Science.gov

Sample records for dosimetry applications part

  1. Advances in personnel neutron dosimetry: part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vallario, E.; Faust, L.

    1983-08-01

    A continuation of the advances in personnel neutron dosimetry research programs and technology transfer reviews work on active dosimeters, electronic devices that determine the dose equivalent to a worker during an exposure to neutron radiation. Active dosemeters are routinely used for gamma radiation dosimetry. Experience with neutron-sensitive pocket rem-meters at several DOE laboratories covers three prototypes. Pocket rem-meters work well for detecting neutrons over a wide energy range. They give instantaneous readout of the accumulated neutron dose-equivalent. 1 figure.

  2. Applicability of Topaz Composites to Electron Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, K. S.; Souza, D. N.

    2010-11-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetric topaz properties have been investigated and the results have shown that this mineral presents characteristics of a good dosimeter mainly in doses evaluation in radiotherapy with photons beams in radiotherapy. Typical applications of thermoluminescent dosimeters in radiotherapy are: in vivo dosimetry on patients (either as a routine quality assurance procedure or for dose monitoring in special cases); verification of treatment techniques; dosimetry audits; and comparisons among hospitals. The mean aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of topaz-Teflon pellets as thermoluminescent dosimeters in high-energy electron beams used to radiotherapy. Topaz-Teflon pellets were used as TLD.

  3. Advances in personnel neutron dosimetry: part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Vallario, E.J.; Faust, L.G.

    1983-09-01

    DOE-sponsored evaluation and upgrading of personnel neutron dosimetry includes a review of new devices involving unique concepts: resonance ionization spectroscopy and organic semiconductor detectors. Resonance ionization spectroscopy uses a laser to detect atoms released by neutron interactions, while organic semiconductors contain large amounts of hydrogen. Although these and other research and evaluation projects reviewed in the first two articles appear promising, there is much more research needed, such as finding a chemically stable organic semiconductor that will be suitable.

  4. Activities at the NEA for Dosimetry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, H.; Kodeli, I.

    2009-08-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that assists its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific and technological use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The main role of the NEA is the collection, validation and distribution of basic nuclear data, computer codes covering the areas of nuclear research and engineering, and experimental data. The activities linked to dosimetry applications are described in this paper, such as those of the Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) established at the NEA to promote the exchange of nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations and validation. Collection, validation, and distribution of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries will be presented and, in particular, the Joint Evaluated Fusion and Fission (JEFF) library project. For the verification of activation and transport nuclear data, as well as computational methods, several integral experimental databases are collected and distributed by the Data Bank, for example the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD), the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiments (IRPhE). Another important activity at the NEA is the collection of experimental differential nuclear reaction data for the EXFOR database. A recent WPEC project emphasizes the need for a coherent format that could be used for computer code calculations and improved validation of experimental data. JANIS is a graphical visualization tool that has been found to be useful for checking the content of EXFOR.

  5. Code for internal dosimetry (CINDY): Part 1, Conceptual representation

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The computer code CINDY (Computerized Internal Dosimetry Software Package) has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach contained in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30. The code assists in the interpretation of bioassay data, the evaluation of committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, and the preparation of reports, consistent with revised DOE orders. The code is easy to use and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. The CINDY code is an interactive computer program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. 30 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Clinical applications of alanine/electron spin resonance dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Kinoshita, Angela

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses the clinical applications of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry focusing on the ESR/alanine system. A review of few past studies in this area is presented offering a critical overview of the challenges and opportunities for extending this system into clinical applications. Alanine/ESR dosimetry fulfills many of the required properties for several clinical applications such as water-equivalent composition, independence of the sensitivity for the energy range used in therapy and high precision. Improvements in sensitivity and the development of minidosimeters coupled with the use of a spectrometer of higher microwave frequency expanded the possibilities for clinical applications to the new modalities of radiotherapy (intensity-modulated radiation therapy and radiosurgery) and to the detection of low doses such as those present in some radiological image procedures.

  7. Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and its Applications in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Matthew; Metcalfe, Peter

    2011-05-05

    Radiochromic film can be a fast and inexpensive means for performing accurate quantitative radiation dosimetry. The development of new radiochromic compositions that have greater dose sensitivity and fewer environmental dependencies has led to an ever increasing use of the film in radiotherapy applications. In this report the various physical and dosimetric properties of radiochromic film are presented and the strategies to adequately manage these properties when using radiochromic film for radiotherapy applications are discussed.

  8. The specifics of dosimetry for food irradiation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Florent; Strasser, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Dose measurement applied to food irradiation is obviously a very important and critical aspect of this process. It is described in many standards and guides. The application of appropriate dosimetry tools is explained. This helps to ensure traceability of this measurement and number of dosimeters available on the market are well studied even though theirs response should be characterized while used in routine processing conditions. When employed in low energy radiation fields, these dosimeters may exhibit specific response compared to the usual Cobalt 60 source irradiation. Traceable calibration or correction factor assessment of this energy dependency is mandatory. It is to mention that the absorbed dose is measured in the dosimeter itself and unfortunately not in/on the food product. However, existing dosimetry systems fulfill all relevant requirements.

  9. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses.

  10. The Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry: part 2, final analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; Debuyst, R; Fattibene, P; Meghzifene, A; Onori, S; Bayankin, S N; Brik, A; Bugay, A; Chumak, V; Ciesielski, B; Hoshi, M; Imata, H; Ivannikov, A; Ivanov, D; Junczewska, M; Miyazawa, C; Penkowski, M; Pivovarov, S; Romanyukha, A; Romanyukha, L; Schauer, D; Scherbina, O; Schultka, K; Sholom, S; Skvortsov, V; Stepanenko, V; Thomas, J A; Tielewuhan, E; Toyoda, S; Trompier, F

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry was to evaluate laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry <300 mGy. Final analysis of results included a correlation analysis between features of laboratory dose reconstruction protocols and dosimetry performance. Applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry at low dose was shown at two applied dose levels of 79 and 176 mGy. Most (9 of 12) laboratories reported the dose to be within 50 mGy of the delivered dose of 79 mGy, and 10 of 12 laboratories reported the dose to be within 100 mGy of the delivered dose of 176 mGy. At the high-dose tested (704 mGy) agreement within 25% of the delivered dose was found in 10 laboratories. Features of EPR dose reconstruction protocols that affect dosimetry performance were found to be magnetic field modulation amplitude in EPR spectrum recording, EPR signal model in spectrum deconvolution and duration of latency period for tooth enamel samples after preparation.

  11. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  12. Cavity theory applications for kilovoltage cellular dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Patricia A K; Thomson, Rowan

    2017-03-30

    Relationships between macroscopic (bulk tissue) and microscopic (cellular) dose 
descriptors are investigated using cavity theory and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. 
Small, large, and multiple intermediate cavity theory (SCT, LCT, and ICT, respectively) approaches are considered for 20 to 370 keV incident photons; ICT is a sum 
of SCT and LCT contributions weighted by parameter d. Considering μm-sized cavities of water in bulk tissue phantoms, different cavity theory approaches are evaluated 
via comparison of Dw,m/Dm,m (where Dw,m is dose-to-water-in-medium and Dm,m is 
dose-to-medium-in-medium) with MC results. The best overall agreement is achieved 
with an ICT approach in which d=(1-e-βL)/(βL), where L is the mean chord length 
of the cavity and β is given by e-βRCSDA=0.04 (RCSDA is the continuous slowing 
down approximation range of an electron of energy equal to that of incident photons). 
Cell nucleus doses, Dnuc, computed with this ICT approach are compared with those 
from MC simulations involving multicellular soft tissue models considering a representative range of cell/nucleus sizes and elemental compositions. In 91% of cases, ICT and 
MC predictions agree within 3%; disagreement is at most 8.8%. These results suggest 
that cavity theory may be useful for linking doses from model-based dose calculation 
algorithms (MBDCAs) with energy deposition in cellular targets. Finally, based on 
the suggestion that clusters of water molecules associated with DNA are important 
radiobiological targets, two approaches for estimating dose-to-water by application of 
SCT to MC results for Dm,m or Dnuc are compared. Results for these two estimates 
differ by up to 35%, demonstrating the sensitivity of energy

  13. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  14. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study.

  15. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  16. Application of advanced Monte Carlo Methods in numerical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, U; Henniger, J; Lange, C

    2006-01-01

    Many tasks in different sectors of dosimetry are very complex and highly sensitive to changes in the radiation field. Often, only the simulation of radiation transport is capable of describing the radiation field completely. Down to sub-cellular dimensions the energy deposition by cascades of secondary electrons is the main pathway for damage induction in matter. A large number of interactions take place until such electrons are slowed down to thermal energies. Also for some problems of photon transport a large number of photon histories need to be processed. Thus the efficient non-analogue Monte Carlo program, AMOS, has been developed for photon and electron transport. Various applications and benchmarks are presented showing its ability. For radiotherapy purposes the radiation field of a brachytherapy source is calculated according to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report 43 (AAPM/TG43). As additional examples, results for the detector efficiency of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a dose estimation for an X-ray shielding for radiation protection are shown.

  17. The application of thermoluminescence dosimetry in X-ray energy discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V K; Holloway, L; McLean, I D

    2015-12-01

    Clinical dosimetry requires an understanding of radiation energy to accurately determine the delivered dose. For many situations this is known, however there are also many situations where the radiation energy is not well known, thus limiting dosimetric accuracy. This is the case in personnel dosimetry where thermo luminescent (TL) dosimetry is the method of choice. Traditionally beam energy characteristics in personnel dosimetry are determined through discrimination with the use of various filters fitted within a radiation monitor. The presence of scattered and characteristic radiation produced by these metallic filters, however, can compromise the results. In this study the TL response of five materials TLD100, TLD100H, TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500, was measured at various X-ray energies. The TL sensitivity ratio for various combinations of materials as a function of X-ray energy was calculated. The results indicate that in personal dosimetry a combination of three or more TL detector system has a better accuracy of estimation of effective radiation energy of an X-ray beam than some of the current method of employed for energy estimation and has the potential to improve the accuracy in dose determination in a variety of practical situations. The development of this method also has application in other fields including quality assurance of the orthovoltage therapy machines, dosimetry intercomparisons of kilovoltage X-ray beams, and measurement of the dose to critical organs outside a treatment field of a megavoltage therapy beam.

  18. Applicability study on existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Kojima, Takuji; Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-12-01

    Applicability of the existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation was investigated through a dose intercomparison study, where several dosimeters were irradiated in the dose range 4-12 kGy in identical polyethylene phantoms in a Bremsstrahlung beam obtained from a 5-MeV electron accelerator. Included in the study were alanine dosimeters molded by three different binders, three types of liquid dosimeters—ceric-cerous, dichromate and ethanol-chlorobenzen (ECB), and glutamine powder. The dosimeter responses for Bremsstrahlung radiation were analyzed at the issuing laboratories, and the dose values determined using calibration based on cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation. Dose values for all the three dose levels for all dosimetry systems were in good agreement—better than 3%. The results of the study demonstrate that these existing dosimetry systems have a potential for application to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation.

  19. Quasi-static electromagnetic dosimetry: from basic principles to examples of applications.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, Daniele; Zoppetti, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    An overview of quasi-static electromagnetic dosimetry is presented. After an introductive description of quantities and standards and a quick look at experimental and analytical approaches, attention is focused on numerical dosimetry. The process that leads to the calculation of results is analyzed in its basic steps, including the representation of the human body by means of a realistic voxel phantom. The most popular numerical methods are then described. An analysis of different methods in the same framework emphasizes common features and differences. This can help in choosing a more suitable method to solve a particular problem. An example of an application is finally reported.

  20. MIRD pamphlet No. 24: Guidelines for quantitative 131I SPECT in dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Ljungberg, Michael; Green, Alan J; Zanzonico, Pat B; Frey, Eric C; Bolch, Wesley E; Brill, A Bertrand; Dunphy, Mark; Fisher, Darrell R; Howell, Roger W; Meredith, Ruby F; Sgouros, George; Wessels, Barry W

    2013-12-01

    The reliability of radiation dose estimates in internal radionuclide therapy is directly related to the accuracy of activity estimates obtained at each imaging time point. The recently published MIRD pamphlet no. 23 provided a general overview of quantitative SPECT imaging for dosimetry. The present document is the first in a series of isotope-specific guidelines that will follow MIRD 23 and focuses on one of the most commonly used therapeutic radionuclides, (131)I. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the development of protocols for quantitative (131)I SPECT in radionuclide therapy applications that require regional (normal organs, lesions) and 3-dimensional dosimetry.

  1. Application of passive dosimetry for detection of leaking underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiano, Francis A.; Leith, David; Elliott, Daniel W.; Pate, Bruce; Napfel, Claudia M.; Anthony, T. Renee

    1992-06-01

    Several modifications to conventional uses of passive dosimetry in industrial hygiene were explored to make the method attractive for both long-term monitoring of underground storage tanks and short-term site assessments of ground water contamination. Methods for both vapor and aqueous phase measurements were of interest. In addition, a colorimetric method was tried to eliminate the need for return of the dosimeter to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The results suggest that passive dosimetry can be a useful qualitative tool for the mapping of the sub-surface of a contaminated area. It is recommended that the dosimeter be used for short-term site-assessments, rather than long-term compliance monitoring applications. A more extensive comparison with other methods of leak detection than was possible in the research may be needed before convincing the private sector to develop a product based on commercial use of these prototype dosimetry devices.

