc metavolcanic host rocks (dacite-rhyodacite) show conjugate fractures and extensive hydrothermal alteration and bleaching. The zones contain frequent Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides (FeOH-MnOH) that resulted from oxidation of pyrite and Mn-bearing silicates. In the bleached part, the groundmass is represented by Fe-bearing interstratified illite-smectite with up to 4.02 wt% FeOt. FeOH-MnOH are pre-weathering phases formed by hydrothermal alteration in a submarine environment prior to uplifting. Five varieties of FeOH are distinguished, four of them are exclusively hydrothermal with ∼20 wt% H2O whereas the fifth contains ∼31-33 wt% H2O and might represent reworking of earlier hydrothermal FeOH phases by weathering. FeOH fills thin fractures in the form of veinlets and crenulated laminae or as a pseudomorph for pyrite, goethite and finally ferrihydrite, and this oxyhydroxide is characterized by positive correlation of Fe2O3 with SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, MOH shows positive correlation between MnO2 and Al2O3 whereas it is negative between Fe2O3 and SiO2. Paratacamite is the most common secondary copper mineral that fills fractures and post-dates FeOH and MnOH. It is believed that Cl- in the structure of paratacamite represents inherited marine storage rather than from surfacial evaporates or meteoric water. The mineralogy of slags suggests a complicated mineral assemblage that includes native Cu prills, synthetic spinifixed Mn-rich amphiboles with 16.73 wt% MnO, brown glass and Ca-Mn-Fe phase close to the olivine structure. EMPA indicate that the some Cu prills have either grey discontinuous boarder zone of S-rich Mn-Cu alloy (with up to 21.95 wt% S and 19.45 wt% Mn) or grey Cu-Mn-Fe alloy (with up to 15.9 wt% Cu, 39. 12 wt% Mn and 61.64 wt% Fe). Mn in the Cu prills is expelled inward as Cu-Mn-Fe alloy inclusions whereas S is expelled

  17. The improvement of cryogenic mechanical properties of Fe-12 Mn and Fe-8 Mn alloy steels through thermal/mechanical treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. K.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been made to improve the low temperature mechanical properties of Fe-8Mn and Fe-12Mn-0.2 Ti alloy steels. A reversion annealing heat treatment in the two-phase (alpha + gamma) region following cold working has been identified as an effective treatment. In an Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti alloy a promising combination of low temperature (-196 C) fracture toughness and yield strength was obtained by this method. The improvement of properties was attributed to the refinement of grain size and to the introduction of a uniform distribution of retained austenite (gamma). It was also shown that an Fe-8Mn steel could be grain-refined by a purely thermal treatment because of its dislocated alpha-prime martensitic structure and absence of epsilon martensite. As a result, a significant reduction of ductile to brittle transition temperature was obtained.

  18. Tensile Fracture Modes in Fe-22Mn-0.6C and Fe-30Mn-3Si-3Al Twinning-Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. K.; Tian, Y. Z.; Zhang, Z. J.; Yang, C. L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2017-10-01

    Tensile tests were carried out to investigate the differences in fracture mechanisms between Fe -22Mn -0.6C and Fe -30Mn -3Si -3Al (wt pct) twinning-induced plasticity steels. Although both steels possess a strong twinning capability during tensile deformation, they display different tensile fracture modes of shear and necking. The Portevin -le Chatelier band is proposed as the key factor influencing the different fracture mechanisms.

  19. Simulations of irradiated-enhanced segregation and phase separation in Fe-Cu-Mn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyan; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Chengliang; Li, Qiulin; Chen, Jun; Shu, Guogang; Henager, Chuck, Jr.; Weng, Yuqing; Xu, Ben; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    For reactor pressure vessel steels, the addition of Cu, Mn, and Ni has a positive effect on their mechanical, corrosion and radiation resistance properties. However, experiments show that radiation-enhanced segregation and/or phase separation is one of the important material property degradation processes. In this work, we develop a model integrating rate theory and phase-field approaches to investigate the effect of irradiation on solute segregation and phase separation. The rate theory is used to describe the accumulation and clustering of radiation defects, while the phase-field approach describes the effect of radiation defects on phase stability and microstructure evolution. The Fe-Cu-Mn ternary alloy is taken as a model system. The free energies used in the phase-field model are from CALPHAD. Spatial dependent radiation damage from atomistic simulations is introduced into the simulation cell for a given radiation dose rate. The radiation effect on segregation and phase separation is taken into account through the defect concentration dependence of solute mobility. Using the model, the effect of temperature and radiation rates on Cu and Mn segregation and Cu-rich phase nucleation were systematically investigated. The segregation and nucleation mechanisms were analyzed. The simulations demonstrate that the nucleus of Cu precipitates has a core-shell composition profile, i.e. Cu-rich at the center and Mn-rich at the interface, in good agreement with theoretical calculations as well as experimental observations.

  20. Structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of polyaniline/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, Palanisamy; Muthusamy, Athianna; Jayaprakash, Rajan

    2015-12-01

    Ferromagnetic PANI containing MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline incorporated MnCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (20%, 10% w/w of fine powders) with and without ultrasonic treatment. The MnCoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by auto combustion method. The PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average particle size of the resulting PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites was confirmed from the TEM and XRD analysis. The structure and morphology of the composites were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and SEM. In addition, the electrical and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites under applied magnetic field exhibited the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic nature at room temperature. The variation of Dielectric constant, Dielectric loss, and AC conductivity of PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites at room temperature as a function of frequency in the range 50 Hz-5 MHz has been studied. Effect of ultrasonication on the PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites was also investigated.

  1. Imaging the antiparallel magnetic alignment of adjacent Fe and MnAs thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitwieser, R.; Marangolo, M.; Lüning, J.; Jaouen, N.; Joly, L.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Sacchi, M.

    2008-09-01

    The magnetic coupling between iron and α-MnAs in the epitaxial system Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001) has been studied at the submicron scale, using element-selective x-ray photoemission electron microscopy. At room temperature, MnAs layers display ridges and grooves, alternating α (magnetic) and β (nonmagnetic) phases. The self-organized microstructure of MnAs and the stray fields that it generates govern the local alignment between the Fe and α-MnAs magnetization directions, which is mostly antiparallel with a marked dependence upon the magnetic domain size.

  2. [Effect of Fe-Mn-Si on the biomass structure of Eichhornia crassipes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Wei; Zhu, Duan-Wei; Zhou, Wen-Bing; Deng, Li

    2011-04-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) was cultivated under different iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and silicon (Si) nutrient treatments for its biomass characteristics research which was determined by various items including nutrient element content (Fe, Mn and Si), adsorption sites and active function groups. The results show that Mn and Si can enhance acidic sites of the plant, in which Mn plays a great role, but Fe reduces the acidic sites. The sequence of acidic sites' amount among three parts of the plant is root > stem > leaf, in the treatment of Fe, Mn and their combination, and leaf > stem > root in Si treatment. The amount of alkaline sites is less than that of acidic sites, and the difference in their distributions among three parts of the plant is not great. Mn and Si treated Eichhornia crassipes stalks have more amorphous material, such as lignin, pectin and xylan (hemicellulose), which have more functional groups of -OH, -COOH and acidic sites.

  3. Magnetic and conventional shape memory behavior of Mn-Ni-Sn and Mn-Ni-Sn(Fe) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turabi, A. S.; Lázpita, P.; Sasmaz, M.; Karaca, H. E.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic and conventional shape memory properties of Mn49Ni42Sn9(at.%) and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3(at.%) polycrystalline alloys exhibiting martensitic transformation from ferromagnetic austenite into weakly magnetic martensite are characterized under compressive stress and magnetic field. Magnetization difference between transforming phases drastically increases, while transformation temperature decreases with the addition of Fe. Both Mn49Ni42Sn9 and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 alloys show remarkable superelastic and shape memory properties with recoverable strain of 4% and 3.5% under compression at room temperature, respectively. These characteristics can be counted as extraordinary among the polycrystalline NiMn-based magnetic shape memory alloys. Critical stress for phase transformation was increased by 34 MPa in Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 and 21 MPa in Mn49Ni42Sn9 at 9 T, which can be qualitatively understood in terms of thermodynamic Clausius-Clapeyron relationships and in the framework of the suggested physical concept of a volume magnetostress.

  4. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-09-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  5. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  6. Evidence for a magnetic proximity effect up to room temperature at Fe/(Ga, Mn)As interfaces.

    PubMed

    Maccherozzi, F; Sperl, M; Panaccione, G; Minár, J; Polesya, S; Ebert, H; Wurstbauer, U; Hochstrasser, M; Rossi, G; Woltersdorf, G; Wegscheider, W; Back, C H

    2008-12-31

    We report x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry experiments to study magnetic order and coupling in thin Fe/(Ga, Mn)As(100) films. We observe induced magnetic order in the (Ga, Mn)As layer that extends over more than 2 nm, even at room temperature. We find spectroscopic evidences of a hybridized d configuration of Mn atoms in Fe/(Ga, Mn)As, with negligible Mn diffusion and/or MnFe intermixing. We show by experiment as well as by theory that the magnetic moment of the Mn ions couples antiparallel to the moment of the Fe overlayer.

  7. Gender influence on manganese induced depression-like behavior and Mn and Fe deposition in different regions of CNS and excretory organs in intraperitoneally exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, A T; Guimarães, N C; Santana, D F; Gonçalves, M R; Souza, V C O; Barbosa Júnior, F; Pandossio, J E; Santos, V S

    2017-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal for mammals. It can modulate the action of endogenous substances, as neurotransmitters, but in excess also can trigger known neurotoxic effects. Many studies have been conducted assessing Mn neurotoxicity. However, Mn bioaccumulation in different brain tissues and behavior effects involving gender-specific studies are conflicted in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare Mn effects, after 30days of intraperitoneal treatment, in male and female rats, submitted to forced swim and open field tests. After that, were evaluated Mn and Fe tissue levels in CNS, liver, and kidneys. Wistar rats were divided into saline, Mn 1mg/kg, Mn 5mg/kg, and imipramine (as forced swim control). Then, animals were euthanized by anesthesia overdose followed by decapitation and the collected tissue were striatum, hippocampus, brainstem, cortex, cerebellum, hepatic tissue, and renal tissue. Mn and Fe were determined by ICP-MS. There was a dose-dependent effect on accumulation of Mn in the cerebellum and brainstem to the dosage of 5mg/kg. In hippocampus there were bioaccumulation differences between gender and dose, and an increase of Fe in the groups exposed to Mn. Excess metals in the brain dissected has a strong influence on memory and learning processes and suggests pro-depressive effects, possibly triggered by the reduction of monoamines due to excessive metal bioaccumulation. It was concluded that, under this experimental design, Mn exposure cause metal deposition on dissected CNS, liver and kidney. There an effect at lower doses that was gender-dependent and males had more pronounced behavioral damage compared to females, although with increasing dose, females had an indication of motor damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of damping mechanism model and stacking fault probability in Fe-Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Wen, Y.H.; Li, N. Teng, J.; Ding, S.; Xu, Y.G.

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, the damping mechanism model of Fe-Mn alloy was analyzed using dislocation theory. Moreover, as an important parameter in Fe-Mn based alloy, the effect of stacking fault probability on the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy after deep-cooling or tensile deformation was also studied. The damping capacity was measured using reversal torsion pendulum. The stacking fault probability of {gamma}-austenite and {epsilon}-martensite was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis. The microstructure was observed using scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results indicated that with the strain amplitude increasing above a critical value, the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy increased rapidly which could be explained using the breakaway model of Shockley partial dislocations. Deep-cooling and suitable tensile deformation could improve the damping capacity owning to the increasing of stacking fault probability of Fe-19.35Mn alloy.

  9. The distribution of Fe and Mn between chlorite and fluid: Evidence from fluid inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottrell, S.H.; Yardley, B.W.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fe/Mn ratio of fluid inclusions from low-grade metamorphic quartz veins has been analyzed by an improved crush-leach method. When compared with Fe and Mn in coexisting vein chlorites, exchange between fluid and chlorite is shown to vary with the redox state of the wall rocks, but is independent of the salinity of the fluid. Agreement between our results and theoretical predictions of Fe/Mn partitioning between fluid and chlorite are good for veins from relatively oxidized rocks, but vein fluids from reduced hosts are enriched in Fe.

  10. Study of Fe-12Cr-20Mn-W-C austenitic steels irradiated in the SM-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamardin, V. K.; Bulanova, T. M.; Neustroyev, V. S.; Ostrovsky, Z. E.; Kosenkov, V. M.; Ivanov, L. I.; Djomina, E. V.

    1992-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the mechanical properties and swelling of austenitic stainless steels EP-838 (Fe-Cr-Mn) and 316SS (Fe-Cr-Ni) irradiated in the mixed-neutron spectrum of the SM-2 reactor in the temperature range 400-800°C (every 100°C) to 16 dpa dose with 1000 and 3000 appm helium generation correspondingly, determined by nickel content. EP-838 exhibited less susceptibility to void swelling and radiation hardening. Fe-12Cr-20Mn-W-0.1C steel without nickel irradiated at 100°C to 21 dpa exhibited significant radiation hardening accompanied by α-phase formation in the steel structure.

  11. Synthesis of MnFe2O4 hollow microspheres via a sacrificial templates approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Ni, Jun; Zhang, Canying; Meng, Zhaoguo

    2017-06-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) hollow microspheres were synthesized through a sacrificial template approach using manganese carbonate (MnCO3) microspheres as sacrificial templates. Different from the literatures, the synthesis of MnFe2O4 hollow spheres was achieved through a one-pot hydrothermal process without subsequent calcination process. The temperature and reaction time of the hydrothermal process were set to be 180 °C and 8 h. The formation mechanism of the MnFe2O4 hollow microspheres was also investigated. Results indicate that the average diameter of the as-synthesized MnFe2O4 hollow microspheres is 1.2 μm. The shells of the hollow microspheres are composed of nanoparticles. During hydrothermal process, Mn2+ ions diffused outward and resulted in shell materials of MnFe2O4, thus MnCO3 templates were consumed and MnFe2O4 hollow microspheres were obtained.

  12. Impact of Mn3+ upon structure and magnetism of the perovskite derivative Pb(2-x)Ba(x)FeMnO5 (x ∼ 0.7).

    PubMed

    Barrier, N; Lebedev, O I; Seikh, Md Motin; Porcher, F; Raveau, B

    2013-05-20

    On the basis of the Mn(3+) for Fe(3+) substitution in Pb(2-x)Ba(x)Fe2O5, a novel oxide Pb1.3Ba0.7MnFeO5 has been synthesized at normal pressure. Though it belongs to the same structural family, the mixed "MnFe" oxide exhibits a very different structural distortion of its framework compared to the pure "Fe2" oxide, due to the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn(3+). Combined neutron diffraction, high resolution electron microscopy/high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) investigations allow the origin of this difference to be determined. Here we show that the MO6 octahedra of the double perovskite layers in the "MnFe" structure exhibit a strong tetragonal pyramidal distortion "5 + 1", whereas the "Fe2" structure shows a tetrahedral distortion "4 + 2" of the FeO6 octahedra. Similarly, the MO5 polyhedra of the "MnFe" structure tend toward a tetragonal pyramid, whereas the FeO5 polyhedra of the "Fe2" structure are closer to a trigonal bipyramid. Differently from the oxide Pb(2-x)Ba(x)Fe2O5, which is antiferromagnetic, the oxide Pb1.3Ba0.7MnFeO5 exhibits a spin glass behavior with Tg ∼ 50 K in agreement with the disordered distribution of the Mn(3+) and Fe(3+) species.

  13. Magnetic studies of spin wave excitations in Fe/Mn multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, H.; Moubah, R.; El Bahoui, A.; Lassri, H.

    2017-04-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers grown by thermal evaporation technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and spin wave theory. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Fe and Mn layers are continuous with a significant interfacial roughness. The magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied for various Fe thicknesses (tFe). The change of magnetization as a function of temperature is well depicted by a T3/2 law. The Fe spin-wave constant was extracted and found to be larger than that reported for bulk Fe, which we attribute to the fluctuation of magnetic moments at the interface, due to the interfacial roughness. The experimental M (T) data were satisfactory fitted for multilayers with different Fe thicknesses; and several exchange interactions were extracted.

  14. Anomalous Dilatometric Response in Fe-Mn-Al-Si Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The present study deals with the transformation of an aggregate consisting of ferrite and pearlite into austenite in a Fe-0.36C-1.98Mn-1.97Al-0.30Si (wt%) steel. The transformation phenomenon has been studied using dilatometry which confirms that austenite starts to nucleate due to dissolution of ferrite and pearlite and subsequently it commences to grow when the appropriate elevated temperature is reached. The austenite formation has been accompanied with the formation of a hump in the dilatation curve which is different with respect to the results reported earlier. The non-conventional behaviour associated with the austenite formation has been explained using the X-ray diffraction data, microstructural investigation and also with MT-DATA theoretical calculations.

  15. Degradation behavior of biodegradable Fe35Mn alloy stents.

    PubMed

    Sing, N B; Mostavan, A; Hamzah, E; Mantovani, D; Hermawan, H

    2015-04-01

    This article reports a degradation study that was done on stent prototypes made of biodegradable Fe35Mn alloy in a simulated human coronary arterial condition. The stent degradation was observed for a short-term period from 0.5 to 168 h, which simulates the early period of stenting procedure. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to quantify degradation rate and surface property of the stents. Results showed that signs of degradation were visible on both crimped and expanded stents after 1 h of test, mostly located on the stent's curvatures. The degradation rate of stent was higher compared to that of the original alloy, indicating the surface altering effect of stent fabrication processing to degradation. A single oxide layer was formed and detected as a porous structure with capacitive behavior. Expanded stents exhibited lower polarization resistance compared to the nonexpanded ones, indicating the cold work effect of expansion procedure to degradation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Peter; Guzmán, Jorge; Lepalovskij, Vladimir; Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina; Asenjo, Agustina; Vas'kovskiy, Vladimir; Vazquez, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer.

  17. Dilute ferrimagnetism of ilmenites Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazuev, G. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Golovkin, B. G.

    2016-07-01

    Metastable solid solutions (SS) Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 with the ilmenite structure (space group R bar 3) have been prepared by quenching at normal conditions. The compositions of the compounds have been justified using EDX spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of SSs have been analyzed by comparison with ferrimagnetic ilmenite Mn2FeSbO6 ( T N = 269 K) as a natural mineral and ceramics obtained at high pressure and high temperature. The solid solutions have been characterized as dilute magnetic systems formed as a result of substitution of nonmagnetic cations Ti4+ for a part of Fe3+ and Sb5+ cations. Mn3FeTiSbO9 is considered as a ferromagnetic with T N = 171 K and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 as a magnetic with the concentration of magnetic clusters below the percolation threshold.

  18. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  19. Multiferroic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Chhoker, Sandeep; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, Hemant; Jewariya, Mukesh; Yadav, K. L.

    2012-03-01

    Mn doped BiFeO3 (5, 10 and 15 mol%) nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel technique. The influence of Mn doping on structural, dielectric, magnetic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of BiFeO3 was studied. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns showed rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition for 15 mol% Mn doped BiFeO3 sample. Magnetic measurements revealed the enhancement of ferromagnetic property with increasing Mn doping in BiFeO3. The characteristic dielectric anomaly, expected in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN (Neel temperature) was found in all Mn doped BiFeO3 samples. The magnetoelectric coupling was evidenced by the change in capacitance with the change in the applied magnetic field. On increasing Mn concentration from 5 to 15 mol% in BiFeO3, a change in magnetocapacitance from 1.46% to 2.6% showed the improvement of multiferroic properties. In order to explore the optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, their photoluminescent properties were also investigated.

  20. Impact of Mn on the solution enthalpy of hydrogen in austenitic Fe-Mn alloys: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    von Appen, Jörg; Dronskowski, Richard; Chakrabarty, Aurab; Hickel, Tilmann; Spatschek, Robert; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2014-12-05

    Hydrogen interstitials in austenitic Fe-Mn alloys were studied using density-functional theory to gain insights into the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength Mn steels. The investigations reveal that H atoms at octahedral interstitial sites prefer a local environment containing Mn atoms rather than Fe atoms. This phenomenon is closely examined combining total energy calculations and crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis. Contributions from various electronic phenomena such as elastic, chemical, and magnetic effects are characterized. The primary reason for the environmental preference is a volumetric effect, which causes a linear dependence on the number of nearest-neighbour Mn atoms. A secondary electronic/magnetic effect explains the deviations from this linearity.

  1. Migration kinetics of oxygen vacancies in Mn-modified BiFeO₃ thin films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiagang; Wang, John; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-07-01

    Migration kinetics of oxygen vacancies in BiFe(0.95)Mn(0.05)O(3) thin film were investigated by the temperature -dependent leakage current as well as the electric field and temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy. The BiFe(0.95)Mn(0.05)O(3) is of an abnormal leakage behavior, and an Ohmic conduction is observed regardless of varied temperatures and electric fields. The temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy under different resistance states is used to illuminate different leakage behavior between BiFe(0.95)Mn(0.05)O(3) and pure BiFeO(3). The impedance spectroscopy under a high resistance state shows that the first ionization of oxygen vacancies is responsible for the dielectric relaxation and electrical conduction of BiFe(0.95)Mn(0.05)O(3) in the whole temperature range of 294 to 474 K; the BiFeO(3) exhibits similar dielectric relaxation and electrical conduction behavior in the low-temperature range of 294-374 K, whereas the short-range motion of oxygen vacancies was involved in the high-temperature range of 374-474 K. The impedance spectroscopy under a low resistance state demonstrates that the dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanisms almost keep unchanged for BiFe(0.95)Mn(0.05)O(3), whereas the hopping electrons of Fe(2+)-V(O)(•)-Fe(3+) and Fe(2+)-Fe(3+) are responsible for its dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanism of BiFeO(3). Different impedance spectroscopy under low and high resistance states confirms that an abnormal leakage behavior of BiFe(0.95)Mn(0.05)O(3) is related to different migration kinetics of oxygen vacancies, obviously differing from that of BiFeO(3).

  2. Antiferromagnetic FeMn alloys electrodeposited from chloride-based electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gómez, Sandra; Ranchal, Rocío; Abuín, Manuel; Aragón, Ana María; Velasco, Víctor; Marín, Pilar; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Pérez, Lucas

    2016-03-21

    The capability of synthesizing Fe-based antiferromagnetic metal alloys would fuel the use of electrodeposition in the design of new magnetic devices such as high-aspect-ratio spin valves or new nanostructured hard magnetic composites. Here we report the synthesis of high quality antiferromagnetic FeMn alloys electrodeposited from chloride-based electrolytes. We have found that in order to grow homogeneous FeMn films it is necessary to incorporate a large concentration of NH4Cl as an additive in the electrolyte. The study of the structure and magnetic properties shows that films with composition close to Fe50Mn50 are homogeneous antiferromagnetic alloys. We have established a parameter window for the synthesis of FeMn alloys that show antiferromagnetism at room temperature.

  3. Evolution of structure, magnetic and transport properties of {{Fe}}_{{1-x}}{{Mn}}_{x}{Se}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Kapil E.; Priolkar, K. R.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper seeks to investigate effect of Mn doping in superconducting FeSe. It is found that over the entire doping range in {{Fe}}1-xMn x Se (0≤slant x≤slant 1), Mn does not substitute Fe in the superconducting tetragonal phase. Instead two impurity phases, NiAs type hexagonal phase and NaCl type cubic phase, grow with increasing Mn content. Initially, hexagonal phase has a higher content than the cubic phase but beyond x = 0.5, the cubic phase grows rapidly and for x≥slant 0.8, the sample is monophasic with cubic NaCl type structure. The superconducting tetragonal phase content steadily decreases with increasing Mn concentration and completely disappears beyond x = 0.5. The premise that Mn never replaces Fe in the superconducting phase is further strengthened by observation of a sharp drop in AC susceptibility akin to superconducting transition at the T c of FeSe up to x = 0.5. EXAFS studies at the Fe K edge also show that the Fe has a four coordinated tetragonal local structure in all compositions below x = 0.5, similar to that in FeSe and it gradually changes to a six coordinated one as is expected for a NaCl type cubic phase for x≥slant 0.5.

  4. Ab initio study of Fe{sub 2}MnZ (Al, Si, Ge) Heusler alloy using GGA approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vivek Kumar Jain, Vishal Lakshmi, N. Venugopalan, K.

    2014-04-24

    Density functional theory based on FP-LAPW method used to investigate the electronic structure of Fe{sub 2}MnZ, shows that the total spin magnetic moment shows a trend consistent with the Slater–Pauling curve. The Fe and Mn magnetic moment depend on choice of Z element although the magnetic moment of Z element is negative and less than 0.1 μ{sub B}. Spin polarization calculations evidence 100% spin polarization for Fe{sub 2}MnSi. Fe{sub 2}MnAl and Fe{sub 2}MnGe show metallic behavior with 93%, 98% spin polarization.

  5. Deep Drawing Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jae Wung; Moon, Jongun; Jang, Min Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Yim, Dami; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2017-07-01

    Herein, the deep drawability and deep drawing behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA and its microstructure and texture evolution are first studied for future applications. The CoCrFeMnNi HEA is successfully drawn to a limit drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.14, while the planar anisotropy of the drawn cup specimen is negligible. The moderate combination of strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity and the formation of deformation twins in the edge region play important roles in successful deep drawing. In the meanwhile, the texture evolution of CoCrFeMnNi HEA has similarities with conventional fcc metals.

  6. Ni spin switching induced by magnetic frustration in FeMn/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2009-03-08

    Epitaxially grown FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) films are investigated by Photoemission Electron Microscopy and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect. We find that as the FeMn overlayer changes from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic state, it could switch the ferromagnetic Ni spin direction from out-of-plane to in-plane direction of the film. This phenomenon reveals a new mechanism of creating magnetic anisotropy and is attributed to the out-of-plane spin frustration at the FeMn-Ni interface.

  7. Deep Drawing Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jae Wung; Moon, Jongun; Jang, Min Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Yim, Dami; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2017-09-01

    Herein, the deep drawability and deep drawing behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA and its microstructure and texture evolution are first studied for future applications. The CoCrFeMnNi HEA is successfully drawn to a limit drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.14, while the planar anisotropy of the drawn cup specimen is negligible. The moderate combination of strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity and the formation of deformation twins in the edge region play important roles in successful deep drawing. In the meanwhile, the texture evolution of CoCrFeMnNi HEA has similarities with conventional fcc metals.

  8. Magnetic interactions in BiFe₀.₅Mn₀.₅O₃ films and BiFeO₃/BiMnO₃ superlattices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y B; Du, Jun

    2015-03-13

    The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces.

  9. Preparation of a novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite and its application for aqueous Hg(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingchun; Huang, Yao; Gong, Yanyan; Lyu, Honghong; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Jianli

    2016-10-05

    A novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (GO/Fe-Mn) composite was synthesized (molar ratio of Fe/Mn=3/1 and mass ratio of Fe/GO=1/7.5) and investigated for the sorption characteristics and mechanisms of aqueous mercury (Hg(2+)) as well as the biological effects to wheat and rice. Characterization tests showed that Fe-Mn oxides were impregnated onto GO sheets in an amorphous form through oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., CO, epoxy COC, carboxyl OCO, and CO) and π-π interactions. GO/Fe-Mn possessed large surface area, surface enhanced Raman scattering with more sp(3) defects, and greater thermal stability than GO. XPS analysis revealed that Fe2O3, FeOOH, MnO2, MnOOH, and MnO were the dominant metal oxides in GO/Fe-Mn. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Sips isotherm model fitted well with the sorption kinetic and isotherm data. The maximum sorption capacity for mercury was 32.9mg/g. Ligand exchange and surface complexation were the dominant mechanisms for mercury removal. GO/Fe-Mn greatly reduced the bioavailability of mercury to wheat and rice, even promoted the seedling growth. This work suggests that GO/Fe-Mn can be used as an effective and environmental-friendly adsorbent in heavy metal remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Fe states in dilute 57 Mn implanted SnO 2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Nomura, K.; Mølholt, T. E.; Shayestehaminzadeh, S.; Johnston, K.; Mantovan, R.; Masenda, H.; Ncube, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Gislason, H.; Langouche, G.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, S.; Weyer, G.

    2014-04-01

    States of dilute Fe in SnO2 have been monitored using 57Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of 57Mn ( T 1/2 = 85.4 s) in the temperature range from 143 K to 711 K. A sharp annealing stage is observed at ~330 K where the Fe3 + /Fe2 + ratio shows a marked increase. It is suggested that this annealing stage is due to the dissociation of Mn-VO pairs during the lifetime of 57Mn; the activation energy for this dissociation is estimated to be 0.9(1) eV. Fe3 + is found in a paramagnetic state showing spin-lattice relaxation rates consistent with an expected T 2 dependence derived for a Raman process. In addition, a sharp lined doublet in the Mössbauer spectra is interpreted as due to recoil produced interstitial Fe.

  11. FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films studied using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Li, J.; Tan, A.; Park, J.; Jin, E.; Son, H.; Doran, A.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-07-31

    FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) films were grown epitaxially and investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect and photoemission electron microscopy. We found that FeMn/Fe/Co/Cu(1,1,10) exhibits the same properties as FeMn/Co/Cu(1,1,10) for the ferromagnetic phase of the face centered cubic (fcc) Fe film but a different property for the non-ferromagnetic phase of the fcc Fe film. This result indicates that the characteristic property reported in the literature for FeMn/Co/Cu(001) comes from the FeMn spin structure and is independent of the ferromagnetic layer.

  12. Effect of Mn substitution for Fe on magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of SmFe2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ren, W. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Li, J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2012-04-01

    The structural, magnetic, and magnetostrictive properties of Sm(Fe1-xMnx)2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) alloys have been investigated. The alloys are almost single phase cubic Laves Sm(Fe, Mn)2 when x ≤ 0.15. The lattice parameter increases and Curie temperature and the magnetization at 295 K decrease with increasing Mn content of the Sm(Fe1-xMnx)2 compounds. The spin-reorientation temperature for ⟨110⟩ to ⟨111⟩ of Sm(Fe1-xMnx)2 decreases from 200 K for x = 0 to 140 K for x = 0.15, indicating the increasing anisotropy of the Mn-substituted compounds. The magnetostriction coefficient λ111 of the Sm(Fe1-xMnx)2 compounds slightly decreases with Mn substitution and maintains a value larger than 1900 ppm for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15. The linear anisotropic magnetostriction λa = λ‖ - λ⊥ for the Sm(Fe1-xMnx)2 alloys decreases with increasing Mn content, which may be ascribed to the decrease of λ111 and the increased anisotropy.

  13. Synthesis Gas Conversion over Rh-Based Catalysts Promoted by Fe and Mn

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yifei; Göeltl, Florian; Ro, Insoo; ...

    2017-06-13

    Rh/SiO2 catalysts promoted with Fe and Mn are selective for synthesis gas conversion to oxygenates and light hydrocarbons at 523 K and 580 psi. Selective anchoring of Fe and Mn species on Rh nanoparticles was achieved by controlled surface reactions and was evidenced by ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma absorption emission spectroscopy. The interaction between Rh and Fe promotes the selective production of ethanol through hydrogenation of acetaldehyde and enhances the selectivity toward C2 oxygenates, which include ethanol and acetaldehyde. The interaction between Rh and Mn increases the overall reaction rate and the selectivitymore » toward C2+ hydrocarbons. The combination of Fe and Mn on Rh/SiO2 results in trimetallic Rh-Fe-Mn catalysts that surpass the performance of their bimetallic counterparts. The highest selectivities toward ethanol (36.9%) and C2 oxygenates (39.6%) were achieved over the Rh-Fe-Mn ternary system with a molar ratio of 1:0.15:0.10, as opposed to the selectivities obtained over Rh/SiO2, which were 3.5% and 20.4%, respectively. The production of value-added oxygenates and C2+ hydrocarbons over this trimetallic catalyst accounted for 55% of the total products. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggest that significant fractions of the Fe and Mn species exist as metallic iron and manganese oxides on the Rh surface upon reduction. These findings are rationalized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which reveal that the exact state of metals on the surfaces is condition-dependent, with Mn present as Mn(I) and Mn(II) oxide on the Rh (211) step edges and Fe present as Fe(I) oxide on the step edge and metallic subsurface iron on both Rh steps and terraces. CO Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations suggest that the binding of CO to Rh (211) step edges modified by Fe and/or manganese oxide is altered in comparison to

  14. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn2FeAs alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-01

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn2FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg2CuTi-type Mn2FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn2FeAs applying in the future spintronics field.

  15. Magnetic properties and martensitic transformation in quaternary Heusler alloy of NiMnFeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, M.; Wang, W. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Meng, F. B.; Liu, H. Y.; Liu, B. D.; Qu, J. P.

    2002-11-01

    Quaternary Heusler alloy Ni2)(Mn,FeGa has been studied systematically for the structure, martensitic transformation, and magnetic properties in two systems of Ni50.5Mn25-xFexGa24.5 and Ni50.4Mn28-xFexGa21.6. Substituting Fe for Mn up to about 70%, the pure L21 phase and the thermoelastic martensitic transformation still can be observed in these quaternary systems. Iron doping dropped the martensitic transformation temperature from 220 to 140 K, increased the Curie temperature from 351 to 429 K, and broadened the thermal hysteresis from about 7 to 18 K. Magnetic analysis revealed that Fe atoms contribute to the net magnetization of the material with a moment lower than that of Mn. The temperature dependence of magnetic-field-induced strains has been improved by this doping method.

  16. Reduction of tritiated methane over Zr-Fe-Mn, Fe and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniazzi, A.B.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Tritiated waste and glovebox cleanup systems contain significant levels of trititated methane impurities which require reducing and processing to recover the tritium. A viable approach to the recovery of tritium is the conversion of tritiated methane into elemental tritium and carbon by thermal cracking on a heated metal matrix. Through the conversion reaction of HTO/H{sub 2}O with hot Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} powder, tritiated methane concentrations in the 0.4 to 0.9 mCi/m{sup 3} range are achievable. The HTO/H{sub 2}O ratio is approx.10{sup -7}. Conversion efficiencies for the decomposition of methane are measured for Zr-Fe-Mn alloy, iron oxide and supported nickel catalyst. HT and HTO are created by decomposing methane. Zr-Fe-Mn alloy achieved a maximum conversion efficiency of approx.70% at 700{degree}C. Iron oxide thermally cracked methane at 36% at a temperature of 700{degree}C. Supported nickel operating at 450{degree}C achieved conversion efficiencies ranging from 65 to 100%. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Structural, Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of [(CH3)2NH2]Fe x Mn1- x (HCOO)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Huang, Zhideng; Ma, Zhibin; Jia, Tingting; Kimura, Hideo; Fu, Qiuming; Wang, Geming; Tao, Hong; Cai, Kang; Fan, Ziran

    2017-10-01

    The multiferroic phenomenon has interdisciplinary applications in the fields of chemistry, physics, electronics, materials, crystallography, and mechanics. Compared to traditional limited pure inorganic multiferroics, hybrid metal-organic frameworks are numerous and more flexible, and can be tailored to become different types of multiferroic materials. We synthesized [(CH3)2NH2] Fe x Mn x-1(HCOO)3 and four crystals were obtained, with x = 0 (Mn), 0.1 (Fe0.1Mn0.9), 0.2 (Fe0.2Mn0.8), and 0.3 (Fe0.3Mn0.7). At the maximum Fe doping of Fe0.3Mn0.7, we observed magnetic properties different from lower-level-doped crystals. The magnetizations at 3 K were 3.50 emu/g, 3.87 emu/g, 3.89 emu/g and 7.38 emu/g corresponding to Mn, Fe0.1Mn0.9, Fe0.2Mn0.8 and Fe0.3Mn0.7, respectively. Fe0.3Mn0.7 has three magnetic transitions, at 118.3 K, 40.3 K, and 8.3 K.

  18. Substituting Fe for two of the four Mn ions in photosystem II-effects on water-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Semin, Boris K; Seibert, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Fe(II) cations with Ca-depleted PSII membranes (PSII[-Ca,4Mn]) in the dark and found that Fe(II) incubation removes 2 of 4 Mn ions from the tetranuclear Mn cluster of the photosynthetic O2-evolving complex (OEC). The reduction of Mn ions in PSII(-Ca,4Mn) by Fe(II) and the concomitant release of two Mn(II) cations is accompanied by the binding of newly generated Fe(III) in at least one vacated Mn site. Flash-induced chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield measurements of this new 2Mn/nFe cluster (PSII[-Ca,2Mn,nFe]) show that charge recombination in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) occurs between Qa (-) and the remaining Mn/Fe cluster (but not YZ (●)) in the OEC, and extraction of 2 Mn occurs uniformly in all PSII complexes. No O2 evolution is observed, but the heteronuclear metal cluster in PSII(-Ca,2Mn,nFe) samples is still able to supply electrons for reduction of the exogenous electron acceptor, 2,6-dichlorophrenolindophenol, by photooxidizing water and producing H2O2 in the absence of an exogenous donor as seen previously with PSII(-Ca,4Mn). Selective extraction of Mn or Fe cations from the 2Mn/nFe heteronuclear cluster demonstrates that the high-affinity Mn-binding site is occupied by one of the iron cations. It is notable that partial water-oxidation function still occurs when only two Mn cations are present in the PSII OEC.

  19. Substituting Fe for two of the four Mn ions in photosystem II—effects on water-oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Semin, Boris K.; Seibert, Michael

    2016-02-04

    We have investigated the interaction of Fe(II) cations with Ca-depleted PSII membranes (PSII[-Ca,4Mn]) in the dark and found that Fe(II) incubation removes 2 of 4 Mn ions from the tetranuclear Mn cluster of the photosynthetic O2-evolving complex (OEC). The reduction of Mn ions in PSII(-Ca,4Mn) by Fe(II) and the concomitant release of two Mn(II) cations is accompanied by the binding of newly generated Fe(III) in at least one vacated Mn site. Flash-induced chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield measurements of this new 2Mn/nFe cluster (PSII[-Ca,2Mn,nFe]) show that charge recombination in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) occurs between Qa - and the remaining Mn/Fe cluster (but not YZ) in the OEC, and extraction of 2 Mn occurs uniformly in all PSII complexes. No O2 evolution is observed, but the heteronuclear metal cluster in PSII(-Ca,2Mn,nFe) samples is still able to supply electrons for reduction of the exogenous electron acceptor, 2,6-dichlorophrenolindophenol, by photooxidizing water and producing H2O2 in the absence of an exogenous donor as seen previously with PSII(-Ca,4Mn). Selective extraction of Mn or Fe cations from the 2Mn/nFe heteronuclear cluster demonstrates that the high-affinity Mn-binding site is occupied by one of the iron cations. It is notable that partial water-oxidation function still occurs when only two Mn cations are present in the PSII OEC.

  20. Eutectic equilibria in the quaternary system Fe-Cr-Mn-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S.; Schuster, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution of the quaternary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-C and to a lesser extent of the quinary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-Al-C were examined for in situ composite alloy candidates. Multivariant eutectic compositions were determined from phase equilibria studies wherein M7C3 carbides (approximately 30% by volume) formed from the melt within gamma iron. An extended field of the hexagonal carbide, (Cr, Fe, Mn)7 C3, was found without undergoing transformation to the orthorhombic structure. Increasing stability for this carbide was found for higher ratios of Cr/Fe(+) Cr + Mn. Aluminum additions promoted a ferritic matrix while manganese favored the desired gamma austenitic matrix. In coexistence with the matrix phase, chromium enters preferentially the carbide phase while manganese distributes equally between the gamma matrix and the M7C3 carbide. The composition and lattice parameters of the carbide and matrix phases were determined to establish their respective stabilities.

  1. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of FePt@MnO Nano-hetero-Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schladt, Thomas; Graf, Tanja; Koehler, Oskar; Schneider, Kerstin; Tremel, Wolfgang; InstituteInorganic; Analytical Chemistry Team

    2011-03-01

    Monodisperse FePt@MnO nano-hetero-particles with different sizes and morphologies were prepared by a seed-mediated nucleation and growth technique. Both, size and morphology of the individual domains could be controlled by adjustment of the synthetic parameters. As a consequence, different particle constructs, including dimers, dumbbells and flowers, could be obtained by changing the polarity of the solvent. The FePt@MnO nano-hetero-particles were thoroughly characterized by (HR-)TEM- and XRD analysis and SQUID magnetometry. Due to a sufficient lattice match, the MnO NPs preferentially grow on the (111) surfaces of the fcc-FePt seeds. Furthermore, the surface spins of the antiferromagnetic MnO domains pin the magnetic moments of the ferromagnetic FePt NPs which leads to an exchanged biased magnetic hysteresis.

  2. Eutectic equilibria in the quaternary system Fe-Cr-Mn-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S.; Schuster, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution of the quaternary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-C and to a lesser extent of the quinary system, Fe-Cr-Mn-Al-C were examined for in situ composite alloy candidates. Multivariant eutectic compositions were determined from phase equilibria studies wherein M7C3 carbides (approximately 30% by volume) formed from the melt within gamma iron. An extended field of the hexagonal carbide, (Cr, Fe, Mn)7 C3, was found without undergoing transformation to the orthorhombic structure. Increasing stability for this carbide was found for higher ratios of Cr/Fe(+) Cr + Mn. Aluminum additions promoted a ferritic matrix while manganese favored the desired gamma austenitic matrix. In coexistence with the matrix phase, chromium enters preferentially the carbide phase while manganese distributes equally between the gamma matrix and the M7C3 carbide. The composition and lattice parameters of the carbide and matrix phases were determined to establish their respective stabilities.

  3. Synthesis of MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Mn) Nanoparticles with Tunable Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Lourdes I.; Somoza, Álvaro; Serna, Carlos J.; Morales, M. Puerto

    2010-10-01

    Monodisperse MFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles (with M = Fe, and Mn) of narrow size distribution has been achieved in a one step synthesis by thermal decomposition of Mn (II) oleate and Fe (III) oleate, with tunable sizes between 5 and 20 nm. These nanoparticles were functionalized with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and bis(carboxymethyl)(2-maleimidylethyl)ammonium 4-toluenesulfonate (MATS) for possible biomedical applications.

  4. Exchange coupling in MnBi/Fe-Co thin film bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Gao, Tieren; Fackler, Sean; Maruyama, Shingo; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Cui, Jun; Krammer, M. J.; Johnson, Duane; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie; Kirby, Brian; Ratcliff, William; Skomski, Ralph; Lofland, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    To achieve enhanced energy products of MnBi for rare-earth free permanent magnet applications, we studied the exchange coupled soft/hard bilayers based on MnBi films. By using DC magnetron sputtering, we fabricated pure MnBi films with magnetization of 500 emu/cc and coercivity of 1.6 T. A (BH)max of 6.2 MGOe is obtained for pure MnBi films. A large enhancement in (BH)max due to exchange coupling in MnBi/Fe-Co bilayers is observed with Fe-Co thicknesses between 2 and 5 nm. The highest (BH)max obtained is 14.0 MGOe at room temperature with a single phase magnetization curve for a MnBi (20 nm)/Co (2 nm) bilayer. TEM and XPS studies indicate there is no oxidation between soft/hard interface. The XMCD results show that the soft moments of Fe/Co at a thickness of 2 nm are perpendicular to the MnBi plane, indicating nearly perfect hard-soft coupling. Moreover, a micromagnetic calculation on perpendicularly-coupled MnBi/Fe-Co bilayers suggests a critical coupling thickness of 4 nm of the soft layer. We will also discuss results from polarized neutron reflectometry measurements performed on the bilayers. This work is funded by ARPA-E.

  5. Influence of Mn substitution on crystal structure and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of nanocrystalline Co1- x Mn x Fe2-2 x Mn2 x O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lawrence; Kumar, Pawan; Kar, Manoranjan

    2013-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Mn substituted cobalt ferrite Co1- x Mn x Fe2-2 x Mn2 x O4 ( x = 0.0-0.4) has been synthesized by the standard citrate-gel method. The structural and magnetic characteristics of all samples have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and VSM techniques. Distributions of cations between the two interstitial sites (tetrahedral and octahedral site) have been estimated qualitatively by analyzing the powder X-ray diffraction patterns by employing the Rietveld refinement technique. All samples are found to be mixed spinel with cubic structure ( Fdmathop 3limits^{ - } m space group). The FT-IR study shows the presence of absorption bands in the range of 390-750 cm-1, which confirm the spinel structure of the sample. The stoichiometry of Co, Fe, Mn and O ions in the sample has been obtained by using energy-dispersive spectrum with help of an FE-SEM. The magnetizations in saturation have been analyzed by employing the "law of approach" technique. The saturation magnetization, coercivity and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant depend upon Mn ion concentration and crystallite size.

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of MnPd/Fe grown on MgO(100) substrate: Ab initio studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Magnoungou, J. H. J.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.; Demangeat, C.

    2016-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of ultrathin films MnPd/Fe grown on MgO(001) are investigated using a self-consistent pseudopotential plane waves method based on density functional theory in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. The results obtained reveal the presence of an antiferromagnetic coupling between successive Mn [100] rows, combined with a ripple where Mn outward atoms exhibit a positive magnetic moment, in the case of Mn overlayer on Fe/MgO(001). In the case of MnPd monolayer ordered alloy, the c(2 × 2) structure formation is more favorable than the p(1 × 2) one, exhibiting a ferromagnetic coupling between Mn neighbor atoms with a positive induced ferromagnetic moment on Pd atoms. Pd atoms are pushed outward. For 1-ML MnxPd1 - x on Fe/MgO, the Mn absolute mean magnetization per atom increases as x coverage increases, whereas the Pd mean induced magnetic moment decreases. For systems alternating Mn and Pd monolayers on Fe/MgO(001), a complex magnetic structure is shown on Mn monolayers: changing from Mn neighboring antiferromagnetic coupling to Mn [010] rows antiferromagnetic behavior. The correlation is made between the electronic structure and the magnetic properties, by comparing filled with partially filled components (Pd, Mn and Fe) d-bands. The magnetization easy-axis changes between the in-plane and the out-of-plane orientations from Fe/MgO to MnPd/Fe/MgO systems.

  7. Elemental Mercury Oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn Spinel: Performance, Mechanism, and Reaction Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangchao; Xiao, Xin; Huang, Nan; Dang, Hao; Liao, Yong; Zou, Sijie; Yang, Shijian

    2017-01-03

    The design of a high-performance catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation and predicting the extent of Hg(0) oxidation are both extremely limited due to the uncertainties of the reaction mechanism and the reaction kinetics. In this work, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed as a high-performance catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation, and the reaction mechanism and the reaction kinetics of Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were studied. The reaction orders of Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel with respect to gaseous Hg(0) concentration and gaseous HCl concentration were approximately 1 and 0, respectively. Therefore, Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel mainly followed the Eley-Rideal mechanism (i.e., the reaction of gaseous Hg(0) with adsorbed HCl), and the rate of Hg(0) oxidation mainly depended on Cl(•) concentration on the surface. As H2O, SO2, and NO not only inhibited Cl(•) formation on the surface but also interfered with the interface reaction between gaseous Hg(0) and Cl(•) on the surface, Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was obviously inhibited in the presence of H2O, SO2, and NO. Furthermore, the extent of Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be predicted according to the kinetic parameter kE-R, and the predicted result was consistent with the experimental result.

  8. Removal of tetracycline from water by Fe-Mn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Yang; Kang, Jin; Fan, Maohong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-01-01

    Significant concerns have been raised over the presence of antibiotics including tetracyclines in aquatic environments. A series of Fe-Mn binary oxide with different Fe:Mn molar ratios was synthesized by a simultaneous oxidation and coprecipitation process for TC removal. Results showed that Fe-Mn binary oxide had higher removal efficiency than that of hydrous iron oxide and hydrous manganese oxide, and that the oxide with a Fe:Mn molar ratio of 5:1 was the best in removal than other molar ratios. The tetracycline removal was highly pH dependent. The removal of tetracycline decreased with the increase of initial concentration, but the absolute removal quantity was more at high concentration. The presence of cations and anions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, CO3(2-) and SO4(2-) had no significant effect on the tetracycline removal in our experimental conditions, while SiO3(2-) and PO4(3-) had hindered the adsorption of tetracycline. The mechanism investigation found that tetracycline removal was mainly achieved by the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by the tetracycline species and formation of surface complexes at the water/oxide interface. This primary study suggests that Fe-Mn binary oxide with a proper Fe:Mn molar ratio will be a very promising material for the removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions.

  9. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  10. Preparation and characterization of Fe-Mn-doped Barium Hexaferrite permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, C.; Nainggolan, M. M.; Sebayang, K.; Ginting, M.; Sebayang, P.

    2017-04-01

    Barium Hexaferrite-based permanent magnets (BaFe12O19) was known for its high magnetic anisotropy and suitability in broad applications. Some dopants and atomic substitutions have been utilized to improve its properties for special purposes. In this paper, the Fe-Mn system was used as a dopant for preparing Fe-Mn-doped barium hexaferrite permanent magnet using mechanical alloying method. The physical properties of the samples, such as bulk density, and porosity were examined to study the effect of the dopant. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the samples were analyzed using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), respectively. It is found that the addition of Fe-Mn into barium hexaferrite contributes on the appearance of minor phases such as iron oxide-based magnetite and hematite. In addition, the XRD peak shifted to smaller angle which is likely due to Mn ion substitution and lattice strain within the hexaferrite crystal. It is also observed that the magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-doped barium hexaferrite was inferior to that of the undoped samples. It means that the formation of magnetite and hematite from Fe-Mn dopant during the sintering process is dominant and results to the reduction of hard magnetic properties of the samples.