  2. The fission track detector revisited: application to individual neutron dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Prêtre, S; Aroua, A; Boschung, M; Grecescu, M; Valley, J F; Wernli, C

    1996-08-01

    A system based on fission fragment tracks had previously been developed for individual neutron dosimetry. The dosimeter detects both fast neutrons by means of the 232Th(n,f) reaction, and thermal and albedo neutrons by means of the 235U(n,f) reaction. The fission tracks produced in a plastic foil are chemically etched and counted by spark discharges. The response of the dosimeter has recently been re-investigated in 36 different neutron fields: monoenergetic beams, reference fields near isotopic sources, and radiation fields encountered in a variety of situations inside nuclear power plants. The results obtained have been compared to those computed by convolution of the neutron spectra with the energy response functions of the dosimeters. In practical situations, it is essential to know the shape of the neutron spectrum, approximately at least, in order to perform an acceptably accurate dose evaluation. For that purpose, the neutron fields encountered inside nuclear power plants have been grouped into four categories, for which algorithms for dose evaluation have been developed. Concerning the neutron equivalent dose, the error associated with this approach does not exceed a factor of 2, a performance which is comparable to other detection systems used in the field of individual neutron dosimetry.

  3. Real-time light dosimetry for intra-cavity photodynamic therapy: Application for pleural mesothelioma treatment.

    PubMed

    Betrouni, Nacim; Munck, Camille; Bensoltana, Wael; Baert, Grégory; Dewalle-Vignion, Anne-Sophie; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Mordon, Serge

    2017-02-22

    Complete and homogeneous illumination of the target is necessary for the success of a photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedure. In most applications, light dosimetry is done using detectors placed at strategic locations of the target. In this study we propose a novel approach based on the combination of light distribution modeling with spatial localization of the light applicator for real time estimation and display of the applied dose on medical images. The feasibility approach is demonstrated for intrapleural PDT of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  4. A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a parameterization method based on singular value decomposition (SVD), and to provide analytical parameterization of the mean glandular dose (MGD) conversion factors from eight references for evaluating breast tomosynthesis dose in the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) protocol and in the UK, European, and IAEA dosimetry protocols.Methods: MGD conversion factor is usually listed in lookup tables for the factors such as beam quality, breast thickness, breast glandularity, and projection angle. The authors analyzed multiple sets of MGD conversion factors from the Hologic Selenia Dimensions quality control manual and seven previous papers. Each data set was parameterized using a one- to three-dimensional polynomial function of 2–16 terms. Variable substitution was used to improve accuracy. A least-squares fit was conducted using the SVD.Results: The differences between the originally tabulated MGD conversion factors and the results computed using the parameterization algorithms were (a) 0.08%–0.18% on average and 1.31% maximum for the Selenia Dimensions quality control manual, (b) 0.09%–0.66% on average and 2.97% maximum for the published data by Dance et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1211–1219 (1990); ibid. 45, 3225–3240 (2000); ibid. 54, 4361–4372 (2009); ibid. 56, 453–471 (2011)], (c) 0.74%–0.99% on average and 3.94% maximum for the published data by Sechopoulos et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 221–232 (2007); J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 9, 161–171 (2008)], and (d) 0.66%–1.33% on average and 2.72% maximum for the published data by Feng and Sechopoulos [Radiology 263, 35–42 (2012)], excluding one sample in (d) that does not follow the trends in the published data table.Conclusions: A flexible parameterization method is presented in this paper, and was applied to breast tomosynthesis dosimetry. The resultant data offer easy and accurate computations of MGD conversion factors for evaluating mean glandular breast dose in the MQSA

  5. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1990-11-06

    The traveler participated in an International Symposium on Trends in Biological Dosimetry and presented an invited paper entitled, Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA vs mutation frequency.'' The purpose of the Symposium was to examine the applicability of new methods to study quantitatively the effects of xenobiotic agents (radiation and chemicals) on molecular, cellular and organ systems, with special emphasis on human biological dosimetry. The general areas covered at the meeting included studies on parent compounds and metabolites; protein adducts; DNA adducts; gene mutations; cytogenetic end-points and reproductive methods.

  6. Application of spherical diodes for megavoltage photon beams dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Barbés, Benigno; Azcona, Juan D.; Burguete, Javier; Martí-Climent, Josep M.

    2014-01-15

    using the spherical diode described in this work show its feasibility for the dosimetry of megavoltage photon beams. A particularly important feature is its good angular response in the MV range. They would be good candidates forin vivo dosimetry, and quality assurance of VMAT and tomotherapy, and other modalities with beams irradiating from multiple orientations, such as Cyberknife and ViewRay, with minor modifications.

  7. Application of a diamond detector to brachytherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rustgi, S N

    1998-08-01

    The feasibility of using a diamond detector for the dosimetry of brachytherapy sources has been investigated. A high-activity 192Ir source was selected for this purpose. The dosimetric characteristics measured included the photon fluence anisotropy in air, transverse dose profiles in planes parallel to the plane containing the HDR source and isodose distributions. The 'in-air' anisotropy of the photon fluence relative to seed orientation was measured at 5 and 10 cm from the source centre and compared with TLD measurements. Transverse dose distributions in planes parallel to the plane containing the source long axis were measured in a water phantom and compared with calculations performed with a treatment planning system. Isodose distributions were also measured in several planes around the 192Ir source. Measurements on two sources indicate that the 'in-air' photon fluence anisotropy measured by the diamond detector and the TLDs is very similar. Dose profiles measured at several distances from the source are also found to be in good agreement with the calculated dose profiles and isodose distributions. Results of this feasibility study indicate that the diamond detector, with its excellent spatial resolution and nearly tissue equivalent and isotropic radiation response, is an appropriate detector for dose measurements around brachytherapy sources.

  8. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  9. Dosimetry of low energy proton beams for use in spacecraft parts testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters tes (TLD) were used to measure proton fluences consisting of 5MeV or lower energies. The results were at variance with the corresponding gamma measurements. The results of experiments on low energy proton dosimetry using LiF-in-teflon microrods (TLD-700 or LiF-7), are presented.

  10. The application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P to large scale personnel dosimetry: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, M; St John, T J; Cassata, J R; Blake, P K; Rotunda, J E; Ramlo, M; Velbeck, K J; Luo, L Z

    2006-01-01

    LiF:Mg,Cu,P is starting to replace LiF:Mg,Ti in a variety of personnel dosimetry applications. LiF:Mg,Cu,P has superior characteristics as compared to LiF:Mg,Ti including, higher sensitivity, improved energy response for photons, lack of supralinearity and insignificant fading. The use of LiF:Mg,Cu,P in large scale dosimetry programs is of particular interest due to the extreme sensitivity of this material to the maximum readout temperature, and the variety of different dosimetry aspects and details that must be considered for a successful implementation in routine dosimetry. Here we discuss and explain the various aspects of large scale LiF:Mg,Cu,P based dosimetry programs including the properties of the TL material, new generation of TLD readers, calibration methodologies, a new generation of dose calculation algorithms based on the use of artificial neural networks and the overall uncertainty of the dose measurement. The United States Navy (USN) will be the first US dosimetry processor who will use this new material for routine applications. Until June 2002, the Navy used two types of thermoluminescent materials for personnel dosimetry, CaF2:Mn and LiF:Mg,Ti. A program to upgrade the system and to implement LiF:Mg,Cu,P, started in the mid 1990s and was recently concluded. In 2002, the new system replaced the LiF:Mg,Ti and is scheduled to start replacing the CaF2:Mn system in 2006. A pilot study to determine the dosimetric performance of the new LiF:Mg,Cu,P based dosimetry system was recently completed, and the results show the new system to be as good or better than the current system in all areas tested. As a result, LiF:Mg,Cu,P is scheduled to become the primary personnel dosimeter for the entire US Navy in 2006.

  11. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, A. S.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al2O3:C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al2O3:C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF3:Eu2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al2O3:C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice for point dose

  12. Phantom characterization of applicators by liquid-crystal-plate dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, D; Bini, M; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Vanni, R

    1991-01-01

    A method for the determination of the SAR distribution produced by an electromagnetic applicator for localized hyperthermia is described. The procedure for SAR evaluation consists of recording the time evolution of the temperature inside a polyacrylamide phantom by means of thermochromic liquid crystal sheets inserted in it. The technique allows a complete characterization of applicators in a very broad frequency range, using power levels of the order of those needed in real treatments. Criteria for the minimum phantom size and the maximum time duration of the characterization procedure are indicated, which allow a reliable determination of the effective field size and penetration depth of the applicator.

  13. Application of jade samples for high-dose dosimetry using the EPR technique.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maria Inês; Melo, Adeilson P; Ferraz, Gilberto M; Caldas, Linda V E

    2010-01-01

    The dosimeter characteristics of jade samples were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. Jade is the common denomination of two silicates: jadeite and actinolite. The EPR spectra of different jade samples were obtained after irradiation with absorbed doses of 100 Gy up to 20 kGy. The jade samples present signals that increase with the absorbed dose (g-factors around 2.00); they can be attributed to electron centers. The EPR spectra obtained for the USA jade samples and their main dosimetric properties as reproducibility, calibration curves and energy dependence were investigated.

  14. Verification of Dosimetry Measurements with Timepix Pixel Detectors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Idarraga-Munoz, J.; Hoang, S. M.; Semones, E.; Bahadori, A.; Stoffle, N.; Rios, R.; Vykydal, Z.; Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S.; Turecek, D.; Kitamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    The current capabilities of modern pixel-detector technology has provided the possibility to design a new generation of radiation monitors. Timepix detectors are semiconductor pixel detectors based on a hybrid configuration. As such, the read-out chip can be used with different types and thicknesses of sensors. For space radiation dosimetry applications, Timepix devices with 300 and 500 microns thick silicon sensors have been used by a collaboration between NASA and University of Houston to explore their performance. For that purpose, an extensive evaluation of the response of Timepix for such applications has been performed. Timepix-based devices were tested in many different environments both at ground-based accelerator facilities such as HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan), and at NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY), as well as in space on board of the International Space Station (ISS). These tests have included a wide range of the particle types and energies, from protons through iron nuclei. The results have been compared both with other devices and theoretical values. This effort has demonstrated that Timepix-based detectors are exceptionally capable at providing accurate dosimetry measurements in this application as verified by the confirming correspondence with the other accepted techniques.

  15. Geomagnetic cutoffs: a review for space dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    1994-10-01

    The earth's magnetic field acts as a shield against charged particle radiation from interplanetary space, technically described as the geomagnetic cutoff. The cutoff rigidity problem (except for the dipole special case) has "no solution in closed form". The dipole case yields the Stormer equation which has been repeatedly applied to the earth in hopes of providing useful approximations of cutoff rigidities. Unfortunately the earth's magnetic field has significant deviations from dipole geometry, and the Stormer cutoffs are not adequate for most applications. By application of massive digital computer power it is possible to determine realistic geomagnetic cutoffs derived from high order simulation of the geomagnetic field. Using this technique, "world-grids" of directional cutoffs for the earth's surface and for a limited number of satellite altitudes have been derived. However, this approach is so expensive and time consuming it is impractical for most spacecraft orbits, and approximations must be used. The world grids of cutoff rigidities are extensively used as lookup tables, normalization points and interpolation aids to estimate the effective geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of a specific location in space. We review the various options for estimating the cutoff rigidity for earth-orbiting satellites.

  16. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; Debuyst, R; Fattibene, P; Meghzifene, A; Onori, S; Bayankin, S N; Blackwell, B; Brik, A; Bugay, A; Chumak, V; Ciesielski, B; Hoshi, M; Imata, H; Ivannikov, A; Ivanov, D; Junczewska, M; Miyazawa, C; Pass, B; Penkowski, M; Pivovarov, S; Romanyukha, A; Romanyukha, L; Schauer, D; Scherbina, O; Schultka, K; Shames, A; Sholom, S; Skinner, A; Skvortsov, V; Stepanenko, V; Tielewuhan, E; Toyoda, S; Trompier, F

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose.

  17. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  18. Application of polystyrene films for indoor radon dosimetry as SSNTD.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Kamal; Sarshough, Samira; Faghihi, Reza; Taheri, Mehran

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the sensitivities and calibration factors of polystyrene (PS) to (220)Rn and (222)Rn have been investigated. The sensitivity of compact disks (CD/DVD) as thick polycarbonates (PC) to (220)Rn and (222)Rn has been also obtained by applying a new etching condition. Five different brands of X-ray radiology and MRI films with polystyrene base and four brands of CD/DVDs have been studied to assess their applicability as a passive detector for indoor radon monitoring. The comparison between the sensitivities of PS samples, CD/DVDs (as thick PC) and Lexan PC to (222)Rn and (220)Rn shows an improved sensitivity of PS over conventional PC currently being used as solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The sensitivity of X-ray radiology PS films to (222)Rn and (220)Rn was found to be 8.77±0.591 and 0.028±0.006 (cm(-2)kBq(-1)d(-1)m(3)). The sensitivities of MRI PS films to Rn-222 and Rn-220 was found to be 12.2±1.25 and 0.360±0.090 (cm(-2)kBq(-1)d(-1)m(3)). The CD/DVD PC found to have a sensitivity of 0.178±0.013 and 0.0024±0.00013 (cm(-2)kBq(-1)d(-1)m(3)) to (222)Rn and (220)Rn respectively.

  19. Design and Construction of an Optical Computed Tomography Scanner for Polymer Gel Dosimetry Application

    PubMed Central

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples. PMID:24761377

  20. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  1. The practical application of scintillation dosimetry in small-field photon-beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Burke, Elisa; Poppinga, Daniela; Schönfeld, Andreas A; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Looe, Hui Khee

    2017-03-22

    Plastic scintillation detectors are a new instrument of stereotactic photon-beam dosimetry. The clinical application of the plastic scintillation detector Exradin W1 at the Siemens Artiste and Elekta Synergy accelerators is a matter of current interest. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty, precautions have to be taken with regard to the geometrical arrangement of the scintillator, the light-guide fiber and the photodiode in the radiation field. To determine the "Cerenkov light ratio" CLR with a type A uncertainty below 1%, the Cerenkov calibration procedure for small-field measurements based on the two-channel spectral method was used. Output factors were correctly measured with the W1 for field sizes down to 0.5×0.5cm(2) with a type A uncertainty of 1.8%. Measurements of small field dose profiles and percentage depth dose curves were carried out with the W1 using automated water phantom profile scans, and a type A uncertainty for dose maxima of 1.4% was achieved. The agreement with a synthetic diamond detector (microDiamond, PTW Freiburg) and a plane parallel ionization chamber (Roos chamber, PTW Freiburg) in relative dose measurements was excellent. In oversight of all results, the suitability of the plastic scintillation detector Exradin W1 for clinical dosimetry under stereotactic conditions, in particular the tried and tested procedures for CLR determination, output factor measurement and automated dose profile scans in water phantoms, have been confirmed.

  2. A survey of physical dosimetry to date and in the near future: Part 1. Review of standards and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Cassata, James R

    2002-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of the relevant standards and current regulatory issues for use of physical dosimetry devices for the occupational worker in the United States. Included is a summary of relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG-Series, the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP), and the U.S. Military Specifications and Standards (MIL-STD). Proposed changes to ANSI N13.11-1993, "American National Standard for Dosimetry-Personnel Dosimetry Performance Criteria for Testing," are listed. The strategic changes that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making in rulemaking activities related to dosimetry and standards are given. The status of Measurement Program Description (MPD) C.18, "Implementation of Electronic Dosimetry for Primary Dosimetry," from the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) is given.

  3. Applications, dosimetry and biological interactions of static and time-varying magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenforde, T. S.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics of this presentation include: (1) the applications of magnetic fields in research, industry, and medical technologies; (2) mechanisms of interaction of static and time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; (3) human health effects of exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields in occupational, medical, and residential settings; and (4) recent advances in the dosimetry of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The discussion of these topics is centered about two issues of considerable contemporary interest: (1) potential health effects of the fields used in magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, and (2) the controversial issue of whether exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in the home and workplace leads to an elevated risk of cancer.

  4. MOSFET dosimetry mission inside the ISS as part of the Matroshka-R experiment.

    PubMed

    Hallil, A; Brown, M; Akatov, Yu; Arkhangelsky, V; Chernykh, I; Mitrikas, V; Petrov, V; Shurshakov, V; Tomi, L; Kartsev, I; Lyagushin, V

    2010-03-01

    Radiation measurements of surface and deep organ doses were performed aboard the International Space Station, for the period of January 2006 to April 2007, using a MOSFET dosimetry system combined with the Matroshka-R spherical phantom. The averaged internal and surface dose rates are found to be 0.19 and 0.29 mGy d(-1), respectively. The levels of radiation dose to blood-forming organs (BFO) and to surface organs are compared with recommended safe limits. The maximum measured BFO dose has an average dose rate of 0.23 mGy d(-1) (84 mGy y(-1)), corresponding to 44 % of the recommended annual limit of 0.5 Sv, for a space radiation quality factor of 2.6. The annual surface dose is found to be higher at 126 mGy, corresponding to 16 % of the eye dose limit and to 11 % of the skin dose limit. Doses calculated using the Spenvis software showed deviations of up to 37 % from measurements.

  5. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  6. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  7. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  8. Application of a canine 238Pu biokinetics/dosimetry model to human bioassay data.

    PubMed

    Hickman, A W; Griffith, W C; Roessler, G S; Guilmette, R A

    1995-03-01

    Associated with the use of 238Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes is the potential for human exposure, primarily by inhalation and most likely as 238PuO2. Several models have been developed for assessing the level of intake and predicting the resulting radiation dose following human exposure to 239Pu. However, there are indications that existing models do not adequately describe the disposition and dosimetry of 238Pu following human exposure. In this study, a canine model that accounts for these differences has been adapted for use with human excretion data. The model is based on existing knowledge about organ retention of plutonium. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to changes in aerosol-associated properties indicated that predictions of urinary excretion are most sensitive to changes in particle solubility and diameter and in the ratio of fragment:particle surface area. Application of the model to urinary excretion data from seven workers exposed to a 238Pu ceramic aerosol gave estimated intakes of 390-8,200 Bq and associated initial pulmonary burdens of 80-1,700 Bq. The resulting 50-y dose commitments to critical organs per Bq of 238Pu intake were estimated to be 0.5 mSv for the thoracic region, 0.2 mSv for the liver, and 1 mSv for the bone surfaces.

  9. Potential use of P-32 ophthalmic applicator: Monte Carlo simulations for design and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung-Joon; Kim, Il Han; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Mee Kum; Han, Hyon Soo; Son, Kwang-Jae; Park, Ul Jae

    2008-05-15

    Postoperative {beta}-irradiation after pterygium excision has been considered a valuable therapeutic procedure to reduce the recurrence rate. Recently, it was reported that {beta}-irradiation also substantially reduced the risk of surgical failure after glaucoma surgery. Pure {beta}-irradiation using a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator has been almost exclusively used for this purpose. As an alternative to {sup 90}Sr/Y {beta}-irradiation, we propose treatment with betas of a {sup 32}P source. While {sup 32}P has a lower maximum energy (1.71 MeV) than {sup 90}Sr/Y (2.27 MeV), it has an average energy comparable to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. Furthermore, it can be produced easily in a nuclear reactor by neutron activation and is considered a less hazardous material. Monte Carlo simulations for the dosimetry of proposed {sup 32}P applicators were performed using the MCNP5 code. The structure and dimension of the {sup 32}P applicators were based on those of the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicators currently available, while medical plastic encapsulation and liquid source were chosen to enhance {beta}-dose to the surface of the conjunctiva. The {sup 32}P applicator showed that the surface dose distribution (up to 0.75 mm depth) is very similar to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. However, beyond 0.75 mm depth, the {sup 32}P doses decrease with depths more rapidly than {sup 90}Sr/Y doses. In order to achieve the same surface dose rate, the required {sup 32}P activity is about three times that for a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. We conclude that the proposed {sup 32}P applicator can deliver therapeutic doses to the target lesion while sparing the lens better than the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. The {sup 32}P activity required to deliver therapeutic doses can be produced in a 30 MW reactor available at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

  10. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders-- implications for child neurology, part 1: prenatal exposure and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Paintner, Ashley; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, approximately 80 000 women consume ethanol through all 3 trimesters of pregnancy each year. In this article, we review prevalence rates of prenatal alcohol exposure in the United States and discuss the mechanisms of prenatal alcohol exposure and placental-umbilical effects. Cigarette smoking and delayed prenatal care are often associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. In addition, increased risk for postnatal adversity is common, including maternal depression, foster care placement, and developmental delay. In part 2, we review prevalence rates and the diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the implications for child neurologists. We discuss management strategies and the importance of a long-term management plan and anticipatory management to prevent the development of secondary disabilities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Child neurologists play a key role in diagnosis and the development of appropriate intervention programs for affected children and their families.

  11. Application of a new dosimetry formalism to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Karen E; Bedford, James L

    2009-12-07

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers a challenge to classical dosimetry protocols as the beams are dynamic in orientation and aperture shape and may include small apertures. The aim of this paper is to apply a formalism to VMAT beams that has recently been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working party to improve the dosimetry for small and non-standard fields. We investigated three possible fields and assessed their suitability as plan class specific reference (pcsr) fields. The factors in the new dosimetry formalism were investigated: the conversion of dose to water from the conventional reference field to the pcsr and then from the pcsr to a treatment plan, using a PTW semiflex chamber, two Farmer chambers and an electron diode. Finally, the dose was compared for Alanine, the new formalism and calculated using Pinnacle(3) (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) for two typical clinical VMAT beams. Correction factors between the reference field and the pcsr determined with Alanine range from 0.1% to 2.3% for the three pcsr fields. Dose to water measured using the calibrated ionization chambers is less than 2% different to the dose calculated by Pinnacle(3). VMAT planning and delivery procedures have been successfully implemented and a new dosimetry protocol has been investigated for this new technique. Calibration factors for pcsr fields are found to be up to 2.3% different when using the new formalism, compared to using a standard dosimetry protocol. Using the calibration factors determined in the pcsr fields, the ionization chambers and electron diode agree to within 1% with Alanine dosimetry for two clinical VMAT plans. Good agreements between calculations and measurements are found for these two plans when the new formalism is used.

  12. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Sarrut, David; Bardiès, Manuel; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Jan, Sébastien; Létang, Jean-Michel; Loudos, George; Maigne, Lydia; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; Schaart, Dennis R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Buvat, Irène

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same framework is emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  13. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel; Jan, Sébastien; Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  14. A survey of physical dosimetry to date and in the near future: Part 2. Review of commercially available products.

    PubMed

    Cassata, James R

    2002-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of physical dosimetry for the occupational worker. The review of commercially available physical dosimetry systems was limited to the following technologies: thermoluminescent dosimeters, electronic personnel dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters, and direction ion storage dosimeters. Product reviews were limited to the top models and largest commercial manufacturers in each category. The physical principles of each dosimeter type are discussed. Information was gathered from journal literature, by direct experience, and by inviting six commercial vendors to present their newest technologies. Each system was found to have strengths and weaknesses. Many of the technologies presented by major vendors were still in development and thus could be considered near-future systems.

  15. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  16. Testis dosimetry in individual patients by combining a small-scale dosimetry model and pharmacokinetic modeling-application of 111In-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin®)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerkhan, Suaad A.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-12-01

    A heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons in the testicles may result in a significant difference between an absorbed dose to the radiosensitive spermatogonia and the mean absorbed dose to the whole testis. This study focused on absorbed dose distribution in patients at a finer scale than normally available in clinical dosimetry, which was accomplished by combining a small-scale dosimetry model with patient pharmacokinetic data. The activity in the testes was measured and blood sampling was performed for patients that underwent pre-therapy imaging with 111In-Zevalin®. Using compartment modeling, testicular activity was separated into two components: vascular and extravascular. The uncertainty of absorbed dose due to geometry variations between testicles was explored by an assumed activity micro-distribution and by varying the radius of the interstitial tubule. Results showed that the absorbed dose to germ cells might be strongly dependent on the location of the radioactive source, and may exceed the absorbed dose to the whole testis by as much as a factor of two. Small-scale dosimetry combined with compartmental analysis of clinical data proved useful for gauging tissue dosimetry and interpreting how intrinsic geometric variation influences the absorbed dose.

  17. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  19. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  20. Application of optical instrumentations to reactor dosimetry for material irradiation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, T.; Nagata, S.; Tsuchiya, B.; Zhao, M.; Katsui, H.; Narui, M.

    2011-07-01

    Optical dosimetry, utilizing the radioluminescence, the Cerenkov radiation, and the radiation induced optical absorption, has attractive features. However, it has a serious setback, namely, the optical signal changes in the course of irradiation and complicated calibration would be needed. Also, the intensity of radioluminescence would depend complicatedly on energy and kind of incident ions and quanta. Here, optical dosimetry, which could measure the electronic excitation dose rate, the atomic displacement, and the thermal neutron flux, separately and in-situ, is proposed, by analyzing behaviors of radioluminescence peaks in the fused silica (SiO{sub 2}), the chromium doped alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and the Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}). (authors)

  1. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T and O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. Methods: For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} photon histories from a {sup 137}Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for {sup 137}Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5-8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5 Degree-Sign increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm){sup 3} isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T and O implant plan. Results: The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105 Degree-Sign ) was 3.1 Degree-Sign -4.7 Degree-Sign . A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign , and

  2. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  3. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter for small field dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Aaki, Fujio; Ishidoya, Tatsuya; Ikegami, Tohru; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2005-06-01

    We have recently developed a prototypical radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter (GPD) system as a device for small field dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of the GPD system for small field dosimetry. The profiles measured with the GPD were evaluated by comparing them to those from Kodak X-Omat V and GAFCROMIC XR type R film dosimeters for 2, 5, 9, and 15 mm circular collimators created by a linear accelerator-based radiosurgery system. The GPD output factors were compared with those of various detectors including an ion chamber, a p-type silicon diode detector, a glass rod dosimeter (GRD), and a diamond detector. The results measured with the GPD were also confirmed by comparing them to those from Monte Carlo simulations. The accuracy of a simulated beam is validated by the excellent agreement between Monte Carlo calculated and measured central axis depth-dose curves for 9- and 15 mm circular collimators using 4- and 10 MV photon beams. The GPD profiles show almost the same full width at half maximum as those of film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations at 4- and 10 MV photon beams, but a little narrower penumbrae than the film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations. The output factors measured with the GPD are in good agreement with those from a diode detector, a diamond detector, and the GRD with a small active volume and Monte Carlo simulations, except for a very small 2 mm circular collimator. It was found that the GPD is a very useful detector for small field dosimetry.