  11. Fe and Mn removal from mining drainage using goaf filling materials obtained from coal mining process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Chen, Aolei; Qu, Hongbin; Xu, Shouqiang; Zhang, Xue; He, Xuwen

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue, sandy soil and clay (mass ratio 45:4:1) as goaf filling materials acquired from coal mining processes were applied to remove Fe and Mn effectively from mining drainage. The results of an adsorption kinetic study showed that the Fe adsorption equation was y=21.454y+8.4712, R2=0.9924 and the Mn adsorption equation was y=7.5409x+0.905, R2=0.9957. Meanwhile, the goaf filling materials had low desorption capacity (Fe 6.765 μg/g, Mn 1.52 μg/g) and desorption ratio (Fe 8.98%, Mn 11.04%). Experiments demonstrated that Fe and Mn from mining drainage could be removed stably at a flow rate of 1.2 L/min, Fe inlet concentration of less than 40 mg/L, Mn inlet concentration of less than 2 mg/L and neutral or alkaline conditions. During a procedure of continuous experiments, the effluent quality could meet the requirement of the 'Code for Engineering Design of Sewage Regeneration-GB503352-2002'. A real-application project using goaf filling materials to treat mining drainage in Shendong coal mine showed that the average cost per ton of mining drainage was about 0.55 RMB, which could bring about considerable economic benefit for coal mining enterprises.

  12. Magnetic properties of MnBi based alloys: First-principles calculations for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe cases

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, YK; Park, J; Mryasov, ON; Kim, SG; Kim, S; Lee, J; Abo, GS; Choi, CJ; Lee, J

    2013-05-01

    First-principles calculations of fundamental magnetic properties were performed for ordered MnBi, MnBi-Co, and MnBi-Co-Fe alloys to evaluate maximum energy product (BH)(max). Full potential linear-augmented plane wave (FLAPW) and linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) were used and found to give a reasonable description of saturation magnetization (M-s), effective anisotropy constant (K-eff), and Curie temperature (T-c) for NiAs-structured MnBi crystal. We found that upon addition of Co, the M-s and K-eff increased, while T-c reduced. The magnetic anisotropy changed from weak anisotropy easy plane for MnBi to the strong easy axis anisotropy for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe. (C) 2013 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 and modified Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanling

    A novel alloy with nominal composition Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 has been found to show good room-temperature strength and significant ductility. The current project is to study the wear properties of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn35Al 15 and discuss the possibility of further improving the mechanical properties of this alloy. The dry sliding wear of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 was studied in in four different environments, i.e. air, dry oxygen, dry argon and a 4% hydrogen/nitrogen mixture. Two-body and three-body abrasive wear mechanism was found for tests in oxygen-containing environments, while plastic flow mechanisms dominated the wear behavior for tests in argon. Hydrogen embrittlement led to 1000% increase of wear loss by causing more rapid crack nucleation of the asperities. The effects of different additions of chromium (≤ 8 at. %) on both microstructure and fracture behavior of Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 were investigated. All alloys consisted of (Ni, Al)-rich B2 and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases with most of the Cr residing in the f.c.c. phase. The addition of 6 at. % Cr not only increased the room temperature ductility, but also completely suppressed the environmental embrittlement observed in the Cr-free alloy at low strain rates. The effects of varying the Al concentration on the microstructures and tensile properties of six two-phase FeNiMnAl alloys with a composition close to Fe30Ni20Mn35Al15 were studied. The increase in f.c.c. volume fraction and f.c.c. lamellar width led to an increase in ductility and a decrease in yield strength. The correlation between the yield stress and f.c.c. lamellar spacing lambda obeyed a Hall-Petch-type relationship, i.e. sigmay=252+0.00027lambda-1, where the units for sigmay and lambda are MPa and meter, respectively. FeNiMnAl alloy with B2 and f.c.c. phases aligned along was reported to show high strength at room temperature. The mechanical properties of Fe 28Ni18Mn33Al21, consisting of (Ni, Al)-enriched B2 and (Fe, Mn)-enriched f.c.c. phases with

  14. Synthesis and high-efficiency methylene blue adsorption of magnetic PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Zui; Cai, Minhan; Jian, Haitao; Zeng, Zhiqiao; Li, Feng; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-08-01

    MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and ultrasonic mixing process. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and VSM. XRD patterns indicate that the synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a single cubic spinel phase. SEM images confirm the existence of three types of basic morphology of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: octahedral, flower-like, and plate-like particles. High saturation magnetization Ms (up to 74.6 emu/g) of the as-synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained. Experiments demonstrate that the variation of the hydrothermal reaction time does not remarkably affect the magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. In PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites, the coating of PAA leads to a slight decrease in magnetization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Additionally, PAA coating greatly enhances the adsorption properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles for Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Especially, the removal efficiency reaches 96.3%. This research indicates that the as-synthesized PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibit excellent magnetic properties and can be taken as a promising adsorbent for removal of MB dye in industrial scale.

  15. Binder-jetting 3D printing and alloy development of new biodegradable Fe-Mn-Ca/Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daeho; Chou, Da-Tren; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun; Swink, Isaac; Issaev, Ilona; Kuhn, Howard A; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-11-01

    3D printing of various biomaterials including titanium and stainless steel has been studied for treating patients with cranio-maxillofacial bone defect. The potential long term complications with use of inert biometals have opened the opportunities for use of biodegradable metals in the clinical arena. The authors previously reported that binder-jet 3D printing technique enhanced the degradation rates of biodegradable Fe-Mn alloy by creating engineered micropores rendering the system attractive as biodegradable implantable devices. In the present study, the authors employed CALPHAD modeling to systematically study and modify the Fe-Mn alloy composition to achieve enhanced degradation rates. Accordingly, Ca and Mg addition to Fe-35wt% Mn solid solution predicted increase in degradation rates. In order to validate the CALPHAD results, Fe - (35-y)wt% Mn - ywt% X (X=Ca, Mg, and y=0, 1, 2) were synthesized by using high energy mechanical alloying (HEMA). Sintered pellets of Fe-Mn-Ca and Fe-Mn-Mg were then subjected to potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and live/dead cell viability tests. Sintered pellets of Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Ca, and Fe-Mn-Mg also exhibited MC3T3 murine pre-osteoblast cells viability in the live/dead assay results. Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-1Ca were thus accordingly selected for 3D printing and the results further confirmed enhanced degradation of Ca addition to 3D printed constructs validating the theoretical and alloy development studies. Live/dead and MTT cell viability results also confirmed good cytocompatibility of the 3D-printed Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-1Ca constructs.

  16. Interfacial exchange interactions and magnetism of Ni2MnAl /Fe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, R.; Simon, E.; Keller, S.; Nagyfalusi, B.; Khmelevsky, S.; Szunyogh, L.; Nowak, U.

    2017-08-01

    Based on multiscale calculations combining ab initio methods with spin dynamics simulations, we perform a detailed study of the magnetic behavior of Ni2MnAl /Fe bilayers. Our simulations show that such a bilayer exhibits a small exchange bias effect when the Ni2MnAl Heusler alloy is in a disordered B2 phase. Additionally, we present an effective way to control the magnetic structure of the Ni2MnAl antiferromagnet, in the pseudo-ordered B2-I as well as the disordered B2 phases, via a spin-flop coupling to the Fe layer.

  17. Direct Observation of Charge Transfer in Double-Perovskite-Like RbMn[Fe(CN)6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Moritomo, Y.; Takata, M.; Sakata, M.; Umekawa, M.; Hamada, N.; Ohkoshi, S.; Tokoro, H.; Hashimoto, K.

    2003-12-01

    The charge density distribution has been determined for a transition metal cyanide, RbMn[Fe(CN)6], by means of the maximum entropy Rietveld method combined with the highly angularly resolved synchrotron radiation x-ray powder diffraction at SPring-8 BL02B2. We directly observed a charge transfer from the Mn site to the Fe site in the low-temperature phase. On the basis of a local density approximation calculation, we discuss the origin for the anisotropic bonding electron distribution around the Mn3+ ion in the low-temperature phase.

  18. Magnetostructural transition behavior in Fe-doped Heusler Mn-Ni-In ribbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Fang, Yue; Feng, Shutong; Zhai, Qijie; Luo, Zhiping; Zheng, Hongxing

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, we investigated magnetostructural transition behavior in Mn-rich Heusler Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2, 3 at%) ribbon materials. Microstructural observations showed that substituting Mn with Fe in Mn50Ni41In9 led to striking grain refinement from ∼50 μm to 5-10 μm, and formation of a secondary phase when Fe content was increased up to 2 at%. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermomagnetic measurements indicated that a paramagnetic→ferromagnetic transition in austenite occurred first, followed with a weak-magnetic martensitic transition upon cooling for the Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2). In case of Mn47Fe3Ni41In9, the martensitic transformation happened between paramagnetic austenite and weak-magnetic martensite, without the presence of the magnetic transition in austenite. The effective refrigeration capacity of Mn49Fe1Ni41In9 reached 137.1 J kg-1 under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe.

  19. Interface Segregation and Nitrogen Measurement in Fe-Mn-N Steel by Atom Probe Tomography.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Brian; Van Landeghem, Hugo P; Botton, Gianluigi A; Zurob, Hatem S

    2017-03-21

    Improved understanding of the interactions between solutes and the austenite/ferrite interface can benefit modeling of ferrite growth during austenite decomposition, as the transformation kinetic is significantly affected by solutes that influence interface mobility. Solute-interface interactions dominate solute segregation at the interface in binary systems, but in multi-component alloys, solute-solute interactions may also affect segregation. In this study, interface segregation in Fe-Mn-N is examined and compared with Fe-Mn-C, to reveal the extent to which C affects the segregation of Mn. Atom probe tomography (APT) is well-suited to analyze solute concentrations across the interface, as this technique combines high spatial resolution and compositional sensitivity. Measurements of Mn show that segregation is only observed for Fe-Mn-C. This demonstrates that Mn segregation is primarily driven by an affinity for C, which also segregates to the interface. However, the measurement of N in steels by APT may be affected by a variety of experimental factors. Therefore, in verifying the Fe-Mn-N result, systematic examination is conducted on the influence of pulsing method (voltage versus laser), sample preparation (ion milling versus electropolishing), and vacuum storage on the measured N concentration. Both laser pulsing and focused ion beam sample preparation are observed to decrease the apparent N concentration.

  20. Mechanistic studies of mercury adsorption and oxidation by oxygen over spinel-type MnFe2O4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingju; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bingkai; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-05

    MnFe2O4 has been regarded as a very promising sorbent for mercury emission control in coal-fired power plants because of its high adsorption capacity, magnetic, recyclable and regenerable properties. First-principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were used to elucidate the mercury adsorption and oxidation mechanisms on MnFe2O4 surface. DFT calculations show that Mn-terminated MnFe2O4 (1 0 0) surface is much more stable than Fe-terminated surface. Hg(0) is physically adsorbed on Fe-terminated MnFe2O4 (1 0 0) surface. Hg(0) adsorption on Mn-terminated MnFe2O4 (1 0 0) surface is a chemisorption process. The partial density of states (PDOS) analysis indicates that Hg atom interacts strongly with surface Mn atoms through the orbital hybridization. HgO is adsorbed on the MnFe2O4 surface in a chemical adsorption manner. The small HOMO-LUMO energy gap implies that HgO molecular shows high chemical reactivity for HgO adsorption on MnFe2O4 surface. The energy barriers of Hg(0) oxidation by oxygen on Fe- and Mn-terminated MnFe2O4 surfaces are 206.37 and 76.07kJ/mol, respectively. Mn-terminated surface is much more favorable for Hg(0) oxidation than Fe-terminated surface. In the whole Hg(0) oxidation process, the reaction between adsorbed mercury and surface oxygen is the rate-determining step.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 980MPa grade Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yinghua; Xie, Chunqian

    2017-06-01

    Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight high strength steel, adding more Mn, Al and C elements into conventional AHSS, shows amazing mechanical properties, corrosion resistant and weight reduction than conventional AHSS. The mechanical properties and microstructure of Fe-15Mn-6.8Al-0.9C-0.2Ti steel after annealing process were investigated. The results show that the microstructures consisted of secondary phases TiC precipitate and ferrite in the austenite matrix. The tensile strength and elongation of the steel are 985MPa and 36%, respectively. The density is 6.86g/cm3. Continuous strain hardening behavior provides Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steel with perfect combination of strength and ductility.

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of hexagonal (Mn,Fe)3 - δ Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeije, M. F. J.; van Eijck, L.; van Dijk, N. H.; Brück, E.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the crystallographic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)3 - δ Ga alloys. The hexagonal phase is stable between 600 and 700 °C and can be stabilized by quenching to room temperature. Mn3Ga is reported to be off-stoichiometric, but we show that using melt-spinning the stoichiometric compound is attainable. Below the antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN , the crystal undergoes a hexagonal to monoclinic transition at the distortion temperature Td . This gives rise to an in-plane rotation of the magnetic moments that is accompanied by a simultaneous increase in magnetization in a magnetic field of 1 T. Fe substitution for Mn removes the monoclinic distortion. Substitutional Fe weakens the antiferromagnetism and a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition is observed. The Mn sublattice couples antiparallel throughout the series. Substitution of Ga with Si preserves the monoclinic distortion.

  3. Site Determination of Mn Doping in Protein Encapsulated γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, V.; Klem, M.; Jolley, C.; Douglas, T.; Young, M.; Arenholz, E.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, Mn has been doped (0-33%) into 6 nm, γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles grown inside the horse-spleen ferritin (HSF) protein and compared to similarly protein encapsulated pure γ-Fe2O3 and Mn-oxide nanoparticles to determine the Mn doping site. By using soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and frequency dependent Alternating Current Magnetic Susceptibility (ACMS), we have ascertained that the Mn dopant is substituting preferentially as Mn^+2 and prefers the octahedral site in the γ-phase Fe2O3 spinel structure. The measured Mn L23 XAS spectra are compared to measured reference powders and molecular-orbital calculations supporting this conclusion of the Mn dopant substitution site. We find that the Mn L23 XAS multiplet structure for the nanoparticles is simpler than for our bulk standards, complicating this identification but suggesting that the nanoparticle lattices are relaxed from the distortions present in the bulk.

  4. Synthesis and magnetic properties of double-perovskite oxide La2MnFeO6 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimatsu, K.; Nogami, K.; Watarai, K.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Sakata, O.; Oshima, T.; Ohtomo, A.

    2015-02-01

    We have investigated epitaxial structures and physical properties of double-perovskite La2MnFeO6 films grown by pulsed-laser deposition. The films showed magnetic hysteresis at low temperatures regardless of the degree of Mn/Fe order and the saturation magnetization became smaller for the higher Mn/Fe-order films. The x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements revealed antiferromagnetic coupling between Mn3 + and Fe3 + ions, resulting in ferrimagnetism of double-perovskite La2MnFeO6 . A band structure was established based on the synchrotron radiation photoemission and optical spectra. The optical gap ranged 1.1 eV above the valence state dominated by the Mn 3 d eg orbitals, which is similar to the charge-transfer insulating state in the end member compound of LaMnO3.

  5. Damage annealing in low temperature Fe/Mn implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Mantovan, R.; Mølholt, T. E.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, O.; Weyer, G.

    2015-04-01

    57Fe Emission Mössbauer spectra obtained after low fluence (<1012 cm -2) implantation of 57Mn ( T 1/2= 1.5 min.) into ZnO single crystal held at temperatures below room temperature (RT) are presented. The spectra can be analysed in terms of four components due to Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ on Zn sites, interstitial Fe and Fe in damage regions (Fe D ). The Fe D component is found to be indistinguishable from similar component observed in emission Mössbauer spectra of higher fluence (˜1015 cm -2)57Fe/ 57Co implanted ZnO and 57Fe implanted ZnO, demonstrating that the nature of the damage regions in the two types of experiments is similar. The defect component observed in the low temperature regime was found to anneal below RT.

  6. The role of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides formed in situ for arsenic oxidation and adsorption in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Yang, Tingting; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    As(III&V), Mn(II), and Fe(II) may occur simultaneously in some groundwater and surface water. Studying their redox reactions and interactions is essential to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of these metal ions in aquatic ecosystems and to find effective methods to remove them simultaneously in drinking water treatment. Here, the formation of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO, defined as a mixture of biogenic Mn oxide (BMO) and Fe oxide) as well as its oxidation and adsorption of As in a Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) system were investigated. Batch experiments and structure characterization revealed that the BFMO was formed via a sequential precipitation of Fe oxide and BMO. The first formed Fe oxide was identified as FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and the latter formed BMO was identified as MnO2 (similar to hexagonal birnessite). In the BFMO mixture, the BMO part was mainly responsible for As(III) oxidation, and the Fe oxide part dominated As adsorption. Remarkably, the BMO could oxidize Fe(II) to form FeOOH, which may improve As adsorption. The optimum Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio for As removal was approximately 1:3 (mol/mol). Taken together, in Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe ecosystems, the in situ formation of BFMO could eliminate or decrease Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(III&V) species simultaneously. Therefore, based on this study, new approaches may be developed for As removal from water containing high concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic self-assembly for the synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/Fe-Co composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.; Cui, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Exchange coupled hard/soft MnBi/Fe-Co core/shell structured composites were synthesized using a magnetic self-assembly process. MnBi particles were prepared by arc-melting, and Fe-Co nanoparticles were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted chemical reduction method. Grinding a mixture of micron-sized MnBi and Fe-Co nanoparticles in hexane resulted in MnBi/Fe-Co core/shell structured composites. The MnBi/Fe-Co (95/5 wt%) composites showed smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and positive values in the ΔM curve, indicating exchange coupling between MnBi and Fe-Co particles.

  8. Oxidation of CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Carney, Casey

    2015-06-01

    Eight model high entropy alloys (HEAs) in the CoCrFeMnNi family (including one alloy each in the CoCrFeNi and CoFeMnNi subfamilies) were made, prepared, and exposed to laboratory air for 1100 h at 650°C and 750°C. Two commercial alloys, nickel-base superalloy 230 (N06230) and austenitic stainless steel 304H (S30409), were simultaneously exposed for comparison. Mass change oxidation kinetics were measured and cross-sections of exposed samples were observed. Seven of these HEAs contained much more Mn (12-24 wt.%) than is found in commercial heat-resistant stainless steels and superalloys. The oxidation resistance of CoCrFeNi was excellent and comparable to 304H at 650°C and only slightly worse at 750°C. The thin oxide scale on CoCrFeNi was primarily Cr oxide (presumably Cr2O3) with some Mn oxide at the outer part of the scale. The CoCrFeMnNi HEAs all experienced more rapid oxidation than CoCrFeNi and, especially at 750°C, experienced oxide scale spallation. The addition of Y in the alloy to lower S improved the oxidation resistance of these HEAs. Alloy CoFeMnNi, without Cr, experienced much higher oxidation rates and scale spallation than the Cr-containing alloys. A linear regression analysis of the log of the parabolic rate constant, log(kp), as functions of wt.% Cr and Mn found a good correlation for the compositional dependence of the oxidation rate constant, especially at 650°C. Mn was found to be more detrimental increasing log(k p) than Cr was helpful reducing log(k p). If CoCrFeMnNi HEAs are to be used in high temperature oxidizing environments, then examining lower levels of Mn, while maintaining Cr levels, should be pursued.

  9. Thickness dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Yihong; Yao, Kui

    2016-06-15

    We investigated spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers, which was found to be one order of magnitude larger than that of heavy metal and insulating ferromagnet or antiferromagnet bilayer systems, and comparable to that of NiFe/Pt bilayers. The spin Hall magnetoresistance shows a non-monotonic dependence on the thicknesses of both FeMn and Pt. The former can be accounted for by the thickness dependence of net magnetization in FeMn thin films, whereas the latter is mainly due to spin accumulation and diffusion in Pt. Through analysis of the Pt thickness dependence, the spin Hall angle, spin diffusion length of Pt and the real part of spin mixing conductance were determined to be 0.2, 1.1 nm, and 5.5 × 10{sup 14} Ω{sup −1}m{sup −2}, respectively. The results corroborate the spin orbit torque effect observed in this system recently.

  10. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on Fe>54mn>,>56mn>,>58mn>

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.

    2015-07-06

    Here, deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α-particle emission spectra, from d+54,56,58Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 55Co, 57Co, 55Fe, 57Fe, 52Mn, and 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)] was found to have a good agreement with our results.

  11. Hybrid supercapacitor devices based on MnCo2O4 as the positive electrode and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Lee, Seong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2016-12-01

    MnCo2O4 nanosheets and FeMn2O4 nanospheres were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Choline chloride was used as the capping agent during the preparation of the nanoparticles. XRD patterns confirmed the spinel structure of MnCo2O4 and FeMn2O4. XPS measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the prepared spinel metal oxides. HRTEM images revealed the formation of hexagonal nanosheets of MnCo2O4 and nanospheres of FeMn2O4. Electrochemical measurements were made for both positive and negative electrodes using three electrode systems. MnCo2O4 Exhibits 282C g-1 and FeMn2O4 yields 110C g-1 at a specific current of 1 A g-1. Hybrid supercapacitor device was fabricated using MnCo2O4 as the positive and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode material. The hybrid supercapacitor device was delivered a maximum power of 37.57 kW kg-1.

  12. A new particulate Mn-Fe-P-shuttle at the redoxcline of anoxic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellwig, Olaf; Leipe, Thomas; März, Christian; Glockzin, Michael; Pollehne, Falk; Schnetger, Bernhard; Yakushev, Evgeniy V.; Böttcher, Michael E.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    Pelagic redoxclines of anoxic basins and deeps form the suboxic transition between oxygenated surface and anoxic or even sulfidic bottom waters. Intense element cycling, favoured by elevated microbial activity, causes steep gradients of physico-chemical parameters, nutrients and redox-sensitive trace metals. This study presents a conceptual model for authigenic particle formation at pelagic redoxclines, which is based on the tight coupling of Mn, Fe, and P cycles. Besides the well-known occurrence of Mn-oxides, textural (SEM-EDX) and geochemical (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) analyses of particles from the redoxclines of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea (Gotland Basin, Landsort Deep) evidence the existence of earlier postulated Fe-oxyhydroxo-phosphates and emphasize mixed phases consisting of Mn-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxo-phosphates as a new solid species. Most of the analyzed particles are star-shaped, of about 5 μm in size, and occur as single particles or aggregates without any morphological differences between Mn-oxides, Fe-oxyhydroxo-phosphates, and mixed phases. Throughout the redoxcline, these minerals show a general succession with maximum abundance of Mn-oxides above the redoxcline followed by mixed phases and almost pure Fe-phosphates within and below the redoxcline, respectively. Molar Fe/P ratios of single particles argue against the formation of known pure Fe-phosphates like vivianite or strengite at the lower end of the redox transition zone, but are consistent with recent experimental findings for colloidal P-bearing hydrous ferric oxides. Moreover, morphological similarities suggest the formation of irregular Fe-oxyhydroxo coatings due to oxidation of upward diffusing Fe 2+ by oxygen and stepwise replacement of Mn(IV) by Fe(III) on sinking MnO x particles followed by immediate adsorption or even co-precipitation of phosphate. Batch-type experiments using biogenic MnO x particles demonstrate the efficient potential of Fe 2+ oxidation by sinking MnO x particles

  13. Exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline FeNi/FeMn films with hysteresis loop assymmetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Merenkov, D. N.; Bludov, A. N.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Novosad, V. A.; Materials Science Division; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Polish Academy of Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The process of magnetization reversal of a FeNi(50 {angstrom})/FeMn(50 {angstrom}) polycrystalline film prepared in a magnetic field has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 K. The external field was oriented in the film plane along the easy or difficult axis of the ferromagnetic layer. In the process of magnetization reversal of the film along the easy axis, strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is observed together with an exchange shift. As temperature decreases, the asymmetry becomes more pronounced and the shift increases. The field dependences of the magnetization of the film are symmetric and are not shifted when the external field is applied along the difficult axis. The magnetization reversal process is examined on the basis of a model that takes account of the appearance of high-order exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline films. It is shown that the observed strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is associated with the formation of a canted phase and the existence of a metastable state. As the film temperature decreases, the interval of fields where the canted phase can exist becomes wider as a result of an increase of the exchange anisotropy constants.

  14. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.; Stamps, R. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  15. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, G. W. Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  16. Exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline FeNi /FeMn films with hysteresis loop asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenkov, D. N.; Bludov, A. N.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Novosad, V. A.

    2007-11-01

    The process of magnetization reversal of a FeNi(50Å )/FeMn(50Å) polycrystalline film prepared in a magnetic field has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 25to300K. The external field was oriented in the film plane along the easy or difficult axis of the ferromagnetic layer. In the process of magnetization reversal of the film along the easy axis, strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is observed together with an exchange shift. As temperature decreases, the asymmetry becomes more pronounced and the shift increases. The field dependences of the magnetization of the film are symmetric and are not shifted when the external field is applied along the difficult axis. The magnetization reversal process is examined on the basis of a model that takes account of the appearance of high-order exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline films. It is shown that the observed strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is associated with the formation of a canted phase and the existence of a metastable state. As the film temperature decreases, the interval of fields where the canted phase can exist becomes wider as a result of an increase of the exchange anisotropy constants.

  17. Thermal stability of exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn multilayered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-09-01

    A systematic study of the effect of ferromagnetic thickness on magnetic and microwave properties of exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn multilayered thin films was carried out with regards to thermal stability. The temperature-dependent microwave characteristics of the films were obtained from the near-field microwave microscopy technique and analysed based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The complex microwave permeability spectra of the magnetic thin films up to 5 GHz in the temperature range from room temperature to 420 K were measured. It was found that thicker ferromagnetic layers helped to reduce the dependence of the magnetic properties on temperature, leading to better thermal stability. The saturation magnetization MS, dynamic magnetic anisotropy field HKdyn, and ferromagnetic resonance frequency fFMR were found to decrease with temperature, while the effective damping coefficient αeff was increased with temperature. We also investigate the rotational magnetic anisotropy field HKrot with temperature which gives a measure of the rotatable magnetization of the antiferromagnetic layers and its thermal stability.

  18. S-N fatigue behavior of Fe25Mn steel and its weld at 298 and 110 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyokyung; Jeong, Daeho; Park, Taedong; Lee, Jongseop; Kim, Sangshik

    2016-09-01

    The S-N fatigue behavior of newly developed Fe25Mn steel, including base metal and butt-welded joint, was investigated at 298 and 110 K, and the results were compared to those of previously reported Fe16Mn2Al and STS304L steels. Fe25Mn steel has quite promising fatigue performance at 298 K and even at 110 K, showing comparable resistance to fatigue to STS304L. The S-N fatigue behavior of Fe25Mn steel was dependent on tensile strength at 298 and 110 K, the trend of which well agreed to that of other austenitic steels. The electron backscatter diffraction and micrographic analyses suggested that transformation induced plasticity and twinning induced plasticity effects did not occur in Fe25Mn steel under fatigue loading at room and cryogenic temperatures. The butt-welded Fe25Mn/Fe25Mn and Fe25Mn/STS304L specimens also showed a satisfactory fatigue behavior which was even comparable to that of STS304L/STS304L specimen at 110 K. The S-N fatigue behavior of Fe25Mn steel and its welds was discussed based on the fractographic and microscopic observations.

  19. Mn, Fe, Zn and As speciation in a fast-growing ferromanganese marine nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Matthew A.; Manceau, Alain; Kersten, Michael

    2004-04-01

    The speciation of Mn, Fe, As and Zn in a fast-growing (0.02mm/yr), shallow-marine ferromanganese nodule has been examined by micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This nodule exhibits alternating Fe-rich and Mn-rich layers reflecting redox variations in water chemistry. Fe occurs as two-line ferrihydrite. The As is strictly associated with Fe and is mostly pentavalent, with an environment similar to that of As sorbed on or coprecipitated with synthetic ferrihydrite. The Mn is in the form of turbostratic birnessite with {approx} 10 percent trivalent manganese in the layers and probably {approx} 8 percent corner-sharing metal octahedra in the interlayers. The Zn is enriched on the rim of the nodule, associated with Mn. The Zn is completely (>90 percent) tetrahedrally coordinated and sorbed in the interlayers of birnessite on vacant layer Mn sites. The Zn and Mn species are similar to ones found in soils, suggesting common structural principles, despite the differing formation conditions in these systems.

  20. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2 and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-22

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe5PB2, Fe4CoPB2, Fe4MnPB2, Fe5SiB2, Fe4CoSiB2, and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr5B3 structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe5SiB2 is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K, and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggests smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides. Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments bymore » 16-20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe5PB2 and Fe5SiB2, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe5SiB2. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe5SiB2 and Fe4MnSiB2 are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, and are in good agreement with experiment.« less

  3. Speciation analysis of Mn(II)/Mn(VII) using Fe3O4@ionic liquids-β-cyclodextrin polymer magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songqing; Qin, Xingxiu; Gu, Weixi; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-12-01

    Ionic liquids-β-cyclodextrin polymer (ILs-β-CDCP) was attached on Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction agent (Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP). The properties and morphology of Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), size distribution and magnetic analysis. A new method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) coupled to ICP-OES for the speciation of Mn(II)/Mn(VII) in water samples was established. The results showed that Mn(VII) and total manganese [Mn(II)+Mn(VII)] were quantitatively extracted after adjusting aqueous sample solution to pH 6.0 and 10.0, respectively. Mn(II) was calculated by subtraction of Mn(VII) from total manganese. Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP showed a higher adsorption capacity toward Mn(II) and Mn(VII). Several factors, such as the pH value, extraction temperature and sample volume, were optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Moreover, the adsorption ability of Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP would not be significantly lower after reusing of 10 times. The accuracy of the developed method was confirmed by analyzing certified reference materials (GSB 07-1189-2000), and by spiking spring water, city water and lake water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of co-sputtered Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.; Jin, C.; Bai, H. L.

    2014-11-07

    Motivated by the theoretical calculations that Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si can simultaneously exhibit a high spin polarization with a high Curie temperature to be applied in spintronic devices, and in order to further study the effect of Mn contents on the physical properties of Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si, we have investigated the effect of Mn substitution on the transport properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si (0≤x≤1) films systematically. The Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si films were epitaxially grown on MgO(001) plane with 45° rotation. The magnetization for various x shows enhanced irreversibility, implying the antiferromagnetic ordering induced by the substitution of Mn. A metal-semiconductor crossover was observed due to the enhanced disorders of interactions and the local lowering of symmetry induced by the substitution of Mn. The single-domain state in the Fe{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x}Si films leads to twofold symmetric curves of the anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall resistivity.

  5. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, Alfred; Homoky, William B.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mills, Rachel A.

    2014-07-01

    Short sediment cores were collected from ∼1100 m water depth at the top of Hook Ridge, a submarine volcanic edifice in the Central Basin of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, to assess Fe and Mn supply to the water column. Low-temperature hydrothermal fluids advect through these sediments and, in places, subsurface H2S is present at high enough concentrations to support abundant Sclerolinum sp., an infaunal tubeworm that hosts symbiotic thiotrophic bacteria. The water column is fully oxic, and oxygen penetration depths at all sites are 2-5 cmbsf. Pore water Fe and Mn content is high within the subsurface ferruginous zone (max. 565 μmol Fe L-1, >3-7 cmbsf)-14-18 times higher than values measured at a nearby, background site of equivalent water depth. Diffusion and advection of pore waters supply significant Fe and Mn to the surface sediment. Sequential extraction of the sediment demonstrates that there is a significant enrichment in a suite of reactive, authigenic Fe minerals in the upper 0-5 cm of sediment at one site characterised by weathered crusts at the seafloor. At a site with only minor authigenic mineral surface enrichment we infer that leakage of pore water Fe and Mn from the sediment leads to enriched total dissolvable Fe and Mn in bottom waters. An Eh sensor mounted on a towed package mapped a distinct Eh signature above this coring site which is dispersed over several km at the depth of Hook Ridge. We hypothesise that the main mechanism for Fe and Mn efflux from the sediment is breach of the surface oxic layer by the abundant Sclerolinum sp., along with episodic enhancements by physical mixing and resuspension of sediment in this dynamic volcanic environment. We propose that Hook Ridge sediments are an important source of Fe and Mn to the deep waters of the Central Basin in the Bransfield Strait, where concentrations are sustained by the benthic flux, and Fe is stabilised in the water column as either colloidal phases or ligand-bound dissolved

  6. Thermal decomposition study of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Tasmira J.; Chaki, S. H.; Tailor, J. P.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fe3O4 is an excellent magnetic material among iron oxides. It has a cubic inverse spinel structure exhibiting distinguished electric and magnetic properties. In this paper the authors report the synthesis of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles by wet chemical reduction technique at ambient temperature and its thermal characterization. Ferric chloride hexa-hydrate (FeCl3•6H2O), manganese chloride tetra-hydrate (MnCl2•4H2O) and sodium boro-hydrate (NaBH4) were used for synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles at ambient temperature. The elemental composition of the as-synthesized Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) technique. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were carried out on the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the temperature range of ambient to 1124 K. The thermo-curves revealed that the particles decompose by four steps. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using non-mechanistic equations for the thermal decomposition.

  7. Simultaneous enhancement of magnetic and mechanical properties in Ni-Mn-Sn alloy by Fe doping

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Changlong; Tai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiaohua; Cai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Both magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic transformation (MFIRMT) and mechanical properties are crucial for application of Ni-Mn-Sn magnetic shape memory alloys. Here, we demonstrate that substitution of Fe for Ni can simultaneously enhance the MFIRMT and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Sn, which are advantageous for its applications. The austenite in Ni44Fe6Mn39Sn11 shows the typical ferromagnetic magnetization with the highest saturation magnetization of 69 emu/g at 223 K. The result shows that an appropriate amount of Fe substitution can really enhance the ferromagnetism of Ni50Mn39Sn11 alloy in austenite, which directly leads to the enhancement of MFIRMT. Meanwhile, the mechanical property significantly improves with Fe doping. When there is 4 at.% Fe added, the compressive and maximum strain reach the maximum value (approximately 725.4 MPa and 9.3%). Furthermore, using first-principles calculations, we clarify the origin of Fe doping on martensitic transformation and magnetic properties. PMID:28230152

  8. A purple acid phosphatase from sweet potato contains an antiferromagnetically coupled binuclear Fe-Mn center.

    PubMed

    Schenk, G; Boutchard, C L; Carrington, L E; Noble, C J; Moubaraki, B; Murray, K S; de Jersey, J; Hanson, G R; Hamilton, S

    2001-06-01

    A purple acid phosphatase from sweet potato is the first reported example of a protein containing an enzymatically active binuclear Fe-Mn center. Multifield saturation magnetization data over a temperature range of 2 to 200 K indicates that this center is strongly antiferromagnetically coupled. Metal ion analysis shows an excess of iron over manganese. Low temperature EPR spectra reveal only resonances characteristic of high spin Fe(III) centers (Fe(III)-apo and Fe(III)-Zn(II)) and adventitious Cu(II) centers. There were no resonances from either Mn(II) or binuclear Fe-Mn centers. Together with a comparison of spectral properties and sequence homologies between known purple acid phosphatases, the enzymatic and spectroscopic data strongly indicate the presence of catalytic Fe(III)-Mn(II) centers in the active site of the sweet potato enzyme. Because of the strong antiferromagnetism it is likely that the metal ions in the sweet potato enzyme are linked via a mu-oxo bridge, in contrast to other known purple acid phosphatases in which a mu-hydroxo bridge is present. Differences in metal ion composition and bridging may affect substrate specificities leading to the biological function of different purple acid phosphatases.

  9. Effect of Mn on the Microstructure and Magnetic Properties in Cu-Fe-Co Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Basu Mallick, A.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2011-02-01

    An attempt was made to study the effect of Mn addition on the formation of supersaturated solid solution of Co and Fe in Cu during ball milling and precipitation of the solute-rich phases during subsequent annealing of the ball-milled product. It is demonstrated that the addition of Mn in the ternary CuFeCo powder blend enhances the metastable solubility of Fe and Co in Cu and facilitates the formation of the nanocrystalline supersaturated single-phase solid solution. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) also revealed notable influence of Mn on the morphological evolution of the ball-milled and annealed alloy powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the FeCo phase having the bcc Bravais lattice forms after annealing at and above 620 K (350 °C) in both alloys. Estimation of magnetic properties showed that Mn addition in the CuFeCo alloy improved the coercivity, remanence, and magnetic saturation.

  10. Temperature-dependent Mn diffusion modes in amorphous CoFeB and crystalline CoFe-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Zeng, Z. M.; Han, Prof. X. F.; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Sun, X. C.; Zhang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    We show that Mn atoms diffuse with two different mechanisms at high and low temperatures in CoFeB and CoFe-based magnetic tunnel junctions. By combining high resolution and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we reveal that below 300\\textordmasculine C the amorphous CoFeB and the textured CoFe are equally effective in blocking the diffusion of Mn, contradicting the conventional wisdom that the diffusion occurs primarily along grain boundaries. Below 300\\textordmasculine C Mn diffusion in crystalline CoFe occurs through the bulk and is assisted by oxygen atoms which only diffuse parallel to the bcc close-packed (110) plane. Above 300\\textordmasculine C Mn diffuses through vacancies along the grain boundaries of CoFe and in the bulk of amorphous CoFeB. A universal diffusion temperature is proposed based on an isokinetic relation.

  11. Interaction between solute atoms and radiation defects in Fe-Ni-Si and Fe-Mn-Si alloys under irradiation with proton ions at low-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Abe, Hiroaki; Sekimura, Naoto

    2016-12-01

    Isochronal annealing followed by residual resistivity measurements at 12 K was performed in Fe-0.6Ni-0.6Si and Fe-1.5Mn-0.6Si alloys irradiated with 1 MeV proton ions below 70 K, and recovery stages were compared with those of Fe-0.6Ni and Fe-1.5Mn. The effects of silicon addition in the Fe-Ni alloy was observed as the appearance of a new recovery stage at 282-372 K, presumably corresponding to clustering of solute atoms in matrix, and as a change in mixed dumbbell migration at 122-142 K. Silicon addition mitigated the manganese effect in Fe-Mn alloy that is obstructing the recovery of radiation defects. Reduction of resistivity in Fe-Mn-Si alloy also suggested formation of small solute atom clusters.

  12. Electrical measurement of antiferromagnetic moments in exchange-coupled IrMn/NiFe stacks.

    PubMed

    Martí, X; Park, B G; Wunderlich, J; Reichlová, H; Kurosaki, Y; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, H; Nishide, A; Hayakawa, J; Takahashi, H; Jungwirth, T

    2012-01-06

    We employ antiferromagnetic tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to study the behavior of antiferromagnetically ordered moments in IrMn exchange coupled to NiFe. Experiments performed by common laboratory tools for magnetization and electrical transport measurements allow us to directly link the broadening of the NiFe hysteresis loop and its shift (exchange bias) to the rotation and pinning of antiferromagnetic moments in IrMn. At higher temperatures, the broadened loops show zero shift, which correlates with the observation of fully rotating antiferromagnetic moments inside the IrMn film. The onset of exchange bias at lower temperatures is linked to a partial rotation between distinct metastable states and pinning of the IrMn antiferromagnetic moments in these states. The observation complements common pictures of exchange bias and reveals an electrically measurable memory effect in an antiferromagnet.

  13. Mechanism of γ-irradiation induced phase transformations in nanocrystalline Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha Angadi, V.; Anupama, A. V.; Choudhary, Harish K.; Kumar, R.; Somashekarappa, H. M.; Mallappa, M.; Rudraswamy, B.; Sahoo, B.

    2017-02-01

    The structural, infrared absorption and magnetic property transformations in nanocrystalline Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples irradiated with different doses (0, 15, 25 and 50 kGy) of γ-irradiation were investigated in this work and a mechanism of phase transformation/decomposition is provided based on the metastable nature of the Mn-atoms in the spinel lattice. The nano-powder sample was prepared by solution combustion route and the pellets of the sample were exposed to γ-radiation. Up to a dose of 25 kGy of γ-radiation, the sample retained the single phase cubic spinel (Fd-3m) structure, but the disorder in the sample increased. On irradiating the sample with 50 kGy γ-radiation, the spinel phase decomposed into new stable phases such as α-Fe2O3 and ZnFe2O4 phases along with amorphous MnO phase, leading to a change in the surface morphology of the sample. Along with the structural transformations the magnetic properties deteriorated due to breakage of the ferrimagnetic order with higher doses of γ-irradiation. Our results are important for the understanding of the stability, durability and performance of the Mn-Zn ferrite based devices used in space applications.

  14. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel by Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R. A.; Miller, M. K.; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 °C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe)3Ti and (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for ~60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  15. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R A; Miller, Michael K; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti and (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for {approx}60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  16. The effect of Mn on the activities of Fe, Ni, and Cr in an Fe-Ni-Cr base alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.C.Y. . Div. of Mineral Commodities)

    1993-11-01

    A combination Knudsen cell-mass spectrometer apparatus developed by the Bureau of Mines is accurate enough to permit the activity of many alloy components to be measured directly as the ratio of the ion currents of an appropriate isotope evaporated from the alloy and from the pure component. This apparatus has been used to determine the activities of Fe, Ni, and Cr as functions of temperature in 71Fe-20Ni-6Cr-3Mn (at. pct). A comparison of the data with data obtained earlier from other Fe-Ni-Cr base alloys indicates that partial substitution of Mn for Cr causes the activity coefficient of Fe to decrease and to deviate negatively above 1,550 K. The activity coefficient of Ni is markedly increased by the substitution decreases both the activity coefficient of Cr and the temperature dependence of this coefficient. The oxidation behavior of Fe-Ni-Cr base alloys, the stability of the austenitic phase in such alloys, and the Ni equivalent of Mn are discussed in light of these changes in activity coefficient.

  17. Magnetic, electronic, and optical properties of double perovskite Bi2FeMnO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Chen, Aiping; Yarotski, Dmitry A.; Trugman, Stuart A.; Jia, Quanxi; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2017-03-01

    Double perovskite Bi2FeMnO6 is a potential candidate for the single-phase multiferroic system. In this work, we study the magnetic, electronic, and optical properties in BFMO by performing the density functional theory calculations and experimental measurements of magnetic moment. We also demonstrate the strain dependence of magnetization. More importantly, our calculations of electronic and optical properties reveal that the onsite local correlation on Mn and Fe sites is critical to the gap opening in BFMO, which is a prerequisite condition for the ferroelectric ordering. Finally, we calculate the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of Fe and Mn ions (L2 and L3 edges) in BFMO.

  18. Chemical reactions during submerged arc welding with FeO-MnO-SiO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indacochea, J. Ernesto; Blander, Milton; Christensen, Nils; Olson, David L.

    1985-06-01

    Measurements have been made of the compositional changes of fluxes and weld metal during submerged arc flux welding with a series of synthetic MnO-FeO-SiO2 model fluxes containing 40 wt pct SiO2 and different ratios of MnO to FeO. Mechanisms for the transfer of Mn, O, Si, C, S, and P are discussed in terms of the thermodynamic driving forces and kinetic factors such as diffusion, nucleation, and segregation. One unique deduction is that interfacial, not bulk activities of components (such as FeO) govern transfer into (or out of) the metal phase. The concentrations of C, P, S, and possibly Si tend to be larger in the molten weld metal than in the base plate.

  19. Canted Antiferromagnetic Structure of M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmety, C. R.; Epstein, A. J.; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J. W.; Erwin, R. W.; MLowercaseccall, S.; Crow, J. E.; Manson, J. L.; Miller, Joel S.; Stevenson, K. L.

    2000-03-01

    We report neutron diffraction, magnetic and specific heat studies of the isomorphous M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe). The crystal structure consists of axially elongated and successively tilted discrete octahedra. There are two antiferromagnetically coupled and spontaneously canted sublattices. The spin orientation is mainly along the a-axis with small uncompensated moments along the b-axis for the Mn compound and in the bc-plane for the Fe compound. Both systems have novel field-induced magnetic phenomena at mK temperatures. Comparisons of the magnetic structures for the isomorphous series M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) suggest that spin direction is stabilized by the crystal fields and spin canting is induced by the successive tilting of the octahedra. We propose that the superexchange interaction is the mechanism responsible for the magnetic ordering in these compounds.

  20. First-principles investigation of MnFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. J.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.

    2002-02-01

    Spinel structure MnFe2O4 is investigated using density functional calculations. The ground state is a high spin ferrimagnet in agreement with experiment. The band structure shows a low carrier density half metal in the fully ordered state, in contrast to experimental characterizations of partially disordered samples as small band gap insulators. However, we find a strong coupling of the energy bands at the Fermi energy to the internal structural parameter u as well as strong effects on the electronic structure upon partial interchange of Fe and Mn atoms. This indicates that the insulating character may be due to Anderson localization associated with the intersite Mn-Fe disorder. This possibility is discussed in terms of the relation between other calculated properties and experimental data.

  1. Kinetic-arrest-induced phase coexistence and metastability in (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. F.; Mitsui, Y.; Dugulan, A. Iulian; Caron, L.; Thang, N. V.; Manuel, P.; Koyama, K.; Takahashi, K.; van Dijk, N. H.; Brück, E.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetometry, and in-field x-ray diffraction are employed to investigate the magnetoelastic phase transition in hexagonal (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) compounds. (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) compounds undergo for certain compositions a second-order paramagnetic (PM) to a spin-density-wave (SDW) phase transition before further transforming into a ferromagnetic (FM) phase via a first-order phase transition. The SDW-FM transition can be kinetically arrested, causing the coexistence of FM and untransformed SDW phases at low temperatures. Our in-field x-ray diffraction and magnetic relaxation measurements clearly reveal the metastability of the untransformed SDW phase. This unusual magnetic configuration originates from the strong magnetoelastic coupling and the mixed magnetism in hexagonal (Mn,Fe ) 2(P ,Si ) compounds.

  2. Interfacial strain and defects in asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayence, Arnaud; Wéry, Madeleine; Tran, Dung Trung; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds.Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials characterization, powder X-ray diffraction, EFTEM images, EELS spectra, HAADF-STEM. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01373b

  3. Removal of trace mercury(II) from aqueous solution by in situ formed Mn-Fe (hydr)oxides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Jun

    2014-09-15

    The efficiency and mechanism of trace mercury (Hg(II)) removal by in situ formed manganese-ferric (hydr)oxides (in situ Mn-Fe) were investigated by reacting KMnO4 with Fe(II) in simulated solutions and natural water. In the simulated solutions, the impact of coagulant dosage, pH, and temperature on mercury removal was studied. Experimental results showed that in situ Mn-Fe more effectively removed mercury compared with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl3), and that mercury existed in the form of uncharged species, namely Hg(OH)2, HgClOH(aq), and HgCl2(aq). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that in situ Mn-Fe contained hydroxyl groups as the surface active sites, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed that MnO2 or MnOOH and FeOOH were the dominant species in the precipitates. XPS analysis indicated that an Hg-Mn-Fe mixture was formed in the precipitates, suggesting that mercury was removed from solutions via transfer from the liquid phase to solid phase. These results indicated that the primary mercury removal mechanisms in in situ Mn-Fe were surface complexation and flocculation-precipitation processes. Satisfactory removal efficiency of mercury was also observed following in situ Mn-Fe in natural waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fractionation and risk assessment of Fe and Mn in surface sediments from coastal sites of Sonora, Mexico (Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, Martín E; García-Camarena, Raúl; Gómez-Álvarez, Agustín; García-Rico, Leticia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Fe and Mn distribution in geochemical fractions of the surface sediment of four oyster culture sites in the Sonora coast, Mexico. A selective fractionation scheme to obtain five fractions was adapted for the microwave system. Surface sediments were analyzed for carbonates, organic matter contents, and Fe and Mn in geochemical fractions. The bulk concentrations of Fe ranged from 10,506 to 21,918 mg/kg (dry weight, dry wt), and the bulk concentrations of Mn ranged from 185.1 to 315.9 mg/kg (dry wt) in sediments, which was low and considered as non-polluted in all of the sites. The fractionation study indicated that the major geochemical phases for the metals were the residual, as well as the Fe and Mn oxide fractions. The concentrations of metals in the geochemical fractions had the following order: residual > Fe and Mn oxides > organic matter > carbonates > interchangeable. Most of the Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction. Among non-residual fractions, high percentages of Fe and Mn were linked to Fe and Mn oxides. The enrichment factors (EFs) for the two metals were similar in the four studied coasts, and the levels of Fe and Mn are interpreted as non-enrichment (EF < 1) because the metals concentrations were within the baseline concentrations. According to the environmental risk assessment codes, Fe and Mn posed no risk and low risk, respectively. Although the concentrations of Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction, the levels in non-residual fractions may significantly result in the transference of other metals, depending on several physico-chemical and biological factors.

  5. Early induction of Fe-SOD gene expression is involved in tolerance to Mn toxicity in perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Cartes, Paula; Rengel, Zed; Mora, M L

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity limits plant growth in acid soils. Although Mn toxicity induces oxidative stress, the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC.1.15.1.1) isoforms in conferring Mn tolerance remains unclear. Seedlings of ryegrass cultivars Nui (Mn-sensitive) and Kingston (Mn-tolerant) were hydroponically grown at 2.4 (optimal) or 750 μM Mn (toxic) concentration, and harvested from 2 to 48 h. Kingston showed higher shoot Mn than Nui at 2.4 μM Mn. At toxic supply, shoot Mn concentration steadily increased in both cultivars, with Kingston having the highest accumulation at 48 h. An early (2 h) increase in lipid peroxidation under Mn excess occurred, but it returned (after 6 h) to the basal level in Kingston only. Kingston exhibited higher SOD activity than Nui, and that difference increased due to toxic Mn. In general, Mn-induced gene expression of Mn- and Cu/Zn-SOD isoforms was higher in Nui than Kingston. Nevertheless, under Mn excess, we found a greater Fe-SOD up-regulation (up to 5-fold) in Kingston compared to Nui. Thus, Fe-SOD induction in Kingston might explain, at least partly, its high tolerance to Mn toxicity. This is the first evidence that Mn toxicity causes differential gene expression of SOD isoforms in ryegrass cultivars in the short-term.