  4. WE-AB-BRB-02: Methods and Applications of 3D Radiochromic Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Oldham, M

    2016-06-01

    Despite widespread IMRT treatments at modern radiation therapy clinics, precise dosimetric commissioning of an IMRT system remains a challenge. In the most recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), nearly 20% of institutions failed an end-to-end test with an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom, a test that has rather lenient dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 7% and 4 mm. The RPC report provides strong evidence that IMRT implementation is prone to error and that improved quality assurance tools are required. At the heart of radiation therapy dosimetry is the multidimensional dosimeter. However, due to the limited availability of water-equivalent dosimetry materials, research and development in this important field is challenging. In this session, we will review a few dosimeter developments that are either in the laboratory phase or in the pre-commercialization phase. 1) Radiochromic plastic. Novel formulations exhibit light absorbing optical contrast with very little scatter, enabling faster, broad beam optical CT design. 2) Storage phosphor. After irradiation, the dosimetry panels will be read out using a dedicated 2D scanning apparatus in a non-invasive, electro-optic manner and immediately restored for further use. 3) Liquid scintillator. Scintillators convert the energy from x-rays and proton beams into visible light, which can be recorded with a scientific camera (CCD or CMOS) from multiple angles. The 3D shape of the dose distribution can then be reconstructed. 4) Cherenkov emission imaging. Gated intensified imaging allows video-rate passive detection of Cherenkov emission during radiation therapy with the room lights on.

  5. Applicability of EPR/alanine dosimetry for quality assurance in proton eye radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Michalec, B; Mierzwinska, G; Ptaszkiewicz, M; Sowa, U; Stolarczyk, L; Weber, A

    2014-06-01

    A new quality assurance and quality control method for proton eye radiotherapy based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetry has been developed. It is based on Spread-Out Bragg Peak entrance dose measurement with alanine detectors. The entrance dose is well correlated with the dose at the facility isocenter, where, during the therapeutic irradiation, the tumour is placed. The unique alanine detector features namely keeping the dose record in a form of stable radiation-induced free radicals trapped in the material structure, and the non-destructive read-out makes this type of detector a good candidate for additional documentation of the patient's exposure over the therapy course.

  6. Application of EPR dosimetry in bone for ex vivo measurements of doses in radiotherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Krefft, K; Drogoszewska, B; Kaminska, J; Juniewicz, M; Wołąkiewicz, G; Jakacka, I; Ciesielski, B

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, bone samples from three patients treated in radiotherapy facilities in Poland were used for the determination of doses absorbed during radiotherapy. The samples were obtained during surgical treatments of patients performed due to medical indications. For the purpose of retrospective dosimetry, sensitivity of the radiation-induced EPR signal was individually calibrated in the samples by re-irradiation of the samples with known doses. The doses reconstructed in bones extracted within 6 months after irradiation were consistent with those calculated by treatment planning systems. The dose reconstructed in the bone removed 6 y after radiotherapy was ∼14% lower than the calculated one.

  7. Ion storage dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  8. Investigation and Application of Neutron Damage to Bipolar Transistors in Light Water Reactor Dosimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roknizadeh, Mansour

    A method of fast neutron metrology and a basis for prediction of changes in performance parameters of semiconductor devices in power plant radiation environments has been established using Cf-252 sources. Three general purpose NPN bipolar transistors (PN2222A, ECG-196, and ECG-184) were chosen as the neutron damage monitors and the change in inverse d.c. current gain before and after irradiation was chosen as the damage parameter for the measurement. The ECG-196 and ECG-184 transistors have been calibrated for neutron fluences ranging from 1.0E10 n(1MeV)/ {rm cm}^2 to 1.0E12 n(1MeV)/{rm cm}^2. PN2222A transistors have been calibrated for neutron fluences ranging from 1.0E12 to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/cm^2 . The main findings of the investigation were as follows:. The change in inverse d.c. current gain for PN2222A transistors was approximately a linear function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/{rm cm}^2. The departure from linearity has been represented by a quadratic function. The concept of 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence which characterizes an incident energy-fluence spectrum in terms of the fluence of monoenergetic neutrons at 1 MeV, is in error for application to common transistors in a typical power plant environment. This has been proven to be due to the fact that low energy neutron effects are not correctly accounted for when using the silicon displacement kerma to calculate 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence. Therefore, a model has been developed by which the damage response is corrected in order to account for the low energy neutron effects. The normalized damage coefficient which is the ratio of damage to 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence divided by the measured base transit time of individual transistors, for all three types of transistors is nearly the same with an average value of 1.27E - 7 +/- 15.0% {rm cm}^2 /m(1MeV).Sec. This supports the theory that base transit time is a parameter from which the neutron vulnerability in a nuclear radiation

  9. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand; Ranouil, Julien; Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier; Walker, Paul; Brunotte, François

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  10. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin-film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin-film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low-power operation, and low-cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin-film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm² - cm² areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device used for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm × 5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin-film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low-power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low-noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are used to irradiate different thin

  11. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the “Holy Gray”

    PubMed Central

    Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

  12. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  13. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  14. Development of europium doped BaSO{sub 4} TL OSL dual phosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patle, Anita Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents the results on the preparation and characterization of Europium-doped Barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}: Eu) TL /OSL dual phosphor. The OSL sensitivity was found to be 11% of the commercially available Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: C, using area integration method. The sample also shows good TL sensitivity and the dosimetric peak appears around 190°C with a shoulder at 282°C. After OSL readout, No change in the TL glow curve is observed. Since the observed TL peaks are not responsible for the observed OSL, good OSL as well as TL sensitivity and low fading will make this phosphor suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry using OSL as well as TL.

  15. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure.

    PubMed

    Dahdouh, S; Varsier, N; Nunez Ochoa, M A; Wiart, J; Peyman, A; Bloch, I

    2016-02-21

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.

  16. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Nunez Ochoa, M. A.; Wiart, J.; Peyman, A.; Bloch, I.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.

  17. Application of Cerenkov radiation generated in plastic optical fibers for therapeutic photon beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyoung Won; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeong, Chiyoung; Min, Byung Jun; Shin, Dongho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2013-02-01

    A Cerenkov fiber-optic dosimeter (CFOD) is fabricated using plastic optical fibers to measure Cerenkov radiation induced by a therapeutic photon beam. We measured the Cerenkov radiation generated in optical fibers in various irradiation conditions to evaluate the usability of Cerenkov radiation for a photon beam therapy dosimetry. As a results, the spectral peak of Cerenkov radiation was measured at a wavelength of 515 nm, and the intensity of Cerenkov radiation increased linearly with increasing irradiated length of the optical fiber. Also, the intensity peak of Cerenkov radiation was measured in the irradiation angle range of 30 to 40 deg. In the results of Monte Carlo N-particle transport code simulations, the relationship between fluxes of electrons over Cerenkov threshold energy and energy deposition of a 6 MV photon beam had a nearly linear trend. Finally, percentage depth doses for the 6 MV photon beam could be obtained using the CFOD and the results were compared with those of an ionization chamber. Here, the mean dose difference was about 0.6%. It is anticipated that the novel and simple CFOD can be effectively used for measuring depth doses in radiotherapy dosimetry.

  18. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  19. Radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists. PMID:2040250

  20. Verification of the pure alanine in PMMA tube dosimeter applicability for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Al-Karmi, Anan M; Ayaz, Ali Asghar H; Al-Enezi, Mamdouh S; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Dwaikat, Nidal

    2015-09-01

    Alanine dosimeters in the form of pure alanine powder in PMMA plastic tubes were investigated for dosimetry in a clinical application. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure absorbed radiation doses by detection of signals from radicals generated in irradiated alanine. The measurements were performed for low-dose ranges typical for single-fraction doses often used in external photon beam radiotherapy. First, the dosimeters were irradiated in a solid water phantom to establish calibration curves in the dose range from 0.3 to 3 Gy for 6 and 18 MV X-ray beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Next, the dosimeters were placed at various locations in an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom to measure the dose delivery of a conventional four-field box technique treatment plan to the pelvis. Finally, the doses measured with alanine dosimeters were compared against the doses calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The results showed that the alanine dosimeters have a highly sensitive dose response with good linearity and no energy dependence in the dose range and photon beams used in this work. Also, a fairly good agreement was found between the in-phantom dose measurements with alanine dosimeters and the TPS dose calculations. The mean value of the ratios of measured to calculated dose values was found to be near unity. The measured points in the in-field region passed dose-difference acceptance criterion of 3% and those in the penumbral region passed distance-to-agreement acceptance criterion of 3 mm. These findings suggest that the pure alanine powder in PMMA tube dosimeter is a suitable option for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams.

  1. Dosimetry in radiotherapy using a-Si EPIDs: Systems, methods, and applications focusing on 3D patient dose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2013-06-01

    An overview is provided of the use of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetric purposes in radiation therapy, focusing on 3D patient dose estimation. EPIDs were originally developed to provide on-treatment radiological imaging to assist with patient setup, but there has also been a natural interest in using them as dosimeters since they use the megavoltage therapy beam to form images. The current generation of clinically available EPID technology, amorphous-silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers, possess many characteristics that make them much better suited to dosimetric applications than earlier EPID technologies. Features such as linearity with dose/dose rate, high spatial resolution, realtime capability, minimal optical glare, and digital operation combine with the convenience of a compact, retractable detector system directly mounted on the linear accelerator to provide a system that is well-suited to dosimetric applications. This review will discuss clinically available a-Si EPID systems, highlighting dosimetric characteristics and remaining limitations. Methods for using EPIDs in dosimetry applications will be discussed. Dosimetric applications using a-Si EPIDs to estimate three-dimensional dose in the patient during treatment will be overviewed. Clinics throughout the world are implementing increasingly complex treatments such as dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, as well as specialized treatment techniques using large doses per fraction and short treatment courses (ie. hypofractionation and stereotactic radiosurgery). These factors drive the continued strong interest in using EPIDs as dosimeters for patient treatment verification.

  2. Internal exposure to neutron-activated (56)Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats: part 1: dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Valeriy; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Otani, Keiko; Endo, Satoru; Satoh, Kenichi; Kawano, Noriyuki; Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sakaguchi, Aya; Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Toyoda, Shin; Sato, Hitoshi; Dyussupov, Altay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Sayakenov, Nurlan; Uzbekov, Darkhan; Saimova, Aisulu; Shabdarbaeva, Dariya; Skakov, Mazhin; Vurim, Alexandr; Gnyrya, Vyacheslav; Azimkhanov, Almas; Kolbayenkov, Alexander; Zhumadilov, Kasym; Kairikhanova, Yankar; Kaprin, Andrey; Galkin, Vsevolod; Ivanov, Sergey; Kolyzhenkov, Timofey; Petukhov, Aleksey; Yaskova, Elena; Belukha, Irina; Khailov, Artem; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Akhmedova, Umukusum; Bogacheva, Viktoria; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2017-03-01

    There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure. Currently, estimation of internal exposure of atomic bomb survivors due to dispersed radioactivity and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground is a matter of some interest, in Japan. The main neutron-activated radionuclides in soil dust were (24)Na, (28)Al, (31)Si, (32)P, (38)Cl, (42)K, (45)Ca, (46)Sc, (56)Mn, (59)Fe, (60)Co, and (134)Cs. The radionuclide (56)Mn (T 1/2 = 2.58 h) is known as one of the dominant beta- and gamma emitters during the first few hours after neutron irradiation of soil and other materials on ground, dispersed in the form of dust after a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. To investigate the peculiarities of biological effects of internal exposure to (56)Mn in comparison with external gamma irradiation, a dedicated experiment with Wistar rats exposed to neutron-activated (56)Mn dioxide powder was performed recently by Shichijo and coworkers. The dosimetry required for this experiment is described here. Assessment of internal radiation doses was performed on the basis of measured (56)Mn activity in the organs and tissues of the rats and of absorbed fractions of internal exposure to photons and electrons calculated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo using a mathematical rat phantom. The first results of this international multicenter study show that the internal

  3. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  4. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  5. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  6. Development of Kilovoltage X-ray Dosimetry Methods and Their Application to Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Michael J.

    The increase in popularity of pre-treatment imaging procedures in radiation therapy, such as kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), has been accompanied by an increase in the dose delivered to the patient from these imaging procedures. The measurement of dose from CBCT scans is complicated, as currently available kilovoltage dosimetry protocols are based on air-kerma standards and radiation detectors exhibit large energy responses at the low photon energies used in the imaging procedures. This work aims to provide the tools and methodology needed to measure the dose from these scans more accurately and precisely. Through the use of a validated Monte Carlo (MC) model of the moderately filtered (M-series) x-ray beams at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, dose-to-water rates were obtained in a water phantom for the M-series x-ray beams with tube potentials from 40-250 kVp. The resulting dose-to-water rates were consistent with previously established methods, but had significantly reduced uncertainties. While detectors are commonly used to measure dose in phantom, previous investigations of the energy response of common detectors in the kilovoltage energy range have been limited to in-air geometries. The newly determined dose-to-water rates were used to characterize the in-phantom energy and depth response of thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization chambers. When compared to previous investigations of the in-air detector response, the impact of scatter and absorption of the photon beam by the water medium was found to have a significant impact on the response of certain detectors. The dose to water in the NIST-traceable M-series x-ray beams was transferred to clinical CBCT beams and the resulting doses agreed with other dose-to-water measurement techniques. The dose to water in the CBCT beams was used to characterize the energy and depth responses of a number of detectors. The energy response in the CBCT beams agreed

  7. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays.

  8. OSL and thermally assisted OSL response in dental enamel for its possible application in retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D R; Polymeris, G S; Bhatt, B C; Kulkarni, M S

    2014-11-01

    Dental enamel was studied for its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) defects. The TL studies showed a wide glow curve with multiple peaks. The thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) studies showed that the integrated TA-OSL and thus OSL signal increases with readout temperature between 100 and 250 °C, due to the temperature dependence of OSL. The thermally assisted energy E A associated with this increase is found to be 0.21 ± 0.015 eV. On the other hand, the signal intensity decreases with temperature between 260 and 450 °C. This decrease could be due to depletion of OSL active traps or possible thermal quenching. The increase of the OSL signal at increased temperature can be used to enhance the sensitivity of dental enamel for ex vivo measurements in retrospective dosimetry. The emission and excitation spectra of its luminescence centers were studied by photoluminescence and were found to be at 412 and 324 nm, respectively. It was found to possess multiple OSL active traps having closely lying photoionization cross sections characterized by continuous wave OSL and nonlinear OSL methods. The investigated dental enamel samples showed a linear OSL dose response up to 500 Gy. The dose threshold was found to be 100 mGy using a highly sensitive compact OSL reader with blue LED (470 nm) stimulation.