  6. Improved tunneling magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As/AlOx/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Rizwan, Syed; Zhao, J. H.; XU, K.; Han, X. F.

    2011-06-01

    We fabricated (Ga,Mn)As/AlOx/Co40Fe40B20 magnetic tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic semiconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal (S/I/F) structure. The treatments of pre-annealing and post-plasma cleaning on the (Ga,Mn)As film were introduced before the growth of the subsequent layers. A high tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 101% is achieved at 2 K, and the spin polarization of (Ga,Mn)As, P = 56.8%, is deduced from Jullière's formula. The improved TMR ratio is primarily due to the improved magnetism of (Ga,Mn)As layer by low-temperature annealing and cleaned interface between (Ga,Mn)As and AlOx attained by subsequent plasma cleaning process.

  7. Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material properties at room and cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínková, H.; Doroshenko, M. E.; Osiko, V. V.; Němec, M.; Å ulc, J.; Jelínek, M.; Vyhlídal, D.; Kubecek, V.; Čech, M.; Kovalenko, N. O.; Gerasimenko, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Fe:Zn(1-x)Mn(x)Se solid solution spectroscopic and laser properties were investigated in the temperature range 80- 290 K. Two novel samples with different zinc - manganese (Zn-Mn) ratio described by the Mn content x (0.1 or 0.2) were used and the results were compared to the known Fe:ZnSe crystal. The samples had a broad absorption spectra with the maximum around 3 μm and therefore an Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm, 10 mJ, 120 ns) was used as a pump radiation source. The Fe:ZnMnSe fluorescence spectra are generally broad in the range 3.5 - 5.5 μm. In the case of Fe:ZnMnSe x = 0.1, the fluorescence spectrum at 290 K is ranging from 3.5 to 5.5 μm. Lowering the temperature down to 80 K lead to the spectral narrowing mainly in the mid-IR part, but the fluorescence is still up to 5 μm at 80 K. In the case of Fe:ZnMnSe x = 0.2 the fluorescence is shifted towards mid-IR up to 5.2 μm even at 80 K. The fluorescence lifetime decreases from tens of us at 80 K down to 1 us at 240 K. The laser oscillations were successfully achieved with both novel Fe:ZnMnSe crystals in the temperature range 80- 290 K. In the case of x = 0.1, the central wavelength was ~4.2 μm at 80 K and the temperature increase up to 290 K led to almost linear increase of the wavelength up to ~4.75 μm. The tendency was similar in the case of Fe:ZnMnSe x = 0.2: the output wavelength increased from ~4.3 μm up to ~4.8 μm with the temperature increase from 80 to 290 K. The laser spectral linewidth was about 300 nm. In comparison with the Fe:ZnSe crystal, the laser output wavelength shift toward mid-IR region without any spectrally tunable element in the laser cavity can be clearly observed.

  8. 53Mn-53Cr chronology of Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2017-03-01

    High precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4) in the reduced CV3 chondrites Vigarano and Efremovka yield well resolved 53Cr excesses that correlate with 55Mn/52Cr, demonstrating in situ decay of the extinct short-lived radionuclide 53Mn. To ensure proper correction for relative sensitivities between 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, we synthesized kirschsteinite doped with Mn and Cr to measure the relative sensitivity factor. The inferred initial ratio (53Mn/55Mn)0 in chondritic kirschsteinite is (3.71 ± 0.50) × 10-6. When anchored to 53Mn-53Cr relative and U-corrected 207Pb-206Pb absolute ages of the D'Orbigny angrite, this ratio corresponds to kirschsteinite formation 3.2-0.7+08 Ma after CV Ca-, Al-rich inclusions. The kirschsteinite data are consistent within error with the data for aqueously-formed fayalite from the Asuka 881317 CV3 chondrite as reported by Doyle et al. (2015), supporting the idea that Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites are cogenetic with fayalite (and magnetite) and formed during metasomatic alteration on the CV3 parent body. Concentrically-zoned crystals of kirschsteinite and hedenbergite indicate that they initially formed as near end-member compositions that became more Mg-rich with time, possibly as a result of an increase in temperature.

  9. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Callori, S. J. Bertinshaw, J.; Cortie, D. L.; Cai, J. W. Zhu, T.; Le Brun, A. P.; Klose, F.

    2014-07-21

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  10. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  11. Comparison study of magnetic ordering for Fe-free and Fe-doped LiMn2O4 spinel oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Ma, Boyu; Wang, Aihua; Chen, Ning; Liu, Lihua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weipeng; Li, Xiaoxiang; Cao, Guohui; Ma, Xingqiao; Lu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The structural and physical properties of LiMn2-xFexO4 (x = 0 to 0.5) were investigated. Contrasting LiMn2O4 with LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4, we observed a remarkable difference in the magnetic frustration. The LiMn2O4 sample has a magnetic ordering transition at 61 K while Fe-doped LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4 has an antiferromagnetic ordering transition with a Neel temperature at TN = 34 K. Our result showed a larger value of the frustration index (f=| w|/TC) for pure LiMn2O4 than for LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4. Fe-doping results in a decrease in the degree of frustration. Fe dopants occupying positions of Mn ion can break the original moment equilibrium so as to suppress the magnetic frustration in LiMn2O4.

  12. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  13. Mechanical properties of weldments in experimental Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.; Devletian, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties of weldments in two Fe-12Mn experimental alloys designed for cryogenic service were evaluated. Weldments were made using the GTA welding process. Tests to evaluate the weldments were conducted at -196 C and included: equivalent energy fracture toughness tests; autogenous transverse weld, notched transverse weld, and longitudinal weld tensile tests; and all-weld-metal tensile tests. The Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys proved weldable for cryogenic service, with weld metal and heat-affected zone properties comparable with those of the base metal. Optimum properties were achieved in the base alloys, weld metals, and heat-affected zones after a two-step heat treatment consisting of austenitizing at 900 C followed by tempering at 500 C. The Mo-containing alloy offered a marked improvement in cryogenic properties over those of the Mo-free alloy. Molybdenum increased the amount of retained austenite and reduced the amount of epsilon martensite observed in the microstructure of the two alloys.

  14. Adsorption of antimony(V) onto Mn(II)-enriched surfaces of manganese-oxide and FeMn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Xu, Wei; He, Zan; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Prasai, Tista

    2015-11-01

    Manganese(IV) oxide [Mn(IV)] potentially oxidizes antimony(III) [Sb(III)] to antimony(V) [Sb(V)] and improves Sb removal by FeMn binary oxide (FMBO) through an oxidation-adsorption mechanism. This study focused on the effect of Mn(IV) reductive dissolution by potassium sulfite (K2SO3) on Sb(V) adsorption onto manganese oxide (Mn-oxide) and FMBO. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption (Qmax,Sb(V)) increased from 1.0 to 1.1 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and from 0.4 to 0.6 mmol g(-1) for Mn-oxide after pretreatment with 10 mmol L(-1) K2SO3. The addition of 2.5 mmol L(-1) Mn(2+) also significantly improved Sb(V) adsorption, and the observed Qmax,Sb(V) increased to 1.4 and 1.0 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and Mn-oxide, respectively, with pre-adsorbed Mn(2+). Neither K2SO3 nor Mn(2+) addition had any effect on Sb(V) adsorption onto iron oxide (Fe-oxide). Mn(2+) introduced by either Mn(IV) dissolution or addition tended to form outer-sphere surface complexes with hydroxyl groups on Mn-oxide surfaces (MnOOH). Mn(2+) at 2.5 mmol L(-1) shifted the isoelectric point (pHiep) from 7.5 to 10.2 for FMBO and from 4.8 to 9.2 for Mn-oxide and hence benefited Sb(V) adsorption. The adsorption of Sb(V) onto Mn(2+)-enriched surfaces contributed to the release of Mn(2+), and the X-ray photoelectron spectra also indicated increased binding energy of Mn 2p3/2 after the adsorption of Sb(V) onto K2SO3-pretreated FMBO and Mn-oxide. Sb(V) adsorption involved the formation of inner-sphere complexes and contributed to the release of Mn(2+). In the removal of Sb(III) by Mn-based oxides, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by Mn(IV) oxides had an effect; however, Mn(IV) dissolution and Mn(2+)-enrichment also played an important role.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and phosphate removal and recovery of magnetic MnFe2O4 nano-particles as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shumei; Xu, Xiaoming; Xu, Changsong; Wang, Hongshuai; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate removal is an important method for controlling eutrophication in bodies of water. Adsorption is an effective phosphate removal approach. In this research, the adsorbent, namely, MnFe2O4, was prepared through the improved co-precipitation method and investigated in terms of phosphate removal. MnFe2O4 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phosphate adsorption by MnFe2O4, desorption of adsorbed MnFe2O4 with the regeneration of desorbed MnFe2O4, and phosphate recovery were researched. Experimental results showed that adding the appropriate amount of polyethylene glycol to MnFe2O4 precursors during preparation inhibited the agglomeration of MnFe2O4 between particles because of the magnetic property of MnFe2O4 etc. High crystallinity and strong magnetism were achieved by MnFe2O4 at low temperatures. Average particle size was 5.1 nm. The hysteresis loops confirmed the ferrimagnetic behaviour of MnFe2O4 with a high saturation magnetization (i.e. 26.27 emu/g). The adsorption mechanism of phosphate was mainly physical. The prepared MnFe2O4 had a spinel structure. The proposed technique achieved a phosphate removal rate of 96.06%. A considerable amount of phosphate was desorbed from the adsorbed MnFe2O4 in 15 w/v% NaOH solution. The adsorption capacity of the desorbed MnFe2O4 could be restored to 96.73% in 10 w/v% NaNO3 solution through ion exchange. A sustainable phosphate source was recovered via hydroxyapatite crystallization in the desorption solution, which contained an abundant amount of phosphate as seed for suitable recovery condition. This finding suggested that MnFe2O4 could be a promising adsorbent for efficient phosphate removal.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Chitosan-MnFe2O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Nikles, David E.; Brazel, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles composed of MnFe2O4 were encapsulated in chitosan for investigation of system to combine magnetically-triggered drug delivery and localized hyperthermia for cancer treatment with the previously published capacity of MnFe2O4 to be used as an efficient MRI contrast agent for cancer diagnosis. This paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization of magnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, their dispersion in water and their incorporation in chitosan, which serves as a drug carrier. The surface of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was modified with meso-2,3-di-mercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to develop stable aqueous dispersions. The nanoparticles were coated with chitosan, and the magnetic properties, heat generation and hydrodynamic size of chitosan-coated MnFe2O4 were evaluated for various linker concentrations and in a range of pH conditions.

  17. Investigation of nanostructures based on Ni80Fe20/(Ni80Fe20)20Mn80 bilayers with a unidirectional exchange anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, I. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Krinitsina, T. P.; Matveev, S. A.; Milyaev, M. A.; Popov, V. V.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic properties of nanostructures based on Ni80Fe20/(Ni80Fe20)20Mn80 bilayers have been investigated depending on the thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer and the material of the substrate. The possibility of using the antiferromagnetic alloy (Ni80Fe20)20Mn80 as the material for the pinning layer in spin valves has been considered.

  18. Influence of FeO and sulfur on solid state reaction between MnO-SiO2-FeO oxides and an Fe-Mn-Si solid alloy during heat treatment at 1473 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-song; Yang, Shu-feng; Kim, Kyung-ho; Li, Jing-she; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the influence of FeO and sulfur on solid state reaction between an Fe-Mn-Si alloy and MnO-SiO2-FeO oxides under the restricted oxygen diffusion flux, two diffusion couples with different sulfur contents in the oxides were produced and investigated after heat treatment at 1473 K. The experimental results were also compared with previous work in which the oxides contained higher FeO. It was found that although the FeO content in the oxides decreased from 3wt% to 1wt% which was lower than the content corresponding to the equilibrium with molten steel at 1873 K, excess oxygen still diffused from the oxides to solid steel during heat treatment at 1473 K and formed oxide particles. In addition, increasing the sulfur content in the oxides was observed to suppress the diffusion of oxygen between the alloy and the oxides.

  19. Synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of a series of cyano-bridged Fe-Mn bimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Long; Feng, Xiao-Long; Lu, Tong-Bu; Gao, Song

    2006-06-26

    The preparation and crystal structures of five cyano-bridged Fe-Mn complexes, [(bipy)2Fe(II)(CN)2Mn(II)(bipy)2]2(ClO4)4 (1), [(bipy)2Fe(II)(CN)2Mn(II)(DMF)3(H2O)]2(ClO4)4 (2), {[(Tp)Fe(III)(CN)3]2Mn(II)(DMF)2(H2O)}2 (3), {[(Tp)Fe(III)(CN)3]2Mn(II)(DMF)2}n (4), and Na2[Mn(II)Fe(II)(CN)6] (5) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Tp = tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborate), are reported here. Compounds 1-4 contain the basic Fe2(CN)4Mn2 square building units, of which 1-3 show the motif of discrete molecular squares of Fe2(CN)4Mn2 and 4 possesses a 1D double-zigzag chain-like structure, while compound 5 is a 3D cubic framework analogous to that of Prussian blue. Compounds 1 and 2 show weak ferromagnetic interactions between two Mn(II) ions through the bent -NC-Fe(II)-CN- bridges. Compound 3 shows weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the Fe(III) and Mn(II) ions, while compound 4 displays a metamagnetic-like behavior with TN = 5.2 K and Hc = 10.5 kOe. Compound 5 exhibits a ferromagnetic ordering with Tc= 3.5 K, coercive field, Hc, = 330 G, and a remnant magnetization of 503 cm3 Oe mol(-1).

  20. The effects of reaction-product formation on the reductive dissolution of MnO2 by Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Villinski, John E; Saiers, James E; Conklin, Martha H

    2003-12-15

    We conducted batch-reactor experiments to measure the reductive dissolution of pyrolusite-coated (beta-MnO2) quartz by Fe(II) under conditions representative of an acid mine-drainage subsurface plume. The results reveal that reductive dissolution rates were initially rapid but declined considerably as Fe(III)(aq), a product of the reductive-dissolution reaction, was removed from solution by heterogeneous precipitation. The inhibition of reductive-dissolution was attributed to blocking of the beta-MnO2 surface sites by the Fe(III)(s) precipitate. Calculations of a simple model that accounts for the effects of Fe(III)(s) precipitate formation on reductive dissolution rates closely match temporal changes in Mn(II), Fe(II), and Fe(II) concentrations measured in 10 experiments, distinguished on the basis of the initial Fe(II)-to-Mn(IV) mole ratio and the initial Fe(III)(aq) concentration. The model-data comparisons reveal that the initial reaction rate on a clean beta-MnO2 surface exceeds the long-term reaction rate by 3 orders of magnitude, highlighting the importance of linking Fe(III) precipitation with the reductive dissolution of beta-MnO2 by Fe(II).

  1. Azimuthal angular dependent hysteresis loops of Fe50Mn50/Ni81Fe19 bilayers grown under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; You, Chun-Yeol; Kim, Ki-Yeon

    2016-11-01

    The azimuthal angular dependence of the vectorial hysteresis loops in the Fe50Mn50(AF)/Ni81Fe19(F) bilayer grown under a magnetic field was investigated using a combination of vectorial magneto-optic Kerr effect and model calculation. From a comparison of the experimental and calculation results, it is found that the AF easy axis is not parallel with but rotated by about 20° away from the applied magnetic field during the sample growth. Moreover, the transverse loop at the AF easy axis does not vanish but displays an open full circle (i.e., magnetization changes sign between decreasing and increasing field branches for the full hysteresis measurement). Our model calculation reveals that they are reminiscent of the non-collinear uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. Specifically, the angular dependence of the transverse hysteresis is well reproduced with our model calculation taking non-collinear magnetic anisotropies into account. Coercivity determined from the longitudinal loops, on the other hand, is found to be nonzero and comparatively large at all azimuthal angles. This is in stark contrast with previous results regarding FeMn/NiFe bilayers field-cooled after sample growth. Neither domain wall nor incoherent magnetic rotation in the F layer is likely to be responsible for this coercivity discrepancy between theory and experiments. Apart from the uniaxial F and unidirectional AF-F anisotropies, we suggest that the F rotatable anisotropy equivalent of 40% to 60% of the interfacial coupling energy should be taken into account to properly address the coercivity enhancement in the FeMn/NiFe bilayer grown under a magnetic field.

  2. Microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and cytotoxicity characterization of the hot forged FeMn30(wt.%) alloy.

    PubMed

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    An interest in biodegradable metallic materials has been increasing in the last two decades. Besides magnesium based materials, iron-manganese alloys have been considered as possible candidates for fabrication of biodegradable stents and orthopedic implants. In this study, we prepared a hot forged FeMn30 (wt.%) alloy and investigated its microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics as well as cytotoxicity towards mouse L 929 fibroblasts. The obtained results were compared with those of iron. The FeMn30 alloy was composed of antiferromagnetic γ-austenite and ε-martensite phases and possessed better mechanical properties than iron and even that of 316 L steel. The potentiodynamic measurements in simulated body fluids showed that alloying with manganese lowered the free corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate, compared to iron. On the other hand, the corrosion rate of FeMn30 obtained by a semi-static immersion test was significantly lower than that of iron, most likely due to a higher degree of alkalization in sample surrounding. The presence of manganese in the alloy slightly enhanced toxicity towards the L 929 cells; however, the toxicity did not exceed the allowed limit and FeMn30 alloy fulfilled the requirements of the ISO 10993-5 standard.

  3. The Formation of Crystal Defects in a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy Under Cyclic Martensitic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Vladimir I; Danilchenko, Vitaliy E; Iakovlev, Viktor E

    2016-12-01

    Formation of crystalline defects due to cyclic martensitic transformations (CMT) in the iron-manganese Fe-18 wt.% Mn-2 wt.% Si alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Conditions for accumulation of fragment sub-boundaries with low-angle misorientations and chaotic stacking faults in crystal lattice of austenite and ε-martensite were analyzed.

  4. Effect of Fe doping on the electrochemical capacitor behavior of MnO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonguzhali, R.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Senthilkumar, A.; Viruthagiri, G.; Kannadasan, N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the influence of Fe doping on the capacitance behavior of MnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by chemical precipitation was investigated. During the doping process the concentration of Fe was increased from 0.025 M to 0.125 M in steps of 0.025 M. The products obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. To demonstrate the suitability of Fe-doped MnO2 for capacitor applications, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance were recorded. Among the different levels of doping, the specific capacitance of 912 F/g was delivered by 0.075 M of Fe-doped MnO2 at a scan rate of 10 mV/s, which is almost more than fourfold that of the bare MnO2 electrode (210 F/g). Moreover, for the same concentration the charge, discharge studies revealed the highest specific capacitance of 1084 F/g at a current density of 10 A/g.

  5. Microstructure and degradation behavior of forged Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang; Hodgson, Michael A.; Cao, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a comparative study of a series of Fe-Mn-Si alloys proposed as degradable biomaterials for medical applications. Five Fe-28wt.%Mn-xSi (where x = 0 to 8 wt.%) alloys were fabricated by an arc-melting method. All the as-cast alloys were subsequently subjected to homogenization treatment and hot forging. The microstructure and phase constituents were investigated. It is found that the grain size of the as-forged alloys ranged approximately from 30 to 50 μm. The as-forged Fe-Mn-Si alloys containing Si from 2 to 6 wt.% was comprised of duplex martensitic ɛ and austenitic γ phases; however, the Si-free and 8 wt.% Si alloys only consisted of a single γ phase. After 30 days of static immersion test in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium, it is found that pitting and general corrosion occur on the sample surfaces. Potentiodynamic analysis reveals that the degradation rate of the Fe-Mn-Si alloys increased gradually with Si content up to 6 wt.%, beyond which the degradation slows down.

  6. Dislocations in nanostructured two-phase Fe30Ni20Mn20Al30.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Baker, I

    2013-03-01

    In a previous study, the dislocations in Fe(30)Ni(20)Mn(25)Al(25) (at. %), which consist of 50 nm wide alternating b.c.c. and B2 phases, were shown to have a/2<111> Burgers vectors after room temperature deformation. The dislocations were found to glide in pairs on both {110} and {112} slip planes and were relatively widely separated in the b.c.c. phase, where the dislocations were uncoupled, and closely spaced in the B2 phase, where the dislocations were connected by an anti-phase boundary. In this article, we analyze the dislocations in the two ~5 nm-wide B2 phases in a related two-phase alloy Fe(30)Ni(20)Mn(20)Al(30), with compositions Fe-23Ni-21Mn-24Al and Fe-39Ni-12Mn-34Al, compressed to ~3% strain at a strain rate 5 × 10(-4) s(-1) at 873 K (the lowest temperature at which substantial plastic flow was observed). It is shown that slip occursby the glide of a<100> dislocations. A review of the literature suggests that the differences in the observed slip vector between these B2 phases could be due to the differences in composition, differences in deformation temperature, or possibly both.

  7. Aluminium and Phosphate Uptake by Phragmites australis: the Role of Fe, Mn and Al Root Plaques

    PubMed Central

    BATTY, LESLEY C.; BAKER, ALAN J. M.; WHEELER, BRYAN D.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium, a potentially phytotoxic metal, is an important constituent of many mine water discharges but has largely been neglected in the literature. The behaviour of this element in the rhizosphere of the wetland plant Phragmites australis was investigated in the laboratory in the presence and absence of Mn and Fe root plaques. Electron microscopy and chemical extraction techniques were utilized to determine the physico‐chemical properties of the plaques and any association of Al. Both Mn and Fe plaques occurred as amorphous coatings on root surfaces with uneven distributions. Al was not adsorbed onto the surface of either plaque type but formed a separate phosphate deposit closely resembling the Fe and Mn plaques. Phosphorus was also found to be adsorbed to the surface of the Fe plaques (but not the Mn plaques). Both mechanisms were found to immobilize P at the root surface but this did not significantly reduce the concentration of P in aerial plant tissues that was sufficient to ensure adequate growth. PMID:12096805

  8. The Formation of Crystal Defects in a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy Under Cyclic Martensitic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, Vladimir I.; Danilchenko, Vitaliy E.; Iakovlev, Viktor E.

    2016-03-01

    Formation of crystalline defects due to cyclic martensitic transformations (CMT) in the iron-manganese Fe-18 wt.% Mn-2 wt.% Si alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Conditions for accumulation of fragment sub-boundaries with low-angle misorientations and chaotic stacking faults in crystal lattice of austenite and ɛ-martensite were analyzed.

  9. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Dudová, Marie; ...

    2017-07-28

    In this paper, we present experimental data showing that the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy undergoes two magnetic transformations at temperatures below 100 K while maintaining its fcc structure down to 3 K. The first transition, paramagnetic to spin glass, was detected at 93 K and the second transition of the ferromagnetic type occurred at 38 K. Field-assisted cooling below 38 K resulted in a systematic vertical shift of the hysteresis curves. Strength and direction of the associated magnetization bias was proportional to the strength and direction of the cooling field and shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.006more » ± 0.001 emu T. The local magnetic moments of individual atoms in the CrMnFeCoNi quinary fcc random solid solution were investigated by ab initio (electronic density functional theory) calculations. Results of the numerical analysis suggest that, irrespective of the initial configuration of local magnetic moments, the magnetic moments associated with Cr atoms align antiferromagnetically with respect to a cumulative magnetic moment of their first coordination shell. The ab initio calculations further showed that the magnetic moments of Fe and Mn atoms remain strong (between 1.5 and 2 μB), while the local moments of Ni atoms effectively vanish. Finally, these results indicate that interactions of Mn- and/or Fe-located moments with the surrounding magnetic structure account for the observed macroscopic magnetization bias.« less

  10. Elasticity and magnetocaloric effect in MnFe4Si3

    DOE PAGES

    Herlitschke, Marcus; Klobes, B.; Sergueev, I.; ...

    2016-03-16

    The room temperature magnetocaloric material MnFe4Si3 was investigated with nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields in order to assess the infuence of the magnetic transition and the magnetocaloric effect on the lattice dynamics. The NIS data give access to phonons with energies above 3 meV, whereas RUS probes the elasticity of the material in the MHz frequency range and thus low energy, ~5 neV, phonon modes. A significant infuence of the magnetic transition on the lattice dynamics is observed only in the low energy region. Here, MnFe4Si3 and other compoundsmore » in the Mn5-xFexSi3 series were also investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, resistivity measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to study the magnetic transitions and to complement the obtained results on the lattice dynamics.« less

  11. Ferromagnetism strengthening in the Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchin, A. G.; Iwasieczko, W.; Drulis, H.; Khrabrov, V. I.

    2008-06-01

    The compounds Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x, in which x=0-2, with the Th 2Ni 17-type crystal structure were synthesized. Their structural and magnetic properties are presented. The Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x compounds with x=0-0.5 are ferromagnets at low temperatures and antiferromagnets at high temperatures. Their temperature of "ferromagnet-antiferromagnet" phase transition surprisingly increases very fast from 135 to 253 K with a growing content of Mn, whereas Néel temperature stays practically unchanged (˜278 K) and is close to Curie temperature TC=287 K for the compound with x=0.7. The compounds from the range x=0.7-2 are ferromagnets only with a near constant TC(x) value.

  12. Effect of Fe substitution by Co on off-stoichiometric Ni-Fe-Co-Mn-Sn Heusler alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. S.; Mukhopadhyay, Semanti; Yadav, T. P.; Yadav, R. M.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Singh, H. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    We have synthesized Ni45Fe5-X Co X Mn40Sn10 Heusler alloy with different Co doping and studied the effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni45Fe5-X Co X Mn40Sn10 (at. X  =  0, 2.5, 5) ribbons. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopic characterization reveal the structural/microstructural features in melt-spun ribbons of different compositions. A significant transformation in the crystal structure has been observed in Fe substituted ribbons. The crystal structure changes from cubic L21 phase to bi-phasic 4O  +  L21 and 10M  +  L21 modulated phases for the partial and complete substitution of Fe by Co specimens respectively. Williamson-Hall analysis of x-ray diffraction data was used to compute the crystallite size and residual elastic strain. Magnetic properties and magnetic field-induced structural transformation of melt-spun alloy ribbons over a large temperature range of 10 K  ⩽  T  ⩽  500 K were examined. Our results revealed that Fe substitution by Co causes a change in the magnetic behavior which could be ascribed to the increase in the lattice strain as well as a magnetic strain due to high antiferromagnetic fraction.

  13. Effect of CoFe insertion in Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions on spin injection properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, Yuya; Akiho, Takafumi; Liu, Hong-xi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2014-04-28

    The CoFe thickness (t{sub CoFe}) dependence of spin injection efficiency was investigated for Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions. The ΔV{sub NL}/I value, which is a measure of spin injection efficiency, strongly depended on t{sub CoFe}, where ΔV{sub NL} is the amplitude of a nonlocal spin-valve signal, and I is an injection current. Importantly, the maximum value of ΔV{sub NL}/I for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junction was one order of magnitude higher than that for a CoFe/n-GaAs junction, indicating that a Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode works as a highly polarized spin source. No clear spin signal, on the other hand, was observed for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction due to diffusion of Mn atoms into the GaAs channel. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the CoFe insertion effectively suppressed the diffusion of Mn into GaAs, resulting in improved spin injection properties compared with those for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction.

  14. Experimental Investigation and Computer Simulation of Diffusion in Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo Alloys with Different Optimization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weisen; Ågren, John; Lu, Xiao-Gang; He, Yanlin; Li, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to simulate the diffusional phase transformations involving the fcc and bcc phases for microalloyed steels, the diffusion mobilities for fcc and bcc Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo alloys were experimentally investigated and critically assessed. The diffusion-couple technique was employed to extract the interdiffusion coefficients in Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo alloys with the Sauer-Freise and Whittle-Green methods. Based on the present experimental interdiffsivities, the mobility parameters for the fcc and bcc phases in the Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo systems were optimized using the traditional method. Simultaneously, a direct method was developed and utilized to directly fit mobilities to the diffusion profiles rather than the diffusivities in the present work. The satisfactory description of the diffusion behavior in the Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo systems has confirmed the reliability of the direct method. Particularly, the two sets of diffusion mobilities obtained with both methods could simulate the diffusion phenomenon between the fcc and bcc phases in the Fe-Mo and Fe-Mn-Mo systems successfully.

  15. P, As, Sb, Mo, and other elements in sedimentary Fe/Mn layers of Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Müller, Beat; Granina, Liba; Schaller, Tobias; Ulrich, Andrea; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2002-02-01

    Distinct layers with accumulated iron and manganese oxyhydroxides are found in the recent sediments of Lake Baikal (Siberia). In the South and Central Basins, these concretions accumulate close to the sediment-water interface. In northern Lake Baikal and the area of Academician Ridge, however, massive Fe/Mn crusts are formed within several thousand years at redox fronts 10 to 15 cm below the sediment surface. In some places, precipitated iron and manganese oxyhydroxides are spatially separated. The patterns are a result of secondary iron and manganese oxide precipitation. This natural long-term experiment allows the analysis of competitive adsorption and coprecipitation of trace elements with iron and manganese oxides in sediments. Background concentrations in the sediment of oxoanions (P, As, Sb, Mo); of trace metals (Cr, V, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb); and of Mg, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Despite the differences in catchment geology of the many tributaries, they are remarkably uniform in sediment cores from different basins of Lake Baikal. Enrichment factors of P and As within Fe crusts revealed concentrations up to 14 and 58 times higher than the background, respectively. No enrichment of P and As was found in the Mn layers. By contrast, Mo accumulated exclusively in the Mn layer with up to 35-fold enrichment. Sb was only slightly enriched in both the Fe and the Mn layers. Among the trace metals studied, only Cd was found at elevated concentrations with a preference for the Mn layer. Ca and Sr were correlated with both Fe and Mn accumulations. The study quantifies the well-known specific adsorption and coprecipitation of P and As at authigenic iron oxides and of Mo on manganese oxides. In addition, the enrichment of Cd at manganese oxides in contrast to the conservative behavior of Zn and Pb reveals highly selective accumulation processes.

  16. Determining the first-order character of La (Fe,Mn ,Si ) 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratko, Milan; Lovell, Edmund; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2017-02-01

    Definitive determination of first-order character of the magnetocaloric magnetic transition remains elusive. Here we use a microcalorimetry technique in two modes of operation to determine the contributions to entropy change from latent heat and heat capacity separately in an engineered set of La (Fe,Mn ,Si ) 13 samples. We compare the properties extracted by this method with those determined using magnetometry and propose a model-independent parameter that would allow the degree of first-order character to be defined across different families of materials. The microcalorimetry method is sufficiently sensitive to allow observation at temperatures just above the main magnetic transition of an additional peak feature in the low field heat capacity associated with the presence of Mn in these samples. The feature is of magnetic origin but is insensitive to magnetic field, explicable in terms of inhomogeneous occupancy of Mn within the lattice resulting in antiferromagnetic ordered Mn clusters.

  17. Influence of He-ion irradiation on thin NiMn/FeNi exchange bias films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantelli, V.; von Borany, J.; Grenzer, J.; Fassbender, J.; Kaltofen, R.; Schumann, J.

    2006-04-01

    Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, we studied the transition from the paramagnetic NiMn phase to the chemically ordered, antiferromagnetic L10 phase of NiMn/Fe19Ni81 thin films deposited on a Si/SiO2 substrate as a function of the annealing temperature. The transformation to a dominating L10-ordered NiMn film takes place between 300 and 400 °C irrespective of the irradiation. This is also consistent with magnetization reversal measurements of the corresponding permalloy layers. The benefit of the ion irradiation is a reduction of the mosaicity for both the NiMn and the permalloy film, and a smoothening of internal interfaces.

  18. Influence of He-ion irradiation on thin NiMn/FeNi exchange bias films

    SciTech Connect

    Cantelli, V.; Borany, J. von; Grenzer, J.; Fassbender, J.; Kaltofen, R.; Schumann, J.

    2006-04-15

    Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, we studied the transition from the paramagnetic NiMn phase to the chemically ordered, antiferromagnetic L1{sub 0} phase of NiMn/Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} thin films deposited on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate as a function of the annealing temperature. The transformation to a dominating L1{sub 0}-ordered NiMn film takes place between 300 and 400 deg. C irrespective of the irradiation. This is also consistent with magnetization reversal measurements of the corresponding permalloy layers. The benefit of the ion irradiation is a reduction of the mosaicity for both the NiMn and the permalloy film, and a smoothening of internal interfaces.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of MCl2 (M = Fe, Mn, Co): acetonitrile solvates.

    PubMed

    Pokhodnya, Konstantin I; Bonner, Michael; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Rheingold, Arnold L; Her, Jae-Hyuk; Stephens, Peter W; Park, Jong-Won; Kennon, Bretni S; Arif, Atta M; Miller, Joel S

    2007-04-02

    MIICl2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) as their acetonitrile solvates were isolated, and their structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties were studied. MCl2(NCMe)2 (M = Fe, Mn) form 1-D chains of octahedral MII ions with four bridging chlorides and two axial MeCN's. The presence of an axial distortion for MFe causes a significant magnetic anisotropy that increases significantly below 150 K; however, chiav [=(chi parallel + 2chi perpendicular)/3] almost coincides with the value obtained on a polycrystalline sample. MnCl2(NCMe)2 is a paramagnet with a weak antiferromagnetic coupling. Annealing FeCl2(NCMe)2 at 55 degrees C forms the monosolvate of FeCl2(NCMe) composition in which two chains collapse into a double chain with formation of Fe-Cl bonding such that half of the mu-Cl's becomes mu3-Cl's. This material orders magnetically below Tc = 4.3 K. For M = Co, paramagnetic tetrahedral [CoCl3(NCMe)]- anions are isolated.

  20. Physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles doped with Mn and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, D.; El-Said Bakeer, D.; Awad, R.; Abdel-Gaber, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    This study reports the effect of magnetic ions doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles. Samples of Zn0.97-x Mn0.03Fe x O, 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1 wt. %, nanoparticles are synthesized by Co-Precipitation route. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and UV spectroscopy. XRD results reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with the formation of secondary phase in the Fe-doped samples corresponding to Zinc Iron Oxide. The crystallite size is calculated by X-ray peak broadening using Debye-Scherer’s formula, and the results are in good agreement with TEM. The FTIR reveals two major peaks that are shifted toward a lower value when the concentration of Fe ions becomes higher than that of Mn ions. The UV results indicate a shift in the band-gap energy toward lower value upon increasing Fe-content. The study of magnetization hysteresis loop measurements infers that the samples of Zn0.97-x Mn0.03Fe x O show a well-defined hysteresis loop, reflecting the paramagnetic behavior.

  1. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  2. Magnetization and microstructure dynamics in Fe/MnAs/GaAs(001): Fe magnetization reversal by a femtosecond laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Spezzani, C; Ferrari, E; Allaria, E; Vidal, F; Ciavardini, A; Delaunay, R; Capotondi, F; Pedersoli, E; Coreno, M; Svetina, C; Raimondi, L; Zangrando, M; Ivanov, R; Nikolov, I; Demidovich, A; Danailov, M B; Popescu, H; Eddrief, M; De Ninno, G; Kiskinova, M; Sacchi, M

    2014-12-12

    Thin film magnetization reversal without applying external fields is an attractive perspective for applications in sensors and devices. One way to accomplish it is by fine-tuning the microstructure of a magnetic substrate via temperature control, as in the case of a thin Fe layer deposited on a MnAs/GaAs(001) template. This work reports a time-resolved resonant scattering study exploring the magnetic and structural properties of the Fe/MnAs system, using a 100 fs optical laser pulse to trigger local temperature variations and a 100 fs x-ray free-electron laser pulse to probe the induced magnetic and structural dynamics. The experiment provides direct evidence that a single optical laser pulse can reverse the Fe magnetization locally. It reveals that the time scale of the magnetization reversal is slower than that of the MnAs structural transformations triggered by the optical pulse, which take place after a few picoseconds already.

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of double perovskite Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnik, A.P.; Bazuev, G.V.; Kuznetsov, M.V.; Zainulin, Yu.G.

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Projection along the cubic perovskite axes [0 0 1] of the double perovskite Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6}. Highlights: {yields} Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} is prepared from Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 6 GPa and 1000 {sup o}C. {yields} According to XPS measurements, manganese is present as Mn{sup 2+}, the iron - as Fe{sup 3+}. {yields} This compound has the smallest unit cell among double perovskites. {yields} It was suppose that Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} exhibited antiferromagnetism below 19.5 K. -- Abstract: The double perovskite Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} has been synthesized under pressure 6 GPa and temperature 1000 {sup o}C. The crystal structure refinement of Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} was carried out with the GSAS program suite using X-ray diffraction data. XRD pattern of Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} was indexed with a monoclinic unit cell (space group P2{sub 1}/n) with parameters: a = 5.2431(3) A, b = 5.3935(3) A, c = 7.6358(5) A, {beta} = 89.693(2){sup o}, V = 215.927 A{sup 3}, Z = 2. It found that Fe and Sb atoms are completely ordered in 2d and 2c positions of double perovskite structure respectively. According to XPS measurements, manganese in this compound is present as Mn{sup 2+}, whiles the iron - as Fe{sup 3+}. Magnetization measurements revealed the presence about 3 mass% of ferromagnetic impurity in the sample. Dependence of AC susceptibility {chi}'' from temperature showed that magnetic properties compound are determined probably by transformation in antiferromagnetic state below 19.5 K.

  4. Phosphorites, Co-rich Mn nodules, and Fe-Mn crusts from Galicia Bank, NE Atlantic: Reflections of Cenozoic tectonics and paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Francisco Javier; Somoza, Luis; Hein, James R.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Urgorri, Victoriano; Reyes, Jesús; Martín-Rubí, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of marine mineral deposits were recovered from 750 to 1400 m water depths on Galicia Bank, Iberian margin. Mineral deposits include: (1) carbonate fluorapatite phosphorite slabs and nodules that replaced limestone and preserved original protolith fabric. (2) Ferromanganese vernadite crusts with high Mn and Fe (Mn/Fe = 1) contents, and thick stratabound layers consisting mainly of Mn (up to 27% MnO) and Fe (15% Fe2O3), which impregnated and replaced the phosphorite. (3) Co-rich Mn nodules are composed of romanechite and todorokite laminae. Mn-rich layers (up to 58% MnO) contain up to 1.8% Co. (4) Goethite nodules with Fe up to 67% Fe2O3 have low Mn and trace metals. We interpret this mineralization paragenesis to be related to major changes in oceanographic and tectonic regimes. Three phosphatization generations formed hardgrounds dated by 87Sr/86Sr isotopes as late Oligocene, early Miocene, and latest early Miocene. During the latest early Miocene, the hardground was fractured and breached due to regional intraplate tectonism, which was coeval with a widespread regional erosional unconformity. The stratabound layers and Co-rich manganese nodules were derived from low-temperature geothermally driven hydrothermal fluids, with fluid conduits along reactivated faults. During middle and late Miocene, the introduction of vigorous deep water flow from the Arctic generated growth of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Finally, growth of diagenetic Fe-rich nodules (late Pliocene) was promoted by the introduction of hypersaline Mediterranean Outflow Water into the Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Connection between orbital moment enhancement and exchange bias in a [Ni80Fe20/Mn]3 multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.-C.; Huang, M.-J.; Lin, H.-J.; Lee, C.-H.; Chen, C.-T.; Liu, C.-H.; Hsu, H.-F.; Lin, K.-W.; van Lierop, J.

    2013-01-01

    The overall and element specific magnetism in an exchange biased [Ni80Fe20/Mn]3 film system, with film layers 3.5 nm thick, has been studied to examine the magnetism between interfacial Mn, Ni, and Fe spins. Field-cooling the film results in large exchange bias loop shifts at temperatures from 2 to 30 K, and an enhanced coercivity remains until 75 K. The elemental magnetism ascertained from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements shows that Mn appears to be a fully compensated antiferromagnet down to 20 K, and there is clear evidence of an enhanced orbital moment for both Fe and Ni from 20 to 300 K. This magnetism is likely due to overlapping d orbitals between Fe-Mn and Ni-Mn, with this coupling increasing the local anisotropy resulting in the enhanced coercivity and enabling exchange bias.

  6. Tailoring Mg(x)Mn(1-x)Fe(2)O(4) superparamagnetic nanoferrites for magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-10-08

    A superparamagnetic nanoferrite (SPNF) with high magnetic moment, AC magnetically induced heating (AC-heating) capacity, and good biocompatibility is the most vital part of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for utilizing it in the clinics. Herein, we precisely tune magnetic properties and AC-heating characteristics of MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF via chemically controlling the cations' concentration and distribution to develop a tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF as a potential magnetic fluid hyperthermia agent. The magnetic and AC-heating characteristics of the tailored MgxMn1-xFe2O4 SPNF are strongly dependent on the Mg/Mn cations' concentration and distribution, and Mg0.285Mn0.715Fe2O4 SPNF exhibits the highest saturation magnetization and AC-heating capacity as well as high biocompatibility.

  7. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  8. The magneto-structural transition in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q. Y.; Hutchison, W. D.; Wang, J. L.; Studer, A. J.; Din, M. F. Md; Muñoz Pérez, S.; Cadogan, J. M.; Campbell, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Large refrigeration capacities, between 212(30) J kg-1 and 261(40) J kg-1 for a magnetic field change from 0 T to 5 T, were obtained in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) compounds. A partial magnetic phase diagram has been derived on the basis of magnetic transition and martensitic transformation temperatures determined from differential scanning calorimetry (200 K to 450 K), variable temperature x-ray diffraction (20 K to 310 K) and magnetisation measurements (5 K to 340 K 0.01 T). Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds with compositions in the range x  =  0.01 to 0.03 exhibit magneto-structural transitions. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out on the Mn0.98Fe0.02CoGe sample over the temperature range of 5 K to 450 K. The diffraction patterns were analysed based on irreducible representation theory which confirms a ferromagnetic structure in the sample with an atomic magnetic moment of 3.7(1)μ B at 5 K on the Mn sublattice, oriented along the orthorhombic c axis. More significantly, a magneto-structural transition around T M ~ 297(1) K with a full width at half maximum of 29 K is demonstrated directly via neutron diffraction. Larger magnetic entropy changes are obtained for the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) samples than for Mn0.96Fe0.04CoGe which has separate structural and magnetic transitions. In addition, it is noted that standard Arrott plots do not provide unambiguous insight to the nature of the magneto-structural transition in the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds.

  9. High Curie temperature of Ce-Fe-Si compounds with ThMn12 structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE; Herbst, JF

    2015-01-15

    We report the discovery of ternary CeFe(12-x)Si(x)compounds possessing the ThMn12 structure. The samples were prepared by melt spinning followed by annealing. In contrast to other known Ce Fe-based binary and ternary compounds, CeFe12-xSix compounds exhibit exceptionally high Curie temperatures whose values increase with added Si substitution. The highest T. = 583 K in CeFe10Si2 rivals that of the well-established Nd2Fe14B compound. We ascribe the T-c behavior to a combination of Si-induced 3d band structure changes and partial Ce3+ stabilization. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Stable isotope fractionation of tungsten during adsorption on Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwabara, Teruhiko; Kubo, Sayuri; Tanaka, Masato; Senda, Ryoko; Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2017-05-01

    The similar, but not identical chemical properties of W compared with Mo suggest that the stable isotope system of W could be a novel proxy to explore the modern and ancient ocean as is the case in the well-established utility of Mo isotopes. We experimentally investigated the isotopic fractionation of W during adsorption on Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides (ferrihydrite and δ-MnO2), a key process in the global ocean budget of this element. Our adsorption experiments confirmed that W isotopes fractionate substantially on both ferrihydrite and δ-MnO2: lighter W isotopes are preferentially adsorbed on both oxides as a result of equilibrium isotopic exchange between dissolved and adsorbed species, and the obtained values of Δ186/183Wliquid-solid (= δ186Wdissolved - δ186Wadsorbed) are 0.76 ± 0.09‰ for ferrihydrite and 0.88 ± 0.21‰ for δ-MnO2 (2σ, n = 6). Compared with the case of Mo isotopes, fractionation of W isotopes is (i) of comparable magnitude between ferrihydrite and δ-MnO2, and (ii) much smaller than that of Mo on δ-MnO2. Our previous XAFS observations and newly-performed DFT calculations both indicate that the observed W isotopic fractionations are caused by the symmetry change from Td (tetrahedral) WO42- to distorted Oh (octahedral) monomeric W species via formation of inner-sphere complexes on both ferrihydrite and δ-MnO2. The similar isotopic fractionations between the two oxides relate to the strong tendency for W to form inner-sphere complexes, which causes the symmetry change, in contrast to the outer-sphere complex of Mo on ferrihydrite. The smaller isotopic fractionation of W compared with Mo on δ-MnO2 despite their similar molecular symmetry seems to be due to their different degrees of distortion of Oh species. Our findings imply that the isotopic composition of W in modern oxic seawater is likely to become heavier relative to the input by removal of lighter W isotopes via adsorption on ferromanganese oxides in analogy with the Mo isotope

  11. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas.

  12. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal.

  13. Further Observations of Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 Isotopic Systems in Sulfides from Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; Huss, G. R.; Leshin, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that short-lived Fe-60 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma) was present in some components of ordinary and enstatite chondrites when they formed. Here we report additional data on Fe-60 from sulfides in enstatite chondrites and on the potential relationship between the Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 systems.

  14. Differential coordination demands in Fe versus Mn water-soluble cationic metalloporphyrins translate into remarkably different aqueous redox chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Weitner, Tin; Sheng, Huaxin; Lu, MiaoMiao; Rajic, Zrinka; Warner, David S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Reboucas, Julio S; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2013-05-20

    fairly similar log kcat(O2(•-)) values, a very similar effect on the growth of SOD-deficient E. coli was anticipated by both metalloporphyrins. Yet, while (H2O)2MnTE-2-PyP(5+) was fully efficacious at ≥20 μM, the Fe analogue (OH)(H2O)FeTE-2-PyP(4+) supported SOD-deficient E. coli growth at as much as 200-fold lower doses in the range of 0.1-1 μM. Moreover the pattern of SOD-deficient E. coli growth was different with Mn and Fe porphyrins. Such results suggested a different mode of action of these metalloporphyrins. Further exploration demonstrated that (1) 0.1 μM (OH)(H2O)FeTE-2-PyP(4+) provided similar growth stimulation as the 0.1 μM Fe salt, while the 20 μM Mn salt provides no protection to E. coli; and (2) 1 μM Fe porphyrin is fully degraded by 12 h in E. coli cytosol and growth medium, while Mn porphyrin is not. Stimulation of the aerobic growth of SOD-deficient E. coli by the Fe porphyrin is therefore due to iron acquisition. Our data suggest that in vivo, redox-driven degradation of Fe porphyrins resulting in Fe release plays a major role in their biological action. Possibly, iron reconstitutes enzymes bearing [4Fe-4S] clusters as active sites. Under the same experimental conditions, (OH)(H2O)FePs do not cause mouse arterial hypotension, whereas (H2O)2MnPs do, which greatly limits the application of Mn porphyrins in vivo.

  15. Differential coordination demands in Fe vs Mn water-soluble cationic metalloporphyrins translates into remarkably different aqueous redox chemistry and biology

    PubMed Central

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Weitner, Tin; Sheng, Huaxin; Lu, MiaoMiao; Rajic, Zrinka; Warner, David S.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Reboucas, Julio S.; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2013-01-01

    on fairly similar log kcat(O2.− values, very similar effect on the growth of SOD-deficient E. coli was anticipated by both metalloporphyrins. Yet, while MnTE-2-PyP5+ was fully efficacious at ≥20 μM, the Fe analog, FeTE-2-PyP5+ supported SOD-deficient E. coli growth at 200-fold lower doses in the range of 0.1 to 1 μM. Moreover the pattern of SOD-deficient E. coli growth was different with Mn- and Fe porphyrins. Such results suggested different mode of action of these metalloporphyrins. Further exploration demonstrated that: (1) 0.1 μM FeTE-2-PyP5+ provided similar growth stimulation as 0.1 μM Fe salt, while 20 μM Mn salt provides no protection to E. coli; and (2) 1 μM Fe porphyrin is fully degraded by 12 hours in E. coli cytosol and growth medium; while Mn porphyrin is not. Stimulation of the aerobic growth of SOD-deficient E. coli by the Fe porphyrin is therefore due to iron acquisition. Our data suggest that in vivo, redox-driven degradation of Fe porphyrins resulting in Fe release plays a major role in their biological action. Possibly, iron reconstitutes enzymes bearing [4Fe-4S] clusters as active sites. Under same experimental conditions, (OH)(H2O)FePs do not cause mouse arterial hypotension, whereas (H2O)2MnPs do, which greatly limits the application of Mn porphyrins in vivo. PMID:23646875

  16. Ab initio investigation of competing antiferromagnetic structures in low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijiang; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-06-02

    The antiferromagnetic structures of a low Si-content FeMn(PSi) alloy were investigated by first principles calculations. One possible antiferromagnetic structure in supercell along the c-axis was revealed in FeMnP0.75Si0.25 alloy. It was found that atomic disorder occupation between Fe atom on 3f and Mn atoms on 3g sites is responsible for the formation of antiferromagnetic structures. Furthermore the magnetic competition and the coupling between possible AFM supercells along the c and a-axis can promote a non-collinear antiferromagnetic structure. These theoretical investigations help to deeply understand the magnetic order in FeMn(PSi) alloys and benefit to explore the potential magnetocaloric materials in Fe2P-type alloys.