  9. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately.

  10. Application of EPR retrospective dosimetry for large-scale accidental situation.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, V G; Ivannikov, A I; Stepanenko, V F; Tsyb, A F; Khamidova, L G; Kondrashov, A E; Tikunov, D D

    2000-05-01

    Above 3000 tooth enamel samples, collected at population of radioactive contaminated territories after Chernobyl accident, the Chernobyl liquidators, the retired military of high radiation risk and the population of control radiation free territories were investigated by EPR spectroscopy method in order to obtain accumulated individual exposure doses. Results of EPR spectra measurements are stored in data bank; enamel samples are also stored in order to provide the possibility to repeat the measurements in future. Statistical analysis of results has allowed to detect the contribution into EPR signal in tooth enamel due to the action of the natural background radiation, and the radioactive contamination of territory. In general, the average doses of external exposure of the population obtained with EPR spectroscopy of teeth enamel are consistent with results based on other methods of direct and retrospective dosimetry. Essential exceeding of the individual doses above the average level within the population groups was observed for some persons. That gave the possibility to detect the individuals with overexposure, which were included into groups for medical monitoring.

  11. Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Leo, Bey Fen; Royce, Steven G.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Schwander, Stephan; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-10-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess unique characteristics affecting their interactions in biological media and biological tissues. Systematic investigation of the effects of particle properties on biological toxicity requires a comprehensive modeling framework which can be used to predict ENM particokinetics in a variety of media. The Agglomeration-diffusion-sedimentation-reaction model (ADSRM) described here is stochastic, using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study the evolution of nanoparticles in biological media, as they interact with each other and with the media over time. Nanoparticle diffusion, gravitational settling, agglomeration, and dissolution are treated in a mechanistic manner with focus on silver ENMs (AgNPs). The ADSRM model utilizes particle properties such as size, density, zeta potential, and coating material, along with medium properties like density, viscosity, ionic strength, and pH, to model evolving patterns in a population of ENMs along with their interaction with associated ions and molecules. The model predictions for agglomeration and dissolution are compared with in vitro measurements for various types of ENMs, coating materials, and incubation media, and are found to be overall consistent with measurements. The model has been implemented for an in vitro case in cell culture systems to inform in vitro dosimetry for toxicology studies, and can be directly extended to other biological systems, including in vivo tissue sub-systems by suitably modifying system geometry.

  12. Realistic multi-cellular dosimetry for 177Lu-labelled antibodies: model and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcatili, S.; Pichard, A.; Courteau, A.; Ladjohounlou, R.; Navarro-Teulon, I.; Repetto-Llamazares, A.; Heyerdahl, H.; Dahle, J.; Pouget, J. P.; Bardiès, M.

    2016-10-01

    Current preclinical dosimetric models often fail to take account of the complex nature of absorbed dose distribution typical of in vitro clonogenic experiments in targeted radionuclide therapy. For this reason, clonogenic survival is often expressed as a function of added activity rather than the absorbed dose delivered to cells/cell nuclei. We designed a multi-cellular dosimetry model that takes into account the realistic distributions of cells in the Petri dish, for the establishment of survival curves as a function of the absorbed dose. General-purpose software tools were used for the generation of realistic, randomised 3D cell culture geometries based on experimentally determined parameters (cell size, cell density, cluster density, average cluster size, cell cumulated activity). A mixture of Monte Carlo and analytical approaches was implemented in order to achieve as accurate as possible results while reducing calculation time. The model was here applied to clonogenic survival experiments carried out to compare the efficacy of Betalutin®, a novel 177Lu-labelled antibody radionuclide conjugate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, to that of 177Lu-labelled CD20-specific (rituximab) and non-specific antibodies (Erbitux) on lymphocyte B cells. The 3D cellular model developed allowed a better understanding of the radiative and non-radiative processes associated with cellular death. Our approach is generic and can also be applied to other radiopharmaceuticals and cell distributions.

  13. Applications of time-resolved light scattering measurements to photodynamic therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michael S.; Moulton, John D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Chance, Britton

    1990-07-01

    Since biological response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the light fluence distribution and photosensitizer concentration in the tissue, these two variables should ideally be measured noninvasively in individual cases. This can be reduced to determining the optical absorption and transport scattering coefficients of the tissue because, if these two parameters are known, the fluence distribution can be calculated and the photosensitizer concentration can be deduced from its characteristic contribution to the absorption spectrum. The temporal spreading of a picosecond laser pulse as it propagates through tissue carries infonnation about both the scattering and absorption properties of the tissue. A mathematical model is presented which allows derivation of the interaction coefficients from the pulse shape, and preliminary experiments are reported which demonstrate the potential of these techniques in PDT dosimetry. Equivalent information can be obtained in the frequency domain by using modulated light sources andmeasuring thephase and modulation of the detected light. Analytical expressions are developed for these observable quantities in terms ofthe optical interaction coefficients. Particular auention is drawn to the potential oflow (less than 200 MHz) frequency measurements as these can be made with relatively simple instrumentation.

  14. Application of a canine {sup 238}Pu dosimetry model to human bioassay data

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, A.W. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Associated with the use of 2{sup 238}Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes and power supplies for cardiac devices is the potential for human exposure to {sup 238}Pu, primarily by inhalation. In the event of human internal exposure, a means is needed for assessing the level of intake and calculating radiation doses. Several bioassay/dosimetry models have been developed for {sup 239}Pu. However, results from studies with laboratory animals have indicated that the biokinetics, and therefore the descriptive models, of {sup 238}Pu are significantly different from those for {sup 239}Pu. A canine model accounting for these differences has been applied in this work to urinary excretion data from seven humans occupationally exposed to low levels of an insoluble {sup 238}Pu compound. The modified model provides a good description of the urinary excretion kinetics observed in the exposed humans. The modified model was also used to provide estimates of the initial intakes of {sup 238}Pu for the seven individuals; these estimates ranged from 4.5 nCi (170 Bq) to 87 nCi (3200 Bq). Autopsy data on the amount and distribution of {sup 238}Pu retained in the organs may be used in the future to validate or refute both these estimates and the assumptions used to formulate the human model. Modification of the human model to simulate an injection exposure to {sup 239}Pu gave patterns of retention in the organs and urinary excretion comparable to those seen previously in humans; further modification of the model using fecal data (unavailable for the subjects of this study) is indicated.

  15. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry using polymer gel and solid radiochromic polymer: From basics to clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Warmington, Leighton; Gopishankar, N

    2017-01-01

    Accurate dose measurement tools are needed to evaluate the radiation dose delivered to patients by using modern and sophisticated radiation therapy techniques. However, the adequate tools which enable us to directly measure the dose distributions in three-dimensional (3D) space are not commonly available. One such 3D dose measurement device is the polymer-based dosimeter, which changes the material property in response to radiation. These are available in the gel form as polymer gel dosimeter (PGD) and ferrous gel dosimeter (FGD) and in the solid form as solid plastic dosimeter (SPD). Those are made of a continuous uniform medium which polymerizes upon irradiation. Hence, the intrinsic spatial resolution of those dosimeters is very high, and it is only limited by the method by which one converts the dose information recorded by the medium to the absorbed dose. The current standard methods of the dose quantification are magnetic resonance imaging, optical computed tomography, and X-ray computed tomography. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging is well established as a method for obtaining clinically relevant dosimetric data by PGD and FGD. Despite the likely possibility of doing 3D dosimetry by PGD, FGD or SPD, the tools are still lacking wider usages for clinical applications. In this review article, we summarize the current status of PGD, FGD, and SPD and discuss the issue faced by these for wider acceptance in radiation oncology clinic and propose some directions for future development.

  16. The application of polymer gel dosimeters to dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gear, J. I.; Flux, G. D.; Charles-Edwards, E.; Partridge, M.; Cook, G.; Ott, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    irradiated gels. Curve fits to the calibration data followed a single exponential function. The correlation coefficients for internally and externally irradiated gels were 0.991 and 0.985, respectively. With the ability to accurately calibrate internally dosed polymer gels, this technology shows promise as a means to evaluate dosimetry methods, particularly in cases of non-uniform uptake of a radionuclide.

  17. 47 CFR 20.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 20.2 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the commercial... filing electronically via the ULS. (b) Part 2. This part contains the Table of Frequency Allocations...

  18. 47 CFR 20.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 20.2 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the commercial... filing electronically via the ULS. (b) Part 2. This part contains the Table of Frequency Allocations...

  19. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  20. The Application of Experimental Microdosimetry to Mixed-Field Neutron-Gamma Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bayati, Saad Najm

    interactions, alpha and recoil nuclei. The energy deposition patterns in these micro-scale targets are strongly dependent on radiation quality, so differences of linear energy transfer (LET) of the components in a mixed radiation field are significant. Accordingly, in a radiation field with an unknown gamma ray energy spectrum, absorbed dose for neutrons can be obtained by the separation of neutron induced events from gamma events using their distribution in lineal energy. To separate neutron dose from gamma dose a simple lineal energy threshold technique has been used in addition to a more sophisticated methods using γ-fitting and the graphite-walled counter measurements. The results of this study will establish the degree of error introduced by using a lineal energy threshold, which is likely to be used in any hand-held neutron monitor based on TEPCs. Keywords : Microdosimetry, TEPC, GPC, Mixed Field Dosimetry, Am-Be Neutron Source.

  1. Evaluation of a semiautomated lung mass calculation technique for internal dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, Nathan; Erwin, William; Pan, Tinsu

    2013-12-15

    calculated using the formula (lung HU − air HU)/(tissue HU − air HU), and mass = specific gravity × total volume × 1.04 g/cm{sup 3}.Results: The range of calculated lung masses was 0.51–1.29 kg. The average male and female lung masses during FB CT were 0.80 and 0.71 kg, respectively. The calculated lung mass varied across the respiratory cycle but changed to a lesser degree than did lung volume measurements (7.3% versus 15.4%). Lung masses calculated using deep inspiration breath-hold and average CT were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than were some masses calculated using respiratory-phase and FB CT. Increased voxel size and smooth reconstruction kernels led to high lung mass estimates owing to partial volume effects.Conclusions: Organ mass correction is an important component of patient-specific internal radionuclide dosimetry. Lung mass calculation necessitates scan-based density correction to account for volume changes owing to respiration. The range of lung masses in the authors’ patient population represents lung doses for the same absorbed energy differing from 25% below to 64% above the dose found using reference phantom organ masses. With proper management of acquisition parameters and selection of FB or midexpiration breath hold scans, lung mass estimates with about 10% population precision may be achieved.

  2. A Monte Carlo dosimetry study of vaginal {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy applications with a shielded cylindrical applicator set

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperopoulou, G.; Pantelis, E.; Papagiannis, P.; Rozaki-Mavrouli, H.; Sakelliou, L.; Baltas, D.; Karaiskos, P.

    2004-11-01

    A durable recommendation for brachytherapy treatment planning systems to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exists. As different proposed approaches have not been integrated in clinical treatment planning routine yet, currently utilized systems disregard or, most commonly, do not fully account for the aforementioned effects. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the efficacy of current treatment planning in clinical applications susceptible to errors due to heterogeneities. In this work the effect of the internal structure as well as the shielding used with a commercially available cylindrical shielded applicator set (Nucletron part no. 084.320) for vaginal and rectum treatments is studied using three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation for a clinical treatment plan involving seven source dwell positions of the classic microSelectron HDR {sup 192}Ir source. Results are compared to calculations of a treatment planning system (Plato BPS v.14.2.7), which assumes homogeneous water medium and applies a constant, multiplicative transmission factor only at points lying in the shadow of the shield. It is found that the internal structure of the applicator (which includes stainless steel, air and plastic materials) with no shield loaded does not affect the dose distribution relative to homogeneous water. In the unshielded side of the applicator with a 90 deg., 180 deg., or 270 deg. tungsten alloy shield loaded, an overestimation of treatment planning system calculations relative to Monte Carlo results was observed which is both shield and position dependent. While significant (up to 15%) at increased distances, which are not of major clinical importance, this overestimation does not affect dose prescription distances by more than 3%. The inverse effect of approx. 3% dose increase at dose prescription distances is observed for stainless steel shields. Regarding the shielded side of the applicator, it is shown that the

  3. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions – Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kersaudy, Pierric; Sudret, Bruno; Varsier, Nadège; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  4. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions - Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersaudy, Pierric; Sudret, Bruno; Varsier, Nadège; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  5. SU-E-T-308: Systematic Characterization of the Energy Response of Different LiF TLD Crystals for Dosimetry Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, E; Caprile, P; Sanchez-Nieto, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The thermoluminiscense dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used in personal and clinical dosimetry due to its small size, good sensitivity and tissue equivalence, among other advantages. This study presents the characterization of Lithium Fluoride based TLDs, in terms of their absorbed dose response to successive irradiation cycles in a broad range of beam energies, measured under reference conditions. Methods: Four types of Harshaw TLD chips were used: TLD-100, TLD-600 TLD-700 and 100-H. They were irradiated with 10 photon beams of different energy spectrums, from 28 kVp to 18MV (in 30 consecutive cycles for 6 and 18 MV). Results: It was found that the response of the dosimetric system was stabilized (less than ±3%) after 10 cycles for TLD-600 and TLD-700. In the case of TLD-100 and TLD-100H this dependence was not observed. A decreased response to increasing beam energy in terms of absorbed dose to water was observed, as expected, except for TLD-100H which showed the opposite behavior. The less energy dependent detector was the TLD-100H exhibiting a maximum deviation of 12%. The highest variation observed was 33% for TLD-100. The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy. Conclusion: The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy.

  6. Electron dosimetry for 10-MEV linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, K. K.; Chu, R.; VanDyk, G.

    Recent developments in electron accelerator technology may allow the role of high-energy machines to expand. Implementation of appropriate dosimetry and quality comtrol methods for non-homogeneous materials is an important part of the expansion of this technology. To implement such methods and provide electron dosimetry for an applications development program, we recently conducted several dosimetry experiments. Our 10-MeV prototype electron accelerator as well as the accelerator at the National Research Council of Canada were used for these experiments. Polystyrene and graphite phantoms were constructed to measure the dose profile with depth. This yielded the extrapolated range and hence the most probable energy of the electrons in the beam. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sandwich-type range finder was also designed and used to directly measure the range and therefore the electron energy. Some of the range-finder results indicated that the charge buildup in the non- conducting PMMA affected the dose distribution. The measured energy values agreed very well with the beam energy values calculated from the analyzing magnet current of the accelerator. Also, responses of a graphite calorimeter as well as of various dosimeters compared fairly well in an electron field. The interface effects near the surface of homogeneous products were studied by analyzing the transmitted dose measured by the red acrylic continuous dosimeter placed under the products. The same technique was also used to examine the nature of inhomogeneity of various food products. We found this dosimeter extremely convenient and useful for measuring dose distribution in a plane. A Monte Carlo computer code was used to compute the depth-dose distributions in various materials and to compute the dose distribution near the interface of acrylic and air. These results were then compared against the measured distributions.

  7. TU-F-201-00: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Update

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry in the biomedical sciences: applications in low-exposure biomedical and environmental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.; Vogel, J. S.; Balhorn, R.; Gledhill, B. L.; Southon, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Nelson, D. E.; Proctor, I. D.; Davis, J. C.

    1990-12-01

    We are utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry as a sensitive detector for tracking the disposition of radioisotopically labeled molecules in the biomedical sciences. These applications have shown the effectiveness of AMS as a tool to quantify biologically important molecules at extremely low levels. For example, AMS is being used to determine the amount of carcinogen covalently bound to animal DNA (DNA adduct) at levels relevent to human exposure. Detection sensitivities are 1 carcinogen molecule bound in 1011 to 1012 DNA bases, depending on the specific activity of the radiolabeled carcinogen. Studies have been undertaken in our laboratory utilizing heterocyclic amine food-borne carcinogens and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent environmental carcinogen, to study the metabolism of carcinogens at low doses. In addition, AMS is being used to detect the presence of rare proteins (mutant forms of protamine) in human sperm. Approximately l per 106 sperm analyzed contain the rare form of the protamine. Protamine isolated from this small number of cells is being analyzed by AMS, following 14C labeling. Thus, AMS can be used to verify the identity of an extremely small amount of biological material. Furthermore, an additional improvement of 2 orders of magnitude in the sensitivity of biomédical tracer studies is suggested by preliminary work with bacterial hosts depleted in radiocarbon. Other problems in the life sciences where detection sensitivity or sample sizes are limitations should also benefit from AMS. Studies are underway to measure the molecular targeting of cancer chemotherapeutics in human tissue and to pursue applications for receptor biology. We are also applying other candidate isotopes, such as 3H (double labeling with 14C) and 41Ca (bone absorption) to problems in biology. The detection of 36Cl and 26Al have applications for determination of human neutron exposure and understanding neurological toxicity, respectively. The results

  9. Thermoluminescent properties of Ni and Co doped synthetic, high pressure, high temperature diamonds: application to ionising radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Gheeraert, E; Kanda, H; Lapraz, D; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamond crystals grown under diluted nickel or cobalt as solvent catalysts is reported. After a study of TL properties of 6 different samples, it is shown that a crystal grown with Ni+2%Ti and annealed at 2100 K presents an intense glow peak at around 490 K. This peak is characterised by a broad emission band centred at 530 nm (2.34 eV). This crystal presents a significant, reproducible and linear TL response relative to the absorbed dose up to an X ray air kerma of 10 Gy. All these features make this material suitable for ionising radiation dosimetry. A similar study is made on another crystal grown from pure Co, and a comparative review of the results does show that for dosimetry work, Ni-containing diamonds are more appropriate than those grown from Co catalyst.

  10. SU-E-T-364: 6X FFF and 10X FFF Portal Dosimetry Output Factor Verification: Application for SRS/SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Gulam, M; Bellon, M; Gopal, A; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Hames, S; Schmidt, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To enhance portal dosimetry of high dose rate SRS/SBRT plan verifications with extensive imager measurement of output factors (OF). Methods: Electronic portal image dosimetry (EPID), implemented on the Varian Edge allows for acquisition of its two energies: 6X FFF and 10 FFF (1400 and 2400 MU/min, respectively) at source to imager distance (SID) =100cm without imager saturation. Square and rectangular aSi OF following EPID calibration were obtained. Data taken was similar to that obtained during beam commissioning (of almost all field sizes from 1×1 to 15×15 and 20×20 cm{sup 2}, [Trilogy] and [Edge], respectively) to construct a table using the OF tool for use in the Portal Dosimetry Prediction Algorithm (PDIP v11). The Trilogy 6x SRS 1000 MU/min EPID data were taken at 140 SID. The large number of OF were obtained for comparison to that obtained with diode detectors and ion chambers (cc13 for >3×3 field size). As Edge PDIP verification is currently ongoing, EPID measurements of three SRS/SBRT plans for the Trilogy were taken and compared to results obtained prior to these measurements. Results: The relative difference output factors of field sizes 2×2 and higher compared to commissioning data were (mean+/-SD, [range]): Edge 6X (−1.9+/−2.9%, [−5.9%,3.1%]), Edge 10X (−0.7+/−1.2%, [− 3.3%,0.8%] and Trilogy (0.03+/−0.5%, [−1.4%,1.1%]) with EPID over predicting. The results for the 140 SID showed excellent agreement throughout except at the 1×1 to 1×15 and 15×1 field sizes where differences were: −10.6%, −6.0% and −5.8%. The differences were also most pronounced for the 1×1 at 100 SID. They were −7.4% and −11.5% for 6X and 10X, respectively. The Gamma (3%, 1mm) for three clinical plans improved by 8.7+/−1.8%. Conclusion: Results indicate that imager output factor measurements at any SID of high dose rate SRS/SBRT are quite reliable for portal dosimetry plan verification except for the smallest fields. This work was not

  11. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Subiel, A; Moskvin, V; Welsh, G H; Cipiccia, S; Reboredo, D; Evans, P; Partridge, M; DesRosiers, C; Anania, M P; Cianchi, A; Mostacci, A; Chiadroni, E; Di Giovenale, D; Villa, F; Pompili, R; Ferrario, M; Belleveglia, M; Di Pirro, G; Gatti, G; Vaccarezza, C; Seitz, B; Isaac, R C; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Mendonca, M S; Sorensen, A; Boyd, M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2014-10-07

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10(-5) neutrons cm(-2) per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE.

  12. A probabilistic respiratory tract dosimetry model with application to beta-particle and photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, Eduardo Balderrama

    2002-01-01

    Predicting equivalent dose in the human respiratory tract is significant in the assessment of health risks associated with the inhalation of radioactive aerosols. A complete respiratory tract methodology based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 66 model was used in this research project for beta-particle and photon emitters. The conventional methodology has been to use standard values (from Reference Man) for parameters to obtain a single dose value. However, the methods used in the current study allow lung dose values to be determined as probability distributions to reflect the spread or variability in doses. To implement the methodology, a computer code, LUDUC, has been modified to include inhalation scenarios of beta-particle and photon emitters. For beta particles, a new methodology was implemented into Monte Carlo simulations to determine absorbed fractions in target tissues within the thoracic region of the respiratory tract. For photons, a new mathematical phantom of extrathoracic and thoracic regions was created based on previous studies to determine specific absorbed fractions in several tissues and organs of the human body due to inhalation of radioactive materials. The application of the methodology and developed data will be helpful in dose reconstruction and prediction efforts concerning the inhalation of short-lived radionuclides or radionuclides of Inhalation Class S. The resulting dose distributions follow a lognormal distribution shape for all scenarios examined. Applying the probabilistic computer code LUDUC to inhalation of strontium and yttrium aerosols has shown several trends, which could also be valid for many S radionuclide compounds that are beta-particle emitters. The equivalent doses are, in general, found to follow lognormal distributions. Therefore, these distributions can be described by geometric means and geometric standard deviations. Furthermore, a mathematical phantom of the extrathoracic and

  13. Application of the gamma evaluation method in Gamma Knife film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Chae-Yong; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Do-Heui; Suh, Tae-Suk; Gyu Kim, Dong; Chung, Hyun-Tai

    2011-10-15

    isodose lines exhibited inferior gamma indexes and pass rates compared with higher isodose lines. Conclusions: The gamma evaluation method was applicable to GK radiosurgery. For all test plans, planning dose distribution and film measurement met the tolerance criteria of 0.5 mm/0.5% within the 50% isodose line which are used for marginal dose prescription.

  14. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  15. Application of a practical method for the isocenter point in vivo dosimetry by a transit signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Angelo; Fidanzio, Andrea; Azario, Luigi; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Onofrio, Guido; Cilla, Savino; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio; Russo, Aniello; Iadanza, Luciano; Zucca, Sergio; Fusco, Vincenzo; Di Napoli, Nicola; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Balducci, Mario; Cellini, Numa; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Morganti, Alessio G.

    2007-08-01

    This work reports the results of the application of a practical method to determine the in vivo dose at the isocenter point, Diso, of brain thorax and pelvic treatments using a transit signal St. The use of a stable detector for the measurement of the signal St (obtained by the x-ray beam transmitted through the patient) reduces many of the disadvantages associated with the use of solid-state detectors positioned on the patient as their periodic recalibration, and their positioning is time consuming. The method makes use of a set of correlation functions, obtained by the ratio between St and the mid-plane dose value, Dm, in standard water-equivalent phantoms, both determined along the beam central axis. The in vivo measurement of Diso required the determination of the water-equivalent thickness of the patient along the beam central axis by the treatment planning system that uses the electron densities supplied by calibrated Hounsfield numbers of the computed tomography scanner. This way it is, therefore, possible to compare Diso with the stated doses, Diso,TPS, generally used by the treatment planning system for the determination of the monitor units. The method was applied in five Italian centers that used beams of 6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV x-rays and 60Co γ-rays. In particular, in four centers small ion-chambers were positioned below the patient and used for the St measurement. In only one center, the St signals were obtained directly by the central pixels of an EPID (electronic portal imaging device) equipped with commercial software that enabled its use as a stable detector. In the four centers where an ion-chamber was positioned on the EPID, 60 pelvic treatments were followed for two fields, an anterior-posterior or a posterior-anterior irradiation and a lateral-lateral irradiation. Moreover, ten brain tumors were checked for a lateral-lateral irradiation, and five lung tumors carried out with three irradiations with different gantry angles were followed. One center

  16. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which Federal... of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal...

  17. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Regina K.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR 192Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and 192Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose

  18. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes...

  19. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes...

  20. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes...

  1. REVIEW OF DOSIMETRY FIELD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    three, oxalic acid , polyisobutylene, and Mylar film, seem sufficiently promising to warrant further development. Their current states of development...ceric sulfate dosimeters be included in the dosimetry handbook, but that additional work should be done on oxalic acid , polyisobutylene, and Mylar as dosimetry materials. (Author)

  2. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  3. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver.

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-07

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and (125)I, (90)Y, (211)At, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu, (131)I and (18)F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons ((125)I) or high-LET alpha particles ((211)At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  4. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  5. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Wang, M.; Liu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  6. A broad-group cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for fast neutron dosimetry Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alpan, F.A.

    2011-07-01

    A new ENDF/B-VII.0-based coupled 44-neutron, 20-gamma-ray-group cross-section library was developed to investigate the latest evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) ,in comparison to ENDF/B-VI.3 used in BUGLE-96, as well as to generate an objective-specific library. The objectives selected for this work consisted of dosimetry calculations for in-vessel and ex-vessel reactor locations, iron atom displacement calculations for reactor internals and pressure vessel, and {sup 58}Ni(n,{gamma}) calculation that is important for gas generation in the baffle plate. The new library was generated based on the contribution and point-wise cross-section-driven (CPXSD) methodology and was applied to one of the most widely used benchmarks, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pool Critical Assembly benchmark problem. In addition to the new library, BUGLE-96 and an ENDF/B-VII.0-based coupled 47-neutron, 20-gamma-ray-group cross-section library was generated and used with both SNLRML and IRDF dosimetry cross sections to compute reaction rates. All reaction rates computed by the multigroup libraries are within {+-} 20 % of measurement data and meet the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission acceptance criterion for reactor vessel neutron exposure evaluations specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. (authors)

  7. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Wang, M; Liu, Q

    2015-09-07

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580 B Appendix B to Part 1580 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability...

  9. 19 CFR 204.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 204.1 Section 204.1 Customs... EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.1 Applicability of part. This part 204 applies..., or other program or operation undertaken by the Department of Agriculture, or any agency...