  17. High-field magnetization of Heusler compound Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Masahiko; Tazoko, Tomoya; Sano, Hiroaki; Shigeta, Iduru; Koyama, Keiichi; Kondo, Akihiro; Kindo, Koich; Manaka, Hirotaka; Terada, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Fe2MnSi exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at TC˜230 K and another transition to a phase with antiferromagnetic components at TA˜60 K. By substituting V for Mn, so as to obtain Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi , TA is revealed to decrease with x and then vanish around x ˜0.2 . In this study, the phase boundary of the transition at TA in the high-field range is found for 0 ≤x ≤0.15 with pulsed fields up to ˜70 T. The magnetization of Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi slowly increases even at the highest field of ˜70 T, though it occurs more gradually as x increases. We compare the magnetization for 0 ≤x ≤0.20 at 62 T with the Slater-Pauling rule, which holds when a Heusler compound is a half-metal, and find fairly good agreement. This suggests an intimate relation between the high-field phase and the half-metallic electronic structure, and that at the high-field limit the phase approaches the half-metallic state, which has been predicted by band-structure calculations.

  18. Enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in the LuFeMn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchin, A. G.; Iwasieczko, W.

    2010-09-01

    Non-monotonic variation of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with a maximal value for the composition x=0.7 has been observed in the Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x system by means of isothermal magnetic measurements. The Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x compounds with x=0-0.5 are ferromagnets at low temperatures and antiferromagnets at high temperatures, with a near-constant Néel temperature TN˜278 K. The temperature of the "ferromagnet-antiferromagnet" phase transition, ΘT, increases rapidly with increasing content of Mn, and the compounds from the range x=0.7-2 are ferromagnets only, with the practically unchanged Curie temperature, TC(0.7)=287 K. Thus, first- and second-order magnetic transitions merge for the composition Lu 2Fe 16.3Mn 0.7, where the associated entropy change |ΔSM| is 3.6 J/kg K at 300 K in a field of 5 T. This is a way of enhancing the MCE in such multicomponent systems.

  19. Structural and Magnetic Characterization of Mn and Fe-doped ZnO Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangga Candra Seta, Putra; Eka Yunita, Pelangi; Anjelh Baqiya, Malik; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    The Zn1-xAxO (A = Mn, Fe and x = 0 - 0.03) nanopowders, have successfully been synthesized by coprecipitation method. The starting materials of dihydrate zinc acetate, iron and mangan powders were employed using HCl and NH4OH as solvent and precipitating agents respectively. The solution was stirred at 48°C for 4h to induce a precipitation and the resulted precipitate was then heated at 100°C for 24h in air followed by annealing at 400°C for 3h. Based on the XRD spectra, the doped samples with x up to 0.02 form the single wurtzite phase of ZnO with crystal size around 20-60 nm, where the dopants, both Mn and Fe, have partially substituted Zn. Meanwhile, samples with x = 0.03 were obesrved to contain impurity phases. The magnetization for the magnetic field up to 1 tesla vizualizes a monotonically increased weak-ferromagnetism for Fe doping, while exhibits from diamagnetic, paramagnetic to weak-ferromagnetic behaviors for Mn doping. This magnetic interaction becomes complicated by the presence of magnetic impurities due to Mn dopant.

  20. 238U-234U-230Th disequilibrium in hydrogenous oceanic Fe-Mn crusts: Palaeoceanographic record or diagenetic alteration?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chabaux, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Cohen, A.S.; Hein, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed TIMS study of (234Uexc/238U), (230Th/232Th), and Th/U ratios have been performed on the outermost margin of ten hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and west-central Indian Ocean. Th/U concentration ratios generally decrease from the crust's surface down to 0.5-1 mm depth and growth rates estimated by uranium and thorium isotope ratios are significantly different in Fe-Mn crusts from the Peru Basin and the west-central Indian Ocean. Fe-Mn crusts from the same geographical area define a single trend in plots of Ln (234Uexc/238U) vs. Ln(230Th/232Th) and Th/U ratios vs. age of the analysed fractions. Results suggest that (1) hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts remain closed-systems after formation, and consequently (2) the discrepancy observed between the 230Th and 234U chronometers in Fe-Mn crusts, and the variations of the Th/U ratios through the margin of Fe-Mn crusts, are not due to redistribution of uranium and thorium isotopes after oxyhydroxide precipitation, but rather to temporal variations of both Th/U and initial thorium activity ratios recorded by the Fe-Mn layers. Implications of these observations for determination of Fe-Mn crust growth-rates are discussed. Variations of both Th/U and initial Th activity ratios in Fe-Mn crusts might be related to changes in particle input to seawater and/or changes in ocean circulation during the last 150 ka. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Preparation and characterization of MnZn/FeSiAl soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Xiaoling; Yang, Yanting; Ge, Hongliang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, MnZn ferrites were used as coating agents to prepare MnZn/FeSiAl soft magnetic composites (SMCs) in order to improve the magnetic property, because of the higher permeability of magnetic MnZn ferrites than that of traditional coatings which are always nonmagnetic. The effects of molding pressure, annealing temperature, and content of insulation on the soft magnetic properties of MnZn/FeSiAl SMCs were studied. With increasing molding pressure, the effective permeability of the SMCs increased firstly and then decreased, while the core loss decreased firstly and then increased, and both have the best performance at 1.6 GPa. The permeability increased with increasing temperature, reached the maximum value at 660 °C and then decreased, while the core loss decreased with increasing temperature to 700 °C and then increased. The permeability increased with increasing MnZn content from 0.1 to 3% and then decreased, while the D-C bias property continuously increased.

  2. Sedimentary Fe/Mn layers buried deeply below the bottom surface in Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granina, L. Z.; Phedorin, M. A.; Mats, V. D.; Khlystov, O. M.

    2009-04-01

    In Lake Baikal, constantly oxygenated water column results in intensive accumulation of iron and manganese in surface oxidized sediments. However, in the region of underwater Academician Ridge Fe/Mn layers and crusts are also found deeply (meters) below the water-sediment interface. Formation of such crusts was firstly related to climatic fluctuations in the region (Deike et al. 1997), later - to tectonic events in the lake. We believe that in Baikal depression, the weathering crust, sub-aerial cover, and accompanied Fe, Mn, and P ores developed during the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Neogene epochs, characterized by warm and wet climatic conditions. Later on, the depression's diurnal surface was flooded by water basins newly formed in the region, however fragments of this surface are widely spread both on the land and the lake bottom in the regions of Olkhon Island and Academician Ridge. As a result of the Late Pleistocene tectonic movements, the surface of Academician uplift was submerged below the present lake's level. Covered this surface ancient (pre-Baikalian) ore-bearing formations were also submerged. Age of sedimentary Fe/Mn crusts buried deeply below the bottom surface in the region of Academician Ridge is about 100 Ky (Deike et al. 1997; Granina et al. 2003), and it agrees with suggestion on the crusts burial due to tectonic movements that have started in this part of the lake about 120 Ky ago. There are different evidences supported this hypothesis (Mats et al. 2000; Granina et al. 2003); new ones presented in this paper are the following: i) A map firstly constructed using the regional geological data clearly shows that location of the continental Fe and Mn ores and phosphorites in the Central Western Prebaikalie and shore-land near the Olkhon Island (Preolkhon'ie) is rather close to nearby area of the lake bottom, where Fe/Mn crusts are deeply buried within the sediments. This testifies in favor of their subaerial origin and relation to the continental

  3. Study of the Thermodynamics of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Binding to Fe3O4 and MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Steven; Brogfeld, Nathan; Kim, Jisoo; Parsons, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of chromium(III) or (VI) from aqueous solution was achieved using Fe3O4, and MnFe2O4 nanomaterials. The nanomaterials were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using XRD. The size of the nanomaterials was determined to be 22.4 ± 0.9 nm (Fe3O4) and 15.5 ± 0.5 nm (MnFe2O4). The optimal binding pH for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) were pH 6 and pH 3. Isotherm studies were performed, under light and dark conditions, to determine the capacity of the nanomaterials. The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were determined to be 7.189 and 10.63 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(III). The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were 3.21 and 3.46 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(VI). Under dark reaction conditions the binding of chromium(III) to the MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanomaterials were 5.74 and 15.9 mg/g, respectively. The binding capacity for the binding of chromium(VI) to MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 under dark reaction conditions were 3.87 and 8.54 mg/g, respectively. The thermodynamics for the reactions showed negative ΔG values, and positive ΔH values. The ΔS values were positive for the binding of chromium(III) and for chromium(VI) binding under dark reaction conditions. The ΔS values for chromium(VI) binding under the light reaction conditions were determined to be negative. PMID:23558081

  4. On the ferroelectric and magnetoelectric mechanisms in low Fe3+ doped TbMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilarinho, R.; Queirós, E.; Passos, D. J.; Mota, D. A.; Tavares, P. B.; Mihalik, M., Jr.; Zentkova, M.; Mihalik, M.; Almeida, A.; Moreira, J. Agostinho

    2017-10-01

    This work addresses the effect of substituting Mn3+ by Fe3+ at the octahedral site of TbMnO3 on the magnetic phase sequence, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric properties, keeping the Fe3+ concentration below 5%. The temperature dependence of the specific heat, dielectric permittivity and electric polarization was studied as a function of Fe3+ concentration and applied magnetic field. From the experimental results a strong decrease of the electric polarization with increasing Fe3+ substitution is observed, vanishing above a concentration of 4%. However, within this range, a significant increase of the magnetic sensitivity of the electric polarization is obtained by increasing Fe3+ concentration. For Fe3+ concentration above 4%, a non-polar phase emerges, whose spin structure prevents ferroelectricity according to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya model. The experimental results here reported reveal the crucial effect of B-site substitution on the magnetic phase sequence, as well as, on the polar and magnetoelectric properties, evidencing the important role played by the eg electrons on the stabilization of the magnetic structures that are suitable for the emergence of electric polarization.

  5. Magnetic order near 270 K in mineral and synthetic Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} ilmenite

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, R.; Hudl, M.; Nordblad, P.; Ivanov, S. A.; Bazuev, G. V.; Lazor, P.; Solovyev, I. V.

    2011-05-16

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} single-crystalline mineral and ceramic samples synthesized under thermobaric treatment have been investigated, and compared to theoretical predictions based on first-principles electronic structure calculations. This ilmenite system displays a sharp magnetic transition just below the room temperature related to a ferrimagnetic ordering of the Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations, which makes Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} a promising candidate for designing functional magnetic materials.

  6. Effect of Mn addition and Its Nitridation on Microstructure and Properties of Sintered Fe-1Mn-0.5C Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huizhu; Luo, Peng; Yang, Yingjie; Long, Anping; Li, Songlin

    2017-08-01

    In the presence of N2 atmosphere, electrolytic Mn powders were modified by nitridation at 600 °C for 3h, after which Mn4N, FeN0.088 and MnO phases were observed. After exposing the powders to the air for 50 days, we have demonstrated an excellent anti-oxidation ability of the nitridized powders owing to a very low O increment rate ( 1.93%). In contrast, a small amount of Mn2N0.86 and Mn2O3 phases were presented once electrolytic Mn powders were handled with 75% N2 + 25%H2 atmosphere at 600 °C for 3h. In considering the fact that both N and O contents are higher on powder surfaces than those in the interior, a shell-core structure composed of a surface layer of nitride/oxide, and an oxide-free core of Mn, was developed for two groups of nitridized powders. Moreover, compared to Fe-1Mn-0.5C alloy sintered from the original electrolytic Mn powders, inferior level of O (as low as 0.056%) was detected in the alloy sintered from the nitridized powders. Correspondingly, the latter exhibited a ductile fracture mode and improved mechanical properties of ultimate tensile strength 496 MPa, and elongation to failure 5%.

  7. Unique nanostructural features in Fe, Mn-doped YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meledin, A.; Turner, S.; Cayado, P.; Mundet, B.; Solano, E.; Ricart, S.; Ros, J.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2016-12-01

    An attempt to grow a thin epitaxial composite film of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) with spinel MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles on a LAO substrate using the CSD approach resulted in a decomposition of the spinel and various doping modes of YBCO with the Fe and Mn cations. These nanostructural effects lead to a lowering of T c and a slight J c increase in field. Using a combination of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques such as atomic resolution high-angle annular dark field scanning TEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have been able to decipher and characterize the effects of the Fe and Mn doping on the film architecture. The YBaCuFeO5 anion-deficient double perovskite phase was detected in the form of 3D inclusions as well as epitaxially grown lamellas within the YBCO matrix. These nano-inclusions play a positive role as pinning centers responsible for the J c/J sf (H) dependency smoothening at high magnetic fields in the YBCO-MFO films with respect to the pristine YBCO films.

  8. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-07

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (T{sub c}) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (T{sub c}(x)) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired T{sub c} in the range of 600–650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) in the range of 1041–919 emu/cm{sup 3} and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96–8.36 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930–800 emu/cm{sup 3} of M{sub s} and 7.18–5.61 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.{sup 2} areal density.

  9. Fe(II)-mediated reduction and repartitioning of structurally incorporated Cu, Co, and Mn in iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Catalano, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-16

    The reduction of trace elements and contaminants by Fe(II) at Fe(III) oxide surfaces is well documented. However, the effect of aqueous Fe(II) on the fate of redox-active trace elements structurally incorporated into iron oxides is unknown. Here, we investigate the fate of redox-active elements during Fe(II)-activated recrystallization of Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted goethite and hematite. Enhanced release of Cu, Co, and Mn to solution occurs upon exposure of all materials to aqueous Fe(II) relative to reactions in Fe(II)-free fluids. The quantity of trace element release increases with pH when Fe(II) is present but decreases with increasing pH in the absence of Fe(II). Co and Mn release from goethite is predicted well using a second-order kinetic model, consistent with the release of redox-inactive elements such as Ni and Zn. However, Cu release and Co and Mn release from hematite require the sum of two rates to adequately model the kinetic data. Greater uptake of Fe(II) by Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted iron oxides relative to analogues containing only redox-inactive elements suggests that net Fe(II) oxidation occurs. Reduction of Cu, Co, and Mn in all materials following reaction with Fe(II) at pHs 7.0-7.5 is confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. This work shows that redox-sensitive elements structurally incorporated within iron oxides are reduced and repartitioned into fluids during Fe(II)-mediated recrystallization. Such abiotic reactions likely operate in tandem with partial microbial and abiotic iron reduction or during the migration of Fe(II)-containing fluids, mobilizing structurally bound contaminants and micronutrients in aquatic systems.

  10. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts within a continental margin environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrad, Tracey A.; Hein, James R.; Paytan, Adina; Clague, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Fe-Mn crusts that form on seamounts along the California continental-margin (CCM), within the United States 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone. The study area extends from approximately 30° to 38° North latitudes and from 117° to 126° West longitudes. The area of study is a tectonically active northeast Pacific plate boundary region and is also part of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre with currents dominated by the California Current System. Upwelling of nutrient-rich water results in high primary productivity that produces a pronounced oxygen minimum zone. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts forming along the CCM show distinct chemical and mineral compositions compared to open-ocean crusts. On average, CCM crusts contain more Fe relative to Mn than open-ocean Pacific crusts. The continental shelf and slope release both Fe and Mn under low-oxygen conditions. Silica is also enriched relative to Al compared to open-ocean crusts. This is due to the North Pacific silica plume and enrichment of Si along the path of deep-water circulation, resulting in Si enrichment in bottom and intermediate waters of the eastern Pacific.The CCM Fe-Mn crusts have a higher percentage of birnessite than open-ocean crusts, reflecting lower dissolved seawater oxygen that results from the intense coastal upwelling and proximity to zones of continental slope pore-water anoxia. Carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) is not present and CCM crusts do not show evidence of phosphatization, even in the older sections. The mineralogy indicates a suboxic environment under which birnessite forms, but in which pH is not high enough to facilitate CFA deposition. Growth rates of CCM crusts generally increase with increasing water depth, likely due to deep-water Fe sources mobilized from reduced shelf and slope sediments.Many elements of economic interest including Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, W, and Te have slightly or significantly lower concentrations in CCM crusts relative to crusts from the Pacific

  11. Al-Mn coating electrodeposited from ionic liquid on NdFeB magnet with high hardness and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jingjing; Xu, Bajin; Ling, Guoping

    2014-06-01

    Al-Mn coatings were electrodeposited on sintered NdFeB permanent magnet in MnCl2-AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methylim-idazolium chloride (MnCl2-AlCl3-EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adhesion strength of the coating on NdFeB substrate was evaluated by thermal shock and scratch test. The hardness and corrosion behavior of Al-Mn coating were measured by a Knoop microhardness tester, immersion test and neutral salt spray test respectively. The results showed that the amorphous structure of the deposits was obtained at the current density of 6 mA/cm2, while higher current densities resulted in a mixed structure of amorphous and crystalline. The Al-Mn coating showed excellent adhesion strength on NdFeB substrate with the thermal shock test over 30 cycles and Lc > 80 N. The hardness of Al-Mn coating was up to 5.4 GPa. The amorphous Al-Mn coating showed an anodic sacrificial protection with a low corrosion rate for NdFeB. Meanwhile, the magnetic properties measured by an AMT-4 magnetic measurement device showed that Al-Mn coating did not deteriorate the magnetic property of NdFeB.

  12. High pressure structural investigation on alluaudites Na2Fe3(PO4)3-Na2FeMn2(PO4)3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Huang, Weifeng; Qin, Shan; Wu, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Alluaudites are promising electrochemical materials benefited from the open structure. Structural variations of alluaudites Na2M3(PO4)3 (M3=Fe3, Fe2Mn and FeMn2) system have been studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction combined with diamond anvil cell technique up to 10 GPa at room temperature. No phase transition is observed. The excellent structural stability is mainly due to the flexible framework plus strong covalent P-O bond. Mn2+ instead of Fe can be described as Na++2Fe2+→Mn2++Fe3++□ where □ represents a lattice vacancy. The replacement of Fe with larger Mn2+ is equivalent to applying negative chemical pressure to the material. And it causes a more compressible b-axis, lattice expansion, structural compressibility and intensifies the core/electron-electron interactions of Fe. External pressure effect produces anisotropic lattice shrinkage. Structural considerations related to these variations and promising application prospects are discussed.

  13. Discontinuous coarsening behavior of Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic compound during isothermal aging treatment of Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Furuya, Kazuo; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2010-08-01

    The discontinuous reaction of the Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic phase was investigated during the aging of a solution-treated Fe-8.3Mn-8.2Ni-4.2Al alloy. During aging, Ni(2)MnAl lamellae formed at the prior austenite grain boundaries and twin boundaries and grew into the neighboring grains. The presence of continuously precipitated fine Ni(2)MnAl particles before the growth of the discontinuously precipitated lamellae was confirmed by dark-field transmission electron microscopy, and it was concluded that the present reaction is a type of discontinuous coarsening process, alpha' + Ni(2)MnAl (continuous precipitation) --> alpha + Ni(2)MnAl (discontinuous coarsening). The chemical driving force and the reduction of the total coherent strain energy were suggested to be the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction.

  14. First-principles investigation of the stability of MN and CrMN precipitates under coherency strains in α-Fe (M = V, Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, Dan H. R.; Wahnström, Göran

    2011-06-01

    We perform a systematic ab initio study of the interface energetics of thin coherent rocksalt (nacl) structured MN and tetragonal CrMN films in bcc Fe (M = V, Nb, Ta), motivated by the vital role of MN and CrMN precipitates for the long-term creep resistance in 9%-12%Cr steels. The similarities and differences in the work of separations and the elastic costs for the coherency strains are identified, and the possibility for formation of coherent films are discussed. Our findings provide valuable information of the interface energetics, which in continuation can be combined with thermodynamical modeling to obtain a better understanding of the initial nucleation stage of the MN and CrMN precipitates, and their influence on the long-term microstructural evolution in 9%-12%Cr steels.

  15. Superior magnetic and mechanical property of MnFe>3mn>N driven by electron correlation and lattice anharmonicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-02-05

    Manganese-substitution-doped iron nitride MnFe3N holds great promise for applications in high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices. However, existing theory contradicts experimental results on the structural and magnetic stability of MnFe3N, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that the ferromagnetic state with enhanced magnetization in MnFe3N is driven by the electron correlation effect not previously considered. We further reveal a large nonlinear shear plasticity, which produces an unexpectedly high shear strength in MnFe3N despite its initial ductile nature near the equilibrium structure. Moreover, we identify strong lattice anharmonicity that plays a pivotal role in stabilizing MnFe3N under high pressures at room temperature. These remarkable properties stem from the intriguing bonding nature of the parent compound Fe4N. Lastly, our results explain experimental results and offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms for the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of MnFe3N.

  16. Molybdenum isotopes in modern marine hydrothermal Fe/Mn deposits: Implications for Archean and Paleoproterozoic Mo cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, K. T.; Hein, J. R.; Shimoda, G.; Aoki, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Suzuki, K.; Gordon, G. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum isotope (δ98/95Mo) variations recorded in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe/Mn-rich sediments have been used to constrain ocean redox conditions at the time of deposition (Canfield et al., 2013 PNAS; Planavsky et al., 2014 Nat. Geo.; Kurzweil et al., 2015 GCA). However, except for hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts (Siebert et al., 2003), δ98/95Mo variation of modern Fe and Mn oxide deposits has been poorly investigated. Marine hydrothermal systems are thought to be the major source of Fe and Mn in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe- and Mn-rich sediments. Hence, to accurately interpret Mo isotope data of those ancient sedimentary rocks, it is important to evaluate the possible influence of hydrothermally derived Mo on δ98/95Mo of modern Fe- and Mn-rich sediments. In this study, we analyzed Mo isotopic compositions of one hydrothermal Fe oxide and 15 Mn oxides from five different hydrothermal systems in the modern ocean. The Fe oxide is composed mainly of goethite, and has a δ98/95Mo of 0.7‰, which is 1.4‰ lighter than that of present-day seawater. The observed offset is similar to isotope fractionation observed during adsorption experiments of Mo on goethite (Δ98/95Mogoethite-solution = -1.4 ± 0.5%; Goldberg et al., 2009 GCA). The 15 hydrothermal Mn oxides show large variations in δ98/95Mo ranging from -1.7 to 0.5‰. However, most of the values are similar to those of modern hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts (Siebert et al., 2003 EPSL), and fall within the range of estimated δ98/95Mo of Mn oxides precipitated from present-day seawater using the isotope offset reported from adsorption experiments (Δ98/95Mo = -2.7 ± 0.3‰; Wasylenki et al., 2008 GCA). These findings indicate that seawater is the dominant source of Mo for modern hydrothermal Fe and Mn deposits. However, the observed large variation indicates that the contribution Mo from local hydrothermal systems is not negligible. The oceanic Mo inventory during the Archean and Paleoproterozoic is thought to be

  17. Efficient removal of trace arsenite through oxidation and adsorption by magnetic nanoparticles modified with Fe-Mn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified simultaneously with amorphous Fe and Mn oxides (Mag-Fe-Mn) were synthesized to remove arsenite [As(III)] from water. Mag-Fe-Mn particles were fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique by employing the maghemite as the magnetic core and Fe-Mn binary oxide (FMBO) as the coating materials. Powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the hybrid material. With a saturation magnetization of 23.2 emu/g, Mag-Fe-Mn particles with size of 20-50 nm could be easily separated from solutions with a simple magnetic process in short time (within 5 min). At pH 7.0, 200 μg/L of As(III) could be easily decreased to below 10 μg/L by Mag-Fe-Mn particles (0.1 g/L) within 20 min. As(III) could be effectively removed by Mag-Fe-Mn particles at initial pH range from 4 to 8 and the residual As was completely oxidized to less toxic arsenate [As(V)]. The co-occurring redox reactions between Mn oxide and As(III) was confirmed by XPS analysis. Chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, and nitrate at common concentration range had negligible influence on As(III) removal, whereas, silicate and phosphate reduced the As(III) removal by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. As(III) removal was not obviously affected by natural organic matter (up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Mag-Fe-Mn could be regenerated with ternary solution of NaOH, NaCl, and NaClO. Throughout five consecutive cycles, the adsorption and desorption efficiencies maintained above 98% and 87%, respectively. Mag-Fe-Mn had a larger adsorption capacity for As(III) (47.76 mg/g) and could remove trace As(III) more thoroughly than MNPs modified solely with either Fe or Mn oxide due to the synergistic effect of the coating Fe and Mn oxides. This research extended the potential applicability of FMBO to a great extent and provided a convenient approach to efficiently remove trace As

  18. Relaxation process and ferromagnetic resonance investigation of ferrofluids with Mn-Zn and Mn-Fe mixed ferrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mălăescu, I.; Ştefu, N.; Gabor, L.

    2001-09-01

    The magnetic relaxation processes in two ferrofluids with Mn 0.4Zn 0.6Fe 2O 4 (sample F1) and Mn 0.6Fe 0.4Fe 2O 4 (sample F2) mixed ferrite particles, dispersed in n-decan and kerosene, respectively, are investigated through the determination of components χ' and χ'' of the complex magnetic susceptibility in the range of (2-30) MHz. The values of the saturation magnetization of the two ferrofluids are M∞=5.28 kA/m for sample F1 and M∞=10.99 kA/m for sample F2. A maximum of the imaginary component χ'' was observed for both samples at frequencies of tens MHz. This maximum was assigned to relaxation processes of Néel type. The effective anisotropy constant K of the particles from the studied samples was evaluated, using both static and dynamic measurements and the values were found to be K1=6.12×10 3 J m -3 for the ferrofluid F1, and K2=5.60×10 3 J m -3 for the ferrofluid F2. From ferromagnetic resonance measurements, and based on the theoretical values computed for the Lande factor ( g), the effective anisotropy constants for the mixed ferrite particles in the studied ferrofluids and the anisotropy field values were determined using a new method. The values obtained in this way for the anisotropy constants K1 and K2 are compared to the ones determined from magnetic relaxation measurements.

  19. Arsenic release from arsenic-bearing Fe-Mn binary oxide: effects of E(h) condition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Hongjie; Liu, Ruiping; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    2011-05-01

    Ferric and manganese binary oxide (FMBO) has been successfully used to remediate arsenic-polluted river, but there still lacks sufficient data to evaluate its effects on environments. The release behaviors of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) in different E(h) ranges were investigated for As-bearing FMBO sediment after remediating As-polluted DaSha River by FMBO. Under high E(h) range (+550 to +400 mV), slight dissolution of Fe and Mn, which corresponded to 12.2% and 25.6%, and less than 5% of As release were observed in 336 h. Under lower E(h) range (+50 to -100 mV), elevated extent of the dissolution of Mn and Fe were observed, which corresponded to as high as 61.3% and 70.1%. Under such conditions, the dissolution rate of Mn was higher than that of Fe. Furthermore, from the established relationship of As release and the dissolution of Fe and Mn, the release of As seemed dominated by the dissolution of Fe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated the release of Fe, Mn, As(III), and As(V) after sodium ascorbate-treatment, and the re-adsorption of As(V), as indicated from the increased binding energy of As 3d from 44.78 to 45.83 eV. Surface element composition analysis indicated significant decrease of Mn from 3.22% to 0.54%, slight increase of Fe from 12.45% to 13.67%, and elevated ratio of As from 0.11% to 0.32% accordingly. The main reactions of Fe and Mn dissolution and the pathways of As release under different E(h) ranges were also proposed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    PubMed

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    For decades, the extraction of minerals has intensified in order to meet the demand of industry. Iron ore deposits are important sources of metals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). The particulate ores can be dispersed during extraction, transport and storage, with potential to induce biological impacts. Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental stressors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure during the metamorphosis of Lithobates catesbeianus. Endpoints analyzed included morphological (biometrical and developmental analyses), whole body Fe and Mn concentration in, plasma ferritin concentration, erythrocyte DNA damage (measured through comet assay and micronucleus test) and liver activity of enzymes involved in oxidative status [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)]. Tadpoles were kept under control condition (no contaminant addition) or exposed to iron ore (3.79mg/L as fine particulate matter); Fe (nominal concentration: 0.51mg/L Fe as C10H12FeN2NaO8; Fe-EDTA); and Mn (nominal concentration: 5.23mg/L Mn as 4H2O.MnCl2) for 30 days. Virtually, no mortality was observed, except for one tadpole found dead in the iron ore treatment. However, tadpoles exposed to iron ore had longer tail than those kept under control conditions while tadpoles exposed to manganese chloride showed higher body length than control ones. Exposure to Fe and Mn induced a delay in tadpole metamorphosis, especially when these metals are presented not as a mixture (iron ore). Tadpoles exposed to iron ore had increased whole body Fe and Mn while those exposed to Fe and Mn accumulated each metal individually. Tadpoles exposed to any of the contaminants tested showed a significant increase in erythrocyte DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei. In addition, they showed higher liver GST activity respect with those kept under control conditions. Plasma ferritin concentration and liver CAT activity were higher only in tadpoles

  1. Superior magnetic and mechanical property of MnFe3N driven by electron correlation and lattice anharmonicity

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-02-05

    Manganese-substitution-doped iron nitride MnFe3N holds great promise for applications in high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices. However, existing theory contradicts experimental results on the structural and magnetic stability of MnFe3N, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that the ferromagnetic state with enhanced magnetization in MnFe3N is driven by the electron correlation effect not previously considered. We further reveal a large nonlinear shear plasticity, which produces an unexpectedly high shear strength in MnFe3N despite its initial ductile nature near the equilibrium structure. Moreover, we identify strong lattice anharmonicity that plays a pivotal role in stabilizingmore » MnFe3N under high pressures at room temperature. These remarkable properties stem from the intriguing bonding nature of the parent compound Fe4N. Lastly, our results explain experimental results and offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms for the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of MnFe3N.« less

  2. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Tamisari, M.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2015-05-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  3. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G. Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.; Tamisari, M.

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  4. Quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and activity towards ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Easton, E. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    In this account, two series of quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts have been synthesized and characterized by ICP, XRD, XPS, TEM and cyclic voltammetry. XRD spectra of each series illustrated that PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co and Ni) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) alloys have been formed without significant free Mn, Cu, Mo or X co-catalysts. For PtMnCuSn/C and PtMnMoSn/C, in addition to alloy formation, significant free Sn-oxides are present in each catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry revealed that all quaternary showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation compared to the ternary precursor. Also, shift of the onset potential of ethanol oxidation towards less positive values were also recorded with the quaternary alloys, demonstrating a facilitated oxidation with the quaternary alloys compared to ternary alloy precursor. The magnitude of the gain in potential depend on the alloy composition and PtMnMoSn/C was found to be the best of all synthetized quaternary alloys with an onset potential of ethanol oxidation of only 0.059 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  5. Influence of Si substitution on structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Fe2MnGa Heusler compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing-Feng; Wang, Lu

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of Fe2MnGa1-xSix alloy (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) using first-principles density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation method. The lattice constant decreases linearly whereas bulk modulus increases with increasing Si content. The total magnetic moment varies linearly with increasing Si content, which follows the Slater-Pauling rule. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that the Fe2MnGa1-xSix exhibits half-metallic character for all the concentrations studied and the spin polarization and the spin-down band gap both increase with the Si content. Based on the magnetic properties calculations, the Heisenberg exchange coupling parameters give Fe-Mn ferromagnetic coupling and Mn-Mn antiferromagnetic coupling. The TC first decreases and then increases with Si content, which is in well agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Large-scale phase separation with nano-twin domains in manganite spinel (Co,Fe,Mn)3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horibe, Y.; Takeyama, S.; Mori, S.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Mn concentration on the formation of nano-domain structures in the spinel oxide (Co,Fe,Mn)3O4 was investigated by electron diffraction, bright-, and dark-field imaging technique with transmission electron microscopy. Large scale phase separation with nano-twin domains was observed in Co0.6Fe1.0Mn1.4O4, in contrast to the highly aligned checkerboard nano-domains in Co0.6Fe0.9Mn1.5O4. Diffusion of the Mn3+ ions with the Jahn-Teller distortions is suggested to play an important role in the formation of checkerboard nano-domain structure.

  7. The effects of Ni, Mo, Ti and Si on the mechanical properties of Cr free Mn steel (Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The FeMnAlC alloys may hold potential as Cr-free replacements for high strategic material iron base superalloys, but little is known about their intermediate temperature (650 C to 870 C) mechanical properties. The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties of model FeMnAlC alloys were studied. Results showed that modified FeMnAlC alloys had promising short term, intermediate temperature properties but had relatively poor stress rupture lives at 172 MPa and 788 C. Room temperature and 788 C tensile strength of FeMnAlC alloys were better than common cast stainless steels. Changes in room temperature tensile and 788 C tensile strength and ductility, and 788 C stress rupture life were correlated with changes in Ni, Mo, Ti, and Si levels due to alloying effects on interstitial carbon levels and carbide morphology. Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C had a very poor stress rupture life at 172 MPa and 788 C. Addition of carbide-forming elements improved the stress rupture life.

  8. Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on basalts at east pacific rise near 13°N: An SEM-EDS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Zhigang; Qi, Haiyan; Chen, Shuai; Yin, Xuebo; Yang, Baoju

    2014-12-01

    Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggregates with some biodetritus, anhydrite, nontronite, and feldspar particles. Anhydrite particles and nontronite crystals in the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations imply that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide may have formed under relatively low- to high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on pillow basalts are 1-2 mm thick. The growth rate of ferromanganese crusts in the survey area suggests that these encrustations are an unlikely result of hydrogenic deposition alone having a hydrothermal and (Fe/Mn ratio up to 7.7 and Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al) ratio exceeding 0.78) hydrogenic origin (0.22 Fe/Mn ratio close to the mean value of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts). The varying Fe/Mn ratios indicate that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations have formed through several stages of seafloor hydrothermalism. It is suggested that, at the initial formation stage, dense Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides with low Mn content deposit from a relatively reducing hydrothermal fluid, and then the loose Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides deposit on the Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides. As the oxidation degree of hydrothermal fluid increases and Si-oxide is inhibited, Mn-oxide will precipitate with Fe-oxyhydroxides.

  9. Structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of MnBi:Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kharel, P.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Li, X. Z.; Shah, V. R.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Tarawneh, K.; Sabirianov, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    The structural, magnetic, and electron transport properties of Mn{sub 55-x}Fe{sub x}Bi{sub 45} (x = 0, 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 16) films prepared by multilayer deposition and annealing using e-beam evaporation have been investigated. Fe doping has produced a significant change in the magnetic properties of the samples including the decrease in saturation magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy and increase in coercivity. Although the magnetization shows a smooth decrease with increasing Fe concentration, the coercivity jumps abruptly from 8.5 kOe to 22 kOe as Fe content changes from 4% to 5%, but the change in coercivity is small as the concentration goes beyond 5%. The temperature dependence of resistivity shows that the samples with low Fe concentration ({<=}4%) are metallic, but the resistivity increases unexpectedly as the concentration reaches 5%, where the resistance increases with decreasing temperature below 300 K. First-principle calculations suggest that the observed magnetic properties can be understood as the consequences of competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the interstitial atom and the rest of the MnBi lattice.

  10. Strain development during the phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Smith, Anders; Norby, Poul; Stâhl, Kenny; Bahl, Christian R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We use powder X-ray diffraction to evaluate the temperature dependence of the crystalline properties during the magnetic phase transition of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz as a function of the Fe/Mn/Si ratio. Both the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases were observed as peak overlaps in the patterns around the Curie temperature (TC) occurring continuously in a temperature range of about 5 K around TC. Using the Williamson-Hall method, we evaluate the strain developing in the crystallites during the transition and find that it is associated with the growth of the paramagnetic phase as the transition occurs. Based on our measurements and microstructure analyses, we propose that cracking during the phase transition is due to or aggravated by the small content of a La-rich phase.

  11. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga/Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chang-Long; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A ferromagnetic shape memory composite of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ga was fabricated by using spark plasma sintering method. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Compared to the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy, the threshold field for magnetic-field-induced strain in the composite is clearly reduced owing to the assistance of internal stress generated from Fe-Ga. Meanwhile, the ductility has been significantly improved in the composite. A fracture strain of 26% and a compressive strength of 1600 MPa were achieved. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271065 and 51301054), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1253-NCET-009), the Youth Academic Backbone in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1251G022), the Projects of Heilongjiang, China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  12. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of W- and Fe-Substituted MnSi γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, Swapnil; Hiroishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Akio; Ikuta, Hiroshi; Matsunami, Masaharu; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of heavy-element (W) substitution on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicide (HMS). Samples were prepared by arc melting followed by liquid quenching, where the latter assisted in achieving higher solubility for tungsten. We observed that Mn34.6W1.8Si63.6 was a p-type material, whereas simultaneous substitution of 12 at.% Fe made the higher manganese silicide an n-type material. The optimal carrier concentration was obtained by simultaneous substitution of Fe and W for Mn atoms. Although the samples were metastable, we successfully obtained bulk samples by a low-temperature (970 K), high-pressure (>100 MPa), long-duration sintering process. The lattice thermal conductivity was effectively reduced by W substitution, and the ZT value was improved to above 0.5 for both n- and p-type samples.

  13. Giant exchange bias in Mn2FeGa with hexagonal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, H. G.; Zhang, X. J.; Ma, X. Q.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present the experimental observation that polycrystalline Mn2+xFe1-xGa (x = -0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4) compounds can be synthesized to be D019-type (Ni3Sn-type) hexagonal structure with space group P63/mmc. A giant exchange bias field up to 1.32 kOe was achieved in hexagonal Mn2FeGa alloy at 5 K. A cluster glass state is confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement under different driving frequencies. Interestingly, robust horizontal and vertical shifts in magnetic hysteresis loop were simultaneously observed at 5 K under high cooling field up to 90 kOe. The large exchange bias is originated from the large exchange anisotropy between cluster glass phase and ferrimagnetic matrix. The vertical shift is thought to be attributed to the incomplete reversal of frozen cluster spins.

  14. Strength of "Light" Ferritic and Austenitic Steels Based on the Fe - Mn - Al - C System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputkina, L. M.; Svyazhin, A. G.; Smarygina, I. V.; Kindop, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The phase composition, the hardness, the mechanical properties at room temperature, and the resistance to hot (950 - 1000°C) and warm (550°C) deformation are studied for cast deformable "light" ferritic and austenitic steels of the Fe - (12 - 25)% Mn - (0 - 15)% Al - (0 - 2)% C system alloyed additionally with about 5% Ni. The high-aluminum high-manganese low-carbon and carbonless ferritic steels at a temperature of about 0.5 T melt have a specific strength close to that of the austenitic steels and may be used as weldable scale-resistant and wear-resistant materials. The high-carbon Fe - (20 - 24)% Mn - (5 - 9)% Al - 5% Ni - 1.5% C austenitic steels may be applied as light high-strength materials operating at cryogenic temperatures after a solution treatment and as scale- and heat-resistant materials in an aged condition.

  15. Galvanomagnetic properties of Heusler alloy Co2 YAl ( Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Co2 YAl, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni have been studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. Normal R 0 and anomalous R S Hall coefficients are shown to be maximal in magnitudes in the middle of the 3 d period of the periodic table of elements. Coefficient R 0 changes the negative sign to positive sign in going from weak ( Y = Ti, V) to strong ( Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) ferromagnetic alloys. Constant R S is positive and proportional to ρ2.9 in all the alloys. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is not higher than several percent and its magnitude is changed fairly significantly in the dependence on the number of valence electrons z; the magnetoresistance signs vary arbitrarily.

  16. Study of Magnetic Behavior of Mn1-xNixFe2O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, E. Ranjith; Kumar, Sanjay; Kojima, Toshinori; Jayaprakash, R.

    The nano crystalline manganese nickel cobalt ferrite is synthesized by a simple technique of thermal evaporation with the help of egg white and its magnetic behaviour is analyzed for different annealing temperature. The saturation magnetization for MnNiFe2O4 at different annealing temperature has been recorded and also the influence of particle size in magnetic properties is analyzed. The FT-IR spectra of the sample reveal the common feature of ferrites like high frequency band to the tetrahedral and low frequency band to the octahedral stretching vibrations. The presence of constituent phases in MnNiFe2O4 is confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction. The particle size, morphology and percentage of composition elements are measured by employing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM),

  17. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kourov, N. I. Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-15

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit (H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal (R{sub 0}) and anomalous (R{sub s}) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R{sub s} in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio (R{sub s} ∝ ρ{sub 0}{sup 3.1}), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  18. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe2YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe2YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3 d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit ( H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal ( R 0) and anomalous ( R s ) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R s in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio ( R s ∝ ρ 0 3.1 ), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  19. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  20. Partitioning and structural role of Mn and Fe ions in ionic sulfophosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Möncke, Doris; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sirotkin, Sergey; Stavrou, Elissaios; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.

    2014-12-14

    Ionic sulfophosphate liquids of the type ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} exhibit surprising glass forming ability, even at slow or moderate cooling rate. As a concept, they also provide high solubility of transition metal ions which could act as cross-linking sites between the sulfate and phosphate entities. It is therefore investigated how the replacement of ZnO by MnO and/or FeO affects the glass structure and the glass properties. Increasing manganese levels are found to result in a monotonic increase of the transition temperature T{sub g} and most of the mechanical properties. This trend is attributed to the change of metal-ion coordination from four-fold around Zn{sup 2+} to six-fold around Mn{sup 2+} ions. The higher coordination facilitates cross-linking of the ionic structural entities and subsequently increases T{sub g}. Raman and infrared spectroscopy show that the structure of these glasses involves only SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} monomers as well as P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} dimers. Replacement of ZnO by MnO is found to favour PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} over P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} species, a trend which is enhanced by co-doping with FeO. Both transition metal ions show, like Zn{sup 2+}, a preference to selectively coordinate to phosphate anionic species, as opposed to sodium ions which coordinate mainly to sulfate anions. EPR spectroscopy finally shows that divalent Mn{sup 2+} ions are present primarily in MnO{sub 6}-clusters, which, in the studied sulfophosphate glasses, convert upon increasing MnO content from corner-sharing to edge-sharing entities.

  1. Iron-base superalloys - A phase analysis of the multicomponent system (Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Lemkey, F. D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of studies on the iron-rich multicomponent system Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C, work was concentrated on pertinent quinary and six-component combinations namely Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C, Fe-Cr-Al-Si-C and Fe-Mn-Cr-Al-Si-C which had been elaborated at 65, 72, and 80 wt pct Fe. Manganese acts as a strong stabilizer for the cementite carbide. Chromium seems to stabilize the iron aluminide Fe2Al5 which forms in a considerable amount within an alloy of nominal composition Fe(65)Mn(15)Cr(12)Al(5)Si(2)C(1) (percent by weight). Although the Mn3AlC carbide is, like Fe3AlC, a perovskite carbide, manganese does not appear to favor the formation of the perovskite carbide. Because of the relatively low sintering temperature (700 C), for al large portion of the samples equilibria conditions are not always reached.

  2. Design of dual-phase Fe/Mn/C steel for low-temperature application

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.J.

    1981-09-01

    An investigation has been made to improve the impact properties of a dual phase Fe/1.5Mn/.06C steel for potential low temperature application. The research involved establishing the microstructure-property relationships, especially with regard to the morphology of the constituents. Dual phase processing was done in two ways, viz., controlled rolling and intercritical annealing of the as-hot-rolled structure.

  3. Microstructure and corrosion properties of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qingfeng; Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo; Lu, Fenggui; Li, Ruifeng; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong

    2017-02-01

    Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) is one of the most notable single phase multi-component alloys up-to-date with promising mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. However, the study on the corrosion behavior of CrMnFeCoNi HEA coating has still been lacking. In this paper, HEA coating with a nominal composition of CrMnFeCoNi is fabricated by laser surface alloying and studied in detail. Microstructure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the corrosion behavior. The coating forms a simple FCC phase with an identical dendritic structure composed of Fe/Co/Ni-rich dendrites and Mn/Ni-rich interdendrites. Both in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid the coating exhibits nobler corrosion resistance than A36 steel substrate and even lower icorr than 304 stainless steel (304SS). EIS plots coupled with fitted parameters reveal that a spontaneous protective film is formed and developed during immersion in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The fitted Rt value reaches its maximum at 24 h during a 48 h' immersion test, indicating the passive film starts to break down after that. EDS analysis conducted on a corroded surface immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4 reveals that corrosion starts from Cr-depleted interdendrites.

  4. Spin-Glass-Ferromagnetic Multicritical Point in Amorphous Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, M. B.; Rao, K. V.; Chen, H. S.

    1980-03-01

    The ac susceptibility of a sequence of amorphous Fe-Mn alloys shows lines of both spin-glass and ferromagnetic transitions. A detailed scaling-law analysis, treating the common point on the two magnetic phase boundaries as a multicritical point, verifies the scaling hypothesis and yields multicritical, spin-glass, and crossover exponents. The observed behavior compares quite will with position-space renormalization results.

  5. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-15

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn{sub 2}FeAs applying in the future spintronics field. - Graphical abstract: The d orbitals of Mn and Fe atoms split into multi-degenerated levels which create new bonding and nonbonding states. These exchange splitting shift the Fermi level to origin band gap.▪ - Highlights: • The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy were studied. • A total magnetic moment of 3μ{sub B} was obtained for Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy, following the SP rule M{sub t}=Z{sub t}−24. • The origin of ferrimagnetism and half-metallic character in Mn{sub 2}FeAs were discussed.

  6. Ab initio lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe-Mn random alloys.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, T; Music, D; Hallstedt, B; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Vitos, L; Schneider, J M

    2010-07-28

    We have studied the lattice stability of face centred cubic (fcc) versus hexagonal close packed (hcp) Fe-Mn random alloys using ab initio calculations. In the calculations we considered the antiferromagnetic order of local moments, which for fcc alloys models the magnetic configuration of this phase at room temperature (below its Néel temperature) as well as their complete disorder, corresponding to paramagnetic fcc and hcp alloys. For both cases, the results are consistent with our thermodynamic calculations, obtained within the Calphad approach. For the room temperature magnetic configuration, the cross-over of the total energies of the hcp phase and the fcc phase of Fe-Mn alloys is at the expected Mn content, whereas for the magnetic configuration above the fcc Néel temperature, the hcp lattice is more stable within the whole composition range studied. The increase of the total energy difference between hcp and antiferromagnetic fcc due to additions of Mn as well as the stabilizing effect of antiferromagnetic ordering on the fcc phase are well displayed. These results are of relevance for understanding the deformation mechanisms of these random alloys.

  7. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge.

    PubMed

    Dyadkin, Vadim; Grigoriev, Sergey; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Tsvyashchenko, Anatoly; Fomicheva, L N; Chernyshov, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    A series of temperature-dependent single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments has been carried out using synchrotron radiation in order to characterize the monogermanides of Mn, Fe and their solid solutions. The MnGe single crystal is found to be enantiopure and we report the absolute structure determination. The thermal expansion, parametrized with the Debye model, is discussed from the temperature-dependent powder diffraction measurements for Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.9). Whereas the unit-cell dimension and the Debye temperature follow a linear trend as a function of composition, the thermal expansion coefficient deviates from linear dependence with increasing Mn content. No structural phase transformations have been observed for any composition in the temperature range 80-500 K for both single-crystal and powder diffraction, indicating that the phase transition previously observed with neutron powder diffraction most probably has a magnetic origin.

  8. Compositional dependence of antiferromagnetic anisotropy in IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aley, N. P.; O'Grady, K.

    2011-04-01

    We report on a study of the effect of Ir content on the loop shift (HEX) and anisotropy constant (KAF) in the CoFe/IrMn system. The sample structure investigated was Si/NiCr(5 nm)/Ru(5 nm)/IrxMn1-x/CoFe(2 nm)/Ta(3 nm). All samples were produced by sputtering and the Ir and Mn levels were varied using a specially made composite target and deposited at ˜120 °C. The composition of the samples was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. KAF was calculated from thermal activation measurements using the York Protocols. A plateau in HEX was found for Ir levels between 16- 20.5 at. %. HEX was found to decrease by 50% on either side of this window. This result is consistent with previous studies where the enhancement of HEX was attributed to an increase in the atomic ordering of the IrMn alloy. However, KAF decreases linearly with increasing Ir concentration and does not appear to correlate with the change in HEX.

  9. Compositional dependence of antiferromagnetic anisotropy in IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aley, N. P.; O'Grady, K.

    2011-04-01

    We report on a study of the effect of Ir content on the loop shift (H{sub EX}) and anisotropy constant (K{sub AF}) in the CoFe/IrMn system. The sample structure investigated was Si/NiCr(5 nm)/Ru(5 nm)/Ir{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}/CoFe(2 nm)/Ta(3 nm). All samples were produced by sputtering and the Ir and Mn levels were varied using a specially made composite target and deposited at {approx}120 deg. C. The composition of the samples was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. K{sub AF} was calculated from thermal activation measurements using the York Protocols. A plateau in H{sub EX} was found for Ir levels between 16- 20.5 at. %. H{sub EX} was found to decrease by 50% on either side of this window. This result is consistent with previous studies where the enhancement of H{sub EX} was attributed to an increase in the atomic ordering of the IrMn alloy. However, K{sub AF} decreases linearly with increasing Ir concentration and does not appear to correlate with the change in H{sub EX}.

  10. Pack-boriding of Fe-Mn binary alloys: Characterization and kinetics of the boride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bektes, M.; Calik, A.; Ucar, N.; Keddam, M.

    2010-02-15

    In this work, the boronizing of Fe-Mn binary alloys at 0.42, 0.76 and 0.94 wt.% Mn was carried out in a solid medium using the powder pack method. In this method, commercial Ekabor-II boron source and activator (ferro-silicon) were thoroughly mixed to form the boriding medium. The samples were boronized in an electrical resistance furnace for exposure times of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 1173 K under atmospheric pressure and a series of boronized samples in the temperature range 1073-1373 K for 3 h. After the furnace process, boronized samples were removed from the furnace and cooled in air. Afterwards, the boride layers generated by the pack-boronizing process were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, Vickers microhardness and tensile testing. The generated boride layers, showing a saw-tooth morphology, had a surface microhardness in the range 1400-1270 HV0.1. It was shown that the values of yield stresses and ultimate tensile stresses were increased as the Mn content increases in the boronized Fe-Mn binary alloys. In contrast, the values of elongations determined from the stress-strain curves were decreased. Furthermore, it was found that the calculated mean value of the activation energy of boron diffusion was close to 119 J/mol.