  10. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Brian W; Elliott, Jonathan T; Kanick, Stephen C; Davis, Scott C; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Maytin, Edward V; Pereira, Stephen P; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  11. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  12. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kuker, Russ; Sztejnberg, Manuel; Gulec, Seza

    2016-01-05

    Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT) compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  13. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Kuker, Russ; Sztejnberg, Manuel; Gulec, Seza

    2017-01-01

    Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT) compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed. PMID:28117290

  14. Small fields: Nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Indra J.; Ding, George X.; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2008-01-15

    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields {>=}4x4 cm{sup 2}, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams.

  15. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  16. Internal dosimetry - a review.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Charles Augustus

    2004-06-01

    The field history and current status of internal dosimetry is reviewed in this article. Elements of the field that are reviewed include standards and models, derivation of dose coefficients and intake retention fractions, bioassay measurements, and intake and dose calculations. In addition, guidance is developed and provided as to the necessity of internal dosimetry for a particular facility or operation and methodology for implementing a program. A discussion of the purposes of internal dosimetry is included as well as recommendations for future development and direction.

  17. Modelling the effective atomic number and the packing factor of polyatomic compounds: Applications to refractive index and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, H.; Couto dos Santos, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, based on fundamental physics and chemistry (charge distribution, electronegativity, induced dipole moment), we are introducing an analytical expression for Zeff and a general way of calculating the crystal packing factor, p, of any ionic material. By using the average separation between the atomic and crystal(ionic) radii of the interacting ions, we are postulating an effective distance(Rij) between the positive and the negative centre of charge. When compared to the available experimental data, predictions within 20% have been obtained to Zeff of materials applied to dosimetry. In photonics, the increasing behaviour of the refractive index with Zeff is confirmed. By combining crystal field and effective charge models, we have predicted Zeff of the Eu2O3 within the range of available experimental data.

  18. Neodymium as a magnesium tetraborate matrix dopant and its applicability in dosimetry and as a temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Luiza F.; Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2015-06-01

    MgB4O7 doped with lanthanides such as Dy3+ and Tm3+ are phosphors with very well established use in routine personal dosimetry. Certain characteristics, for example linearity in a broad dose range, low energy dependence, Zeff=8.5, high sensitivity and a relatively simple thermoluminescent (TL) emission curve make MgB4O7 a good material for thermoluminescent dosimetry. With the aim of analyzing other doping possibilities, this paper presents some preliminary results on the use of Nd3+ as a dopant in the MgB4O7 matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of using two different lanthanides, Nd and Dy, in the host matrix. In the present work, the phosphors were produced through solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction confirmed the success of the technique. The TL behavior of MgB4O7:Nd was assessed when irradiated with gamma (60Co) and beta radiation, to determine the effect of the dopant concentration and the dose-response over a broad dose range. We also evaluated the dose-response of MgB4O7:Nd,Dy when irradiated with 60Co. The TL responses of the phosphors were compared with that of MgB4O7:Dy. These preliminary studies show that for the absorbed dose range studied, the sensitivity of MgB4O7:Nd,Dy was 3.8 and 28 times higher than that of MgB4O7:Dy and MgB4O7:Nd. The materials also presented linearity from 5 to 40 Gy. Above this value, the dose response curve exhibited sublinear behavior. These preliminary results will assist in developing a new temperature sensor based on a MgB4O7 dosimeter.

  19. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values.

  20. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  1. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rühm, W.; Fantuzzi, E.; Harrison, R.; Schuhmacher, H.; Vanhavere, F.; Alves, J.; Bottollier Depois, J. F.; Fattibene, P.; Knežević, Ž.; Lopez, M. A.; Mayer, S.; Miljanić, S.; Neumaier, S.; Olko, P.; Stadtmann, H.; Tanner, R.; Woda, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises—based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members—five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  2. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580...

  5. INTEGRATED OPERATIONAL DOSIMETRY SYSTEM AT CERN.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Gérald; Pedrosa, Fernando Baltasar Dos Santos; Carbonez, Pierre; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Ninin, Pierre; Fuentes, Eloy Reguero; Roesler, Stefan; Vollaire, Joachim

    2016-11-24

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, upgraded its operational dosimetry system in March 2013 to be prepared for the first Long Shutdown of CERN's facilities. The new system allows the immediate and automatic checking and recording of the dosimetry data before and after interventions in radiation areas. To facilitate the analysis of the data in context of CERN's approach to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), this new system is interfaced to the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool (IMPACT). IMPACT is a web-based application widely used in all CERN's accelerators and their associated technical infrastructures for the planning, the coordination and the approval of interventions (work permit principle). The coupling of the operational dosimetry database with the IMPACT repository allows a direct and almost immediate comparison of the actual dose with the estimations, in addition to enabling the configuration of alarm levels in the dosemeter in function of the intervention to be performed.

  6. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  7. SU-F-BRA-15: Physical Aspects and Clinical Applications of Post-Treatment Yttrium-90 PET-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Veltchev, I; Doss, M; Yu, J; Meyer, J; Ma, C; Fourkal, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of PET-based post-treatment dosimetry of yttrium-90 microspheres has been improving over the past decade and is now at a stage, permitting volumetric dose-outcome studies. We outline the recent advances and identify the physical limitations to the accuracy of the dose calculations. Methods: Convolution of the measured PET activity density distribution with a pre-calculated voxel-dose-kernel (VDK) is the most widely used method for dose reconstruction. Therefore, accurate knowledge of the beta+ branching ratio as well as the micro-dosimetric characteristics of electron interactions within the microsphere is essential for the computation of the dose kernel. We implement a model of the microspheres used in our clinic to calculate the modified electron energy spectrum at the microsphere’s surface and to determine the impact of self-shielding on the dose reconstruction. The three-dimensional dose distributions obtained for 10 patients treated with radio-embolization with yttrium-90 microspheres are evaluated and various DVH markers are investigated for correlation with outcome. Results: The methods for reducing the overall computation uncertainty are systematically outlined in this presentation. Since the latest experimental data on yttrium-90 beta+ branching ratio has a relative uncertainty of 1.5%, all contributing factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations must be brought to a sub 1% level. The self-shielding within the microspheres is found to be responsible for up to 6% reduction of the reconstructed dose in low-gradient regions and must be taken into account. The contribution of trace amounts of other beta+ emitters introduced during the manufacturing process is also discussed. Conclusion: The accelerating pace of clinical adoption of PET-based post-treatment dosimetry is mainly due to advances in both quantitative PET imaging and physical models of dose deposition. We show that the overall physical dose uncertainty in the convolution

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This Appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  14. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions...

  15. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  16. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  17. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... manipulation technique whose validity does not require the acceptance of a particular economic,...

  18. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model...

  20. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  2. A fast, high spatial resolution optical tomographic scanner for measurement of absorption in gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Doom, T; Bhat, M; Rutten, T P; Tran, T; Costanzo, A

    2005-06-01

    A fast tomographic optical density measurement system has been constructed and evaluated for application in Fricke 3D gel dosimetry. Although the potential for full three-dimensional radiation dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters has been extensively reported, its application has been limited due to a lack of fast optical density measurement systems. In this work, the emphasis of the design has been to achieve a short scan time through the use of precision optics and minimal moving parts. The system has been demonstrated in the laboratory to be able to achieve better than 1mm resolution and a scanning time per tomographic slice of 2.4 seconds. Full volumetric sampling of a 10 cm diameter by 7cm long cylinder can be achieved in 3 minutes. When applied with a Fricke based gel dosimeter a linear response between reconstructed CT number and absolute dose was better than 3%.

  3. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... This part sets forth the requirements and conditions applicable to commercial mobile radio service... standards and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for... parts of the radio frequency spectrum may be made available for experimentation. (e) Part 15. This...

  4. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part...

  5. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators.

  6. Measurement of the neutron energy spectrum on the Godiva IV fast burst assembly for application to neutron dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Hsu, H.H.; Paternoster, R.R.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    In June, 1995, Los Alamos National Laboratory hosted the 23rd U.S. Department of Energy sponsored Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Study at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The participants tested their facilities accident dosimeters under a variety of neutrons fields produced by the Solution High Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) and the Godiva IV fast burst assembly. To provide useful information for the evaluation of the results, the neutron energy Spectrum was determined and the delivered absorbed dose to tissue. The measurement of the neutron energy spectrum on Godiva provides a unique problem in that the burst, which is nearly Gaussian in time, has a full width at half maximum of around 50 microseconds. The neutron spectrum was first determined at low-power while running at delayed critical using a standard set of Bonner spheres. At the same time, the response of a set of TLD dosimeters were measured. After that, measurements were conducted during a burst with another set of TLDs and with sulfur pellets.

  7. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  9. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application. PMID:20142941

  10. Application of computational fluid dynamics to regional dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbell, J.S.; Gross, E.A.; Joyner, D.R.; Godo, M.N.; Morgan, K.T. )

    1993-08-01

    For certain inhaled air pollutants, such as reactive, water soluble gases, the distribution of nasal lesions observed in F344 rats may be closely related to regional gas uptake patterns in the nose. These uptake patterns can be influenced by the currents of air flowing through the upper respiratory tract during the breathing cycle. Since data on respiratory tract lesions in F344 rats are extrapolated to humans to make predictions of risk to human health, a better understanding of the factors affecting these responses is needed. To assess potential effects of nasal airflow on lesion location and severity, a methodology was developed for creation of computer simulations of steady-state airflow and gas transport using a three-dimensional finite element grid reconstructed from serial step-sections of the nasal passages of a male F344 rat. Simulations on a supercomputer used the computational fluid dynamics package FIDAP (FDI, Evanston, IL). Distinct streams of bulk flow evident in the simulations matched inspiratory streams reported for the F344 rat. Moreover, simulated regional flow velocities matched measured velocities in concurrent laboratory experiments with a hollow nasal mold. Computer-predicted flows were used in simulations of gas transport to nasal passage walls, with formaldehyde as a test case. Results from the uptake simulations were compared with the reported distribution of formaldehyde-induced nasal lesions observed in the F344 rat, and indicated that airflow-driven uptake patterns probably play an important role in determining the location of certain nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde. This work demonstrated the feasibility of applying computational fluid dynamics to airflow-driven dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract.

  11. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The...

  12. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The...

  13. 17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. This... the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act....

  14. 17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. This... the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act....

  15. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty.

  16. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a commercial applicator system for intra-operative electron beam therapy utilizing ELEKTA Precise accelerator.

    PubMed

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Bernstein, Zvi; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Kuten, Abraham; Orion, Itzhak

    2010-07-19

    The design concept and dosimetric characteristics of a new applicator system for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are presented in this work. A new hard-docking commercial system includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) applicators with different diameters and applicator end angles and a set of secondary lead collimators. A telescopic device allows changing of source-to-surface distance (SSD). All measurements were performed for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron energies. Output factors and percentage depth doses (PDD) were measured in a water phantom using a plane-parallel ion chamber. Isodose contours and radiation leakage were measured using a solid water phantom and radiographic films. The dependence of PDD on SSD was checked for the applicators with the smallest and the biggest diameters. SSD dependence of the output factors was measured. Hardcopies of PDD and isodose contours were prepared to help the team during the procedure on deciding applicator size and energy to be chosen. Applicator output factors are a function of energy, applicator size and applicator type. Dependence of SSD correction factors on applicator size and applicator type was found to be weak. The same SSD correction will be applied for all applicators in use for each energy. The radiation leakage through the applicators is clinically acceptable. The applicator system enables effective collimation of electron beams for IORT. The data presented are sufficient for applicator, energy and monitor unit selection for IORT treatment of a patient.

  17. 10 CFR 4.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 4.3 Application of this part. This part applies to any program for which Federal financial assistance is authorized under a law administered...

  18. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  19. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  1. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  2. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  3. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to each program for which Federal... interest in real property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under that property are...

  4. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to each program for which Federal... interest in real property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under that property are...

  5. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... radio service applicable to certain providers in the following services in this part: (1)...

  6. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20...

  7. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20...

  8. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20...

  9. EANM Dosimetry Committee guidance document: good practice of clinical dosimetry reporting.

    PubMed

    Lassmann, M; Chiesa, C; Flux, G; Bardiès, M

    2011-01-01

    Many recent publications in nuclear medicine contain data on dosimetric findings for existing and new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In many of these articles, however, a description of the methodology applied for dosimetry is lacking or important details are omitted. The intention of the EANM Dosimetry Committee is to guide the reader through a series of suggestions for reporting dosimetric approaches. The authors are aware of the large amount of data required to report the way a given clinical dosimetry procedure was implemented. Another aim of this guidance document is to provide comprehensive information for preparing and submitting publications and reports containing data on internal dosimetry. This guidance document also contains a checklist which could be useful for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to scientific journals or for grant applications. In addition, this document could be used to decide which data are useful for a documentation of dosimetry results in individual patient records. This may be of importance when the approval of a new radiopharmaceutical by official bodies such as EMA or FDA is envisaged.

  10. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  11. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of part. 298.1 Section 298.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.1 Applicability of...

  12. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of this part. 112.2 Section 112.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.2 Application...

  13. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  14. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  15. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  16. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  17. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of this part. 112.2 Section 112.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.2 Application...