  11. Compressive deformation behavior of CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Min Ji; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Tsai, Che-Wei; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-11-01

    The compressive deformation behavior of a single phase CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) is investigated using experimental and theoretical approaches. The equiaxed microstructures are observed using optical microscope, electron backscattered diffraction, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Compressive results reveal that the CrMnFeCoNi HEA has a high strain-hardening exponent in spite of its large grain size due to increased dislocation density and severe lattice distortion. The compressive texture of the HEA resembles those of typical FCC metals. The phenomenological dislocation-based constitutive model well describes the compressive deformation behavior. The predicted dislocation density is in good quantitative agreement with the experimental value measured using whole-profile fitting of synchrotron XRD peaks. It can be confirmed from the experimental and theoretical findings that the deformation mechanism of the CrMnFeCoNi HEA is the conventional dislocation glide and mechanical twinning is negligible contrary to general belief.

  12. Synthesis of Hexagonal FeMnP Thin Films from a Single-Source Molecular Precursor.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Andrew P; Schipper, Desmond E; Chen, Jing-Han; Colson, Adam C; Rusakova, Irene; Kumar Rai, Binod; Morosan, Emilia; Whitmire, Kenton Herbert

    2017-03-08

    The first heterobimetallic phosphide thin film containing iron, manganese, and phosphorus derived from the single-source precursor FeMn(CO)8(μ-PH2) has been prepared using a home-built metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The thin film contains the same ratio of iron, manganese, and phosphorus as the initial precursor. The film becomes oxidized when deposited on a quartz substrate whereas the film deposited on an alumina substrate provides a more homogeneous product. Powder X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of metastable, hexagonal FeMnP phase that was previously only observed at temperatures above 1200 ºC. Selected area electron diffraction on single crystals isolated from the films were indexed to the hexagonal phase. The effective moment of the films (µeff = 3.68µB) matches the previously reported theoretical value for the metastable hexagonal phase whereas the more stable orthorhombic phase is known to be antiferromagnetic. These results not only demonstrate the successful synthesis of a bimetallic, ternary thin film from a single-source precursor, but also the first low temperature approach to the hexagonal phase of FeMnP.

  13. Elasticity and magnetocaloric effect in MnFe4Si3

    SciTech Connect

    Herlitschke, Marcus; Klobes, B.; Sergueev, I.; Hering, Paul; Persson, Joerg; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2016-03-16

    The room temperature magnetocaloric material MnFe4Si3 was investigated with nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields in order to assess the infuence of the magnetic transition and the magnetocaloric effect on the lattice dynamics. The NIS data give access to phonons with energies above 3 meV, whereas RUS probes the elasticity of the material in the MHz frequency range and thus low energy, ~5 neV, phonon modes. A significant infuence of the magnetic transition on the lattice dynamics is observed only in the low energy region. Here, MnFe4Si3 and other compounds in the Mn5-xFexSi3 series were also investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, resistivity measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to study the magnetic transitions and to complement the obtained results on the lattice dynamics.

  14. Effects of iron status on transpulmonary transport and tissue distribution of Mn and Fe.

    PubMed

    Brain, Joseph D; Heilig, Elizabeth; Donaghey, Thomas C; Knutson, Mitchell D; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Molina, Ramon M

    2006-03-01

    Manganese transport into the blood can result from inhaling metal-containing particles. Intestinal manganese and iron absorption is mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and is upregulated in iron deficiency. Since iron status alters absorption of Fe and Mn in the gut, we tested the hypothesis that iron status may alter pulmonary transport of these metals. DMT1 expression in the lungs was evaluated to explore its role in metal transport. The pharmacokinetics of intratracheally instilled 54Mn or 59Fe in repeatedly bled or iron oxide-exposed rats were compared with controls. Iron oxide exposure caused a reduction in pulmonary transport of 54Mn and 59Fe, and decreased uptake in other major organs. Low iron status from repeated bleeding also reduced pulmonary transport of iron but not of manganese. However, uptake of manganese in the brain and of iron in the spleen increased in bled rats. DMT1 transcripts were detected in airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue in all rats. Focal increases were seen in particle-containing macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells, but no change was observed in bled rats. Although lung DMT1 expression did not correlate with iron status, differences in pharmacokinetics of instilled metals suggest that their potential toxicity can be modified by iron status.

  15. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  16. Solubility and magnetic properties enhancement in bi-phase nanostructure Cu-Fe-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Basumallick, A.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve solubility and magnetic properties, the ball milling technology was used for the production of 50Cu-40Fe-10Mn (wt%) alloy. The effect of Mn content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Cu-Fe alloy was also investigated in detail. Microstructure and magnetic properties of the alloy were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and superconducting quantum interface device magnetometry. The results showed that a complete solid solution of the alloy was produced after 30 h of milling. Quantitative phase analysis of X-ray diffraction data revealed that the milled alloy obtained after isothermal annealing at 550 °C for 1 h consisted of Cu (54.52 wt%), α-Fe (36.49 wt%) and MnO (8.99 wt%). The milled alloy obtained after annealing at 450 °C for 1 h leads to the maximum values of magnetic properties such as coercivity=438 Oe, remanent magnetization=14.3 emu/g, and saturation magnetization=51 emu/g.

  17. Magnetoresistive detection of strongly pinned uncompensated magnetization in antiferromagnetic FeMn

    DOE PAGES

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Ding, Junjia; ...

    2017-01-17

    Here we observed and studied pinned uncompensated magnetization in an antiferromagnet using magnetoresistance measurements. For this, we developed antiferromagnet-ferromagnet spin valves (AFSVs) that consist of an antiferromagnetic layer and a ferromagnetic one, separated by a nonmagnetic conducting spacer. In an AFSV, the uncompensated magnetization in the antiferromagnet affects scattering of spin-polarized electrons giving rise to giant magnetoresitance (GMR). By measuring angular dependence of AFSVs' resistance, we detected pinned uncompensated magnetization responsible for the exchange bias effect in an antiferromagnet- only exchange bias system Cu/FeMn/Cu. The fact that GMR measured in this system persists up to 110 kOe indicates that themore » scattering occurs on strongly pinned uncompensated magnetic moments in FeMn. This strong pinning can be explained if this pinned uncompensated magnetization is a thermodynamically stable state and coupled to the antiferromagnetic order parameter. Finally, using the AFSV technique, we confirmed that the two interfaces between FeMn and Cu are magnetically different: The uncompensated magnetization is pinned only at the interface with the bottom Cu layer.« less

  18. MnFe(PGe) compounds: Preparation, structural evolution, and magnetocaloric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ming; Zhang, Hong-Guo; Liu, Dan-Min; Zhang, Jiu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The interdependences of preparation conditions, magnetic and crystal structures, and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of the MnFePGe-based compounds are reviewed. Based upon those findings, a new method for the evaluation of the MCE in these compounds, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is proposed. The MnFePGe-based compounds are a group of magnetic refrigerants with giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE), and as such, have drawn tremendous attention, especially due to their many advantages for practical applications. Structural evolution and phase transformation in the compounds as functions of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field are reported. Influences of preparation conditions upon the homogeneity of the compounds’ chemical composition and microstructure, both of which play a key role in the MCE and thermal hysteresis of the compounds, are introduced. Lastly, the origin of the “virgin effect” in the MnFePGe-based compounds is discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51171003, 51071007, and 51401002).

  19. Magnetoresistive detection of strongly pinned uncompensated magnetization in antiferromagnetic FeMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Ding, Junjia; Pearson, John. E.; Novosad, Valentine; Jiang, J. S.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2017-01-01

    We observed and studied pinned uncompensated magnetization in an antiferromagnet using magnetoresistance measurements. For this, we developed antiferromagnet-ferromagnet spin valves (AFSVs) that consist of an antiferromagnetic layer and a ferromagnetic one, separated by a nonmagnetic conducting spacer. In an AFSV, the uncompensated magnetization in the antiferromagnet affects scattering of spin-polarized electrons giving rise to giant magnetoresitance (GMR). By measuring angular dependence of AFSVs' resistance, we detected pinned uncompensated magnetization responsible for the exchange bias effect in an antiferromagnet-only exchange bias system Cu/FeMn/Cu. The fact that GMR measured in this system persists up to 110 kOe indicates that the scattering occurs on strongly pinned uncompensated magnetic moments in FeMn. This strong pinning can be explained if this pinned uncompensated magnetization is a thermodynamically stable state and coupled to the antiferromagnetic order parameter. Using the AFSV technique, we confirmed that the two interfaces between FeMn and Cu are magnetically different: The uncompensated magnetization is pinned only at the interface with the bottom Cu layer.

  20. High-corrosion-resistance Fe-Mn-Si-based alloys exhibiting nearly perfect shape memory effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Kajiwara, Setsuo; Kikuchi, Takehiko; Shinya, Norio

    2004-07-01

    Recently our group has succeeded, by producing very small particles of NbC carbides in austenite, in improvement of shape memory effect (SME) of the low-cost conventional Fe-Mn-Si based SMAs to such an extent that the so-called "training" treatment is no longer necessary. It was also found that the shape memory properties of the Fe-Mn-Si based SMAs were further improved by pre-rolling at 870K. The present paper describes similar improvement of shape memory properties of an Fe-15Mn-5Si-9Cr-5Ni-0.5NbC (mass %) by more convenient way of pre-extension at room temperature. This alloy is high corrosion-resistant (equivalent to SUS430) as well as low cost material, which is also one of the important requisites for industry application in various fields. A nearly perfect shape recover (90%) of an initial 4% strain was achieved when the alloy was pre-extended 12% at room temperature and then aged at 1070K for 10min. The origin of this improvement of SME has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and trasmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that uniform distribution of fine martensite plates with the same variant on the primary system is the key factor to obtain a perfect shape memory recovery.

  1. Local and average structure of Mn- and La-substituted BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Selbach, Sverre M.

    2017-06-01

    The local and average structure of solid solutions of the multiferroic perovskite BiFeO3 is investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The average experimental structure is determined by Rietveld refinement and the local structure by total scattering data analyzed in real space with the pair distribution function (PDF) method. With equal concentrations of La on the Bi site or Mn on the Fe site, La causes larger structural distortions than Mn. Structural models based on DFT relaxed geometry give an improved fit to experimental PDFs compared to models constrained by the space group symmetry. Berry phase calculations predict a higher ferroelectric polarization than the experimental literature values, reflecting that structural disorder is not captured in either average structure space group models or DFT calculations with artificial long range order imposed by periodic boundary conditions. Only by including point defects in a supercell, here Bi vacancies, can DFT calculations reproduce the literature results on the structure and ferroelectric polarization of Mn-substituted BiFeO3. The combination of local and average structure sensitive experimental methods with DFT calculations is useful for illuminating the structure-property-composition relationships in complex functional oxides with local structural distortions.

  2. Removal of thallium from aqueous solutions using Fe-Mn binary oxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Huosheng; Chen, Yongheng; Long, Jianyou; Li, Xiuwan; Jiang, Daqian; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Jianying; Huang, Xuexia; Liu, Juan; Xu, Ruibing; Gong, Jian

    2017-09-15

    In this study, Fe-Mn binary oxides, which harbor the strong oxidative power of manganese dioxide and the high adsorption capacity of iron oxides, were synthesized for Tl(I) removal using a concurrent chemical oxidation and precipitation method. The adsorption of Tl onto the Fe-Mn adsorbent was fast, effective, and selective, with equilibrium sorption reaching over 95% under a broad operating pH (3-12), and high ionic strength (0.1-0.5mol/L). The adsorption can be well fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and the kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra suggest that surface complexation, oxidation and precipitation were the main mechanisms for the removal of Tl. This study shows that the Fe-Mn binary oxides could be a promising adsorbent for Tl removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2017-03-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  4. A new Fe-Mn-Si alloplastic biomaterial as bone grafting material: In vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fântânariu, Mircea; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina; Strungaru, Ştefan; Şindilar, Eusebiu Viorel; Plăvan, Gabriel; Stanciu, Sergiu

    2015-10-01

    Designing substrates having suitable mechanical properties and targeted degradation behavior is the key's development of bio-materials for medical application. In orthopedics, graft material may be used to fill bony defects or to promote bone formation in osseous defects created by trauma or surgical intervention. Incorporation of Si may increase the bioactivity of implant locally, both by enhancing interactions at the graft-host interface and by having a potential endocrine like effect on osteoblasts. A Fe-Mn-Si alloy was obtained as alloplastic graft materials for bone implants that need long recovery time period. The surface morphology of the resulted specimens was investigated using scanning electrons microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffractions (X'Pert equipment) or X-ray dispersive energy analyze (Bruker EDS equipment). This study objective was to evaluate in vivo the mechanisms of degradation and the effects of its implantation over the main metabolic organs. Biochemical, histological, plain X radiography and computed tomography investigations showed good compatibility of the subcutaneous implants in the rat organism. The implantation of the Fe-Mn-Si alloy, in critical size bone (tibiae) defect rat model, did not induced adverse biological reactions and provided temporary mechanical support to the affected bone area. The biodegradation products were hydroxides layers which adhered to the substrate surface. Fe-Mn-Si alloy assured the mechanical integrity in rat tibiae defects during bone regeneration.

  5. Effect of oxidation and annealing on tunnel barrier structure and composition in IrMn/CoFe/TiOx/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Daniel J.; Cockayne, David J. H.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Yi, Ge

    2009-12-01

    The effects of oxidation time and annealing conditions on sputter-deposited magnetic tunnel junctions with a TiOx barrier have been investigated. High resolution electron microscopy showed that longer oxidation times led to a significant increase in barrier layer width and to the formation of large volumes of oxides of Co and Fe. Annealing promoted extensive diffusion of Mn to the barrier region and the oxidation of Mn to MnOx concurrent with the reduction in oxides of Co and Fe. Annealing also increased the peak oxygen content of the barrier region and resulted in a distinct asymmetry in the barrier oxide structure.

  6. A new mineral species ferricoronadite, Pb[Mn6 4+(Fe3+, Mn3+)2]O16: mineralogical characterization, crystal chemistry and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Jančev, Simeon; Pekov, Igor V.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Nelyubina, Yuliya V.; Van, Konstantin V.

    2016-07-01

    A new mineral ferricoronadite with the simplified formula Pb(Mn6 4+Fe2 3+)O16 was discovered in the orogenetic zone related to the "Mixed Series" metamorphic complex near the Nežilovo village, Pelagonian massif, Republic of Macedonia. Associated minerals are franklinite, gahnite, hetaerolite, roméite, almeidaite, Mn-analogue of plumboferrite, zincohögbomite analogue with Fe3+ > Al, zincochromite, Zn-bearing talc, Zn-bearing muscovite, baryte, quartz and zircon. Ferricoronadite is a late hydrothermal mineral forming veinlets up to 8 mm thick in granular aggregate predominantly composed by zinc-dominant spinels. The new mineral is opaque, black, with brownish black streak. The luster is strong submetallic to metallic. The micro-indentation hardness is 819 kg/mm2. Distinct cleavage is observed on (100). Ferricoronadite is brittle, with uneven fracture. The density calculated from the empirical formula is 5.538 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferricoronadite is light gray. The reflectance values [ R max/ R min, % ( λ, nm)] are: 28.7/27.8 (470), 27.6/26.6 (546), 27.2/26.1 (589), 26.5/25.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the absence of H2O and OH groups. According to the Mössbauer spectrum, all iron is trivalent. The Mn K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that Mn is predominantly tetravalent, with subordinate Mn3+. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, Mn apportioned between MnO2 and Mn2O3 based on the charge-balance requirement): BaO 5.16, PbO 24.50, ZnO 0.33, Al2O3 0.50, Mn2O3 9.90, Fe2O3 11.45, TiO2 4.19, MnO2 44.81, total 100.84. The empirical formula based on 8 cations Mn + Fe + Ti + Al + Zn pfu is Pb1.03Ba0.32(Mn 4.85 4+ Fe 1.35 3+ Mn 1.18 3+ Ti0.49Al0.09Zn0.04)Σ8.00O16. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is tetragonal, space group I4/ m, a = 9.9043(7), c = 2.8986(9) Å, V = 284.34(9) Å3, Z = 1. In ferricoronadite, double chains of edge-sharing (Mn, Fe, Ti)-centered octahedra are connected

  7. Pressure dependence of magnetic properties in Fe-Mn-B amorphous alloys: evidence for inhomogeneous ferromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Kiss, L F; Kemény, T; Bednarčík, J; Kamarád, J; Arnold, Z; Konôpková, Z; Liermann, H-P

    2013-08-28

    The pressure dependence of the saturation magnetization and Curie temperature was studied in melt-spun Fe60Mn20B20, Fe56Mn24B20 and Fe75B25 amorphous alloys up to 0.9 GPa, corresponding to volume changes up to 0.45%. In addition, in situ high-pressure (up to 40 GPa) x-ray diffraction was performed to determine the compressibility of the latter two alloys. Both the Curie temperature TC (at atmospheric pressure TC = 201 ± 3 and 159 ± 3 K) and the low-temperature saturation magnetization M5 K,5 T decrease remarkably with increasing pressure: dTC/dp =- 31 ± 0.5 and -32 ± 5 K GPa(-1) and dlnM5 K,5 T/dp =- 0.15 ± 0.02 and -0.13 ± 0.03 GPa(-1) for xMn = 20 and 24 at.%, respectively. Compared to dlnM5 K,5 T/dp =- 0.016 ± 0.003 GPa(-1) measured for Fe75B25, the pressure dependence of M5 K,5 T is one order of magnitude larger in the ternary alloys. The bulk moduli for the Fe56Mn24B20 and Fe75B25 glasses were measured to be 152 GPa and 173 GPa, respectively. These data are also compared with the pressure dependence of the hyperfine field and theoretical calculations of the saturation moment for Fe-B alloys reported in the literature. The results were interpreted within an inhomogeneous itinerant-electron model of ferromagnetism.

  8. Construction of the Magnetic Phase Diagram of FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-01-04

    Single crystalline FeMn/Ni bilayer was epitaxially grown on Cu(001) substrate and investigated by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). The FeMn and Ni films were grown into two cross wedges to facilitate an independent control of the FeMn (0-20 ML) and Ni (0-20 ML) film thicknesses. The Ni magnetic phases were determined by Ni domain images as a function of the Ni thickness (d{sub Ni}) and the FeMn thickness (d{sub FeMn}). The result shows that as the Ni thickness increases, the Ni film undergoes a paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic state transition at a critical thickness of d{sub FM} and an in-plane to out-of-plane spin reorientation transition at a thicker thickness d{sub SRT}. The phase diagram shows that both d{sub FM} and d{sub SRT} increase as the FeMn film establishes its antiferromagnetic order.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis of Fe-doping LiMnPO4 nanomaterials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lingjun; Qiu, Bao; Xia, Yonggao; Qin, Zhihong; Qin, Laifen; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-02-01

    The Fe-doping LiMnPO4 (LiMn1-xFexPO4, x ≤ 0.5) nanomaterials are solvothermally synthesized in a mixed solvent of water and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The particle morphology can be controlled simply by adjusting the pH values of precursor suspensions. Electrochemical test shows that LiMn0.9Fe0.1PO4 nanoplates with a thickness of 20-30 nm could deliver the largest discharge capacity, which is attributed to the fast Li+ diffusion in the diffusion path of [010] crystallographic axis along the short radial direction of the nanoplates. It is demonstrated that Fe doping could significantly increase the initial reversible capacity, cycle performance and rate capability. The first discharge capacities of Fe-doped LiMnPO4 are all above 150 mAh g-1 at the discharge rate of 0.05 C. Especially, LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 delivers 100% capacity retention with the reversible capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at the discharge rate of 1 C, and losses only about 23.4% capacity with the discharge rate varying from 0.1 C to 5 C. The variation of energy density predicts that LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 shows the potential application for high-power devices.

  10. Magnetic phase transitions in LaMn 2- xFe xSi 2 silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervan, S.; Kılıç, A.; Özcan, Ş.; Gencer, A.

    2004-04-01

    The magnetic phase transitions in LaMn2-xFexSi2 (0.0≤x≤1.0) silicides were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry techniques and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr2Si2-type structure with the space group I4/mmm. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. For the samples with x≤0.4, the ferromagnetic interactions within the Mn sublattice occurs below the Curie temperature (TC(Mn)). The Curie temperature was depressed linearly by the substitution of Fe for Mn. The temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility shows a distinct feature for the samples with x≤0.3 below TC(Mn). These samples have a mixed state composed of ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases. The samples with x≧0.6 have the Néel temperature below the room temperature, while the other samples are anti-ferromagnetic above the room temperature. The results lead to the construction of the partial magnetic phase diagram.

  11. Moessbauer studies in Zn(2+)0.3 Mn(2+)0.7 Mn(3+) (2-y) Fe(3+) (2-y) O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. G.; Mendiratta, R. G.; Escue, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Mossbauer effect has proven to be effective in the study of nuclear hyperfine interactions. Ferrite systems having the formula (Zn(2+)0.3)(Mn(2+)0.7)(Mn(3+)y)(Fe(3+)2-y)(O4) were prepared and studied. These systems can be interpreted as mangacese-doped zinc and a part of iron ions. A systematic study of these systems is presented to promote an understanding of their microstructure for which various theories were proposed.

  12. Magnetism in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂ tuned by Fe/Mn ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hechang; Bozin, Emil S.; Llobet, A.; Ivanovski, V.; Koteski, V.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Petrovic, C.

    2012-09-17

    We report the evolution of structural and magnetic properties in La₂O₃(Fe₁₋xMnx)₂Se₂. Heat capacity and bulk magnetization indicate an increased ferromagnetic component of the long-range magnetic order and possible increased degree of frustration. Atomic disorder on Fe(Mn) sites suppresses the temperature of the long-range order whereas intermediate alloys show a rich magnetic phase diagram.

  13. Enhanced Thermal Stability and Magnetic Properties in NaCl-Type FePt-MnO Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, AG; Chen, J; Ye, XC; Kikkawa, JM; Murray, CB

    2011-08-31

    We report the growth of NaCl-type binary nanocrystal (NC) superlattice membranes by coassembly of FePt and MnO NCs at the liquid-air interface. The constituent FePt NCs were converted into the hard magnetic L1(0) phase by thermal annealing at 650 degrees C without degradation of the long-range NC ordering. In contrast, both FePt-only NC superlattices and FePt-MnO disordered NC mixtures showed substantial FePt sintering under the same annealing conditions. Our results demonstrate that the incorporation of FePt NCs into binary superlattices can solve the problems of FePt sintering during conversion to the L1(0) phase, opening a new route to the fabrication of ordered ferromagnetic NC arrays on a desired substrate for high-density data storage applications.

  14. Enhanced thermal stability and magnetic properties in NaCl-type FePt-MnO binary nanocrystal superlattices.

    PubMed

    Dong, Angang; Chen, Jun; Ye, Xingchen; Kikkawa, James M; Murray, Christopher B

    2011-08-31

    We report the growth of NaCl-type binary nanocrystal (NC) superlattice membranes by coassembly of FePt and MnO NCs at the liquid-air interface. The constituent FePt NCs were converted into the hard magnetic L1(0) phase by thermal annealing at 650 °C without degradation of the long-range NC ordering. In contrast, both FePt-only NC superlattices and FePt-MnO disordered NC mixtures showed substantial FePt sintering under the same annealing conditions. Our results demonstrate that the incorporation of FePt NCs into binary superlattices can solve the problems of FePt sintering during conversion to the L1(0) phase, opening a new route to the fabrication of ordered ferromagnetic NC arrays on a desired substrate for high-density data storage applications.

  15. Effect of transition metals (Mn, Cu, Fe) and deoxycholic acid (DA) on the conversion of PrPC to PrPres.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Il; Kwon, Myung-Sang; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2005-05-01

    The PMCA (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) technique has been shown to drive the amplification of misfolded prion protein by PrP(Sc) seeds during several cycles of incubation-sonication. Here, we report that cyclic amplification of normal hamster brain homogenates treated with a number of transition metals (manganese [Mn], copper [Cu], and iron [Fe]) leads to conversion of PrP(C) into protease-resistant PrP(res). The efficiency of PrP(res) formation and the glycoforms induced by Mn were different from those obtained by Cu and Fe. Previous results have shown higher Mn and lower Cu levels in the affinity-purified PrP(Sc) from the brain of prion diseases compared with normal hamster brain homogenates. We focused on Mn because we observed higher levels of Mn in whole brain, mitochondria, and scrapie-associated fibril-enriched fractions from the brains of animals with prion disease. In the presence of minute quantities of Mn-induced PrP(res) template with a large amount of PrP(C), PrP(res) amplification is observed. A metal chelater, EDTA reverses the effect of Mn on PrP(res) amplification, suggesting that Mn may play a role in the formation of PrP(res). It has been proposed that metal-catalyzed oxidation of PrP leads to the oxidation of amino acids and extensive aggregation of oxidized PrP. Carboxyl acids such as deoxycholic acid (DA) are oxidized molecules produced by 3' oxidation pathway. In in vitro studies, the potent effect of Mn on PrP(res) amplification is augmented by DA in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of the evidence of the elevated Mn levels in scrapie-associated fibril (SAF)-enriched preparations from the brains of animals with prion disease, Mn-loaded PrP and oxidized molecules such as carboxyl acids may contribute to the formation of the scrapie isoform of PrP in prion diseases.

  16. Synthesis of MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide core-shell nanoparticles and their excellent performance for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zichuan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chang, Yongfang; Xing, Shengtao; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2013-10-21

    Magnetic nanomaterials that can be easily separated and recycled due to their magnetic properties have received considerable attention in the field of water treatment. However, these nanomaterials usually tend to aggregate and alter their properties. Herein, we report an economical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully coated with amorphous Mn-Co oxide shells. The synthesized MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles have highly negatively charged surface in aqueous solution over a wide pH range, thus preventing their aggregation and enhancing their performance for heavy metal cation removal. The adsorption isotherms are well fitted to a Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximal adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide are 481.2, 386.2 and 345.5 mg g(-1), respectively. All the metal ions can be completely removed from the mixed metal ion solutions in a short time. Desorption studies confirm that the adsorbent can be effectively regenerated and reused.

  17. Exchange bias between ferromagnetic metals and multiferroic BiFeO3, LuMnO3, and TbMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Makoto; Fujino, S.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.; Lim, S.-H.; Salamanca-Riba, L.; Kundaliya, D.; Ogale, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Higgins, J.; Wuttig, M.; Takeuchi, I.; Lofland, S.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2007-03-01

    We are using exchange bias at ferromagnet layer/multiferroic interfaces to study the nature of magnetism in multiferroic materials. Co 5 nm layers have been deposited by sputtering on surfaces of epitaxial BiFeO3 and TbMnO3 thin films and on LuMnO3 single crystals. Epitaxial BiFeO3 and TbMnO3 films were prepared by PLD. Magnetic properties of the Co/multiferroic bilayers are measured using SQUID, VSM, MOKE and XMCD. In BiFeO3, we find that the bilayers exhibit exchange bias even at room temperature. In the TbMnO3 system, increasing of coercive field and exchange bias was also clearly observed below the N'eel temperature. In LuMnO3, we observe positive exchange bias as well as switching of the sign of the exchange bias depending on the cooling procedure. This behavior may be related to the frustration in Mn spins. Difference in the exchange bias behavior between different multiferroic materials will be discussed. The effect of electric field on exchange bias is currently under investigation. Supported by ONR N000140110761, ONR N000140410085, NSF DMR 0094265, DMR 0231291, MRSEC DMR-00-0520471, and the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Planar Hall effect in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}/IrMn films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. Zou, L. K.

    2014-12-29

    The planar Hall effect of IrMn on an yttrium iron garnet (YIG = Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was measured in the magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic field angular dependence of planar Hall resistance (PHR) was observed in YIG/IrMn bilayer at different temperatures, while the Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}/IrMn film shows constant PHR for different magnetic field angles at both 10 K and 300 K. This provides evidence that IrMn has interfacial spins which can be led by ferrimagnetic layer in YIG/IrMn structure. A hysteresis can be observed in PHR-magnetic field angle loop of YIG/IrMn film at 10 K, indicative of the irreversible switching of IrMn interfacial spins at low temperature.

  19. P-V-T behavior of FeO(OH) and MnO(OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiethoff, Felix; Grevel, Klaus-Dieter; Marler, Bernd; Herrmann, Julia; Majzlan, Juraj; Kirste, Jens; Lathe, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The P-V-T behavior of FeO(OH) and MnO(OH) has been determined under high pressure and high temperature up to 7.5 GPa and 500 °C using a MAX 80 cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. The samples, synthetic goethite, α-FeO(OH), respectively, a natural groutite/manganite, α-MnO(OH)/γ-MnO(OH), specimen were mixed with Vaseline to ensure hydrostatic pressure-transmitting conditions, and NaCl served as an internal standard for pressure calibration. Energy-dispersive diffraction patterns were collected at a fixed 2θ angle ( θ ≈ 4.52°). At pressures >7.1 GPa and temperatures >310 °C, respectively, P > 6.3 GPa and T > 350 °C, the transformation goethite ↔ ɛ-FeO(OH) was observed. Between 400 and 450 °C, the sample dehydrated to magnetite due to the reducing conditions caused by the graphite-tube furnace. By fitting a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the data, the bulk modulus of goethite was determined as (112.26 ± 2.26) GPa, ( K' = 4), V T,0 = (138.79 ± 0.10) Å3·exp [∫(0.497 ± 0.103) × 10-4 d T], (∂ K T/∂ T)P = (-0.033 ± 0.020) GPa K-1. For ɛ-FeO(OH), the values K = (142.8 ± 15.1) GPa, V 0 = (66.18 ± 0.16) Å3, ( K' = 4), were obtained. Groutite and manganite are more compressible than their Fe analogues. K(groutite) = (84.0 ± 2.9) GPa, V 0 = (139.92 ± 0.13) Å3, ( K' = 4). K(manganite) = (82.2 ± 3.0) GPa, V 0 = (135.37 ± 0.15) Å3, ( K' = 4). Groutite disappeared at P ≈ 5.5 GPa and T = 300 °C, only manganite remained. At T > 400 °C, the sample dehydrated first to Mn3O4 [II] and then to manganosite (MnO) again pointing to reducing conditions.

  20. The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Hongzhi; Meng Fanbin; Feng Zhongqiu; Li Yangxian; Zhu Wei; Wu Guangheng; Zhu Xiaoxi; Jiang Chengbao; Xu Huibin

    2010-01-15

    The effect of Fe substitution on the phase transformation and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}NiGa has been studied. A single bcc phase was obtained in Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa (x=0-0.6). With the substitution of Fe for Mn, the lattice constant decreases gradually. The martensitic transformation can be observed when x=0-0.3. Both the martensitic transformation and austenitic transformation temperatures decrease monotonically with increasing Fe content, which is different from common electron concentration dependence in Ni-Mn-Ga system. The saturation magnetizations M{sub s} of Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa in both austenitic and martensitic phases increase obviously with the doping of Fe, while the variation of T{sub C} shows an opposite tendency. Theoretical calculations indicate that both austenitic and martensitic phases are ferrimagnets. The Fe moment varies from positive to negative after the tetragonal distortion, which leads to the decrease of the saturation magnetization.

  1. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  2. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications.

  3. Synthesis of Waste Form in the Gd-Fe-Al-Ni-Mn-Cr-O System

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, S.C.; Jang, Y.N.; Bae, I.K.; Ryu, K.W.

    2006-07-01

    Poly-phase waste form which was the mixture of Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}O{sub 12} and (Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x})(Fe{sub y}Cr{sub 1-y}){sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized. Also, we are intended to examine phase relation and physicochemical properties of coexisted phases in the compositions and to confirm accommodation relation of elements and phases. Two types of phase series were observed: Garnet-perovskite-spinel and Garnet-spinel. The compositions of garnets and spinels were nonstoichiometric, and especially, this poly-phase ceramics may be in a good waste form. The excessive Gd in garnets indicated the immobilization of higher content of actinides. The nonstoichiometric compositions of garnet and spinel were attributed to the formation of perovskite in that perovskite contained Gd, Fe and Al from garnet and Cr from spinel. (authors)

  4. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of bimagnetic spinel ferrite CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 nanocrystals with core-shell architecture.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Zhang, Z John

    2012-06-20

    A combination of hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) and soft phase MnFe(2)O(4) as the bimagnetic nanocrystals in a core-shell architecture has been synthesized, and their magnetic properties have been systematically studied. Both HRTEM and EDS results confirmed the formation of bimagnetic core-shell structured nanocrystals. On the basis of the systematic and comparative studies of the magnetic properties of a mechanical mixture of pure CoFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, chemically mixed Co(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, and bimagnetic core-shell CoFe(2)O(4)@MnFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4)@CoFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, the bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals show very unique magnetic properties, such as the blocking temperature and coercivity. Our results show that the coercivity correlates with the volume fraction of the soft phase as the theoretical hard-soft phase model has suggested. Furthermore, switching the hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) from the core to the shell shows great changes in the coercivity of the nanocrystals. The bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals evidently demonstrate the rational design capability to separately control the blocking temperature and the coercivity in magnetic nanocrystals by varying the materials, their combination, and the volume ratio between the core and the shell and by switching hard or soft phase materials between the core and shell. Such controls via a bimagnetic core-shell architecture are highly desirable for magnetic nanocrystals in various applications.

  5. Fe-Ca-phosphate, Fe-silicate, and Mn-oxide minerals in concretions from the Monterey Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medrano, M.D.; Piper, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrically zoned phosphatic-enriched concretions were collected at three sites from the Monterey Formation. The following minerals were identified: vivianite, lipscombite, rockbridgeite, leucophosphite, mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite, nontronite, todorokite, and barite. The mineralogy of the concretions was slightly different at each of the three collection sites. None of the concretions contains all of the minerals, but the spatial distribution of minerals in individual concretions, overlapping mineralogies between different concretions, and the geochemical properties of the separate minerals suggest a paragenesis represented by the above order. Eh increased from the precipitation of vivianite to that of rockbridgeite/lipscombite. The precipitation of leucophosphite, then mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite and todorokite/Fe-oxide indicates increasing pH. Concretion growth culminated with the precipitation of todorokite, a Mn oxide, and minor amounts of barite along microfractures. Conspicuously absent are Fe-sulfide and Mn-phosphate minerals. The concretions are hosted by finely laminated diatomite. The laminations exhibit little to no deformation around the concretions, requiring that the concretions formed after compaction. We interpret this sediment feature and the paragenesis as recording the evolving pore-water chemistry as the formation was uplifted into the fresh-ground-water zone.

  6. BiMnFe(2)O(6) a Polysynthetically Twinned hcp MO Structure

    SciTech Connect

    T Yang; A Abakumov; J Hadermann; G Van Tendeloo; I Nowik; P Stephens; J Hemberger; A Tsirlin; K Ramanujachary; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The most efficient use of spatial volume and the lowest potential energies in the metal oxide structures are based on cubic close packing (ccp) or hexagonal close packing (hcp) of anions with cations occupying the interstices. A promising way to tune the composition of close packed oxides and design new compounds is related to fragmenting the parent structure into modules by periodically spaced planar interfaces, such as twin planes at the unit cell scale. The unique crystal chemistry properties of cations with a lone electron pair, such as Bi{sup 3+} or Pb{sup 2+}, when located at interfaces, enables them to act as 'chemical scissors', to help relieve configurational strain. With this approach, we synthesized a new oxide, BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where fragments of the hypothetical hcp oxygen-based MO structure (the NiAs structure type), for the first time, serve as the building modules in a complex transition metal oxide. Mn{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions are randomly distributed in two crystallographically independent sites (M1 and M2). The structure consists of quasi two-dimensional blocks of the 2H hexagonal close packed MO structure cut along the (114) crystal plane of the hcp lattice and stacked along the c axis. The blocks are related by a mirror operation that allows BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} to be considered as a polysynthetically twinned 2H hcp MO structure. The transition to an AFM state with an incommensurate spin configuration at {approx}212 K is established by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and low temperature powder neutron diffraction.

  7. BiMnFe2O6 a Polysynthetically Twinned hcp MO Structure

    SciTech Connect

    T Yang; A Abakumov; J Hadermann; G Van Tendeloo; I Nowik; P Stephens; J Hemberger; M Croft; A Ignatov; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The most efficient use of spatial volume and the lowest potential energies in the metal oxide structures are based on cubic close packing (ccp) or hexagonal close packing (hcp) of anions with cations occupying the interstices. A promising way to tune the composition of close packed oxides and design new compounds is related to fragmenting the parent structure into modules by periodically spaced planar interfaces, such as twin planes at the unit cell scale. The unique crystal chemistry properties of cations with a lone electron pair, such as Bi{sup 3+} or Pb{sup 2+}, when located at interfaces, enables them to act as 'chemical scissors', to help relieve configurational strain. With this approach, we synthesized a new oxide, BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where fragments of the hypothetical hcp oxygen-based MO structure (the NiAs structure type), for the first time, serve as the building modules in a complex transition metal oxide. Mn{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions are randomly distributed in two crystallographically independent sites (M1 and M2). The structure consists of quasi two-dimensional blocks of the 2H hexagonal close packed MO structure cut along the (114) crystal plane of the hcp lattice and stacked along the c axis. The blocks are related by a mirror operation that allows BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} to be considered as a polysynthetically twinned 2H hcp MO structure. The transition to an AFM state with an incommensurate spin configuration at {approx}212 K is established by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and low temperature powder neutron diffraction.

  8. The removal efficiency and insight into the mechanism of para arsanilic acid adsorption on Fe-Mn framework.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tista Prasai; Zhang, Gong; Koju, Rashmi; Qi, Zenglu; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-12-01

    Para arsanilic acid (p-ASA) is extensively used as feed additives in poultry industry, resulting contaminates soil and natural water sources through the use of poultry litter as a fertilizer in croplands. Thus, removal of p-ASA prior to its entering environments is significant to control their environmental risk. Herein, we studied Fe-Mn framework and cubic Fe(OH)3 as promising novel adsorbents for the removal of p-ASA from aqueous solution. The chemical and micro-structural properties of Fe-Mn framework and cubic Fe(OH)3 materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (SBET), zeta (ζ-) potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The maximum adsorption capacity for p-ASA on Fe-Mn framework and cubic Fe(OH)3 was determined to be 1.3mmolg(-1) and 0.72mmolg(-1) at pH4.0, respectively. Adsorption of p-ASA decreased gradually with increasing pH indicated that adsorption was strongly pH dependent. Azophenylarsonic acid was identified as an oxidation intermediate product of p-ASA after adsorption on Fe-Mn framework. Plausible removal mechanism for p-ASA by Fe-Mn framework was proposed. The obtained results gain insight into the potential applicability of Fe-Mn framework, which can be potentially important for the removal of p-ASA from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the enrichment of metals in Mn-Fe nodules from the central Pacific correlated with glacial-interglacial stages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegorzewski, A.; Kuhn, T.

    2012-12-01

    Polymetallic nodules and crusts contain high concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and HFSE. The BGR has been exploring a German license area between the Clarion- and Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the Pacific for nodule abundance and metal content. Nodules are Mn-Fe oxy-hydroxide precipitations consisting of concentrically banded microlayers of different chemical and mineralogical composition. There are layers with high Mn/Fe ratios (3-400) and high Ni+Cu (2-6 wt%) but low Co contents (0.01-0.2 wt%). Mineralogically these layers consists of todorokite and birnessite. In contrast there are layers with low Mn/Fe ≤ 3 and low Ni+Cu (~1 wt%) but increased Co content (0.2-0.5 wt%) and consist mineralogically of Fe-rich vernadite which is epitaxial intergrown with feroxyhyte nanoparticles (Bodei et al., 2007). The different composition of the layers is depending on different growth processes, such as hydrogenetic (metal precipitation from the water column under oxic conditions; Mn/Fe ≤ 3) or diagenetic (metal precipitation from the sediment pore water under oxic (Mn/Fe 3-10) or suboxic (Mn/Fe ≥ 10) conditions; Halbach et al., 1988). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analyses of recently precipitated outer layers show low Mn/Fe ratios (1.4-2.8). The Ni+Cu content range from 0.34-1.86 wt% and Co shows concentrations between 0.33-1.42 wt%. These results are typical for hydrogenetic processes. They may indicate that in the oxic pore water the same metal enrichment processes prevail as in oxic seawater. Oxygen measurements of near-bottom and pore water proved that the nodules are currently growing under oxic conditions (Mewes, K.,unpub. data). Layers with Mn/Fe ratios of 3-400 cannot grow under such oxic conditions. The high fractionation of Mn and Fe is only possible under suboxic conditions as they are currently predominating in the Peru Basin (PB). Similar growth structures and Mn/Fe ratios of individual layers from CCFZ and PB nodules indicate suboxic conditions

  10. Enhancement of electrochemical performance by simultaneous substitution of Ni and Mn with Fe in Ni-Mn spinel cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Yavuz, Murat; Indris, Sylvio; Bramnik, Natalia N.; Knapp, Michael; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Das, Bijoy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Bhaskar, Aiswarya

    2016-09-01

    LiNi0.5-xFe2xMn1.5-xO4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) spinel cathode materials are synthesized using citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with final calcination temperature of 1000 °C. The structure and morphology of the materials are characterized by using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy. Different from the parent LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) material, the Fe-doped spinels do not contain a rock-salt type impurity phase. However, they contain additional layered (C2/m) and spinel Fe3O4 (Fd 3 bar m) phases in small amounts. The substitution of Fe into the spinel structure has been confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Fe-doped spinels exhibit improved cycling stability (with a C/2 charge-discharge rate) and rate capability compared to the parent LNMO at room temperature in a voltage range 3.5-5.0 V. Among all these samples, the composition LiNi0.4Fe0.2Mn1.4O4 shows the best room temperature cycling stability (capacity retention of 92% after 300 cycles) as well as the highest initial discharge capacity (134 mAh g-1). The delivered capacities at high C-rates (especially at 10C and 20C) with respect to the capacity delivered at C/2 are higher for all Fe-doped samples compared to the parent LNMO. Furthermore, Fe-doping improves the thermal stability of the Ni-Mn spinels in the delithiated state.

  11. Magnetic multicomponent nanoparticles CuxMn1-xFe2O4 for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Nurcan

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly important in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement. In this multicomponent nanoparticles CuxMn1-xFe2O4 (CuMnF), x = 0, 0.6, 1, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, sol-gel and solid state methods. To build the most effective magnetic nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications, particle characteristics including size, surface chemistry, magnetic properties and toxicity have to be fully investigated. In this work, effects of production methods of magnetic nanoparticles for the bio-medical applications are discussed. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The particle size of samples is measured by Malvern Instruments Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS instrument. The temperature dependence of field cooled (FC) magnetization of all CuxMn1-xFe2O4 samples have been shown here. The data were recorded under 1k Oe and 100 Oe magnetic fields for different ratio.

  12. Restoration of quantum critical behavior by disorder in pressure-tuned (Mn,Fe)Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goko, Tatsuo; Arguello, Carlos J.; Hamann, Andreas; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Minhyea; Reznik, Dmitry; Maisuradze, Alexander; Khasanov, Rustem; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Uemura, Yasutomo J.

    2017-08-01

    In second-order quantum phase transitions from magnetically ordered to paramagnetic states at T = 0, tuned by pressure or chemical substitution, a quantum critical point is expected to appear with critical behavior manifesting in the slowing down of spin fluctuations in the paramagnetic state and a continuous development of the order parameter in the ordered state. Quantum criticality is discussed widely as a possible driving force for unconventional superconductivity and other exotic phenomena in correlated electron systems. In the real world, however, quantum critical points and quantum criticality are often masked by a preceding first-order transition and/or the development of competing states. Pressure tuning of the itinerant-electron helical magnet MnSi is a well-known example of the suppression of a quantum critical point due to a first-order phase transition and resulting destruction of the ordered state. Utilizing muon spin relaxation experiments, here we report that 15% Fe-substituted (Mn,Fe)Si exhibits completely different behavior with pressure tuning, including the restoration of second-order quantum critical behavior and a quantum critical point at pQPC 21-23 kbar, which coincides with the T = 0 crossing point of the extrapolated phase boundary line of pure MnSi. This result is quantitatively consistent with the recent theory of itinerant-electron ferromagnets by Sang, Belitz, and Kirkpatrick, who argued that disorder would restore a quantum critical point which is otherwise hidden by a first-order transition.

  13. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; ...

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cumore » (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.« less

  14. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cu (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.

  15. Giant magnetoresistance in the half-metallic double-perovskite ferrimagnet Mn2FeReO6.

    PubMed

    Li, Man-Rong; Retuerto, Maria; Deng, Zheng; Stephens, Peter W; Croft, Mark; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Deng, Xiaoyu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Sánchez-Benítez, Javier; Hadermann, Joke; Walker, David; Greenblatt, Martha

    2015-10-05

    The first transition-metal-only double perovskite compound, Mn(2+) 2 Fe(3+) Re(5+) O6 , with 17 unpaired d electrons displays ferrimagnetic ordering up to 520 K and a giant positive magnetoresistance of up to 220 % at 5 K and 8 T. These properties result from the ferrimagnetically coupled Fe and Re sublattice and are affected by a two-to-one magnetic-structure transition of the Mn sublattice when a magnetic field is applied. Theoretical calculations indicate that the half-metallic state can be mainly attributed to the spin polarization of the Fe and Re sites.

  16. Transformation of α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si in Al-7Si-0.4Mg cast alloys after solution heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    The α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si compound in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.2Fe-xMn cast alloy has two shapes, a needle-like shape and a Chinese script shape. These two kinds of compounds are tinged with either white or gray tones irrespective of their shape. Unlike compounds with a white tone, during solution heat treatment, all α-Al (Fe,Mn)Si compounds with a gray tone experience severe dissolution. Concerning white-tinged α-Al (Fe,Mn)Si compounds, unlike the needle-like α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si, α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si that resembles Chinese script is rarely transformed.

  17. Resolving and modeling the effects of Fe and Mn redox cycling on trace metal behavior in a seasonally anoxic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Smith, E. J.; Davison, W.; Sugiyama, M.

    2005-04-01

    Vertical profiles of the dissolved and particulate (>0.45 μm) concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Al and Ba were determined on two occasions (14 and 22 August 1996) during summer stratification in a seasonally anoxic lake (Esthwaite Water, UK). The results were combined with contemporaneous in situ measurements of water-column remobilization of the metals from settling particles at the base of the suboxic zone and other ancillary measurements. The combined data were interpreted with the aid of an equilibrium speciation model (WHAM6), incorporating metal-humic interactions and a surface-complexation description of binding to Fe and Mn oxides. The behavior of all the metals was related in different ways to the position of the O 2-H 2S interface and to Fe and Mn redox cycling. In the region of the O 2-H 2S interface the behavior of Co and to a lesser degree Ni was dominated by Mn redox cycling. Ba behavior was dominated by the biogenic precipitation and dissolution of barite and to a lesser degree by Mn redox cycling. The behavior of Al was linked to both Mn and Fe redox cycling, although the extent of binding to the oxides and to humic substances was poised with respect to pH. Unlike the other metals, the profiles of Pb and Cu showed little variation above the dissolved sulfide maximum, but modeling indicated that binding of Pb was significant to both Mn and Fe oxides. The featureless nature of the Cu profiles in the upper part of the water column was linked to its overriding association with dissolved humic substances. Below the dissolved sulfide maximum, Co, Ni, Ba, Cu, Pb and Mn were all affected by sulfide precipitation, probably through a common association with FeS. In the case of Co, Ni, Cu and Pb, inverse relationships between the measured dissolved and particulate concentrations were attributed to the coexistence of both filterable and nonfilterable FeS particles and associated mass balance effects. The observed behavior of the metals in relation to

  18. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O3, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than ∼8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals. PMID:20046215

  19. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-08-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

  20. Scrutinizing Hall Effect in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si: Fermi Surface Evolution and Hidden Quantum Criticality.

    PubMed

    Glushkov, V V; Lobanova, I I; Ivanov, V Yu; Voronov, V V; Dyadkin, V A; Chubova, N M; Grigoriev, S V; Demishev, S V

    2015-12-18

    Separating between the ordinary Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in the paramagnetic phase of Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si reveals an ordinary Hall effect sign inversion associated with the hidden quantum critical (QC) point x^{*}∼0.11. The effective hole doping at intermediate Fe content leads to verifiable predictions in the field of fermiology, magnetic interactions, and QC phenomena in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si. The change of electron and hole concentrations is considered as a "driving force" for tuning the QC regime in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si via modifying the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction within the Heisenberg model of magnetism.

  1. Studies on the efficient dual performance of Mn1-xNixFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles in photodegradation and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Jesudoss, S K; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John; Rajan, P Iyyappa; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ramalingam, R Jothi; Kaviyarasu, K; Bououdina, M

    2016-12-01

    The present work describes the successful synthesize of spinel magnetic ferrite Mn1-xNixFe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 & 0.5) nanoparticles via a simple microwave combustion method which was then evaluated for its photocatalytic activity in the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) synthetic dye, a major water pollutant. Our results reveal that the synthesized of Ni(2+) doped MnFe2O4 nanoparticles possess well-crystalline pure cubic spinel phase, exhibit excellent optical and magnetic properties. Further, the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanoparticles at different concentration ratios of Ni(2+) ions was monitored by photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine synthetic dye under UV (λ=365nm) light irradiation. In order to get maximum photocatalytic degradation (PCD) efficiency, we have optimized various parameters, which include catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and Ni(2+) dopant content. It was found that the reaction was facilitated with optimum catalyst dose of 50mg/100mL, high dye concentrations of 150mg/L and acidic pH and among all the synthesized samples, Mn0·5Ni0.5Fe2O4 exhibit superior performance of photocatalytic activity on the degradation of indigo carmine synthetic dye. These results highlighted the potential use of effective, low-cost and easily available photocatalysts for the promotion of wastewater treatment and environmental remediation. In addition, the antibacterial activity of spinel magnetic Mn1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles against two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) was also examined. Our antibacterial activity results are comparable with the results obtained using the antibiotic, streptomycin.

  2. Identification of Inverse Bainite in Fe-0.84C-1Cr-1Mn Hypereutectoid Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-03-01

    A unique dilatation trend is observed for isothermal bainite transformation in Fe-0.84 pct C-1 pct Cr-1 pct Mn steel. The dilatation is found to occur in two stages with volumetric contraction dominating the first stage, followed by volumetric expansion dominating the second stage. Through electron microscopic characterization, bainitic microstructure is identified as inverse bainite with cementite (Fe3C) nucleating first from supersaturated austenite followed by the transformation of ferrite and secondary carbides (Fe3C, Fe2C, and Fe5C2) from carbon-depleted austenite.

  3. Magnetism of hexagonal Mn{sub 1.5}X{sub 0.5}Sn (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Fuglsby, R.; Kharel, P.; Zhang, W.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Valloppilly, S.; Huh, Y.

    2015-05-07

    Mn{sub 1.5}X{sub 0.5}Sn (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) nanomaterials in the hexagonal Ni{sub 2}In-type crystal structure have been prepared using arc-melting and melt spinning. All the rapidly quenched Mn{sub 1.5}X{sub 0.5}Sn alloys show moderate saturation magnetizations with the highest value of 458 emu/cm{sup 3} for Mn{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Sn, but their Curie temperatures are less than 300 K. All samples except the Cr containing one show spin-glass-like behavior at low temperature. The magnetic anisotropy constants calculated from the high-field magnetization curves at 100 K are on the order of 1 Merg/cm{sup 3}. The vacuum annealing of the ribbons at 550 °C significantly improved their magnetic properties with the Curie temperature increasing from 206 K to 273 K for Mn{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Sn.

  4. Strain localization in thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 due to the formation of stepped Mn4+-rich antiphase boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    MacLaren, I.; Sala, B.; Andersson, S. M. L.; ...

    2015-10-17

    Here, the atomic structure and chemistry of thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 (BFMO) films with a target composition of Bi2FeMnO6 on SrTiO3 are studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that Mn4+-rich antiphase boundaries are locally nucleated right at the film substrate and then form stepped structures that are approximately pyramidal in three dimensions. These have the effect of confining the material below the pyramids in a highly strained state with an out-of-plane lattice parameter close to 4.1 Å. Outside the area enclosed by the antiphase boundaries, the out-of-plane lattice parameter is muchmore » closer to bulk values for BFMO. This suggests that to improve the crystallographic perfection of the films whilst retaining the strain state through as much of the film as possible, ways need to be found to prevent nucleation of the antiphase boundaries. Since the antiphase boundaries seem to form from the interaction of Mn with the Ti in the substrate, one route to perform this would be to grow a thin buffer layer of pure BiFeO3 on the SrTiO3 substrate to minimise any Mn-Ti interactions.« less

  5. Interaction of Fe-Mn plaque and Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 and uptake and translocation of Cd by Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Keli; Xu, Xuping; Cai, Chunting

    2017-05-01

    In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the role of Fe-Mn plaque and Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 under different solution Cd levels (0, 2 and 50 mg L(-1)) on Cd uptake and translocation by Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (P. acinosa). Results showed Cd accumulated by P.acinosa without plaque were mostly distributed in root surface, indicating that an exclusion strategy for Cd tolerance. The formation of Fe-Mn plaque could contribute to the increase in the Cd tolerance of P.acinosa, promotion of the growth, increase in the enhancement of Cd translocation. Among all the treatments, Fe-Mn plaque treatments inoculated with MN1405 accumulated the maximum DCB-Cd (46.61 ± 6.36 g kg(-1)) and had the highest value of TFaeria (2.14 ± 0.01) at 50 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1) solution for Cd, respectively, demonstrating the greatest capacity to accumulate and translocate Cd. The uptake of Cd by P. acinosa in plaque treatments may result in the increase of soluble sugar and decrease of soluble protein synthesized from roots which involved in Cd detoxification and thus diminished the negative effects of Cd to some extent.

  6. Strain Localization in Thin Films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 Due to the Formation of Stepped Mn(4+)-Rich Antiphase Boundaries.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, I; Sala, B; Andersson, S M L; Pennycook, T J; Xiong, J; Jia, Q X; Choi, E-M; MacManus-Driscoll, J L

    2015-12-01

    The atomic structure and chemistry of thin films of Bi(Fe,Mn)O3 (BFMO) films with a target composition of Bi2FeMnO6 on SrTiO3 are studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that Mn(4+)-rich antiphase boundaries are locally nucleated right at the film substrate and then form stepped structures that are approximately pyramidal in three dimensions. These have the effect of confining the material below the pyramids in a highly strained state with an out-of-plane lattice parameter close to 4.1 Å. Outside the area enclosed by the antiphase boundaries, the out-of-plane lattice parameter is much closer to bulk values for BFMO. This suggests that to improve the crystallographic perfection of the films whilst retaining the strain state through as much of the film as possible, ways need to be found to prevent nucleation of the antiphase boundaries. Since the antiphase boundaries seem to form from the interaction of Mn with the Ti in the substrate, one route to perform this would be to grow a thin buffer layer of pure BiFeO3 on the SrTiO3 substrate to minimise any Mn-Ti interactions.

  7. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of the Effect of Mn on the Nanostructural Features formed in Irradiated Fe-Cu-Mn Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Glade, S C; Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Odette, G R; Sterne, P A; Howell, R H

    2003-02-27

    The size, number density and composition of the nanometer defects responsible for the hardening and embrittlement in irradiated Fe-0.9wt.% Cu and Fe-0.9wt.% Cu-1.0wt% Mn model reactor pressure vessel alloys were measured using small angle neutron scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopy. These alloys were irradiated at 290 C to relatively low neutron fluences (E > 1 MeV, 6.0 x 10{sup 20} to 4.0 x 10{sup 21} n/m{sup 2}) in order to study the effect of manganese on the nucleation and growth of copper rich precipitates and secondary defect features. Copper rich precipitates were present in both alloys following irradiation. The Fe-Cu-Mn alloy had smaller precipitates and a larger number density of precipitates, suggesting Mn segregation at the iron matrix-precipitate interface which reduces the interfacial energy and in turn the driving force for coarsening. Mn also retards the precipitation kinetics and inhibits large vacancy cluster formation, suggesting a strong Mn-vacancy interaction which reduces radiation enhanced diffusion.

  8. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism on La2/3Ca1/3Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Adriana I.; Campillo, Gloria E.; Baker, Alexander A.; Osorio, Jaime A.; Arnache, Oscar L.; van der Laan, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    The element-selective technique of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has been used to study the magnetic properties of La2/3Ca1/3Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 (LCMFO) thin films. XMCD measurements below the ferromagnetic ordering temperature at the Mn and Fe L2,3 absorption edges allow the determination of the contributions and relative orientations of the Mn and Fe magnetic moments. A reduction in the Mn L2,3 XMCD signal of the LCMFO sample compared to that for the parent La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) system reveals important modifications in the electronic and magnetic properties with the presence of Fe. The Fe L2,3 X-ray absorption (XAS) for the LCMFO film is characteristic of Fe3+, and the comparison with multiplet calculations shows that the Fe dopants occupy octahedral sites in the crystal, which is consistent with Fe3+ substituting Mn3+ in LCMO. The magnetic moments of Mn and Fe are found to align antiparallel, which suggests the presence of Mn-O-Fe superexchange coupling. This result is consistent with macroscopic magnetometry measurements on the LCMFO system, which show a decrease in saturation magnetization of LCMO with Fe doping.

  9. Structure, phase transitions, 55Mn NMR, 57Fe Mössbauer studies and magnetoresistive properties of La0.6Sr0.3Mn1.1-xFexO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. V.; Pashchenko, V. P.; Revenko, Yu. F.; Prokopenko, V. K.; Shemyakov, A. A.; Levchenko, G. G.; Pismenova, N. E.; Kitaev, V. V.; Gufan, Yu. M.; Sil'cheva, A. G.; Dyakonov, V. P.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of substitution of Fe ions for manganese on the structure, phase transitions, magnetoresistance, 55Mn NMR and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra in the ceramic La0.6Sr0.3Mn1.1-xFexO3 (x=0-0.15) samples has been studied by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, magnetic, 55Mn NMR and 57Fe Mössbauer methods. The real rhombohedral perovskite structure (R3barc) is established to contain the different valence manganese ions (Mn3+ and Mn4+), anion and cation vacancies as well as nanostructural clusters with Mn2+ located in the A-sites. Temperature dependences of the a lattice parameter, a(T), demonstrate the anomalies near the Curie temperature, Tc. Wide asymmetric 55Mn NMR spectra confirm the high frequency electron double exchange between Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions and irregularity of their surrounding by other ions and defects. According to the Mössbauer spectroscopy data, Fe3+ ions (~80%) substitute for Mn3+ and partially Mn4+ in the B-positions. The rest of Fe3+ (Fe2+) ions and clusters with Mn2+ are located in the A-positions. The temperatures of metal-semiconductor and ferromagnet-paramagnet phase transitions are reduced with increasing x, and the magnetic irregularity increases due to the weakening high-frequency Mn3+↔Mn4+ double exchange by Fe3+ ions. The amount of ferromagnetic phase is also reduced. The anomalous hysteresis is interpreted as a result of anisotropy of exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic matrix and antiferromagnetic cluster containing MnA2+ ions. The phase diagram demonstrates the strong correlated interrelation among magnetic, transport and magnetoresistance properties.

  10. The microstructure of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Rama Rao, V. V.

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and phase stability of the Fe-15Mn-7Si-9Cr-5Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy in the temperature range of 600 °C to 1200 °C was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and chemical analysis techniques. The microstructural studies show that an austenite single-phase field exists in the temperature range of 1000 °C to 1100 °C, above 1100 °C, there exists a three-phase field consisting of austenite, δ-ferrite, and the (Fe,Mn)3Si intermetallic phase; within the temperature range of 700 °C to 1000 °C, a two-phase field consisting of austenite and the Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase exists; and below 700 °C, there exists a single austenite phase field. Apart from these equilibrium phases, the austenite grains show the presence of athermal ɛ martensite. The athermal α' martensite has also been observed for the first time in these stainless steel shape memory alloys and is produced through the γ-ɛ-α' transformation sequence.

  11. Numerical Study of Microstructural Evolution During Homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee; Johnson, David R.; Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Microstructural evolution during homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn alloys occurs in two stages at different length scales: while holding at the homogenization temperature (diffusion on the scale of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in micrometers) and during quenching to room temperature (dispersoid precipitation at the nanometer to submicron scale). Here a numerical study estimates microstructural changes during both stages. A diffusion-based model developed to simulate evolution at the SDAS length scale predicts homogenization times and microstructures matching experiments. That model is coupled with a Kampmann Wagner Neumann-based precipitate nucleation and growth model to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during posthomogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. A homogenization schedule of 853 K (580 °C) for 8 hours, followed by cooling at 250 K/h, is suggested to optimize microstructures for easier extrusion, consisting of minimal α-Al(FeMn)Si, no β-AlFeSi, and Mg2Si dispersoids <1 μm size.

  12. Immobilization of selenite in soil and groundwater using stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenbo; Liang, Qiqi; Qian, Tianwei; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-03-01

    Stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and tested for removal and in-situ immobilization of Se(IV) in groundwater and soil. A water-soluble starch or food-grade carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as a stabilizer to facilitate in-situ delivery of the particles into contaminated soil. While bare and stabilized nanoparticles showed rapid sorption kinetics, starch-stabilized Fe-Mn offered the greatest capacity for Se(IV). The Langmuir maximum capacity was determined to be 109 and 95 mg-Se/g-Fe for starch- and CMC-stabilized nanoparticles, respectively, and the high Se(IV) uptake was observed over the typical groundwater pH range of 5-8. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the stabilized nanoparticles were deliverable in a model sandy soil while non-stabilized particles were not. When a Se(IV)-spiked soil was treated in situ with the nanoparticles, >90% water leachable Se(IV) was transferred to the nanoparticle phase, and thereby immobilized as the particles were retained in the downstream soil matrix. The nanoparticle amendment reduced the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) leachability and the California WET (waste extraction test) leachability of Se(IV) by 76% and 71%, respectively. The technology holds the potential to fill a major technology gap in remediation of metals-contaminated soil and groundwater.

  13. A specific type of Fe-Mn mineralization on the Arctic seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, G. N.; Dubinchuk, V. T.; Ivanov, G. I.; Siraev, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    Three samples of Fe-Mn crusts overgrown on the surface of rocks are studied from the Mendeleev submarine rise located in the northern subpolar part of the Chukchi Sea. A massive crust up to 4-5 cm thick consists of an upper dense and lower denser layers similar in composition to the main one and contains 31-37% FeO and 11-13% MnO. Thin crusts and films are depleted in both components. Fe-vernadite is a major mineral of the crusts. The comparison of the major and trace element composition of the crusts with oceanic and marine nodules and hydrothermal crusts shows that they are mostly similar in composition to the nodules of the Bering Sea and are significantly distinct from the oceanic hydrothermal crusts. A small inclusion of the Pt-, Pd-, and Ru-rich (up to 1-2%) rock in one of the thin crusts points to the possible role of igneous rocks as a source of precious metals.

  14. Evaluation of the bioaccessible fractions of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in baby foods.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento da Silva, Emanueli; Leme, Ana Beatriz Perriello; Cidade, Mirla; Cadore, Solange

    2013-12-15

    The bioaccessibility of four essential micronutrients (iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in some baby foods was evaluated using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. For all of the flour-based foods evaluated, the bioaccessibility of Zn was low, while the bioaccessibility of Cu was above 50%. For these samples, the bioaccessibility of Mn was lower than 50%. Two samples composed of oat and rice flour and whole wheat flour demonstrated a lower bioaccessible fraction of Fe (less than 35%), while the sample made with wheat flour showed high Fe bioaccessibility (approximately 80%). For vegetable- and meat-based baby foods, the Fe bioaccessibility was greater than 80% in samples that contained meat and chicken and approximately 20% for the banana-based sample. The bioaccessibility of Zn was small for all of the foods studied, and in some cases, no Zn appeared to be released. The sample containing banana showed 100% Cu bioaccessibility, in contrast to meat and chicken-based samples, whose Cu bioaccessibility values were less than 50%. The opposite effect occurred for Mn, in which samples containing meat and chicken presented a bioaccessible fraction greater than 50% while the banana-based sample had a fraction less than 50%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic Properties of Liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Satoru; Shimakura, Hironori; Tahara, Shuta; Okada, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys on the TM-rich side have relatively small and negative temperature coefficients of the magnetic susceptibility χ, which become large and negative with increasing Gd content. The large and negative temperature coefficient of χ for liquid Co gradually weakens at up to 70 at. % Co with the addition of Gd. Liquid Gd and GdcCo1-c alloys with c ≥ 0.5 also have a relatively large and negative temperature coefficient of χ. Liquid Gd-TM alloys on the Gd-rich side obey the Curie law. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Gd-Fe and Gd-Co alloys exhibit Curie-Weiss behavior on the TM-rich side. The dependence of χ on the composition for liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys gradually increases with the Gd content, and that for liquid Gd-Co alloys has a minimum at the composition of 20 at. % Gd. The dependences of χ3d and χ4f on the composition due to the 3d- and 4f-electrons were analyzed by subtracting the corresponding data for liquid La-TM alloys from χ for the liquid Gd-TM alloys.

  16. Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in FeMnP0.8Si0.2

    DOE PAGES

    Sales, Brian C.; Susner, Michael A.; Conner, Benjamin S.; ...

    2015-09-25

    Compounds based on the Fe2P structure have continued to attract interest because of the interplay between itinerant and localized magnetism in a noncentrosymmetric crystal structure, and because of the recent developments of these materials for magnetocaloric applications. We report the growth and characterization of millimeter-sized single crystals of FeMnP0.8Si0.2 with the Fe2P structure. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, magnetization, resistivity, and Hall and heat capacity data are reported. The crystals exhibit itinerant antiferromagnetic order below 158 K with no hint of ferromagnetic behavior in the magnetization curves and with the spins ordered primarily in the ab plane. The room-temperature resistivity is closemore » to the Ioffe-Regel limit for a metal. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction indicates a strong preference for Mn to occupy the larger pyramidal 3g site. The cation site preference in the as-grown crystals and the antiferromagnetism were not changed after high-temperature anneals and a rapid quench to room temperature« less

  17. Synthesis and study of the crystallographic and magnetic structure of DyFeMnO{sub 5}: A new ferrimagnetic oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Retuerto, M.; Alonso, J.A. Pomjakushin, V.

    2008-09-15

    The title oxide has been obtained by replacing Mn{sup 3+} by Fe{sup 3+} in the parent oxide DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The crystallographic and magnetic structures have been analysed from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data, in complement with susceptibility and magnetic measurements. DyFeMnO{sub 5} is orthorhombic, belonging to the Pbam space group as the parent compound. The crystal structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra, interconnected by dimer units of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. There is a certain antisite disorder in the crystal structure, with 8.0% of the Mn{sup 4+} sites occupied by Fe cations, and 8.2% of the Fe{sup 3+} positions occupied by Mn{sup 3+} cations. The magnetization measurements show that DyFeMnO{sub 5} presents magnetic order below T{sub C}{approx}178 K; a study of the magnetic structure from the low-temperature NPD patterns indicates an antiferromagnetic coupling of the Mn{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+} spins, with the polarization of the Dy{sup 3+} magnetic moments parallel to the those of the Fe sublattice. - Graphical abstract: DyFeMnO{sub 5} is orthorhombic (Pbam) as the parent DyMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxide. The crystal structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra, interconnected by dimer units of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. It is ferrimagnetic below T{sub C}{approx}178 K; a NPD study indicated an antiferromagnetic coupling of the Mn{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+} spins, with Dy{sup 3+} magnetic moments parallel to those of Fe.

  18. Influence of magnetic annealing and interdiffusion on the exchange bias of CoFe/IrMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Waldemar; Fernandez-Outon, Luis; Araujo Filho, Mario; Araujo, Raphael; Ardisson, Jose

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic annealing is broadly used to set exchange bias (EB). The EB field depends on the magnetic field and the temperature at which the F/AF exchange interaction is set. Atomic interdiffusion is also expected to have strong influence on EB. For systems containing IrMn, different results have been reported regarding the effect of setting EB between 200 and 400 °C. We study the effect of atomic interdiffusion on the exchange bias of polycrystalline IrMn/(57Fe +CoFe) multilayers due to the magnetic annealing between 225 and 500 °C. The samples have been prepared by magnetron sputtering, and 57Fe probe layers (10 Å thick) were grown at the F/AF interface, and 1 nm and 2 nm above it, inside the CoFe layer. Depth-resolved 57Fe conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) was used to quantify atomic interdiffusion, and vibrating sample magnetometry was used to monitor the variation of exchange bias and magnetisation. We found that interface sharpness is only affected above ~350 °C. Three different stages for the setting of exchange bias can be inferred from our results. At temperatures < 350 °C, no interdiffusion is observed and the F/AF exchange coupling establishes partial spin alignment of interfacial and bulk AF spins. At intermediate setting temperatures (350-450 °C) interfacial spin order is dominant over chemical intermixing effects, and both exchange field and coercivity increase up to 450 °C. Above 450 °C, severe chemical intermixing reduces significantly (~50%) the F/AF coupling. Work supported by CAPES/PNPD, FAPEMIG, and CNPq

  19. Carbides in iron-rich Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Al-Si-C systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of high carbon iron-base superalloy properties with duplex microstructure gamma + M7C3 carbide requires analysis in the context of a seven-component system. Data are first provided here for the Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C quinary system, at 30 at. pct carbon. A characterization of competing carbides, according to a pseudoternary phase diagram at 35 wt pct iron, is made from isothermal sections. It is noted that while M7C3 and M3C carbides' occurrences are respectively favored at the Cr and Mn corners, the M2C carbide and molybdenum cementite are predominant with increasing amounts of Mo. Lattice parameters are reported for the various carbides.

  20. Magnetic polaritons in XF{sub 2} (X=Mn,Fe) canted antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, E. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2001-06-01

    We discuss the magnetic polariton modes which propagate in a two-sublattice, uniaxial Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for the case where an external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis of the material. At high magnetic fields, a large magnetization component normal to the easy axis will be induced, and we may expect to find a magnetic field induced surface polariton mode, which propagates parallel to the easy axis, with nonreciprocal propagation characteristics. We confine our discussion to antiferromagnets, which have a body-centered tetragonal structure (e.g., XF{sub 2}, with X=Mn and Fe). The spectra show that the nonreciprocal propagation of the surface polariton is much more evident in MnF{sub 2} crystals. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Carbides in iron-rich Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Al-Si-C systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of high carbon iron-base superalloy properties with duplex microstructure gamma + M7C3 carbide requires analysis in the context of a seven-component system. Data are first provided here for the Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C quinary system, at 30 at. pct carbon. A characterization of competing carbides, according to a pseudoternary phase diagram at 35 wt pct iron, is made from isothermal sections. It is noted that while M7C3 and M3C carbides' occurrences are respectively favored at the Cr and Mn corners, the M2C carbide and molybdenum cementite are predominant with increasing amounts of Mo. Lattice parameters are reported for the various carbides.

  2. Correlating material-specific layers and magnetic distributions within onion-like Fe3O4/MnO/γ-Mn2O3 core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krycka, K. L.; Borchers, J. A.; Laver, M.; Salazar-Alvarez, G.; López-Ortega, A.; Estrader, M.; Suriñach, S.; Baró, M. D.; Sort, J.; Nogués, J.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic responses of two nanoparticle systems comprised of Fe3O4/γ-Mn2O3 (soft ferrimagnetic, FM/hard FM) and Fe3O4/MnO/γ-Mn2O3 (soft FM/antiferromagnetic, AFM/hard FM) are compared, where the MnO serves to physically decouple the FM layers. Variation in the temperature and applied field allows for Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements of the magnetic moments both parallel and perpendicular to an applied field. Data for the bilayer particle indicate that the graded ferrimagnetic layers are coupled and respond to the field as a single unit. For the trilayer nanoparticles, magnetometry suggests a Curie temperature (TC) ≈ 40 K for the outer γ-Mn2O3 component, yet SANS reveals an increase in the magnetization associated with outer layer that is perpendicular to the applied field above TC during magnetic reversal. This result suggests that the γ-Mn2O3 magnetically reorients relative to the applied field as the temperature is increased above 40 K.

  3. The effect of substitution of Mn by Fe and Cr on the martensitic transition in the Ni50Mn34In16 alloy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Chattopadhyay, M K; Nath, S K; Sokhey, K J S; Kumar, R; Tiwari, P; Roy, S B

    2010-12-08

    The potential shape memory alloy Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) is studied with partial substitution of Mn with Fe and Cr to investigate the effect of such substitution on the martensitic transition in the Ni-Mn-In alloy system. The results of ac susceptibility, magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements show that while the substitution with Cr increases the martensitic transition temperature, the substitution with Fe decreases it. Possible reasons for this shift in martensitic transition are discussed. Evidence of kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the Fe substituted alloys is also presented. Unlike the kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the parent Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) alloy which takes place in the presence of high external magnetic field, the kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the Fe doped alloy occurs even in zero magnetic field. The Cr substituted alloys, on the other hand, show no signature of kinetic arrest of this phase transition.

  4. Biodegradable FeMnSi Sputter-Coated Macroporous Polypropylene Membranes for the Sustained Release of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fornell, Jordina; Soriano, Jorge; Guerrero, Miguel; Sirvent, Juan de Dios; Ferran-Marqués, Marta; Ibáñez, Elena; Barrios, Leonardo; Baró, Maria Dolors; Suriñach, Santiago; Nogués, Carme; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Pure Fe and FeMnSi thin films were sputtered on macroporous polypropylene (PP) membranes with the aim to obtain biocompatible, biodegradable and, eventually, magnetically-steerable platforms. Room-temperature ferromagnetic response was observed in both Fe- and FeMnSi-coated membranes. Good cell viability was observed in both cases by means of cytotoxicity studies, though the FeMnSi-coated membranes showed higher biodegradability than the Fe-coated ones. Various strategies to functionalize the porous platforms with transferrin-Alexa Fluor 488 (Tf-AF488) molecules were tested to determine an optimal balance between the functionalization yield and the cargo release. The distribution of Tf-AF488 within the FeMnSi-coated PP membranes, as well as its release and uptake by cells, was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. A homogeneous distribution of the drug within the membrane skeleton and its sustained release was achieved after three consecutive impregnations followed by the addition of a layer made of gelatin and maltodextrin, which prevented exceedingly fast release. The here-prepared organic-inorganic macroporous membranes could find applications as fixed or magnetically-steerable drug delivery platforms. PMID:28672792

  5. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe0.5Mn0.5Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (Tc) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (Tc(x)) of Fe1-xMnxPt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired Tc in the range of 600-650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (Ms) in the range of 1041-919 emu/cm3 and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96-8.36 × 106 J/m3 at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930-800 emu/cm3 of Ms and 7.18-5.61 × 106 J/m3 of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.2 areal density.

  6. Coexistence of Fe(II)- and Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria govern the formation of deep sea umber deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Ta, Kaiwen; Chen, Shun; Zhang, Lijuan; Xu, Hengchao

    2015-11-01

    The genesis of umber deposits has remained controversial for several decades. Recently, microbial Fe(II) oxidation associated with low-temperature diffuse venting has been identified as a key process for the formation of umber deposits, but the exact biogeochemical mechanisms involved to the precipitation of Mn oxides in umber deposits still remain unknown. Here, we used nano secondary ion mass spectrometer, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques to demonstrate the coexistence of two types of metal-oxidizing bacteria within deep-sea hydrothermal umber deposits at the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where we found unique spheroids composed of biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides in the deposits. Our data show that Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides are metabolic by-products of lithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. The hydrothermal vents fuel lithotrophic microorganisms, which constitute a trophic base that might support the activities of heterogenic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The biological origin of umber deposits shed light on the importance of geomicrobiological interaction in triggering the formation of metalliferous deposits, with important implications for the generation of submarine Mn deposits and crusts.

  7. Beneficiation of two different low-grade Indonesian manganese ores to improve the Mn/Fe ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurjaman, F.; Amarela, S.; Noegroho, A.; Ferdian, D.; Suharno, B.

    2017-03-01

    The beneficiation of two different low-grade manganese ores had been done by gravity separation and reduction-roasting process followed by the magnetic separation to improve their Mn/Fe ratio. The effect of particle size and temperature of reduction-roasting in this beneficiation process had been investigated clearly. XRF and XRD analyzer were used to characterize the as-received and beneficiated of these low-grade manganese ores. From the result, the manganese oxide in the form of pyrolusite (MnO2) was easier to beneficiate for enhancing the Mn/Fe ratio than in the form of pyroxmangite (MnSiO3) and grossular manganoan (Ca1.3Mg0.1Mn0.8Fe0.8 Al2 (SiO4)3. The optimum beneficiation resulted from the reduction-roasting process of low-grade manganese ore in -40+60 mesh at temperature 700°C followed by the magnetic separation process. It had improved the Mn/Fe ratio of this low-grade manganese ore from 1.39 into 4.0.

  8. [Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of natural sodalite activated with Mn and Fe transition metal ions doping].

    PubMed

    Aidilibike, Tuerxun; Asilibieke, Bahetiguli; Sidike, Aierken

    2013-11-01

    Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 : Mn and Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 : Fe NIR phosphors were prepared by a solid-solid reaction at high temperature. Their crystal structures of fluorescent powder were investigated by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and their NIR emission spectrum and excitation spectrum were measured at room temperature. The main emission peak of Mn5+ in the Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 : Mn phosphor was observed at 1 200 nm in the NIR spectral region under 400 or 602 nm excitation, attributing to the 3A2-3T2 and 3A2-1E transitions of Mn5+ ions. The characteristic NIR luminescence of Mn5+ in sodalite is greatly enhanced by co-doping manganese and sulfur. A mechanism of the energy transfer between S2(-) and Mn5+ was also proposed here. The main emission peak of Fe2+ ions in the Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 : Fe phosphor was recorded at 1 000 nm in the NIR region under the excitation of 334 or 500 nm. This photoluminescence originated from the 3T1-5 E transition of Fe2+. Such an emission in the NIR region suggests a potential application in improving solar spectrum to enhance the efficiency of silicon solar cells.

  9. Efficacy of heat generation in CTAB coated Mn doped ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raland, R. D.; Borah, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese doped Zinc ferrite (Mn-ZnFe2O4, where Mn  =  0%, 3%, 5% and 7%) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) was used as a surfactant to inhibitgrowth and agglomeration. In this work, we have discussed on the influence of CTAB and Mn doping in tailoring the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles for the effective application of magnetic hyperthermia. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Lattice parameter and x-ray densities were obtained from the Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern. The presence of CTAB as a stabilizing layer adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman vibrational spectrum. The saturation magnetization showsan increasing trend with Mn addition owing to cationic re-distribution and an increase super-exchange interaction between the two sub-lattices. Superparamagnetic behaviorof Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were confirmed by temperature-dependent zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) magnetization curves. The efficiency of induction heating measured by its specific absorption rate (SAR) and intrinsic loss power (ILP) value varies as a function of saturation magnetization. It has been hypothesized that the maximum generation of heat arises from Neel relaxation mechanism. The optimum generation of heat of Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle is determined by the higher frequency (f  =  337 kHz) range and maximum concentration of Mn doping.

  10. LiFe xMn 1- xPO 4: A cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Graetz, Jason

    The high redox potential of LiMnPO 4, ∼4.0 vs. (Li +/Li), and its high theoretical capacity of 170 mAh g -1 makes it a promising candidate to replace LiCoO 2 as the cathode in Li-ion batteries. However, it has attracted little attention because of its severe kinetic problems during cycling. Introducing iron into crystalline LiMnPO 4 generates a solid solution of LiFe xMn 1- xPO 4 and increases kinetics; hence, there is much interest in determining the Fe-to-Mn ratio that will optimize electrochemical performance. To this end, we synthesized a series of nanoporous LiFe xMn 1- xPO 4 compounds (with x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2), using an inexpensive solid-state reaction. The electrodes were characterized using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy to examine their crystal structure and elemental distribution. Scanning-, tunneling-, and transmission-electron microscopy (viz., SEM, STEM, and TEM) were employed to characterize the micromorphology of these materials; the carbon content was analyzed by thermogravimetric analyses (TGAs). We demonstrate that the electrochemical performance of LiFe xMn 1- xPO 4 rises continuously with increasing iron content. In situ synchrotron studies during cycling revealed a reversible structural change when lithium is inserted and extracted from the crystal structure. Further, introducing 20% iron (e.g., LiFe 0.2Mn 0.8PO 4) resulted in a promising capacity (138 mAh g -1 at C/10), comparable to that previously reported for nano-LiMnPO 4.

  11. Thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi{sub γ} (γ~1.73)

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, S.A.; Downie, R.A.; Popuri, S.R.; Decourt, R.; Pollet, M.; Bos, J.W.G.

    2015-07-15

    Two series of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi{sub γ} chimney ladders with a nominal valence electron count, VEC=14 per transition metal were prepared (γ=1.75). Simultaneous replacement of Mn with Fe and Si with Al yielded the Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1.75−x}Al{sub x} series while the second Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Si{sub 1.75–1.75x}Al{sub 2x} series follows the pseudo-binary between MnSi{sub 1.75} and FeAl{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping revealed that ~60% of the nominal Al content ends up in the product with the remainder lost to sublimation, and that up to 7% Al can be substituted in the main group sublattice. Profile analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data revealed gradual changes in the cell metrics, consistent with the simultaneous substitution of Fe and Al in a fixed ratio. All samples are p-type with VEC≈13.95 from the structural data and ~1×10{sup 21} holes cm{sup −3} from variable temperature Seebeck measurements. The substituted samples have lower electrical resistivities (ρ{sub 300} {sub K}=2–5 mΩ cm) due to an improved microstructure. This leads to increased thermoelectric power factors (largest S{sup 2}/ρ=1.95 mW m{sup −1} K{sup −2}) compared to MnSi{sub γ}. The thermal conductivity for the Mn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}Si{sub 1.66}Al{sub 0.1} sample is 2.7 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} between 300 and 800 K, and is comparable to literature data for the parent material. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure, microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi{sub γ} (γ~1.73) have been investigated. - Highlights: • Up to 7% Al can be substituted in MnSi{sub γ} when co-doped with Fe. • Improved microstructure and reduced electrical resistivities for Al substituted samples. • Largest power factor 1.95 mW m{sup −1} K{sup −2} and best estimated ZT=0.5.

  12. The distribution of four trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) in forage and the relation to scrapie in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicated that the iron (Fe)/manganese (Mn) ratio in forage of sheep was significantly higher on scrapie-afflicted farms than on farms in other scrapie categories. This study was conducted to examine whether Fe and Mn in forage of sheep varied in general according to the scrapie status of different areas in the country. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also included because of a possible relation to scrapie. Methods The country was subdivided into seven Areas (I-VII). Three Areas (I, IV, VII) were designated scrapie-free (never diagnosed or eradicated) and three as scrapie-endemic (II, III, VI); status of Area V was taken as unsettled. Of the harvest 2007 1552 samples were analysed from 344 farms all over the country, mostly grass silage from plastic bales (>90%) and from the first cut (70% or more). Results were expressed as mg kg-1 dry matter. Results Fe varied enormously from less than 100 mg kg-1 to 5000 mg kg-1. Mn varied nearly thirtyfold (17-470 mg kg-1). Fe concentration was significantly lower in Area I than in Areas II, V and VI. Mn concentration was significantly higher in Areas I, IV and VII than in Areas II, III, V and VI. The Fe/Mn ratio was significantly less in Area I than in the other areas (except Area IV). Mean Cu concentration was 6.6-8.3 mg kg-1 and the mean Zn concentration was 24-29 mg kg-1. They differed significantly in some areas. Conclusions 1) Fe tended to be in lower amounts in sheep forage in scrapie-free than in endemic areas; 2) Mn was in higher amounts in forage in scrapie-free than endemic areas; 3) the Fe/Mn ratio was lower in scrapie-free than in endemic areas; 4) the Fe/Mn ratio may possibly be used as an indicator of scrapie status; 5) Cu and Zn in sheep forage were not related to scrapie; 6) further study on the role of Fe and Mn in the occurrence of scrapie in Iceland is needed. PMID:20492671

  13. First principles study of structure and properties of La- and Mn-modified BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V.; Georgieva, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Kovacheva, D.; Krezhov, K.

    2012-07-01

    First principles calculations have been performed to study the effects of the La3+ and Mn3+ substitutions in the multiferroic BiFeO3. The real compositions Bi1-xLaxFeO3 and BiFe1-xMnxO3 with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 were modeled by substitution of one, two and three Bi3+ or Fe3+ by La3+ or Mn3+ in the orthorhombic BiFeO3 structure, respectively. Density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation with Hubbard correction of Dudarev (GGA + U) and plane wave pseudo-potential approach has been used to track the changes that occur in the structural parameters, electronic structure, magnetic, optical and polarization properties of the modified BiFeO3. The substitution of one Bi3+ with La3+ increases the band gap energy whereas the augmentation of La3+ substitutes decreases it. The substitutions of Fe3+ with Mn3+ do not change the band gap energy. The calculations predicted larger polarization of the modified BiFeO3, antiferromagnetism for Bi1-xLaxFeO3 and small ferrimagnetism for BiFe1-xMnxO3. Better multiferroic properties are expected for BiFe1-xMnxO3 materials (x = 0.1, 0.2) due to the increasing polarization and ferrimagnetic behavior. The optical properties were estimated by the calculated imaginary and real parts of the dielectric function. The increase of La3+ and Mn3+ substitutes lead to lower absorption intensity at energy range 2-7 eV.

  14. Formation of ferromanganese crust in Western Pacific Magellan Seamount: Variations in redox state of Fe/Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Park, H.; Kim, J. W.; Baik, H.; Kim, J.; Park, K. R.; Yoon, J.

    2016-02-01

    Redox reaction is a ubiquitous process in the formation of ferromanganese crust that may reflect one of paleoenvironments, particularly variations of Fe/Mn redox states and microbial diversity in the crust suggests the unique biogeochemical reactions when the crust formed in the ocean sediment. Samples were dredged from the seamounts in the western Pacific Magellan Seamount (OSM11) to investigate the biotic/abiotic redox reaction in the formation of the crust that consists of five well-defined layers from the rim (layer 1) to the core (layer 5). Mineralogy, morphology and Fe/Mn oxidation state in each layer were determined by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) pattern, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Fe-rich vernadite was detected in all layers while quartz, feldspar, and hematite only appeared in layer 1, and carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) were observed in layers 4 and 5. The oxidation states of Fe in Fe-rich vernadite measured by EELS showed a distinct change between layers ranging 26 - 60 % of Fe3+/Fetot. Analyses of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) indicated the presence of functional gene (CumA) association with Mn oxidizer suggesting that the biotic Mn oxidation may promote the formation of the Fe-Mn crust. The present study collectively showed a process of ferromanganese crust formation, secondary phase mineral precipitation such as CFA, and a distinct changes in Fe-redox states implying the biotic/abiotic associations such as biotic local reduction of Fe or uplift-subsidence of sea mounts, inducing the variations redox conditions in the formation of the crust.

  15. Deformation Twinning in Nb-Microalloyed Fe-Mn-C-Al Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Eui Pyo; Kim, Dae Young; Park, Hyun Kyeong

    2017-09-01

    Work hardening and deformation twinning in microalloyed Fe-Mn-C-Al twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with Nb were investigated in this study, and it was found that the addition of Nb affected the work-hardening behavior of TWIP steel. Moreover, the quantitative characterization of twinning was performed on the deformed microstructure by electron backscattering diffraction analysis, and the results indicate that the addition of Nb causes a reduction in twinning kinetics. The decrease in deformation twinning in TWIP steel with added Nb can be attributed to the effect of fine grain, dislocations in non-recrystallized grains, and the formation of twins on a particular grain orientation.

  16. Aspects of thermal martensite in a FeNiMnCo alloy.

    PubMed

    Güler, M; Güler, E; Kahveci, N

    2010-07-01

    Thermal martensite characteristics in Fe-29%Ni-2%Mn-2%Co alloy were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization techniques. SEM observations obviously revealed the lath martensite morphology in the prior austenite phase of examined alloy. As well, the martensitic transformation kinetics was found to be as athermal type. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy offered the paramagnetic austenite phase and ferromagnetic martensite phase with their volume fractions. Also, the internal magnetic field of the martensite was measured as 32.9T from the Mössbauer spectrometer.

  17. Acoustic characteristics of high damping Mn73Cu20Ni5Fe2 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Yin, F.; Kawahara, K.

    2004-02-01

    The acoustic characteristics for high damping Mn73Cu20Ni5Fe2 (M2052) alloy were investigated in terms of frequency-dependent complex dynamics, using an ultrasonic pulse method. The longitudinal and transverse waves show maximum decrements of about 2 and 1.8 at around 1.8 and 0.8 MHz, respectively, derived from a single relaxation process. Frequency dispersion leads to increase in dynamic modulus and delay in phase, suggesting growth (microkinking) of microtwin phases analogous to the stretching by micro-Brownian rotation in rubbers.

  18. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    DOE PAGES

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; ...

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  19. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ of the tested alloy.

  20. Tunneling magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As/Al-O/CoFeB hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, G. X.; Babu, M. Ramesh; Han, X. F.; Deng, J. J.; Wang, W. Z.; Zhao, J. H.; Wang, W. D.; Tang, Jinke

    2009-04-01

    Tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in Ga0.92Mn0.08As/Al-O/Co40Fe40B20 trilayer hybrid structure as a function of temperature from 10 to 50 K with magnetic field |H|≤2000 Oe has been studied. TMR ratio of 1.6% at low fields at 10 K was achieved with the applied current of 1 μA. The behavior of junction resistance was well explained by the tunneling resistance across the barrier. Strong bias dependences of magnetoresistance and junction resistance were presented.

  1. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  2. The electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present study of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe using density functional theory. The compound is half-metallic with half-metallic gap of 0.13 eV. The total magnetic moment of this compound is 3.96 μB which is in close agreement with Slater-Pauling rule. The effect of lattice compression and expansion shows the robustness of half-metallicity. A large value of half-metallic gap and 100% spin-polarization makes this material interesting for spin dependent applications.

  3. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ of the tested alloy.

  4. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; Shen, Guoyin; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  5. Permalloy-FeMn exchange-biased multilayers grown on flexible substrates for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Xu, Feng; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C. K.

    2009-09-01

    Permalloy-FeMn multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates oriented for wide-band absorber applications were fabricated using RF sputtering deposition. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency was tuned by changing the thickness of the Permalloy layers. Plural FMR frequencies appeared in the multilayer film due to the difference in exchange couple energies at their interfaces. A multilayer thin film with varying thickness of Permalloy layers was also fabricated with the properties of a wide-band absorber. Its range of 1-4 GHz (the absorption width where the reflection loss is less than 10 dB) appears promising for future applications.

  6. A Study of Free Recovery in a Fe - Mn - Si - Cr Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridon, I.-P.; Lohan, N.-M.; Suru, M.-G.; Mihalache, E.; Bujoreanu, L.-G.; Pricop, B.

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of the free recovery of "hot shape" (typical for the austenitic domain) in shape-memory alloy Fe - 28% Mn - 6% Si - 5% Cr during heating of specimens with a "cold shape" typical for the martensitic domain is performed. Prior to each measurement the specimens are deformed by caliber bending at room temperature in martensitic condition. The thermomechanical training consists in 10 cycles of bending - heating - cooling. Displacements of the free ends of the specimens are plotted as a function of the temperature and the plots are used to determine the critical temperatures of the reverse martensitic transformation.

  7. Environmentally assisted cracking of two-phase Fe-Mn-Al alloys in NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, S.-T.; Tsu, I.-F.; Perng, T.-P.

    1993-02-01

    Three two-phase Fe-Mn-Al alloys with nominal compositions, Fe-24Mn-9Al, Fe-27Mn-9Al-3Cr,. and Fe-27Mn-9Al-6Cr, were prepared in the solution-treated and cold-rolled conditions. The fractions of ferrite in the solution-treated condition were controlled at 46 to 60 pct, mainly by adjusting the carbon content and the relative amounts of Mn and Al. The ferrite fractions were reduced to 30 to 37 pct after 75 pct deformation by cold-rolling. Specimens were tensile tested at open circuit in aerated 3.5 pct NaCl solution at slow strain rates ranging from 4 × 10-7 to 4 × 10-5 s-1 at room temperature. All of the alloys were quite susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The deformed specimens showed less susceptibility, presumably because the plasticity was already too limited. The EAC appeared to occur at or after the onset of plastic deformation. In this alloy system, the ferritic phase was less resistant to EAC than the austenitic phase, in contrast to the Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels. The crack propagated preferentially through the ferrite grains or along the ferrite/austenite grain boundaries. The addition of up to 6 pct Cr did not improve the EAC resistance.

  8. [Environment effects of algae-caused black spots: impacts on Fe-Mn-S cycles in water-sediment interface].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Feng; He, Jun; Fan, Cheng-Xin; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Qiu-Shi; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Yan, Shao-Hua

    2010-11-01

    The driving effects of algal cells settlement in the water-sediment interface on Fe, Mn, S biogeochemistry in laboratory through static cultivation device. Results showed that dissolved oxygen would be exhausted by algae cells in 50 min after the cyanobacteria cells settled to the sediment surface. Soon the water-sediment interface formed the severe anoxia and Fe-Mn oxides and sulfides were deoxidized quickly in the strong reducing environment. The Fe2+, Mn2+ content in interface increased to the summit at the 4th day and their concentrations were 4.40 mg/L and 2.35 mg/L, respectively. When it comes to the end of the experiment, the Fe2+ content had a little reduction and Mn2+ reduced quickly, their concentrations were 3.37 mg/L and 0.97 mg/L at the end of experiment. However, S2- concentration in interface reached the highest at the 2nd day and its content was 0.63 mg/L, and its concentration was only 0.12 mg/L at the end since it has been reduced. The ORP was--150 mV in the sediment surface and indicated that the sediment environment was a strong reducing environment. Phenomenon of algal cells induced black spots in water bodies was the main driving factors on Fe/Mn oxides and sulfides biogeochemistry cycle, and also the extreme anoxia environment would have great harm on the water body's ecology.

  9. Spin-reorientation and weak ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic TbMn0.5Fe0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Sanathkumar, R.; Strydom, André M.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2015-05-01

    Orthorhombic single crystals of TbMn0.5Fe0.5O3 are found to exhibit spin-reorientation, magnetization reversal, and weak ferromagnetism. Strong anisotropy effects are evident in the temperature dependent magnetization measurements along the three crystallographic axes a, b, and c. A broad magnetic transition is visible at TN Fe / Mn = 286 K due to paramagnetic to AxGyCz ordering. A sharp transition is observed at TS R Fe / Mn = 28 K , which is pronounced along c axis in the form of a sharp jump in magnetization where the spins reorient to GxAyFz configuration. The negative magnetization observed below TS R Fe / Mn along c axis is explained in terms of domain wall pinning. A component of weak ferromagnetism is observed in field-scans along c-axis but below 28 K. Field-induced steps-like transitions are observed in hysteresis measurement along b axis below 28 K. It is noted that no sign of Tb-order is discernible down to 2 K. TbMn0.5Fe0.5O3 could be highlighted as a potential candidate to evaluate its magneto-dielectric effects across the magnetic transitions.

  10. A TiO2/FeMnP Core/Shell Nanorod Array Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Oxygen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Desmond E; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Leitner, Andrew P; Xie, Lixin; Qin, Fan; Alam, Md Kamrul; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Dezhi; Ren, Zhifeng; Wang, Zhiming; Bao, Jiming; Whitmire, Kenton H

    2017-04-25

    A variety of catalysts have recently been developed for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, but very few of them can be readily integrated with semiconducting light absorbers for photoelectrochemical or photocatalytic water splitting. Here, we demonstrate an efficient core/shell photoanode with a highly active oxygen evolution electrocatalyst shell (FeMnP) and semiconductor core (rutile TiO2) for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution reaction. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition from a single-source precursor was used to ensure good contact between the FeMnP and the TiO2. The TiO2/FeMnP core/shell photoanode reaches the theoretical photocurrent density for rutile TiO2 of 1.8 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) (1 sun) irradiation. The dramatic enhancement is a result of the synergistic effects of the high oxygen evolution reaction activity of FeMnP (delivering an overpotential of 300 mV with a Tafel slope of 65 mV dec(-1) in 1 M KOH) and the conductive interlayer between the surface active sites and semiconductor core which boosts the interfacial charge transfer and photocarrier collection. The facile fabrication of the TiO2/FeMnP core/shell nanorod array photoanode offers a compelling strategy for preparing highly efficient photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion devices.

  11. Spin-lattice coupling and frustrated magnetism in Fe-doped hexagonal LuMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Fu, Zhendong; Kumar, C. M. N.; Pomjakushin, V. Y.; Xiao, Yinguo; Chatterji, Tapan; Strydom, André M.

    2015-05-01

    Strong spin-lattice coupling and prominent frustration effects observed in the 50% Fe-doped frustrated hexagonal (h)\\text{LuMnO}3 are reported. A Néel transition at T{N}≈112 \\text{K} and a possible spin re-orientation transition at T{SR}≈55 \\text{K} are observed in the magnetization data. From neutron powder diffraction data, the nuclear structure at and below 300 K was refined in polar P63cm space group. While the magnetic structure of LuMnO3 belongs to the Γ4 (P6'_3c'm) representation, that of LuFe0.5Mn0.5O3 belongs to Γ1 (P6_3cm) which is supported by the strong intensity for the (100) reflection and also judging by the presence of spin-lattice coupling. The refined atomic positions for Lu and Mn/Fe indicate significant atomic displacements at T{N} and T{SR} which confirms strong spin-lattice coupling. Our results complement the discovery of room temperature multiferroicity in thin films of h\\text{LuFeO}3 and would give impetus to study LuFe1-x Mn x O3 systems as potential multiferroics where electric polarization is linked to giant atomic displacements.

  12. Using granular C0-AI2O3 spacer for optimization of functional parameters of the FeMn/Fe20Ni80 magnetoresistive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkovenko, A. N.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Adanakova, O. A.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we studied the possibility of tailoring the functional properties of the multilayer magnetoresistive medium with unidirectional anisotropy and the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR). Objects of the research were composite Co-Al2O3 films and Ta/Fe20Ni80/Fe50Mn50/Fe20Ni80/Co-Al2O3/Fe20Ni80/Ta multilayers structures obtained by magnetron sputtering and selectively subjected vacuum annealing. Structure, magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the films in the temperature range 77÷440 K were investigated.

  13. Determination of exchange and rotational anisotropies in IrMn /Fe(t)/IrMn exchange coupled structures using dynamic and static techniques: Application to microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuanr, Bijoy K.; Maat, Stefan; Chandrashekariaih, S.; Veerakumar, V.; Camley, R. E.; Celinski, Z.

    2008-04-01

    We determined the exchange anisotropy and rotational anisotropy of IrMn(7 nm)/Fe(t=3-20 nm)/IrMn(7 nm) exchange-biased structures using conventional ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and network analyzer FMR (NA-FMR). Compared to single Fe layer films of identical thickness, we observe an isotropic downward shift and an angular variation of the FMR resonance field in the multilayer structures. The isotropic shift originates from the rotational anisotropy, while the angular variation originates from the exchange anisotropy. Both exchange anisotropy and rotational anisotropy increase with decreasing Fe thickness in the exchange-biased structures. The isotropic downward shift of the resonance field translates to an upward shift of the resonance frequency, and can be used to boost the operational frequency of microwave devices (bandpass/stop filters) by several gigahertz.

  14. Tuning of structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Stuti; Varma, G. D.

    2015-06-24

    In the present manuscript, Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanoparticles have been synthesized with co-precipitation method by annealing at 900 °C and studied the structural and magnetic properties. X ray diffraction pattern reveals the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure with the space group Fd-3m. An impurity peak of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been observed in the XRD patterns of samples with Mn composition, x ≥ 0.4. However, this impurity phase of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not observed in the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample synthesized by annealing at 500 °C. FESEM results indicate the formation of nano-sized particles. Magnetic measurements show ferrimagnetic interaction in Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x≥0) nanoparticles at room temperature. However, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample synthesized by annealing at 500 °C shows superparamagnetic behavior. We have fitted the M-H curve of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by annealing at 500 °C with modified Langvenin function to confirm superparamagnetism. The correlation between the structural and observed magnetic properties of as synthesized samples nanoparticles will be described and discussed in this paper.

  15. A structural, magnetic, and Mössbauer spectral study of several Na Mn Fe-bearing alluaudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatert, F.; Long, G. J.; Hautot, D.; Fransolet, A.-M.; Delwiche, J.; Hubin-Franskin, M. J.; Grandjean, F.

    2004-10-01

    The synthesis and the chemical, structural, magnetic, and Mössbauer spectral characterization of three synthetic alluaudites, Na2Mn2Fe(PO4)3, NaMn Fe2(PO4)3 and Na2MnFeIIFeIII(PO4)3, and a natural sample with the nominal composition of NaMn Fe2(PO4)3, collected in the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda, are reported. All four compounds have the expected alluaudite monoclinic C2/c structure with the general formula [A(2)A(2)’][A(1)A(1)’A(1)2”]M(1)M(2)2(PO4)3 in which manganese(II) is on the M(1) site and manganese(II), iron(III) and, in some cases, iron(II) on the M(2) site. The X-ray structure of Na2Mn2Fe(PO4)3 also indicates a partially disordered distribution of NaI and MnII on the M(1) and A(1) crystallographic sites. All four compounds are paramagnetic above 40 K and antiferromagnetically ordered below. Above 40 K the effective magnetic moments of NaMnFe2(PO4)3 and Na2MnFeIIFeIII(PO4)3 are those expected of high-spin manganese(II) and iron(III) with the 6A1g electronic ground state and high-spin iron(II) with the 5T2g electronic ground state. In contrast, the effective magnetic moment of Na2Mn2Fe(PO4)3 is lower than expected as a result of enhanced antiferromagnetic exchange coupling by the manganese(II) on the M(2) site. The Mössbauer spectra of all four compounds have been measured from 4.2 to 295 K and have been found to be magnetically ordered below 40 K for Na2Mn2Fe(PO4)3 and ˜35 K for the remaining compounds. The Mössbauer spectra of Na2Mn2Fe(PO4)3 exhibit the two expected iron(III) quadrupole doublets and/or magnetic sextets expected for a random distribution of manganese(II) and iron(III) ions on the M(2) site. Further, the Mössbauer spectra of Na2MnFeIIFeIII(PO4)3 exhibit the two iron(II) and two iron(III) quadrupole doublets and/or magnetic sextets expected for a random distribution of iron(II) and iron(III) on the M(2) site. Surprisingly, the synthetic and natural samples of NaMnFe2(PO4)3 have 19 and 10% of iron(II) on the M(2) site; apparently the

  16. Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy of Jurassic Fe-Mn Oxide Rocks Forming Chimney Systems, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigh, T.; Polgári, M.; Hein, J. R.; Gucsik, A.; Koós, M.; Veres, M.; Tóth, S.; Tóth, A. L.; Bíró, L.

    2009-08-01

    Three ore samples were collected from an inferred hydrothermal vent site at the Úrkút-Csárdahegy open pit mine. The samples are black with a brown rind, blocky or mound-like with stromatolitic texture, cryptocrystalline, and often with vugs infilled by spherulites. Fe-Mn-oxide stromatolitic mounds grew at the sediment/water interface burying preexisting chimneys containing fluid-flow microchannels. The occurrence of amorphous carbon phases in the samples is variable and their distribution is inhomogeneous, and suggests a possible microbial origin. The occurrence of gypsum may reflect a Fe-S precursor phase. These results provide additional evidence for the existence of a local vent system at Csárdahegy.

  17. Mn(ii) mediated degradation of artemisinin based on Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres for cancer therapy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Weijie; Zhang, Min; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Haibao; He, Mengni; Xu, Pengping; Zhou, Jiajia; Liu, Zhenbang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-07-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe2+ mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn2+ could substitute for Fe2+ to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn2+ was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in improving the survival of chemotherapy patients, providing a novel method for clinical tumor therapy.Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe2+ mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn2+ could substitute for Fe2+ to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn2+ was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in

  18. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Alayo, W.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.

    2011-04-15

    The Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80}/Co/Ru/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  19. Emission Mössbauer spectroscopy study of fluence dependence of paramagnetic relaxation in Mn/Fe implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masenda, H.; Geburt, S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Naidoo, D.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Mantovan, R.; Mølholt, T. E.; Ncube, M.; Shayestehaminzadeh, S.; Gislason, H. P.; Langouche, G.; Ólafsson, S.; Ronning, C.

    2016-12-01

    Emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy following the implantation of radioactive precursor isotope 57Mn+ ( T 1/2= 1.5 min) into ZnO single crystals at ISOLDE/CERN shows that a large fraction of 57Fe atoms produced in the 57Mn beta decay is created as paramagnetic Fe3+ with relatively long spin-lattice relaxation times. Here we report on ZnO pre-implanted with 56Fe to fluences of 2×1013, 5×10 13 and 8 × 1013 ions/cm2 in order to investigate the dependence of the paramagnetic relaxation rate of Fe3+ on fluence. The spectra are dominated by magnetic features displaying paramagnetic relaxation effects. The extracted spin-lattice relaxation rates show a slight increase with increasing ion fluence at corresponding temperatures and the area fraction of Fe3+ at room temperature reaches a maximum contribution of 80(3)% in the studied fluence range.

  20. Million-fold electrical conductivity enhancement in Fe2(DEBDC) versus Mn2(DEBDC) (E = S, O)

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Lei; Hendon, Christopher H.; Minier, Mikael A.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Reaction of FeCl2 and H4DSBDC (2,5-disulfhydrylbenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) leads to the formation of Fe2(DSBDC), an analogue of M2(DOBDC) (MOF-74, DOBDC4– = 2,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate). The bulk electrical conductivity values of both Fe2(DSBDC) and Fe2(DOBDC) are ~6 orders of magnitude higher than those of the Mn2+ analogues, Mn2(DEBDC) (E = O, S). Because the metals are of the same formal oxidation state, the increase in conductivity is attributed to the loosely bound Fe2+ β-spin electron. Lastly, these results provide important insight for the rational design of conductive metal–organic frameworks, highlighting in particular the advantages of iron for synthesizing such materials.

  1. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayo, W.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2011-04-01

    The Ir20Mn80/Co/Ru/Ni81Fe19 spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  2. Evolution of Intermetallics, Dispersoids, and Elevated Temperature Properties at Various Fe Contents in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chen, X.-G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, great interests are rising on aluminum alloys for the applications at elevated temperature, driven by the automotive and aerospace industries requiring high strength, light weight, and low-cost engineering materials. As one of the most promising candidates, Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloys have been found to possess considerably high mechanical properties and creep resistance at elevated temperature resulted from the precipitation of a large number of thermally stable dispersoids during heat treatment. In present work, the effect of Fe contents on the evolution of microstructure as well as high-temperature properties of 3004 alloys has been investigated. Results show that the dominant intermetallic changes from α-Al(MnFe)Si at 0.1 wt pct Fe to Al6(MnFe) at both 0.3 and 0.6 wt pct Fe. In the Fe range of 0.1-0.6 wt pct studied, a significant improvement on mechanical properties at elevated temperature has been observed due to the precipitation of dispersoids, and the best combination of yield strength and creep resistance at 573 K (300 °C) is obtained in the 0.3 wt pct Fe alloy with the finest size and highest volume fraction of dispersoids. The superior properties obtained at 573 K (300 °C) make 3004 alloys more promising for high-temperature applications. The relationship between the Fe content and the dispersoid precipitation as well as the materials properties has been discussed.

  3. Fe-Mn substance in ocean as reason of regulation radionuclide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Martynov, Konstantin; Konstantinova, Lia

    2013-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclide in marine sediments as yet little studied [Choppin & Wong 1998]. The work mainly focused on effects of nuclear test fallout. In the works are examined isotopes of Pu - 238; Th - 232; U -234;238; Pu - 239,240,241; Am - 241; Np - 237; Cm -244 [Holm 1995]. It has been shown that seems to accumulate radionuclides in marine sediments. In particular, the importance attached to carbonate complexes (corals, etc.). But questions about the possibility of re-mobilization of radionuclide, forms their concentration, their participation in global geochemical cycles in the ocean, remain open. We believe a major factor controlling the distribution of heavy metals is the formation of ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules hydrogenic at the bottom of the ocean and seamounts. It is likely that the process of formation of Fe-manganese hydrogenic can play a major role in the control of radioactive contamination in the oceanic sediment. At least for the U number of works on the subject [Sherman et al. 2008]. The high sensitivity of the Fe-manganese crust is known to the isotopic composition of lead [Loranger & Zayed 1994, Collen et al 2011]. Recent work [Wilkins etal 2006, Renshaw etal 2009] show a large role; Fe (III)-and Mn (IV)-reducing organisms that anaerobic bacteria in oxidation and therefore changes in mobility systems U and Pu. So much interest is data for sorption of radionuclide on hydroxides Fe and Mn. Unfortunately we are not aware of works on the subject. We have therefore taken their own experimental studies on sorption of radionuclide on natural Fe-Mn crusts (sample from Magellan seamount Pacific ocean) [Martynov et al 2012]. The results showed high sorption ability of material crusts for fixation of radionuclides: U-233, Np-237, Pu-238, Am-241. For all radionuclide experiment absorption has been reached already in the first hour it was 96.0% of total substance radionuclide absorbed from the solution, and after the first day it was reached

  4. Fischer Tropsch synthesis : influence of Mn on the carburization rates and activities of Fe-based catalysts by TPR-EXAFS/XANES and catalyst testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, M. C.; Jacobs, G.; Pendyala, R.; Davis, B. H.; Cronauer, D. C.; Kropf, A. J.; Marshall, C. L.

    2011-03-24

    Fe-based catalysts containing different amounts of Mn were tested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a stirred tank reactor at 270 C, 1.21 MPa, and H{sub 2}:CO = 0.7. Catalyst activation by carburization with 10% CO/He was followed by Temperature Programmed Reduction/X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TPR-EXAFS/XANES) from room temperature to 300 C. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into iron carbides, whereas MnO{sub x} was reduced to oxygen deficient MnO. Mn hindered Fe carburization, such that the carburized catalyst displayed higher Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content than the catalyst without Mn. EXAFS fitting indicates that the carburized catalyst contained a mixture of Hgg carbide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Mn oxides. Increasing Mn content led to higher CH{sub 4} and light product selectivities, and lower light olefin selectivities. Higher and stable conversions were obtained with a catalyst containing an almost equimolar Fe/Mn ratio relative to the catalyst without Mn. Selectivity trends are attributed to the higher WGS rates observed on the FeMn catalysts, consistent with the structural differences observed.

  5. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of Nanostructural Features in Irradiated Fe-Cu-Mn Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Howell, R H; Odette, G R; Sterne, P A

    2001-01-01

    Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from a high number density of nanometer sized Cu-Mn-Ni rich precipitates (CRPs) and sub-nanometer matrix features, thought to be vacancy-solute cluster complexes (VSC). However, questions exist regarding both the composition of the precipitates and the defect character and composition of the matrix features. We present results of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) characterization of irradiated and thermally aged Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Mn alloys. These complementary techniques provide insight into the composition and character of both types of nanoscale features. The SANS measurements indicate populations of CRPs and VSCs in both alloys. The CRPs are coarser in the Fe-Cu alloy and the number densities of CRP and VSC increase with the addition of Mn. The PAS involved measuring both the positron lifetimes and the Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in the high momentum region to provide elemental sensitivity at the annihilation site. The spectra in Fe-Cu-Mn specimens thermally aged to peak hardness at 450 C and irradiated at 288 C are nearly identical to elemental Cu. Positron lifetime and spectrum measurements in Fe-Cu specimens irradiated at 288 C clearly show the existence of long lifetime ({approx}500 ps) open volume defects, which also contain Cu. Thus the SANS and PAS provide a self-consistent picture of nanostructures composed of CRPs and VSCs and tend to discount high Fe concentrations in the CRPs.

  6. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Tetragonal Sr2M3As2O2 (M3 = Mn3, Mn2Cu and MnZn2) Compounds Containing Alternating CuO2-Type and FeAs-Type Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, R; Garlea, Vasile O; Goldman, Alan; Johnston, david C

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2, Sr2Mn3As2O2, and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2 were synthesized. Their temperature- and applied magnetic field-dependent structural, transport, thermal, and magnetic properties were characterized by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical resistivity , heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These compounds have a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure (space group I 4/mmm) that consists of MO2 (M = Zn and/or Mn) oxide layers similar to the CuO2 layers in high superconducting transition temperature Tc cuprate superconductors, and intermetallic MAs (M = Cu and/or Mn) layers similar to the FeAs layers in high-Tc pnictides. These two types of layers alternate along the crystallographic c-axis and are separated by Sr atoms. The site occupancies of Mn, Cu and Zn were studied using Rietveld refinements of x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. The temperature dependences of suggest metallic character for Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 and semiconducting character for Sr2Mn3As2O2 and Sr2Zn2MnAs2O2. Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 is inferred to be a ferrimagnet with a Curie temperature TC = 95(1) K. Remarkably, we find that the magnetic ground state structure changes from a G-type antiferromagnetic structure in Sr2Mn3As2O2 to an A-type ferrimagnetic structure in Sr2Mn2CuAs2O2 in which the Mn ions in each layer are ferromagnetically aligned, but are antiferromagnetically aligned between layers.

  7. Fluctuations of chemical composition of austenite and their consequence on shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-(Si, Cr, Ni, C, N) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznuk, V.V.; Gavriljuk, V.G. . E-mail: gavr@imp.kiev.ua; Kopitsa, G.P.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Runov, V.V.

    2004-09-20

    Polycrystalline samples of shape memory iron-based alloys containing 17, and 30 mass% Mn and alloyed with Si, Cr, Ni, C, N were studied by means of small angle scattering of polarized neutrons (SAPNS). A direct correlation between chemical homogeneity of the Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni solid solutions and the values of reversible strain caused by the {gamma} {yields} {epsilon} {yields} {gamma} martensitic transformation was found. The addition of silicon to the Fe-Mn alloys significantly improves chemical homogeneity of the fcc solid solution on the scale of larger than several nm, which correlates with the essential increase of reversible strain. A similar to silicon but weaker effect was observed in the case of nitrogen addition to the Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys. Based on the obtained experimental data and in consistency with the previously expressed idea by Sade et al., the positive effect of silicon and nitrogen on chemical homogeneity and SME in Fe-Mn alloys is attributed to the short-range atomic ordering induced by these elements.

  8. Cubic structure and canted antiferromagnetism of CaMn7O12 doped with trivalent cations (Fe, Al, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motin Seikh, Md.; Caignaert, V.; Lebedev, O. I.; Raveau, B.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we show the dramatic effect of the doping of the octahedral sites with M3+ cations (Fe3+, Al3+ and Cr3+) upon the structure and magnetism of the rhombohedral double perovskite CaMn7O12. In the oxides CaMn7-xMxO12, charge ordering between Mn3+ and Mn4+ octahedral sites is destroyed leading to the cubic structure (Im-3), whereas the initial magnetic properties (TN~90 K) have disappeared leading to canted antiferromagnetism (TN≈50-70 K) for small x values (x ~0.2-1). A spin glass like behaviour is also observed for larger values (x~1) in the case of Fe substitution.

  9. Sensitivity of the Stacking Fault Energy in FeMn Alloys on the Local Environment: a First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Alexey; Hickel, Tilmann; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth understanding of the physical processes that may influence the stacking fault energy (SFE) is necessary for a knowledge-based optimization and engineering of high-Mn-steels. We have performed a first-principles study of the SFE in austenitic FeMn-alloys, which are prototype structures for realistic high-Mn-steels. The relevant atomic configurations have been identified by combination of the cluster-expansion methodology and the concept of special quasirandom structures based on the density functional theory calculations. Employing either the axial interaction model and/or explicit calculations of the generalized SFE surfaces we show that the value of the SFE sensitively depends on type of the chemical and magnetic ordering in the system. We further show that the SFE can be changed not only by varying the composition of the FeMn-alloy or its temperature, but also by admixing different chemical elements or by controlling local strain fields.

  10. Rotatable anisotropy of Ni81Fe19/Ir20Mn80 films: A study using broadband ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Marcondes, T. L.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Geshev, J.; Sommer, R. L.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the broadband ferromagnetic resonance dispersion relation of NiFe/IrMn multilayers using the vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) method. Multilayered films with structure [NiFe(20 nm)/IrMn (tIrMn)/Ta(3 nm)]×10 (with tIrMn=4 and 15 nm) were produced onto Si(100) substrates using magnetron sputtering. The dispersion relations of the samples were extracted from the resonance spectra in the range of 0.1-7 GHz under magnetic fields of up to±300 Oe. Static magnetization curves were also obtained in the same field range. The experimental data were compared with numerical calculations performed using the granular exchange-bias model which takes into account both, the unidirectional and rotatable anisotropy present in the samples. A good agreement between numerical and experimental results was achieved without the need of any frequency or field-dependent parameter.

  11. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on the structural and electrical transport properties of PrFe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, Khalid Ikram, M.; Asokan, K.

    2014-04-24

    The effect of gamma ray irradiation on the structural and transport properties of polycrystalline bulk samples of PrFe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.5) were investigated. The samples were synthesized by solid state reaction method and exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation to accumulated dose of 625 KGy. From the Raman study, the modes exhibit a blue shift with broadening of spectral features in the irradiated samples. The dielectric constant (ε′) was also studied as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases with Mn doping but decrease on irradiation. Exposure to gamma radiation results in substantial modification in the physical properties of these compounds.

  12. Calculations of structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and phonon properties of FeNiMnAl by the first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Uğur, Şule; İyigör, Ahmet

    2014-10-06

    The electronic, elastic and dynamical properties of the quaternary alloy FeNiMnAl have been investigated using a pseudopotential plane wave method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We determined the lattice parameters and the bulk modulus B. In addition, the elastic properties such as elastic constans (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}), the shear modulus G, the young modulus E, the poisson's ratio σ and the B/G ratio are also given. The FeNiMnAl Heusler alloy exhibit a ferromagnetic half-metallic behavior with the total magnetic moment of 4.02 μ{sub B}. The phonon dispersion of FeNiMnAl has been performed using the density functional theory and the direct method with 2×2×2 supercell.

  13. Trace metal (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) accumulation in Scleractinian corals: a record for Sabah, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Yong, Ow Cher; Lim, Ai Phing

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed as the first to assess the trace metal (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in coral skeleton in relation to metal availabilities and sampling locations in Sabah. The study also aims to determine the differential abilities of Scleractinian coral species as a bioindicator of environmental conditions. Skeletons of Scleractinian coral (Hydnophora microconos, Favia speciosa and Porites lobata) showed concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ni relatively higher than Cd and Zn in the skeletons. Statistical analyses outputs showed significant relationships between trace metal concentrations in coral species and those in seawater and sediment. The highest bioaccumulation factors among three Scleractinian coral species investigated was for Zn followed by Mn, Ni, Fe, Cd and Cu can provide a sign about pollution levels. However, metal tolerance, coral structure and morphology as well as multispecies monitoring are factors that need to be a focus in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the mechanical properties of FeNiCrMnSi high entropy alloy wear resistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buluc, G.; Florea, I.; Chelariu, R.; Popescu, G.; Carcea, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we investigated microstructure, hardness and wear resistance for FeNiCrMnAl, high entropy alloy. The FeNiCrMnSi, high entropy alloy was elaborated in a medium induction furnace, by choosing the silicon, as an alliance element within the equi- atomic high entropy alloy, we managed to obtain a dendritic structure, the formation of intermetallic compounds or separated silicon. The medium hardness value of the investigated alloy was 948.33 HV and the medium value of the friction coefficient was 0.6655 in the first 20 seconds and 0.5425 for 1667 seconds. The volume loss of the high entropy alloy FeNiCrMnSi was 0.0557 mm3.

  15. Spin-resolved magnetic studies of BCT Fe/Mn/BCT Fe(1 0 0)/FCC Pd(1 0 0) films using scanning ion microscopy with polarization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Rau, Carl

    2005-02-01

    We report on spin-resolved magnetic studies of wedge-shaped, epitaxial BCT Fe/Mn/BCT Fe(1 0 0)/FCC Pd(1 0 0) films by using scanning ion microscopy with polarization analysis (SIMPA) and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). SIMPA is used to perform in situ spin-resolved magnetic domain imaging, and MOKE is utilized to study magnetic hysteresis loops. Fe/Mn/Fe films are deposited on well-prepared, atomically flat Pd(1 0 0) substrates. Medium energy electron diffraction (MEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are used for detailed studies of growth modes, surface and interface structures. Various non-uniform, curling domain and domain wall structures, which are strongly affected by canted magnetic couplings, are found.

  16. The effect of disorder on electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Hongkuan; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Xiaorui

    2015-03-01

    Thin films based on Heusler alloy often lost their theoretical predicted ultra-high spin polarization owing to the appearance of disorder. Using the first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the effect of disorder including antisite and swap on electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure. Twelve kinds of antisites and six kinds of swap disorders are proposed and studied comprehensively. In our calculations, Co(Fe)-, Mn(Fe)-, Si(Mn)-antisite and Co-Fe swap disorders are most favorable due to their lowest formation energies. Moreover, the positive binding energies of Co-Fe, Co-Si, Fe-Si and Mn-Si swap disorders with respect to their corresponding antisite disorders indicate that these complex swap disorders are more stable compared with their corresponding isolated antisite disorders. The investigations on density of states (DOS) show that the spin down energy gap of disordered structures suffers contraction and their DOS entirely move towards lower zone. Besides, the 100% spin polarization is maintained in all structures with antisite and swap disorders except for those with Co(Mn)-, Co(Si)-antisite and Co-Mn, Co-Si swap disorders. Therefore, the half-metallicity of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi is quite robust against interfering effects such as Si(Mn), Co(Fe) and Co-Fe disorders most possibly formed in the growth.

  17. Multifunctional Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using LaMnO3/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite on Different Types of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Susanti, Yulia; Afifah, Nur; Saleh, Rosari

    2017-03-01

    This study added different types of graphene (GN-1 and GN-2) in to LaMnO3/Fe3O4 nanocomposite to degrade MB as an organic pollutant. LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-1 and LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-2 composites were synthesized using the co-precipitation method in a constant 5 wt% of GN. The as-prepared samples were characterized using XRD and TGA. The LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-1 and LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-2 composites showed the orthorhombic structure of LaMnO3 nanoparticles and the cubic spinel of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, as well as of GN-1 and GN-2. The graphite structure of NGP in LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-1 composites was confirmed. However, the peak of graphene in LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-2 could not be identified. The photocatalytic efficiency of the LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-2 was higher than that of LaMnO3/Fe3O4/GN-1. The enhancement of the photocatalytic light activity can be attributed to the high separation efficiency of electron-hole recombination and to the large surface contact between LaMnO3/Fe3O4 and graphene, which can improve the transfer efficiency of the photocatalytic process. In addition, the effects of catalyst dosage, rate constant, and scavengers were investigated and discussed.

  18. Modeling specific heat and entropy change in La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzi, Marco; Bennati, Cecilia; Curcio, Carmen; Kuepferling, Michaela; Basso, Vittorio

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we model the magnetocaloric effect of LaFexMnySiz-H1.65 compound (x + y + z = 13), a system showing a transition temperature finely tunable around room temperature by Mn substitution. The thermodynamic model takes into account the coupling between magnetism and specific volume as introduced by Bean and Rodbell. We find a good qualitative agreement between experimental and modeled entropy change - Δs(H , T). The main result is that the magnetoelastic coupling drives the phase transition of the system, changing it from second to first order by varying a model parameter η. It is also responsible for a decrease of - Δs at the transition, due to a small lattice contribution to the entropy counteracting the effect of the magnetic one. The role of Mn is reflected exclusively in a decrease of the strength of the exchange interaction, while the value of the coefficient β, responsible for the coupling between volume and exchange energy, is independent on the Mn content and it appears to be an intrinsic property of the La(Fe-Si)13 structure.

  19. PdMn and PdFe: New Materials for Temperature Measurement Near 2K

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaans, M.J.; Aselage, T.L.; Day, P.K.; Duncan, R.V.; Klemme, B.J.; Sergatskov, D.A.

    1999-05-17

    Interest in the critical dynamics of superfluid 4 He in microgravity conditions has motivated the development of new high resolution thermometry technol- ogy for use in space experiments near 2K. The current material commonly used as the temperature sensing element for high resolution thermometers (HRTs) is copper ammonium bromide [Cu(NH4)2Br42H20) or "CAB", which undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition at 1.8K1. HRTs made from CAB have demonstrated low drift (< 10fK/s) and a temperature resolu- tion of O.lnK. Unfortunately, paramagnetic salts such as CAB are difficult to prepare and handle, corrosive to most metals, and become dehydrated if kept, under vacuum conditions at room temperature. We have developed a magnetic thermometer using dilute magnetic alloys of Mn or Fe dissolved in a pure Pd matrix. These metallic thermometers are easy to fabricate, chemically inert, and mechanically robust. Unlike salts, they may be directly soldered to the stage to be measured. Also, the Curie temperature can be varied by changing the concentration of Fe or Mn, making them available for use in a wide temperature range. Susceptibility measurements, as well as preliminary noise and drifl measurements, show them, to have sub-nK resolution, with a drift of less than 10-13 K/s.

  20. PdMn and PdFe: New Materials for Temperature Measurement Near 2K

    SciTech Connect

    Aselage, T.L.; Duncan, R.V.; Klemme, B.J.; Sergatskov, D.A.; Adriaans, M.J.; Day, P.K.

    1999-02-01

    Interest in the critical dynamics of superfluid He in microgravity conditions has motivated the development of new high resolution thermometry technology for use in space experiments near 2K. The current material commonly used as the temperature sensing element for high resolution thermometers (HRTs) is copper ammonium bromide (Cu(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Br{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) or CAB, which undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition at 1.8K. HRTs made from CAB have demonstrated low drift (<10fK/s) and a temperature resolution of 0.1nK. Unfortunately, paramagnetic salts such as CAB are difficult to prepare and handle, corrosive to most metals, and become dehydrated if kept under vacuum conditions at room temperature. We have developed a magnetic thermometer using dilute magnetic alloys of Mn or Fe dissolved in a pure Pd matrix. These metallic thermometers are easy to fabricate, chemically inert, and mechanically robust. Unlike salts, they may be directly soldered to the stage to be measured. Also, the Curie temperature can be varied by changing the concentration of Fe or Mn, making them available for use in a wide temperature range. Susceptibility measurements, as well as preliminary noise and drift measurements, show them to have sub-nK resolution with a drift of less than 10{sup {minus}13} K/s.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of oxide phases in the Fe-Mn-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-11-01

    A critical evaluation and thermodynamic modeling for thermodynamic properties of all oxide phases and phase diagrams in the Fe-Mn-O system are presented. Optimized Gibbs energy parameters for the thermodynamic models of the oxide phases were obtained which reproduce all available and reliable experimental data within error limits from 298 K to above the liquidus temperatures at all compositions covering from known oxide phases, and oxygen partial pressure from metal saturation to 0.21 bar. The optimized thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams are believed to be the best estimates presently available. Two spinel phases (cubic and tetragonal) were modeled using Compound Energy Formalism (CEF) with the use of physically meaningful parameters. The present Fe-Mn spinel solutions can be integrated into a larger spinel solution database, which has been already developed. The database of the model parameters can be used along with a software for Gibbs energy minimization in order to calculate any type of phase diagram section and thermodynamic properties.

  2. Electrochemical study of aqueous asymmetric FeWO4/MnO2 supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubard-Bretesché, Nicolas; Crosnier, Olivier; Buvat, Gaëtan; Favier, Frédéric; Brousse, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The concept of an asymmetric FeWO4/MnO2 electrochemical capacitor cycled in a neutral aqueous electrolyte is presented for the first time. Commercially available cryptomelane-type MnO2 and synthesized nanocrystalline FeWO4 were used as positive and negative electrode materials, respectively. Prior to assembling the cell, the electrodes have been individually tested in a 5 M LiNO3 electrolyte solution to define both the adequate balance of active material in the supercapacitor and the proper working voltage window. Then, the full asymmetric device has been cycled between 0 and 1.4 V for over 40,000 cycles and subjected to accelerated ageing tests under floating conditions at different voltages, without any significant change on its electrochemical behavior. This remarkable stability shows the interest of developing full oxide-based asymmetric supercapacitors operating in non-toxic aqueous electrolytes that could compete with commercial carbon-based electrochemical double-layer capacitors.

  3. The environment assisted cracking of Fe-32Mn-9Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.C.; Liu, J.Y.; Juang, H.K.

    1994-12-31

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors of four austenitic Fe-32Mn-9Al containing approximately 1 wt% carbon alloys were studied in this work. All of the four alloys are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in room temperature and 160C NaCl solution. The SCC can be enhanced by applying anodic potential. The mechanism of SCC is mainly active path corrosion. The crack path is transgranular. The addition of 1.23% Mo or 1.27% Si to the austenitic Fe-32Mn-V/ 9Al alloy does not change the SCC mechanism and crack path. The addition of 1.27% Si makes the alloy more susceptible to SCC but no such effect was observed with 1.23% Mo. All four alloys studied are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement in 3.5% NaCl solution at negative enough cathodic applied potential. The addition of Mo, Cr or Si in the alloy displaces the embrittlement potential to a more cathodic range.

  4. Fe-Mn alloys for metallic biodegradable stents: degradation and cell viability studies.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Hendra; Purnama, Agung; Dube, Dominique; Couet, Jacques; Mantovani, Diego

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable stents have shown their potential to be a valid alternative for the treatment of coronary artery occlusion. This new class of stents requires materials having excellent mechanical properties and controllable degradation behaviour without inducing toxicological problems. The properties of the currently considered gold standard material for stents, stainless steel 316L, were approached by new Fe-Mn alloys. The degradation characteristics of these Fe-Mn alloys were investigated including in vitro cell viability. A specific test bench was used to investigate the degradation in flow conditions simulating those of coronary artery. A water-soluble tetrazolium test method was used to study the effect of the alloy's degradation product to the viability of fibroblast cells. These tests have revealed the corrosion mechanism of the alloys. The degradation products consist of metal hydroxides and calcium/phosphorus layers. The alloys have shown low inhibition to fibroblast cells' metabolic activities. It is concluded that they demonstrate their potential to be developed as degradable metallic biomaterials.

  5. Rapid Solidification Behavior of Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-C Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganathan, Sathees; Makaya, Advenit; Fredriksson, Hasse; Savage, Steven

    2007-12-01

    The rapid solidification behavior of alloys in the Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-C system was investigated for different compositions and cooling rates. The C content was varied and alloying additions of Mo and B were studied with respect to their effect on the microstructure. The alloys were cast as either melt-spun ribbons or as 1-mm-thick plates after levitation or as rods 2 to 4 mm in diameter by injection into copper molds. A homogeneous single-phase structure was obtained for the alloy of composition 72.8Fe-8Cr-6Mn-5Si-5Mo-3.2C (wt pct), for a sample diameter of 2.85 mm, at a cooling rate of ≈1100 K/s. The single-phase structure was identified as a metastable solid solution, exhibiting the characteristics of the ɛ phase. Upon reheating, decomposition of the single-phase structure into fine bainite plates and secondary carbides was observed between 600 °C and 700 °C. The annealed structure obtained showed high hardness values (>850 HV).

  6. Magnetoelasticity in ACr2O4 spinel oxides (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, V.; Bordács, S.; Varjas, D.; Penc, K.; Abouelsayed, A.; Kuntscher, C. A.; Ohgushi, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamical properties of the lattice structure were studied by optical spectroscopy in ACr2O4 chromium spinel oxide magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature region of T=10-335 K. The systematic change of the A-site ions (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) showed that the occupancy of 3d orbitals on the A site has strong impact on the lattice dynamics. For compounds with orbital degeneracy (FeCr2O4, NiCr2O4, and CuCr2O4), clear splitting of infrared-active phonon modes and/or activation of silent vibrational modes have been observed upon the Jahn-Teller transition and at the onset of the subsequent long-range magnetic order. Although MnCr2O4 and CoCr2O4 show multiferroic and magnetoelectric character, no considerable magnetoelasticity was found in spinel compounds without orbital degeneracy as they closely preserve the high-temperature cubic spinel structure even in their magnetic ground state. Aside from lattice vibrations, intra-atomic 3d-3d transitions of the A2+ ions were also investigated to determine the crystal field and Racah parameters and the strength of the spin-orbit coupling.

  7. Hopping conductivity in Mn-doped β-FeSi2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arushanov, E.; Lisunov, K. G.; Vinzelberg, H.; Behr, G.; Schumann, J.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2008-09-01

    The article gives a report on resistivity measurements on Mn-doped p-type FeSi2 single crystals and analyzes the data within the framework of different hopping conductivity models. Both the Mott [N. Mott and E. A. Davies, Electron Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1979)] and the Shklovskii-Efros [B. I. Shklovskii and A. L. Efros, Electronic Properties o0066 Doped Semiconductors (Springer, Berlin, 1984)] regimes of the variable-range hopping (VRH) conductivity are observed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the resistivity of Mn-doped β-FeSi2 crystals, which follows a VRH conduction mechanism, can be expressed by a scaling expression of the form ln(ρ /ρ0)=Af(T /Tx). The characteristic and transition temperatures, as well as the complete set of parameters describing the properties of the localized holes (the localization radius, the dielectric permittivity, the width of the Coulomb gap Δ, and the values of the density of states at the Fermi level) are determined. The data above indicate existence of a rigid gap δ in the spectrum of the DOS in addition to Δ and point out to the polaronic nature of the charge carriers in the investigated compound.

  8. Heavy metal (Pd, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn) levels in sediments from Nigerian Coastal waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguguah, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sediments collected during a pollution monitoring cruise carried out on Nigerian coastal waters by Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research Lagos was analysed for heavy metals. A trawler MS Suzzannah with an on board GPS was used to locate bearings of 25 sampling points (N06o30 and E003o30). Eckman grab was deployed and used in collecting bottom sediments. The sediment were air dried and digested using the method of GEF GCLME. The samples were analysed in five replicates for heavy metals (Pd, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn) using Varian AA 600 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The highest concentration of Pb was transect R (10.93) and the least concentration (0.059) was in transect C. The highest concentration of Cd was transect H (0.75) and the least concentration (0.044) was in transect C. The highest concentration of Fe was transect M (203.582) and the least concentration (2.232) was in transect C. The highest concentration of Zn was transect H (4.595) and the least concentration (0.174) was in transect F. The highest concentration of Mn was transect H (209.251) and the least concentration (0.167) was in transect C.

  9. Polymerization of catechin catalyzed by Mn-, Fe- and Al-oxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue Min; Tsao, Tsung Ming; Liu, Cheng Chung; Huang, Pan Ming; Wang, Ming Kuang

    2010-11-01

    The role of short-range order (SRO) metal oxides, which are common in acid soils and associated environments, in influencing the abiotic transformations of catechin, which is common in the soil of tea plantations, still remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the catalytic power of SRO Mn(IV)-, Fe(III)- and Al-oxides in influencing the abiotic transformations of catechin. At the end of a 90-h reaction period, the release of CO(2) in all the oxide-catechin systems is higher than that for the system with only catechin. Polymerization of catechin is catalyzed and enhanced by SRO-oxides, as is indicated by the absorbance values of the supernatants, which were obtained via visible adsorption spectroscopy, and the yields of humic polymers. The sequence of the oxides that increased the yield of total humic polymers in these systems under ambient atmosphere is: Fe(III)-oxide>Mn(IV)-oxide>Al-oxide>no catalyst (catechin). The electron spin resonance (ESR) and Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectrometry (FT-IR) of humic polymers formed in the oxide-catechin systems were similar to the spectra obtained from the humic polymers extracted from the soil. The catalytic power of SRO-oxides in promoting the oxidative polymerization of catechin, the resultant formation of humic substances, and C turnover in acid soils thus merit attention. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  11. Magnetic structure of La2O3FeMnSe2: neutron diffraction and physical property measurements.

    PubMed

    Landsgesell, S; Blumenröther, E; Prokeš, K

    2013-02-27

    We report on the characterization of the mixed layered lanthanum iron manganese oxyselenide La(2)O(3)FeMnSe(2), where Fe and Mn share the same crystallographic position. The susceptibility data show a magnetic transition temperature of 76 K and a strong difference between field cooled and zero field cooled (ZFC) data at low fields. While the ZFC magnetization curve exhibits negative values below about 45 K, hysteresis measurement reveals, after an initial negative magnetic moment, a hysteresis loop typical for ferromagnetic material, pointing to competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. Resistivity and dielectric permittivity measurements indicate that La(2)O(3)FeMnSe(2) is a semiconductor. We performed x-ray diffraction at 295 K and neutron diffraction at 90 and 1.7 K. The nuclear and magnetic structure was refined in the space group I4/mmm with a = 4.11031 (3) Å and c = 18.7613 (2) Å at 295 K. We did not detect a structural distortion and the Fe and Mn atoms were randomly distributed. The magnetic order was found to be antiferromagnetic, with a propagation vector q = (0,0,0) and magnetic moments of 3.44 (5) μ(B) per Fe/Mn atom aligned within the a-b plane. This magnetic order is different with respect to the pure Fe or Mn compositions reported in other studies.

  12. Preparation and property of magnetic photocatalyst BiOCl/Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shan; Xu, Longjun; Liu, Chenglun; Du, Haigang; Xie, Taiping; Zhu, Qianqian

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic photocatalyst BiOCl/Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4 was prepared by impregnation-calcination method. The structure and properties of the prepared photocatalyst were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, and VSM. Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4 inhibited the growth along (001) crystal face and promoted (110) crystal surface exposure of BiOCl. The as-prepared magnetic composite appeared flower-like microspheres assembled with nanosheets. The average crystallite size and the nanosheet thickness range of BiOCl/Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4 were 57.6 and 75.7-112.2 nm, respectively. The band gap energy ( E g) of BiOCl/Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4 was 2.48 eV, which was lower than that of BiOCl. The saturation magnetization ( Ms), coercive force ( Hc), and remanent magnetization ( Mr) of BiOCl/Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4 were respectively 4.64 emu g-1, 50.12 G and 0.09 emu g-1, indicating a good resistance to demagnetization and paramagnetism. The optimum synthesis condition of BiOCl/Mn x Zn1- x Fe2O4 was obtained by orthogonal experiments, and the degradation ratio of RhB with the photocatalyst was 99.6% at 30 min. After four cycles, the degradation ratio of RhB with the recovered photocatalyst was still above 83%.

  13. Protonation State of MnFe and FeFe Cofactors in a Ligand-Binding Oxidase Revealed by X-ray Absorption, Emission, and Vibrational Spectroscopy and QM/MM Calculations.

    PubMed

    Kositzki, Ramona; Mebs, Stefan; Marx, Jennifer; Griese, Julia J; Schuth, Nils; Högbom, Martin; Schünemann, Volker; Haumann, Michael

    2016-10-03

    Enzymes with a dimetal-carboxylate cofactor catalyze reactions among the top challenges in chemistry such as methane and dioxygen (O2) activation. Recently described proteins bind a manganese-iron cofactor (MnFe) instead of the classical diiron cofactor (FeFe). Determination of atomic-level differences of homo- versus hetero-bimetallic cofactors is crucial to understand their diverse redox reactions. We studied a ligand-binding oxidase from the bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus (R2lox) loaded with a FeFe or MnFe cofactor, which catalyzes O2 reduction and an unusual tyrosine-valine ether cross-link formation, as revealed by X-ray crystallography. Advanced X-ray absorption, emission, and vibrational spectroscopy methods and quantum chemical and molecular mechanics calculations provided relative Mn/Fe contents, X-ray photoreduction kinetics, metal-ligand bond lengths, metal-metal distances, metal oxidation states, spin configurations, valence-level degeneracy, molecular orbital composition, nuclear quadrupole splitting energies, and vibrational normal modes for both cofactors. A protonation state with an axial water (H2O) ligand at Mn or Fe in binding site 1 and a metal-bridging hydroxo group (μOH) in a hydrogen-bonded network is assigned. Our comprehensive picture of the molecular, electronic, and dynamic properties of the cofactors highlights reorientation of the unique axis along the Mn-OH2 bond for the Mn1(III) Jahn-Teller ion but along the Fe-μOH bond for the octahedral Fe1(III). This likely corresponds to a more positive redox potential of the Mn(III)Fe(III) cofactor and higher proton affinity of its μOH group. Refined model structures for the Mn(III)Fe(III) and Fe(III)Fe(III) cofactors are presented. Implications of our findings for the site-specific metalation of R2lox and performance of the O2 reduction and cross-link formation reactions are discussed.

  14. Plasma-Sprayed High Entropy Alloys: Microstructure and Properties of AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Berndt, Christopher C.; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Anupam, Ameey; S, Praveen; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Murty, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a new class of materials that present novel phase structures and properties. Apart from bulk material consolidation methods such as casting and sintering, HEAs can also be deposited as a surface coating. In this work, thermal sprayed HEA coatings are investigated that may be used as an alternative bond coat material for a thermal barrier coating system. Nanostructured HEAs that were based on AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi were prepared by ball milling and then plasma sprayed. Splat studies were assessed to optimise the appropriate thermal spray parameters and spray deposits were prepared. After mechanical alloying, aluminum-based and manganese-based HEA powders revealed contrary prominences of BCC and FCC phases in their X-ray diffraction patterns. However, FCC phase was observed as the major phase present in both of the plasma-sprayed AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings. There were also minor oxide peaks detected, which can be attributed to the high temperature processing. The measured porosity levels for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings were 9.5 ± 2.3 and 7.4 ± 1.3 pct, respectively. Three distinct phase contrasts, dark gray, light gray and white, were observed in the SEM images, with the white regions corresponding to retained multicomponent HEAs. The Vickers hardness (HV0.3kgf) was 4.13 ± 0.43 and 4.42 ± 0.60 GPa for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi, respectively. Both type of HEAs coatings exhibited anisotropic mechanical behavior due to their lamellar, composite-type microstructure.

  15. High-field magnetization of heusler alloys Fe2 XY ( X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; Y = Al, Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    The magnetization curves of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2 XY (where X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are transition 3 d elements and Y = Al, Si are the s and p elements of the third period of the Periodic Table) have been measured at T = 4.2 K in the field range H ≤ 70 kOe. It has been shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  16. Microbially-induced Fe and Mn oxides in condensed pelagic sediments (Middle-Upper Jurassic, Western Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préat, A.; Mamet, B.; Di Stefano, P.; Martire, L.; Kolo, K.

    2011-06-01

    This article presents a petrographic comparison of the Rosso Ammonitico facies of Western Sicily and the original Rosso Ammonitico Veronese of Northern Italy based on a total of 27 sections. The Rosso Ammonitico has been the subject of numerous controversies that range from bathyal to shallow-water platform sedimentation. Therefore it seemed interesting to verify if the term Rosso Ammonitico has the same geologic connotation from region to region. The Middle-Upper Jurassic Rosso Ammonitico of Western Sicily is a condensed succession formed during a period of extensional synsedimentary tectonics related to the spreading of the Ionian Ocean. Slope-to-basin or pelagic carbonate deposits characterize the sedimentation which consists of reddish mudstones and wackestones. The abundant fauna is composed of radiolarians, protoglobigerinids, Saccocoma, Bositra associated with ammonites. A few ferruginous hardgrounds, Fe-Mn oxide crusts and Mn-coated condensation horizons are also present. The red matrices contain abundant Fe-Mn encrusted, microbored and bioeroded bioclasts. Sporadic Fe-Mn oncolites composed of amorphous Mn-minerals and goethite are also conspicuous. The matrix, as well as the shells and the fillings of the complex associated veinlets, are frequently altered into calcite microsparite. Submicronic iron bacterial and fungal filaments associated with mineralized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are observed in the matrix. They record dysaerobic microenvironments at or near the sediment-water interfaces. Early mineralized discontinuities enhanced by subsequent pressure dissolution are reported in the succession. Mn-(Ni) bacterial filaments are exceptionally observed in the cortex of the Fe-Mn oncolites. As a consequence of an early lithification, the Mn filaments are poorly preserved. The pigmentation of the rock is due to the dispersion of submicronic oxyhydroxides (now goethite and amorphous iron) formed by bacterial mediation during early diagenesis

  17. The Effect of Interface Texture on Exchange Biasing in Ni(80)Fe(20)/Ir(20)Mn(80) System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung

    2009-01-01

    Exchange-biasing phenomenon can induce an evident unidirectional hysteresis loop shift by spin coupling effect in the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) interface which can be applied in magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM) and recording-head applications. However, magnetic properties are the most important to AFM texturing. In this work, top-configuration exchange-biasing NiFe/IrMn(x A) systems have been investigated with three different conditions. From the high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR X-TEM) and X-ray diffraction results, we conclude that the IrMn (111) texture plays an important role in exchange-biasing field (H(ex)) and interfacial exchange energy (J(k)). H(ex) and J(k) tend to saturate when the IrMn thickness increases. Moreover, the coercivity (H(c)) dependence on IrMn thickness is explained based on the coupling or decoupling effect between the spins of the NiFe and IrMn layers near the NiFe/IrMn interface. In this work, the optimal values for H(ex) and J(k) are 115 Oe and 0.062 erg/cm(2), respectively.

  18. The Effect of Interface Texture on Exchange Biasing in Ni80Fe20/Ir20Mn80System

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Exchange-biasing phenomenon can induce an evident unidirectional hysteresis loop shift by spin coupling effect in the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) interface which can be applied in magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM) and recording-head applications. However, magnetic properties are the most important to AFM texturing. In this work, top-configuration exchange-biasing NiFe/IrMn(x Å) systems have been investigated with three different conditions. From the high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR X-TEM) and X-ray diffraction results, we conclude that the IrMn (111) texture plays an important role in exchange-biasing field (Hex) and interfacial exchange energy (Jk).HexandJktend to saturate when the IrMn thickness increases. Moreover, the coercivity (Hc) dependence on IrMn thickness is explained based on the coupling or decoupling effect between the spins of the NiFe and IrMn layers near the NiFe/IrMn interface. In this work, the optimal values forHexandJkare 115 Oe and 0.062 erg/cm2, respectively. PMID:20596365

  19. Mineralization of Fe/Mn-precipitates From Hot Springs in the Sanbe Volcanic Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Kimura, H.

    2007-12-01

    Mt. Sanbe is an active volcano located in western Japan. At southwest slope of Mt.Sanbe, hot springs are discharged with flow rate of 2000 liter per minute, which are accomapnied by iron and manganese precipitates. We studied chemical composition of hot spring waters by IC, ICP-AES and AA analysis, and of precipitates by XRF analysis. Water chemistry of the main hot spring (t= 30-39 °C) is Na-Cl type and contains significant iron (= 5.6-7.5 mg/l) and manganese (= 1.1-1.6 mg/l). Around the main spring discharge, both ferrihydrites (contains 67-76% of Fe) and manganese oxides (contains 71-79% of Mn) are precipitated. About 30 to 100m east from the main hot spring, black precipitates mainly consists of manganese oxides (contains 5-83% of Mn) are distributed in the area of 90 m × 45 m. Cold spring waters (t= 12-20 °C) in this area also contains Mn (0.1-0.6 mg/l), but their Fe concentration was under detection limit. Relative chemical comoposition of the cold spring waters are similar to that of the main hot spring, which implies dilution with groundwater. Total bacterial count measured by DAPI staining was 16,000-37,000 cells/ml in these waters. In order to estimate microbial activity, we conducted manganese oxidizing experiments. The oxidation rate was estiamted as 4-5 nM per hour for the experiment in which 5 g of fresh manganese wad was added to 200ml of the 0.20 μm filtered hot spring water. This rapid oxidation rate would suggest that microbial activity plays important role in manganese precipitation from the Sanbe hot/cold spring waters.

  20. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Li, C.

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.

  1. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; ...

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.« less

  2. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Li, C.

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.

  3. Characterization of Fe-Mn concretions from a Luvisol irrigated by mine water in a semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Kribek, Bohdan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Sracek, Ondra; Vanek, Ales; Penizek, Vit; Mapani, Ben; Kamona, Fred

    2016-04-01

    We studied Fe-Mn concretions from Cutanic Luvisol in the northern part of Namibia, where agricultural fields are irrigated with the drainage water from the Kombat Cu-Pb-Zn mine (pH 7, metal concentrations in ug/L: Fe 7, Mn 10, Zn 7, Cu 18). Concretions (0.5-2 cm in size) were mostly found towards the basis of the soil profile (BC horizon, depth 100-120 cm). Comparisons with the bulk chemical composition of the soil matrix indicated that Fe-Mn concretions were enriched with metals, metalloids and other trace elements (enrichment factor EFs varied in the range 1.3-6.4). Concentrations of the elements of interest in the Fe-Mn concretions were the following (mg/kg): As 23.1, Ba 3840, Cd 6.83, Cu 450, Pb 597, Zn 137. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that concretions were composed of quartz, goethite, hematite, illite/mica, lithiophorite (LiAl2Mn3O6(OH)6) and birnessite. The SEM observation confirmed that internal structure with concentric rings reflecting seasonal changes in redox conditions occurred within the concretions. Spot analyses and X-ray elemental maps performed using EDS spectrometry showed that concentrations of metalloids were rather low and slightly elevated Ba concentrations were only observed within the Mn-oxide zones. Selective extractions were used to understand the binding of trace elements onto individual target phases. Whereas Mn-oxide phases sequestered the majority of Cd (up to 98%), Ba, Pb and REEs (up to 78%), other metals such as Cu and Zn exhibited much lower values (47-65%) and were also significantly bound to Fe-oxides. The pH-static leaching test conducted in the pH range of 2-12 indicated that the majority of trace elements were mostly leached under acidic conditions with the exception of As, which was highly solubilized at pH 12 (up to 17%). Whereas Ba, Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly released under acidic conditions (up to 12%), the leaching of Pb was almost negligible over the entire pH range. Our results show that Fe-Mn

  4. NaxMV(PO4)3 (M = Mn, Fe, Ni) Structure and Properties for Sodium Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Xue, Leigang; Lü, Xujie; Gao, Hongcai; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Fu, Gengtao; Cui, Zhiming; Zhu, Ye; Goodenough, John B

    2016-12-14

    NASICON (Na(+) super ionic conductor) structures of NaxMV(PO4)3 (M = Mn, Fe, Ni) were prepared, characterized by aberration-corrected STEM and synchrotron radiation, and demonstrated to be durable cathode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. In Na4MnV(PO4)3, two redox couples of Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) and V(4+)/V(3+) are accessed with two voltage plateaus located at 3.6 and 3.3 V and a capacity of 101 mAh g(-1) at 1 C. Furthermore, the Na4MnV(PO4)3 cathode delivers a high initial efficiency of 97%, long durability over 1000 cycles, and good rate performance to 10 C. The robust framework structure and stable electrochemical performance makes it a reliable cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn50Fe50-xSnx (x=10, 15 and 20) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanmoy; Agarwal, Sandeep; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report measurements and comparisons of the structural, magnetic and transport properties of a series of Mn50Fe50-xSnx alloys (x=10, 15 and 20). We found that while the lower Sn composition sample stabilized in β-Mn-type crystallographic phase, the higher Sn composition alloys contained both β-Mn-type as well as Mn3Sn-type hexagonal DO19 phases. Through d.c. and a.c. magnetic property measurements we have established the existence of a ferromagnetic transition near room temperature followed by a spin reorientation at lower temperature in the Mn3Sn-type crystallographic phase of the alloys. Our resistivity study also revealed an interesting behavior with negative temperature coefficient (TCR) in these alloys.

  6. Tuning the period of elastic MnAs/GaAs(001) α -β pattern by Fe deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, F.; Spezzani, C.; Breitwieser, R.; Marangolo, M.; Eddrief, M.; Sacchi, M.; Etgens, V. H.

    2010-12-01

    The α -β elastic striped pattern of MnAs/GaAs(001) is shown to be perturbed by Fe overlayer growth. After nanometric Fe thin film deposition, the elastic pattern is still present in the 10-45 °C temperature range, but the period of the pattern increases by up to 40% for MnAs epilayers 70 to 400 nm thick. This observation can be interpreted within a simple model calculation of the pattern elastic energy, providing quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Tuning the period of elastic MnAs/GaAs(001) {alpha}-{beta} pattern by Fe deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, F.; Marangolo, M.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Spezzani, C.; Breitwieser, R.; Sacchi, M.

    2010-12-20

    The {alpha}-{beta} elastic striped pattern of MnAs/GaAs(001) is shown to be perturbed by Fe overlayer growth. After nanometric Fe thin film deposition, the elastic pattern is still present in the 10-45 deg. C temperature range, but the period of the pattern increases by up to 40% for MnAs epilayers 70 to 400 nm thick. This observation can be interpreted within a simple model calculation of the pattern elastic energy, providing quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Wear behavior of self-lubricating Fe-Cr-C-Mn-Cu alloys: Smearing effect of second phase particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Byung Sik; Shin, Gyeong Su; Park, Myung Chul; Lee, Deok Hyun; Kim, Seon Jin

    2011-08-01

    Newly developed self-lubricating Fe-Cr-C-Mn-Cu cast composite alloys were investigated to study the role of Cu-rich second phase particles which smear on the wear surface during sliding. The wear resistance of the material was improved with an increasing copper concentration. The improved wear resistance was probably obtained by forming a protective tribofilm, which prevented metal-to-metal contact through smearing of the embedded Cu-rich second phase particles. This formation of protective oxide films during sliding is likely to improve the wear resistance of austenitic Fe-Cr-C-Mn-Cu cast composite alloys.

  9. Electronic structure and thermoelectric property of Co2YGe (Y=Mn, Fe) Heusler compounds: a first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Himanshu; Rai, D. P.; Sandeep; Thapa, R. K.

    2016-10-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of Co2YGe (Y=Mn, Fe) Heusler compounds have been studied by first principle density functional theory and compared with the known experimental and theoretical results. Results of the density of states (DOS) and band structures shows the half-metallicity of the Heusler alloy Co2MnGe, whereas the Heusler alloy Co2FeGe fails to give half-metallicity when treated with GGA. The ZT value calculated for these materials is much below the benchmark value 1.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  11. The effects of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Fanling; Qiu, Jingwen; Baker, Ian; ...

    2015-08-20

    In this paper, As-cast Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21, which consists of aligned, 50 nm, (Ni, Al)-rich B2, and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases, was annealed at a variety of temperatures up to 1423 K and the microstructure and mechanical properties were examined. It was shown that the as-cast microstructure arises from a eutectoid transformation at ~1300 K. Annealing at temperatures ≤1073 K produces β-Mn-structured precipitates and hardness values up to 816 HV, while annealing at temperatures >1073 K leads to dramatic coarsening of the two-phase B2/f.c.c. microstructure (up to 5.5 µm after 50 h at 1273 K), but does not lead to β-Mn precipitation.more » Interestingly, annealing at temperatures >1073 K delays the onset of β-Mn precipitation during subsequent anneals at lower temperatures. Coarsening the B2/f.c.c. lamellar structure by annealing at higher temperatures softens it and leads to increases in ductility from fracture before yield to ~8 % elongation. Finally, the presence of β-Mn precipitates makes the very fine, brittle B2/f.c.c. microstructures even more brittle, but significant ductility (8.4 % elongation) is possible even with β-Mn precipitates present if the B2/f.c.c. matrix is coarse and, hence, more ductile.« less

  12. Effect of Carbon Doping on the Structure and Magnetic Phase Transition in (Mn,Fe2(P,Si))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thang, N. V.; Yibole, H.; Miao, X. F.; Goubitz, K.; van Eijck, L.; van Dijk, N. H.; Brück, E.

    2017-08-01

    Given the potential applications of (Mn,Fe2(P,Si))-based materials for room-temperature magnetic refrigeration, several research groups have carried out fundamental studies aimed at understanding the role of the magneto-elastic coupling in the first-order magnetic transition and further optimizing this system. Inspired by the beneficial effect of the addition of boron on the magnetocaloric effect of (Mn,Fe2(P,Si))-based materials, we have investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition on the structural properties and the magnetic phase transition of Mn_{1.25}Fe_{0.70}P_{0.50}Si_{0.50}C_z and Mn_{1.25}Fe_{0.70}P_{0.55}Si_{0.45}C_z compounds by x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements in order to find an additional control parameter to further optimize the performance of these materials. All samples crystallize in the hexagonal Fe_2P-type structure (space group P-62m), suggesting that C doping does not affect the phase formation. It is found that the Curie temperature increases, while the thermal hysteresis and the isothermal magnetic entropy change decrease by adding carbon. Room-temperature neutron diffraction experiments on Mn_{1.25}Fe_{0.70}P_{0.55}Si_{0.45}C_z compounds reveal that the added C substitutes P/Si on the 2 c site and/or occupies the 6 k interstitial site of the hexagonal Fe_2P-type structure.

  13. Strikingly dissimilar effect of Mn and Zn dopants imposed on local structural distortion of Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Dong, Peng; Chu, Wangsheng; Xu, Wei; Wen, Haihu; Marcelli, Augusto; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-05-01

    To clarify the contrasting impurity effects of Mn and Zn dopants on the critical temperature of optimally doped Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductors, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was implemented at the Fe and As K-edge. In Mn-doped compounds a gradual deviation of the symmetric FeAs4 tetrahedron and weakening of the Fe-As bond was observed. Conversely, in Zn-doped compounds the perfect FeAs4 tetrahedron is maintained and the Fe-As bond is rigid. The local structural details are consistent with the development of superconductivity in these two systems, suggesting a significant role played by the topology of the FeAs4 tetrahedron and rigidness of the Fe-As bond in Mn/Zn-doped Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductors.

  14. Mn substitution-driven structural and magnetic phase evolution in Bi1-xSmxFeO3 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, V. A.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Kovetskaya, M. I.; Paixão, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements of the Bi0.9Sm0.1Fe1-yMnyO3 and Bi0.86Sm0.14 Fe1-zMnzO3 (y ≤ 0.4, z ≤ 0.3) series were carried out in order to follow the effect of Mn doping on the room temperature crystal structure and magnetic properties of Sm-substituted BiFeO3. Initially polar rhombohedral Bi0.9Sm0.1FeO3 compound (space group R3c) was shown to undergo the Mn-substitution driven structural transformation into the orthorhombic Pnam phase at y ˜ 0.2. Further increasing of the Mn content stabilizes the modified structural phase demonstrating the features of incommensurability. In the Bi0.86Sm0.14Fe1-zMnzO3 series, the initially dominant antipolar orthorhombic Pnam phase transforms toward the nonpolar Pnma structure (z ˜ 0.3). Changes of the main magnetic state (from mixed antiferromagnetic/weak ferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic) were found to correlate with the rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic transition; however, within the compositional range of the orthorhombically distorted compounds, the room temperature spontaneous magnetization rapidly decreases with increasing Mn content.

  15. Preparation and application of Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH for oxidative adsorption of As(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, C.; Yang, H.; Cho, D.; Kim, Y.; Schwartz, F.; Lee, E.; Jeon, B.; Song, H.

    2013-12-01

    Iron oxides are one of the commonly used media for arsenic treatment, but they have significantly low adsorption capacity for As(III) than As(V), rendering limited applicability to treat groundwater possessing relatively high level of As(III). In this study, we prepared a Mn-substituted iron oxyhydroxide and demonstrated its applicability for enhancing As(III) removal. Four synthetic samples of Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH (MSF) with different ratios of Mn:Fe (0, 10, 30, and 50%) were prepared by oxidative hydrolysis of Fe(II) and Mn(II) salts with very rapid oxidation using H2O2. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement analysis revealed that the crystal structures of MSFs resembles those of feroxyhyte (δ'-FeOOH), with the c unit cell parameter proportionally decreasing with increasing Mn-substitution, resulting in formation of δ-(Fe1-x, Mnx)OOH like structure. Adsorption batch experiments with MSF revealed that As(III) was oxidized into As(V) by surface oxidation of MSF, suggesting Mn-mediated oxidative adsorption of As(III). This oxidative removal of As(III) is consistent with previous studies that reported removal of As(III) by iron minerals containing MnOOH or reduced species of Mn. However, the adsorption capacities decreased from 20.0 to 10.8 mg/g with increasing Mn ratio from 0 to 50%. This indicates the loss of available adsorption sites by increased occupancy of Mn on the surface sites. Arsenic removal by iron oxides has been reported to occur via co-precipitation of As(III) and an inner-sphere complexation of As(V) that involves Fe atoms on the surface. Therefore, it appears Mn-substitution on Fe is for the decrease of arsenic sorption.. The adsorption of arsenic on MSF containing 10% Mn exhibited 93.8 % removal within the first 70 min and reaching sorption equilibrium after 530 min for initial As(III) concentration of 19.5 mg/L. Adsorption capacities of MSF were 18.3, 44.5, and 55.3 mg/g for the initial concentrations of 19.5, 52.7 and 96.7 mg

  16. Mechanism of N2O formation during the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over Mn-Fe spinel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shijian; Xiong, Shangchao; Liao, Yong; Xiao, Xin; Qi, Feihong; Peng, Yue; Fu, Yuwu; Shan, Wenpo; Li, Junhua

    2014-09-02

    The mechanism of N2O formation during the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction reaction (SCR) over Mn-Fe spinel was studied. The in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and transient reaction studies demonstrated that the Eley-Rideal mechanism (i.e., the reaction of adsorbed NH3 species with gaseous NO) and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism (i.e., the reaction of adsorbed NH3 species with adsorbed NOx species) both contributed to N2O formation. However, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was much less than that through the Eley-Rideal mechanism. The ratio of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism remarkably increased; therefore, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel decreased with the decrease of the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV). As the gaseous NH3 concentration increased, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel increased because of the promotion of NO reduction through the Eley-Rideal mechanism. Meanwhile, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel decreased with the increase of the gaseous NO concentration because the formation of NH on Mn-Fe spinel was restrained. Therefore, N2O selectivity of NO reduction over Mn-Fe spinel was related to the GHSV and concentrations of reactants.

  17. Free-standing and single-crystalline Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires with room-temperature ferromagnetism and excellent magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsiu; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Tang, Jianshi; Lin, Ching-Chun; Hou, Te-Chien; Jiang, Xiaowei; Wang, Kang L; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2012-06-26

    High-aspect-ratio Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires with room-temperature ferromagnetism were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method in one step. This is the first report of ternary silicide nanowires using magnetic Mn ions to partially replace metal sites in the host matrix. Here we report the excellent magnetic characteristics of Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires, which exhibit strong ferromagnetism at room temperature and high magnetoresistance (MR) variation. As-synthesized Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires show a hyperbranched morphology and a spin-disorder behavior. The strong spin interaction in Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires, induced by the substitution of Fe sublattices for magnetic Mn ions, was revealed in the hysteresis loops. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curves of Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires are much less sensitive to the temperature variation from 10 to 300 K than those of FeSi nanowires. Remarkably, the excellent MR performance, -41.6% at 25 K with a magnetic field of 9 T, was demonstrated in an individual Fe(0.88)Mn(0.12)Si nanowire.

  18. The anomalous expansion of lattice parameter as a function of temperature for an Fe-24Mn alloy during {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} martensitic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Qin, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, B.; Hu, Z.

    2000-02-14

    In the present letter, the authors will report their experiment on an Fe-24Mn alloy using high temperature XRD and dilation. A relation between the lattice parameter of austenite and temperature during {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} martensitic transformation was determined. It is expected to be helpful in the understanding of {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn based alloys.

  19. Fast recovery of the stripe magnetic order by Mn/Fe substitution in F-doped LaFeAsO superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, M.; Carretta, P.; Allodi, G.; De Renzi, R.; Gastiasoro, M. N.; Andersen, B. M.; Materne, P.; Klauss, H.-H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Sanna, S.

    2017-05-01

    75As nuclear magnetic (NMR) and quadrupolar (NQR) resonance were used, together with Mössbauer spectroscopy, to investigate the magnetic state induced by Mn for Fe substitutions in F-doped LaFe1 -xMnxAsO superconductors. The results show that 0.5% of Mn doping is enough to suppress the superconducting transition temperature Tc from 27 K to zero and to recover the magnetic structure observed in the parent undoped LaFeAsO. Also the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition of the parent compound is recovered by introducing Mn, as evidenced by a sharp drop of the NQR frequency. The NQR spectra also show that a charge localization process is at play in the system. Theoretical calculations using a realistic five-band model show that correlation-enhanced RKKY exchange interactions between nearby Mn ions stabilize the observed stripe magnetic order. These results give compelling evidence that F-doped LaFeAsO is a strongly correlated electron system at the verge of an electronic instability.

  20. Uniaxial anisotropy and temperature driven magnetization reversal of Fe deposited on a MnAs/GaAs(001) magnetic template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, Maurizio; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Spezzani, Carlo; Coelho, Leticia; Breitwieser, Romain; Milano, Julian; Etgens, Victor H.

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the magnetic behavior of a 5nm thick Fe layer deposited on a ferromagnetic MnAs/GaAs(001) template by using resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays. The Fe film displays in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and its magnetization can be modified and reversed by fine-tuning the substrate temperature around ambient because of the self-organization of the coexisting ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the template.

  1. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, A. M. Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Ohodnicki, P. R.

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to ∼2 kJ/m{sup 3}. Higher anisotropies up to ∼10 kJ/m{sup 3} result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co{sub 80−x−y}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub y}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 14}Si{sub 2} soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to ∼50 kJ/m{sup 3} and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  2. Setting temperature effect in polycrystalline exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Outon, L. E.; Araujo Filho, M. S.; Araujo, R. E.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2013-05-07

    We study the effect of atomic interdiffusion on the exchange bias of polycrystalline IrMn/({sup 57}Fe + CoFe) multilayers due to the thermal setting process of exchange coupling during field annealing. Depth-resolved {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to quantify atomic interdiffusion. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to monitor the variation of exchange bias and magnetisation. It was found that interface sharpness is only affected above {approx}350 Degree-Sign C. Three different stages for the setting of exchange bias can be inferred from our results. At the lower setting temperatures (up to 350 Degree-Sign C), the effect of field annealing involves alignment of spins and interfacial coupling due to the setting of both antiferromagnetic (AF) bulk and interface without significant interdiffusion. At a second stage (350-450 Degree-Sign C), where AF ordering dominates over diffusion effects, atomic migration and increased setting of AF spins co-exist to produce a peak in exchange bias field and coercivity. On a third stage (>450 Degree-Sign C), severe chemical intermixing reduces significantly the F/AF coupling.

  3. Contributions of Co and Fe orbitals to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of MgO/CoFeB bilayers with Ta, W, IrMn, and Ti underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghoon; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Ishibashi, Mio; Yamada, Kihiro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Okuno, Takaya; Kotani, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kim, Kab-Jin; Moriyama, Takahiro; Park, Byong-Guk; Ono, Teruo

    2017-07-01

    We study the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the CoFeB/MgO bilayers in contact with W, Ta, IrMn, and Ti, which have been suggested for use as the spin-orbit-torque-related underlayers. The saturation magnetization of CoFeB depends on the underlayer material used owing to the formation of a dead layer that affects the PMA strength of each film. The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement reveals that interfacial intermixing suppresses only the perpendicular orbital moment of Fe, whereas it simultaneously suppresses both the perpendicular and in-plane orbital moments of Co.

  4. NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7: novel single crystal pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, M. B.; Krizan, J. W.; Plumb, K. W.; McQueen, T. M.; Cava, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of three previously unreported A2B2F7 pyrochlore materials, NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7 are presented. In these compounds, either S  =  2Fe2+ or S  =  5/2Mn2+ is on the B site, while nonmagnetic Na and Ca (Na and Sr) are disordered on the A site. The materials, which were grown as crystals via the floating zone method, display high effective magnetic moments and large Curie-Weiss thetas. Despite these characteristics, no ordering transition is detected. However, freezing of the magnetic spins, characterized by peaks in the susceptibility or specific heat, is observed at very low temperatures. The empirical frustration index, f  =  -θ CW/T f, for the materials are 36 (NaSrMn2F7), 27 (NaSrFe2F7), and 19 (NaCaFe2F7). AC susceptibility, DC susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements are used to characterize the observed spin glass behavior. The results suggest that the compounds are frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. The magnetic phenomena that these fluoride pyrochlores exhibit, in addition to their availability as relatively large single crystals, make them promising candidates for the study of geometric magnetic frustration.

  5. Ferrite nanoparticles Ni- ZnFe2O4 , Mn- ZnFe2O4 and Fe2O4 in the flow of ferromagnetic nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Noor; Nadeem, Sohail

    2017-09-01

    The performance of convective heat transfer is elevated in boundary layer flow regions via nanoparticles. A magnetic dipole in the presence of ferrite nanoparticles plays a vital role in controlling the thermal and momentum boundary layers. In view of this, the impacts of a magnetic dipole on the nano boundary layer, laminar, and steady flow of an incompressible ferromagnetic NiZnFe2O4-C2H6O2 (nickel zinc ferrite-ethylene glycol), MnZnFe2O4-C2H6O2 (manganese zinc ferrite-ethylene glycol), and Fe2O4-C2H6O2 (magnetite ferrite-ethylene glycol) nanofluids are characterized for the first time in the present analysis. Flow is caused by a linear stretching sheet. Fourier's law of heat conduction is hired for the evaluation of heat flux. Impacts of emerging parameters on the magneto-thermomechanical coupling are analyzed numerically. It is seen that the characteristics of magneto-thermomechanical interaction decelerate the movements of fluid particles, thereby strengthen the skin friction coefficient and reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. Further, it is evident that a solid volume fraction has increasing behaviour on the rate of heat transfer in the boundary layer. Comparisons with available results for specific cases are found in excellent agreement.

  6. High-pressure synthesis of BiFeO3-BiAlO3 and BiFeO3-MnTiO3 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Gen; Kusaba, Keiji; Miyawaki, Tetsuya; Niwa, Ken; Asano, Hidefumi; Hasegawa, Masashi

    2013-06-01

    There have been so many investigations for high-pressure synthesis of perovskite-type oxides in the material science field. Multiferroic material is particularly attracted in the field of electronic device materials. BiFeO3 (ferroelectric antiferromagnet) is known as the only Bi-contained perovskite which can be synthesized at ambient pressure. We investigated solid solution systems of BiFeO3-BiAlO3 and BiFeO3-MnTiO3 under high pressure and high temperature to synthesize a new multiferroic compound in the present study. Chemical reagents of simple oxides were mixed with a mortar as a starting material. The mixture was rapped with a gold foil, and it encased in a cubic pressure-medium with a graphite furnace. High pressure experiments were carried out using two DIA-type high pressure apparatuses installed in Nagoya University. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of all recovered specimens were collected using Cu-K α radiation and magnetic susceptibilities for some of the recovered specimens were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. In the system of BiFeO3-BiAlO3, the BiFeO3-type solid solution was only obtained in the both Fe- and Al-rich composition. While in the system of BiFeO3-MnTiO3, no solid solutions were observed.

  7. Ab initio prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys: The case of Ni/Mn-doped ferromagnetic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guisheng; Schönecker, Stephan; Hertzman, Staffan; Hu, Qing-Miao; Johansson, Börje; Kwon, Se Kyun; Vitos, Levente

    2015-06-01

    First-principles alloy theory, formulated within the exact muffin-tin orbital method in combination with the coherent-potential approximation, is used to study the mechanical properties of ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe1 -xMx alloys (M = Mn or Ni, 0 ≤x ≤0.1 ). We consider several physical parameters accessible from ab initio calculations and their combinations in various phenomenological models to compare the effect of Mn and Ni on the properties of Fe. Alloying is found to slightly alter the lattice parameters and produce noticeable influence on elastic moduli. Both Mn and Ni decrease the surface energy and the unstable stacking fault energy associated with the {110 } surface facet and the {110 }<111 > slip system, respectively. Nickel is found to produce larger effect on the planar fault energies than Mn. The semiempirical ductility criteria by Rice and Pugh consistently predict that Ni enhances the ductility of Fe but give contradictory results in the case of Mn doping. The origin of the discrepancy between the two criteria is discussed and an alternative measure of the ductile-brittle behavior based on the theoretical cleavage strength and single-crystal shear modulus G {110 }<111 > is proposed.

  8. Adsorption of Pb, Cd to Fe, Mn oxides in natural freshwater surface coatings developed in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Dong, De-ming; Yang, Fan; Li, Yu; Hua, Xiu-yi; Lü, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2005-01-01

    Metal oxides( Fe, Mn oxides) in natural surface coatings(biofilms and associated minerals) are believed to play a significant role in the fate and transport of trace metal in aquatic environments. Seasonal variation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in surface coatings, which were developed periodically on glass slides in Nanhu Lake, Jilin Province, China over the time frame of three seasons, was investigated in order to understand the influence of metal oxides on Pb and Cd adsorption to heterogeneous surface coating materials (biofilm). Pb and Cd adsorption was measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25 degrees C and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. In general, components in the surface coatings varied greatly with seasons altering and obtained higher concentrations in summer while the content of iron oxides always exceeded that of manganese oxides. Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd and components in the surface coatings developed periodically indicated that Pb phase association with Mn oxides and Cd phase association with Fe oxides as well as Mn oxides were statistically significant. Effect of Mn oxides on Cd adsorption was confirmed in view of its higher content in the surface coatings. The importance of ferromanganese oxides for Pb and Cd adsorption to the natural surface coatings developed in different seasons was evidenced.

  9. Effect of Fe substitution on the structure and magnetocaloric effect of Mn5-xFexGeSi2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. W.; Yan, J. L.; Feng, E. L.; Tang, G. W.; Zhou, K. W.

    2017-01-01

    The structure and magnetocaloric effect of Mn5-xFexGeSi2 compounds were studied. Analysis of X-ray powder diffraction and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy revealed that Mn5-xFexGeSi2 alloys with x<1 crystallize in the Mn5Si3-type structure (space group P63/mcm), maintaining the structure of Mn5Ge3; and alloys with x=1.5 and 2 consist of the major Mn5Si3-type phase and the minor Ni2In-type phase (space group P63/mmc). The results of Rietveld refinement showed that the cell parameters for the Mn5Si3-type phase decrease with increasing Fe content. The positive slopes in Arrott plots indicate that a second-order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition occurs. The Curie temperature increases with increasing Fe content from 182 K for x=0.6 to 224 K for x=2. The maximum magnetic entropy change of 3.7 J/(kg K) for x=0.8 was found under a magnetic field change of 0-20 kOe.

  10. Cluster Method Calculation of the Curie Temperature and Exchange Parameters for the Magnetocaloric Compounds MnFeAs x P1 - x (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.65) and Hexagonal MnFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Osvaldo F.

    2013-08-01

    A wealth of experimental and theoretical data on the crystallographic and magnetic properties of the magnetocaloric compounds MnFeAs x P1 - x (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.65) and MnFeAs has become available in the last decade. By analyzing the data and treating the spin interactions with Callen's cluster expansion method, we extrapolate first-principle results for the exchange-coupling constants of MnFeAs to the P-substituted compounds and find Curie temperatures that agree, within 5 % deviation, with experiment. Simulations with different coupling parameters show that T c is weakly dependent on the Fe-Fe interactions. Analysis of lattice expansion as a function of composition shows that changes in the lattice parameters a and c have opposite effects upon the strength of the magnetic interactions between ions. The results indicate that the cluster expansion method provides reliable estimates of magnetic properties, even for metallic compounds characterized by multiple interactions among ions with distinct magnetic moments.

  11. Iron-rich low-cost superalloys. [Cr(15)-Mn(15)-Mo(2)-C(1. 5)-Si(1. 0)-Nb(1. 0)-Fe(bal. ) and Cr(20)-Mn(10)-C(3. 4)-Fe(bal. )

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    An iron-rich low-cost superalloy has been developed in conjunction with United Technologies Research Center under the NASA program, Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials. The alloy, when processed by conventional chill casting, has physical and mechanical properties that compare favorably with existing nickel - and cobalt-based superalloys while containing significantly lower amounts of strategic elements. The composition of the alloy is Cr(15)-Mn(15)-Mo(2)-C(1.5)-Si(1.0)-Nb(1.0)-Fe(bal.), and it can be produced with chromite ore deposits located within the United States. Studies were also made on the properties of Cr(20)-Mn(10)-C(3.4)-Fe(bal.), a eutectic alloy processed by chill casting and directional solidification (D.S.) which produced an aligned microstructure consisting of M/sub 7/C/sub 3/ fibers in an ..gamma..-Fe matrix. This good alignment vanishes when molybdenum or aluminum is added in higher concentrations. Thermal expansion of the M/sub 7/C/sub 3/ (M = Fe, Cr, Mn) carbide lattice was measured up to 800/sup 0/C and found to be highly anisotropic, with the a-axis being the predominant mode of expansion. Repetitive impact-sliding wear experiments performed with the Fe-rich eutectic alloy showed that the directionally solidified microstructure greatly improved the alloy's wear resistance as compared to the chill-cast microstructure and conventional nickel-base superalloys.

  12. Accelerated Oxygen Atom Transfer and C-H Bond Oxygenation by Remote Redox Changes in Fe3 Mn-Iodosobenzene Adducts.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Graham; Carsch, Kurtis M; Gul, Sheraz; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Thompson, Niklas B; Takase, Michael K; Yano, Junko; Agapie, Theodor

    2017-03-24

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of [LFe3 (PhPz)3 OMn((s) PhIO)][OTf]x (3: x=2; 4: x=3), where 4 is one of very few examples of iodosobenzene-metal adducts characterized by X-ray crystallography. Access to these rare heterometallic clusters enabled differentiation of the metal centers involved in oxygen atom transfer (Mn) or redox modulation (Fe). Specifically, (57) Fe Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided unique insights into how changes in oxidation state (Fe(III)2 Fe(II) Mn(II) vs. Fe(III)3 Mn(II) ) influence oxygen atom transfer in tetranuclear Fe3 Mn clusters. In particular, a one-electron redox change at a distal metal site leads to a change in oxygen atom transfer reactivity by ca. two orders of magnitude.

  13. Biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Rice Husk Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiaying; Jiang, Zhao; Shan, Dexin; Lu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural waste, was used as biosorbent for the removal of Iron(II) and Manganese(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The structural and morphological characteristics of RHA and its elemental compositions before and after adsorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration on the removal of Fe(II) and Mn(II) ions. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by RHA. The correlation coefficient (R2) of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models equals 0.995 and 0.901 for Fe(II), 0.9862 and 0.8924 for Mn(II), respectively, so the Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. The mean free energy values evaluated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) onto RHA was physical in nature. Experimental data also showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions complied with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:24982918

  14. Improvement of (31)P NMR spectral resolution by 8-hydroxyquinoline precipitation of paramagnetic Fe and Mn in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Li, Bin; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2010-04-01

    Solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is currently the main method for the characterization of phosphorus (P) forms in environment samples. However, identification and quantification of P compounds may be hampered by poor resolution of spectra caused by paramagnetic Fe and Mn. In this study, a novel technique was developed to improve spectral resolution by removing paramagnetic Fe and Mn from alkaline extracts via 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ) precipitation. Batch experiments showed that both Fe and Mn were effectively removed by the precipitation at pH 9.0, with the removal efficiencies of 83-91% for Fe and 67-78% for Mn from the extracts of five different environmental samples, while little effect was found on concentration of total P. The (31)P NMR analysis of a model P solution showed that addition of 8-HOQ and its precipitation with metal ions did not alter P forms. Further analyses of the five extracts with (31)P NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the 8-HOQ precipitation was an ideal method compared with the present postextraction techniques, such as bicarbonate dithionate (BD), EDTA and Chelex-100 treatments, by improving spectral resolution to a large extent with no detrimental effects on P forms.

  15. The design of an Fe-12Mn-O.2Ti alloy steel for low temperature use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. K.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made to improve the low temperature mechanical properties of Fe-8 approximately 12% Mn-O 2Ti alloy steels. A two-phase(alpha + gamma) tempering in combination with cold working or hot working was identified as an effective treatment. A potential application as a Ni-free cryogenic steel was shown for this alloy. It was also shown that an Fe-8Mn steel could be grain-refined by a purely thermal treatment because of its dislocated martensitic structure and absence of epsilon phase. A significant reduction of the ductile-brittle transition temperature was obtained in this alloy. The nature and origin of brittle fracture in Fe-Mn alloys were also investigated. Two embrittling regions were found in a cooling curve of an Fe-12Mn-O 2Ti steel which was shown to be responsible for intergranular fracture. Auger electron spectroscopy identified no segregation during solution-annealing treatment. Avoiding the embrittling zones by controlled cooling led to a high cryogenic toughness in a solution-annealed condition.

  16. Observed And Modeled Seasonal Trends In Dissolved And Particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, And Zn In A Mining-Impacted Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) in Colorado, an acid-mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream, was chosen to examine the distribution of dissolved and particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the water column, with respect to seasonal hydrologic controls. NFCC is a high-gradient stream with d...

  17. Structural transitions, magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Co(Fe)-doped MnNiSi compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K. Wang, S. G.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, G. D.

    2015-05-07

    The structural transitions, magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Co(Fe)-doped MnNiSi compounds are investigated by x-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic measurements, and first-principles calculations. Results indicate that all samples undergo a martensitic transition from the Ni{sub 2}In-type parent phase to TiNiSi-type orthorhombic phase at high temperatures. The substitution of Co(Fe) for Mn in Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}NiSi (x = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) and Mn{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}NiSi (y = 0.26, 0.30, 0.36, 0.46, and 0.55) samples decreases the structural transition temperature and Curie temperature of martensite. The martensite phases show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with saturation field being basically unchanged with increasing Co(Fe) content, while the saturation magnetization shows a decreasing tendency. The theoretically calculated moments are in good agreement with the experimentally measured results. The orbital hybridizations between different 3d elements are analyzed from the distribution of density of states.

  18. Solidification Microstructure, Segregation, and Shrinkage of Fe-Mn-C Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel by Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Peng; Tang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-06-01

    A 3D cellular automaton finite element model with full coupling of heat, flow, and solute transfer incorporating solidification grain nucleation and growth was developed for a multicomponent system. The predicted solidification process, shrinkage porosity, macrosegregation, grain orientation, and microstructure evolution of Fe-22Mn-0.7C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel match well with the experimental observation and measurement. Based on a new solute microsegregation model using the finite difference method, the thermophysical parameters including solid fraction, thermal conductivity, density, and enthalpy were predicted and compared with the results from thermodynamics and experiment. The effects of flow and solute transfer in the liquid phase on the solidification microstructure of Fe-22Mn-0.7C TWIP steel were compared numerically. Thermal convection decreases the temperature gradient in the liquid steel, leading to the enlargement of the equiaxed zone. Solute enrichment in front of the solid/liquid interface weakens the thermal convection, resulting in a little postponement of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The CET behavior of Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel during solidification was fully described and mathematically quantized by grain morphology statistics for the first time. A new methodology to figure out the CET location by linear regression of grain mean size with least-squares arithmetic was established, by which a composition design strategy for Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel according to solidification microstructure, matrix compactness, and homogeneity was developed.

  19. Site-mixing effect on the XMCD spectrum in double perovskite Bi2FeMnO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Chen, Aiping; McFarland, Brian; Wang, Qiang; Ohldag, Hendrik; Sandberg, Richard; Jia, Quanxi; Yarotski, Dmitry A.; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2016-06-01

    We investigate magnetization in double perovskite multiferroic Bi2FeMnO6 (BFMO) thin film using density functional theory (DFT) simulations, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. The exchange interaction between Fe and Mn sites gives rise to a ferrimagnetic ordering in BFMO. When grown without structural defects, distinct XMCD signal is expected from this system. The site resolved magnetization, thus, can be extracted using XMCD sum rules. Although our theoretical calculations are consistent with this expectation for the ideal BFMO system, experimental measurements find evidence of anomalous peak for the L2 and L3 edges of XMCD signals, and thus, the XMCD sum rules are no longer valid. We theoretically explain this phenomenon by considering both tetragonal (near interface), and monoclinic (bulk) phases of BFMO system, with Fe and Mn ions interchanged between their respective sites. Such site-mixing between magnetic cations are commonly found during the synthesis process. Our DFT calculations of XMCD for site interchanged Fe and Mn ions in the bulk phase (monoclinic) of BFMO are in good agreement with experimental XMCD signal and reproduce the anomalous peak features at L2/L3 edges.

  20. Observed And Modeled Seasonal Trends In Dissolved And Particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, And Zn In A Mining-Impacted Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) in Colorado, an acid-mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream, was chosen to examine the distribution of dissolved and particulate Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the water column, with respect to seasonal hydrologic controls. NFCC is a high-gradient stream with d...

  1. Green Function Calculations of Properties for the Magnetocaloric Layered Structures Based Upon FeMnAsP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Osvaldo F.

    2016-11-01

    The alternating Fe-Mn layered structures of the compounds FeMnAsxP1-x display properties which have been demonstrated experimentally as very promising as far as commercial applications of the magnetocaloric effect are concerned. However, the theoretical literature on this and other families of magnetocaloric compounds still adopts simple molecular-field models in the description of important statistical mechanical properties like the entropy variation that accompanies applied isothermal magnetic field cycling, as well as the temperature variation following adiabatic magnetic field cycles. In the present paper, a random phase approximation Green function theoretical treatment is applied to such structures. The advantages of such approach are well known since the details of the crystal structure are easily incorporated in the model, as well as a precise description of correlations between neighbor spins can be obtained. We focus on a simple one-exchange parameter Heisenberg model, and the observed first-order phase transitions are reproduced by the introduction of a biquadratic term in the Hamiltonian whose origin is related both to the magnetoelastic coupling with the phonon spectrum in these compounds as well as with the values of spins in the Fe and Mn ions. The calculations are compared with experimental magnetocaloric data for the FeMnAsxP1-x compounds. In particular, the magnetic field dependence for the entropy variation at the transition temperature predicted from the Landau theory of continuous phase transitions is reproduced even in the case of discontinuous transitions.

  2. The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline hybrid composite as negative electrode for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Kalimuthu Vijaya; Selvan, Ramakrishnan Kalai

    2015-02-01

    The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite was successfully prepared for the negative electrode in hybrid supercapacitors. The MnFe2O4 particles are synthesized by polymer assisted solution combustion method without any high temperature calcinations. Similarly, the flexible graphene and PANI are prepared by eco-friendly hydrothermal and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The presence of possible functional groups and the existence of individual constituents in the composite were identified through Fourier transform infra-red spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectra. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image reveals that the MnFe2O4 particles are dispersed on the flexible graphene sheet and are wrapped by PANI. The ternary composite electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 241 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2, which was 7.5 times higher than MnFe2O4. The calculated b-value elucidates that the charge storage mechanism in the ternary system is based on the capacitive behavior rather than intercalation. The increase in ratio between capacitive and intercalation current with respect to scan rate corroborates that the pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism is dominant. Further, the fabricated hybrid supercapacitor provides the maximum specific capacitance and energy density of 48.5 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 and 17 Wh kg-1, respectively. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cyclic stability of up to 5000 successive cycles.

  3. [Analysis of the results and methods on proficiency testing of determination of Fe, Mn in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Tian, Peiyao; Xiang, Xinhua; Zhao, Sujuan; Sun, Yan; Mu, Xiaoqun; He, Xiong

    2010-07-01

    To analyse the results and methods on proficiency testing(PT) for determination of Fe, Mn in drinking water and to discuss the influencing factors. With a view to the laboratory for accurate determination of drinking water iron and manganese to provide technical support. 180 labs from 30 provinces (cities), autonomous regions took part in the PT. Based on methods of PT, statistical analysis of the results, to find the causes of dissatisfactory results. According to the results of the report for the first time, the PT showed that 85.56% labs presented satisfactory results of determination of Fe and 87.71% labs presented satisfactory results of determination of Mn. In addition to ICP/MS, it showed that 76.00%, 88.89%, 93.75% respectively presented satisfactory results of the methods of AAS, ICP-AES and chemical of determination of Fe. It showed that 79.23%, 94.29%, 72.73% respectively presented satisfactory results of the methods of chemical, AAS and ICP-AES of determination of Mn. The initial results of 37 labs had dissatisfactory. Results of statistics showed that iron, manganese at the same time [ZB] > or = 3 for the 11 labs. Most of the labs that took part in the PT have good competence in analyzing Fe, Mn. The main reasons of the dissatisfactory results were larger systematic errors, experimental blank, matrix interference and feeble control ability of the key point of the experiment.

  4. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Mn and Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, C. Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K.

    2015-08-15

    Mn and Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by a simple precipitation method. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. XRD analysis showed the cubic structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of interconnected nanoparticles. Mn and Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} showed broad absorption in the visible region compared to undoped sample and the band gap values are red shifted. Five Raman active modes were observed from the Raman spectra. FTIR spectra confirmed the spinel structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the doping of Mn and Fe shifts the vibrational modes to lower wave number region. The magnetic measurements confirmed that Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} shows a little ferromagnetic behavior compared to undoped and Mn-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which could be related to the uncompensated surface spins and the finite size effects.

  5. High-field magnetization of band ferromagnets Co2 YAl ( Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Korolev, A. V.; Weber, H. W.

    2016-12-01

    The temperature dependences of the magnetization of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Co2 YAl, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni have been studied at H = 50 kOe in the range 2 K < T < 1100 K. It is shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O3 nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, F. A.; Pedra, P. P.; Filho, J. L. S.; Duque, J. G. S.; Meneses, C. T.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic and structural properties have been investigated in La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O3 nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction measurements allied to Rietveld method confirm the formation of LaCrO3, LaFeO3 and LaMnO3 nanoparticles with crystal structure orthorhombic (Pbnm), orthorhombic (Pnma) and rhombohedral (R-3c), respectively. We also verified an decreasing in the average crystallite size from 73 to 26 nm, depending of the transition metal. The magnetic measurements reveal an antiferromagnetic behavior for the LaCrO3 sample with TN~289 K, and a weak ferromagnetic ordering for the LaMnO3 sample with Tc~200 K.

  7. Magnetic LaMnO3/Fe3O4 as reusable catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, Y. D.; Afifah, N.; Saleh, R.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, LaMnO3/Fe3O4 nanocomposites with different molar ratios (1:1, 1:0.5, 1:0.3, 1:0.1, and 1:0.05) have been successfully synthesized using the co-precipitation method. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated using visible light irradiation. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model of organic pollutant. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity and stability than pure LaMnO3 under visible light irradiation. The result showed that LaMnO3/Fe3O4 with the molar ratio of 1:0.5 showed superior photocatalytic activity than others. The active species on photocatalytic activity was investigated by measuring the photocatalytic degradation in the presence of scavenger.

  8. Cyclic Degradation Behavior of < 001 \\rangle -Oriented Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Single Crystals in Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Kriegel, M. J.; Krooß, P.; Martin, S.; Klemm, V.; Weidner, A.; Chumlyakov, Y.; Biermann, H.; Rafaja, D.; Niendorf, T.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, functional fatigue behavior of a near 〈001〉-oriented Fe-Mn-Al-Ni single crystal was investigated under tensile load. An incremental strain test up to 3.5% strain and cyclic tests up to 25 cycles revealed rapid pseudoelastic degradation. Progressive microstructural degradation was studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy. The results show a partially inhibited reactivation of previously formed martensite and proceeding activation of untransformed areas in subsequent cycles. The preferentially formed martensite variants were identified by means of Schmid factor calculation and the Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. Post mortem transmission electron microscopy investigations shed light on the prevailing degradation mechanisms. Different types of dislocations were found promoting the progressive degradation during cyclic loading.

  9. Investigations of a nanostructured FeMnSi shape memory alloy produced via severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Gheorghe; Gurau, Carmela; Sampath, Vedamanickam; Bujoreanu, Leandru Gheorghe

    2016-11-01

    Low-cost iron-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) show great potential for engineering applications. The developments of new processing techniques have recently enabled the production of nanocrystalline materials with improved properties. These developments have opened avenues for newer applications for SMAs. The influence of severe plastic deformation induced by the high-speed high-pressure torsion (HSHPT) process on the microstructural evolution of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr alloy was investigated. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of the alloy revealed the existence of nanoscale grains with an abundance of stacking faults. The high density of dislocations characteristic of severe plastic deformation was not observed in this alloy. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ɛ-martensite with an HCP crystal structure and γ-phase with an FCC structure.

  10. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; ...

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ ofmore » the tested alloy.« less

  11. Spin transport properties based on spin gapless semiconductor CoFeMnSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiangchao; Feng, Yulin; Yao, Kailun; Gao, G. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Spin gapless semiconductors have been regarded as the most promising candidates for spin injection materials due to the complete (100%) spin polarization and the conductivity between half-metals and semiconductors. To explore the potential spintronic applications of the quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi (CFMS), a recently fabricated spin gapless semiconductor with a high Curie temperature of 620 K, we design the GaAs/CFMS heterostructure and the CFMS/GaAs/CFMS magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). It is found from the first-principles calculations combined with nonequilibrium Green's function that the heterostructure exhibits an excellent spin filtering effect and spin diode effect and the MTJ has a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio (up to 2 × 103), which are explained from the calculated spin-dependent band structure and transmission spectrum. These perfect spin transport characteristics make CFMS a promising candidate for spintronic applications.

  12. Study of fatigue crack growth rate for austenitic Fe-Al-Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.P.; Lee, S.C.; Tang, G.H.

    1995-10-01

    A study was made of the crack growth rate (da/dN) versus stress-intensity variation ({Delta}K) behavior of Fe-Al-Mn alloys with different percentages of carbon, aluminum, and manganese at ambient temperature. The experimental results are described with respect to a Paris equation, da/dN = C({Delta}K){sup n}, where the exponent n, index for crack growth resistance of materials, was strongly influenced by alloy composition. It was found that higher manganese content provided better crack growth resistance, and that carbon and aluminum had an opposite effect. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties evaluation were performed and correlated to the change of n values.

  13. High spin polarization in CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Manivel Raja, M.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Hono, K.

    2014-11-28

    We report the structure, magnetic property, and spin polarization of CoFeMnGe equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy. The alloy was found to crystallize in the cubic Heusler structure (prototype LiMgPdSn) with considerable amount of DO{sub 3} disorder. Thermal analysis result indicated the Curie temperature is about 750 K without any other phase transformation up to melting temperature. The magnetization value was close to that predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. Current spin polarization of P = 0.70 ± 0.01 was deduced using point contact andreev reflection measurements. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity has been fitted in the temperature range of 5–300 K in order to check for the half metallic behavior. Considering the high spin polarization and Curie temperature, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  14. Angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in exchangebiased Fe/MnF2

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Liu, Kai

    2005-05-01

    A detailed study of exchange-biased Fe/MnF{sub 2} bilayers using magneto-optical Kerr Effect shows that the magnetization reversal occurs almost fully through domain wall nucleation and propagation for external fields parallel to the exchange bias direction. For finite angles {phi} between bias and external field the magnetization is aligned perpendicular to the field cooling direction for a limited field range for decreasing fields. For external fields perpendicular to the bias direction the magnetization aligns with the field cooling direction for descending and ascending fields before fully reversing. The field range for which the magnetization is close to perpendicular to the external field can be estimated using a simple effective field model.

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic properties in bilayer BiFeO3/Bi-Mn-O thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Nechache, Riad; Harnagea, Catalin; Li, Shun; Rosei, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We report an external solar power conversion efficiency of ˜1.43% in BiFeO3(BFO)/BiMnO3(BMO) bilayer thin films. Both films are epitaxially grown on (111) oriented niobium doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. By illuminating the BFO/BMO films under 1 Sun (AM 1.5 G), we found a remarkably high fill factor of ˜0.72, much higher than values reported for devices based on BFO or BMO alone. In addition, we demonstrate that the photocurrent density and photovoltage are tunable by changing the polarization direction in the BFO/BMO bilayer, as confirmed by the macroscopic polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loop. This effect is described in terms of a more favorable energy band alignment of the electrode/bilayer/NSTO heterostructure junction, which controls photocarrier separation.

  16. Kinetic transition during the growth of proeutectoid ferrite in Fe-C-Mn-Si quaternary steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hong; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Song, Eun-Ju; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of ferrite growth in Fe-0.1C-1.5Mn-0.94Si (mass pct) quaternary steel is investigated through the characterization of isothermal growth behavior, the thermodynamic prediction of kinetic boundary and the diffusional growth simulations using DICTRA. The change in microstructural evolution from slow growth to fast one is consistent with the calculated change of interface condition from the partitioning local equilibrium (PLE) to the negligible partitioning local equilibrium (NPLE). Compared with the DICTRA simulation, the observed growth kinetics of ferrite are between the calculated ones assuming local equilibrium (LE) and paraequilibrium (PE) criterions. At temperatures below the PLE/NPLE kinetic boundary, the observed growth behavior can be reasonably described by kinetic transition from PE to NPLE condition as isothermal time elapses, taking into account the critical velocity of interface at which trans-interface diffusion of subsitutional element permits the transition from PE to NPLE growth.

  17. Magnetic-field-induced transformation in FeMnGa alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.; Liu, E. K.; Feng, L.; Tang, X. D.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, H. Y.; Meng, F. B.; Luo, H. Z.

    2009-11-30

    A kind of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy with off-stoichiometric composition of Heusler alloy Fe{sub 2}MnGa has been synthesized. By optimizing composition, the martensitic transformation has been modified to occur at about 163 K accompanying spontaneous magnetization, which enables a magnetic field-induced structural transition from a paramagnetic parent phase to a ferromagnetic martensite with high magnetization of 93.8 emu/g. The material performs a quite large lattice distortion through the transformation, (c-a)/c=33.5%, causing a shape memory strain upto 3.6%. Such large lattice distortions strongly influence the electron structures, and thus some special physical behavior related to the transport and conductive properties is investigated.

  18. In situ observations of austenite grain growth in Fe-C-Mn-Si super bainitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Guang; Zhang, Yu-long; Hu, Hai-jiang; Zhou, Lin-xin; Xue, Zheng-liang

    2013-11-01

    In situ