  18. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  19. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  20. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  1. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  2. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  3. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 1203.2 Section 1203.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  5. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  6. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  9. TU-F-201-01: General Aspects of Radiochromic Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  10. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  11. From ``micro`` to ``macro`` internal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation dose is the amount of radiation energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing tissue. Internal dosimetry applies to assessments of dose to internal organs from penetrating radiation sources outside the body and from radionuclides taken into the body. Dosimetry is essential for correlating energy deposition with biological effects that are observed when living tissues are irradiated. Dose-response information provides the basis for radiation protection standards and risk assessment. Radiation interactions with living matter takes place on a microscopic scale, and the manifestation of damage may be evident at the cellular, multi-cellular, and even organ levels of biological organization. The relative biological effectiveness of ionization radiation is largely determined by the spatial distribution of energy deposition events within microscopic as well as macroscopic biological targets of interest. The spatial distribution of energy imparted is determined by the spatial distribution of radionuclides and properties of the emitted charged-particle radiation involved. The nonuniformity of energy deposition events in microscopic volumes, particularly from high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, results in large variations in the amount of energy imparted to very small volumes or targets. Microdosimetry is the study of energy deposition events at the cellular level. Macrodosimetry is a term for conventional dose averaging at the tissue or organ level. In between is a level of dosimetry sometimes referred to as multi-cellular dosimetry. The distinction between these terms and their applications in assessment of dose from internally deposited radionuclides is described.

  12. The US Department of Energy Personnel Dosimetry Evaluation and Upgrade Program

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Stroud, C.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Personnel Dosimetry Evaluation and Upgrade Program is designed to identify and evaluate dosimetry deficiencies and to conduct innovative research and development programs that will improve overall capabilities, thus ensuring that DOE can comply with applicable standards and regulations for dose measurement. To achieve these goals, two programs were initiated to evaluate and upgrade beta measurement and neutron dosimetry. 3 refs.

  13. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  14. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  15. SU-E-T-459: Impact of Source Position and Traveling Time On HDR Skin Surface Applicator Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, J; Barker, C; Zaider, M; Cohen, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Observed dosimetric discrepancy between measured and treatment planning system (TPS) predicted values, during applicator commissioning, were traced to source position uncertainty in the applicator. We quantify the dosimetric impact of this geometric uncertainty, and of the source traveling time inside the applicator, and propose corrections for clinical use. Methods: We measured the dose profiles from the Varian Leipzig-style (horizontal) HDR skin applicator, using EBT3 film, photon diode, and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) and three different GammaMed HDR afterloders. The dose profiles and depth dose of each aperture were measured at several depths (up to about 10 mm, depending on the dosimeter). The measured dose profiles were compared with Acuros calculated profiles in BrachyVision TPS. For the impact of the source position, EBT3 film measurements were performed with applicator, facing-down and facing-up orientations. The dose with and without source traveling was measured with diode detector using HDR timer and electrometer timer, respectively. Results: Depth doses measured using the three dosimeters were in good agreement, but were consistently higher than the Acuros dose calculations. Measurements with the applicator facing-up were significantly lower than those in the facing-down position with maximum difference of about 18% at the surface, due to source sag inside the applicator. Based on the inverse-square law, the effective source sag was evaluated to be about 0.5 mm from the planned position. The additional dose from the source traveling was about 2.8% for 30 seconds with 10 Ci source, decreasing with increased dwelling time and decreased source activity. Conclusion: Due to the short source-to-surface distance of the applicator, the small source sag inside the applicator has significant dosimetric impact, which should be considered before the clinical use of the applicator. Investigation of the effect for other applicators

  16. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  17. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  18. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  19. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

    1996-10-01

    The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, and electron (low-range or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or -particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

  1. Passive particle dosimetry. [silver halide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Present methods of dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the processes using silver chloride crystals for ionizing particle dosimetry. Differences between the ability of various crystals to record ionizing particle paths are directly related to impurities in the range of a few ppm (parts per million). To understand the roles of these impurities in the process, a method for consistent production of high purity silver chloride, and silver bromide was developed which yields silver halides with detectable impurity content less than 1 ppm. This high purity silver chloride was used in growing crystals with controlled doping. Crystals were grown by both the Czochalski method and the Bridgman method, and the Bridgman grown crystals were used for the experiments discussed. The distribution coefficients of ten divalent cations were determined for the Bridgman crystals. The best dosimeters were made with silver chloride crystals containing 5 to 10 ppm of lead; other impurities tested did not produce proper dosimeters.

  2. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  3. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  4. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  5. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  6. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS... “beneficiary sub-Saharan African country” means those countries so designated by the President under 19...

  7. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND... Education that: (a)(1) Was transferred to the Department by the Department of Education Organization...

  8. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND... Education that: (a)(1) Was transferred to the Department by the Department of Education Organization...

  9. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  10. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  11. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  12. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  13. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  14. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES § 208.2 Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. The term “beneficiary sub-Saharan African country” means those countries so designated by the President under 19...

  15. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  16. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  17. 13 CFR 117.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of this part. 117.2 Section 117.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED §...

  18. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  19. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  20. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  1. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  2. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  3. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  4. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  5. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  6. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  9. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  12. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  13. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  14. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  15. 22 CFR 209.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of this part. 209.2 Section 209.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  17. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  19. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  20. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  1. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  3. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  4. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  5. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  6. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  7. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  8. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  9. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  11. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... financial assistance from TVA. The fact that a type of Federal financial assistance is not listed...

  12. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... financial assistance from TVA. The fact that a type of Federal financial assistance is not listed...

  13. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... financial assistance from TVA. The fact that a type of Federal financial assistance is not listed...

  14. Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2017-03-01

    The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.

  15. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs.

  16. Handbook for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for personnel dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The program contained in this Handbook provides a significant advance in the field of radiation protection through a structured means for assuring the quality of personnel dosimetry performance. Since personnel dosimetry performance is directly related to the assurance of worker safety, it has been of key interest to the Department of Energy. Studies conducted over the past three decades have clearly demonstrated a need for personnel dosimetry performance criteria, related testing programs, and improvements in dosimetry technology. In responding to these needs, the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (EH) has developed and initiated a DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) which is intended to improve the quality of personnel dosimetry through (1) performance testing, (2) dosimetry and calibration intercomparisons, and (3) applied research. In the interest of improving dosimetry technology, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is also designed to encourage cooperation and technical interchange between DOE laboratories. Dosimetry intercomparison programs have been scheduled which include the use of transport standard instruments, transport standard radioactive sources and special dosimeters. The dosimeters used in the intercomparison program are designed to obtain optimum data on the comparison of dosimetry calibration methodologies and capabilities. This data is used in part to develop enhanced calibration protocols. In the interest of overall calibration update, assistance and guidance for the calibration of personnel dosimeters is available through the DOELAP support laboratories. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  18. Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry for High Flux Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting Applications Using a Simple Optical Detection Method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boer; Sharp, Joshua S

    2015-11-03

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) by fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) is a powerful benchtop tool used to probe protein structure, interactions, and conformational changes in solution. However, the reproducibility of all HRPF techniques is limited by the ability to deliver a defined concentration of hydroxyl radicals to the protein. This ability is impacted by both the amount of radical generated and the presence of radical scavengers in solution. In order to compare HRPF data from sample to sample, a hydroxyl radical dosimeter is needed that can measure the effective concentration of radical that is delivered to the protein, after accounting for both differences in hydroxyl radical generation and nonanalyte radical consumption. Here, we test three radical dosimeters (Alexa Fluor 488, terepthalic acid, and adenine) for their ability to quantitatively measure the effective radical dose under the high radical concentration conditions of FPOP. Adenine has a quantitative relationship between UV spectrophotometric response, effective hydroxyl radical dose delivered, and peptide and protein oxidation levels over the range of radical concentrations typically encountered in FPOP. The simplicity of an adenine-based dosimeter allows for convenient and flexible incorporation into FPOP applications, and the ability to accurately measure the delivered radical dose will enable reproducible and reliable FPOP across a variety of platforms and applications.

  19. X-ray dose response of calcite-A comprehensive analysis for optimal application in TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various annealing treatments on dosimetric characteristics of orange calcite (CaCO3) mineral has been studied in detail. Quantitative analysis on the dose response shows that the 573 K annealed sample showed sublinear dose response from 10 mGy to 1 Gy. The fading and reproducibility of this sample are also good enough for dosimetric application. However, a specific annealing treatment after irradiation shows some significant improvements in the dosimetric characteristics of the sample. The 773 K pre-annealed sample, after X-ray irradiation post-annealing at 340 K for 6 min provides linear dose response from 10 mGy to 3.60 Gy, very less fading and good reproducibility. Moreover, this sample after post-annealing at 380 K for 6 min shows linear dose response from 10 mGy to 5.40 Gy when analyzed from the ∼408 K thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak. Analysis of TL glow curves confirmed that the 1.30 eV trap center in calcite crystal is the most effective trapping site for dosimetric application.

  20. Properties of thin film radiation detectors and their application to dosimetry and quality assurance in x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshahat, Bassem

    The characteristics of two different types of thin-film radiation detectors are experimentally investigated: organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) and a new self-powered detector that operates based on high-energy secondary electrons (HEC). Although their working principles are substantially different, they both can be used for radiation detection and image formation in medical applications. OPVs with different active layer material thicknesses and aluminum electrode areas were fabricated. The OPV cell consisted of P3HT: PCBM photoactive materials, composed of donor and acceptor semiconducting organic materials, sandwiched between an aluminum electrode as anode and an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as a cathode. The detectors were exposed to 60150 kVp x rays, which generated photocurrent in the active layer. The electric charge production in the OPV cells was measured. The net current as function of beam energy (kVp) was proportional to ~1/kVp0.45 when adjusted for x-ray beam output. The best combination of parameters for these cells was 270-nm active layer thicknesses for 0.7cm-2 electrode area. The measured current ranged from about 0.7 to 2.4 nA/cm2 for 60-150 kVp, corresponding to about 0.09 -- 0.06 nA/cm2/mGy, respectively, when adjusted for the output x-ray source flux. The HEC detection concept was recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated by a UML/HMS research group. HEC detection employs direct conversion of high-energy electron current to detector signal without external power and amplification. The potential of using HEC detectors for diagnostic imaging application was investigated by using a heterogeneous phantom consisting of a water cylinder with Al and wax rod inserts.

  1. Test of Prototype Detector for Retrospective Neutron Dosimetry of Reactor Internals and Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Nemezawa, Shigeki; Kubota, Isamu; Hayashi, Haruhisa

    2009-08-01

    A prototype detector for simple and non-destructive retrospective neutron dosimetry was made. A Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector was used as a detector to measure the nuclides 54Mn, 58Co, and 60Co that were generated in reactor internals and vessels. The detector is surrounded by a tungsten collimator which shields background gamma-rays and detects gamma-rays originating from the measuring point. Neutron fluence is calculated using the pre-calculated response, measuring time, decay time and reactor power history. The applicability of this detector was tested by measuring parts of irradiated reactor internals.

  2. Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Douglas Mahaffey Danks

    The feasibility of employing alkaline earth sulfide based photostimulable storage phosphors for relative dosimetry in radiation oncology has been investigated. The dosimetric characteristics, radiologic characteristics, and spacial sensitivity of calcium sulfide and strontium sulfide based phosphors were determined. Dosimetric characteristics were explored by cavity theory calculation, Monte Carlo simulation, and physical measurement. Dosimetric characteristics obtained with cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulations agree well. The dose perturbation of the phosphor base materials were comparable to those produced by clinical dosimeter materials over the energy region employed in radiation oncology. Dose perturbation in regions downstream of the phosphor were measured with a variety of clinical dosimeters and compared with simulation results. The results of the measurements and simulations agreed within the uncertainty levels of the simulations and the measurements. Radiological characteristics of sensitivity, fading, dose response, dose rate response, and energy dependence of response were studied with an experimental phosphor output reader. Relative sensitivity was found to be dependent upon the mass thickness of phosphor layer. Fading was quantified for the calcium sulfide phosphor, with a half time of 2300 minutes. The strontium sulfide sample exhibited some fading, however, the regression lines yielded low correlation coefficients. A linear dose response over the range of doses employed in radiation oncology was obtained for both phosphors. No significant dose rate dependence of response was measured for the phosphors. The phosphor's energy dependence of response paralleled the dose perturbation relative to water predicted by cavity theory and simulations. Spatial sensitivity was demonstrated with an experimental phosphor scanner. The phosphors exhibited spatial sensitivity, however, infrared scattering/piping in the transparent substrate appeared to cause

  3. Monte Carlo and experimental internal radionuclide dosimetry in RANDO head phantom.

    PubMed

    Ghahraman Asl, Ruhollah; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Parach, Ali Asghar; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Momennezhad, Mehdi; Davenport, David

    2015-09-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are widely employed in internal dosimetry to obtain better estimates of absorbed dose distributions from irradiation sources in medicine. Accurate 3D absorbed dosimetry would be useful for risk assessment of inducing deterministic and stochastic biological effects for both therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate the use of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package for 3D internal dosimetry using the head portion of the RANDO phantom. GATE package (version 6.1) was used to create a voxel model of a human head phantom from computed tomography (CT) images. Matrix dimensions consisted of 319 × 216 × 30 voxels (0.7871 × 0.7871 × 5 mm(3)). Measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). One rod-shaped source with 94 MBq activity of (99m)Tc was positioned in the brain tissue of the posterior part of the human head phantom in slice number 2. The results of the simulation were compared with measured mean absorbed dose per cumulative activity (S value). Absorbed dose was also calculated for each slice of the digital model of the head phantom and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each slice from the simulation data. The S-values calculated by GATE and TLD methods showed a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, r(2) ≥ 0.99, p < 0.05) with each other. The maximum relative percentage differences were ≤14% for most cases. DVHs demonstrated dose decrease along the direction of movement toward the lower slices of the head phantom. Based on the results obtained from GATE Monte Carlopackage it can be deduced that a complete dosimetry simulation study, from imaging to absorbed dose map calculation, is possible to execute in a single framework.

  4. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  5. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  6. Instrumental carbon monoxide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Stetter, J R; Rutt, D R

    1980-10-01

    Modern technology for the ambient monitoring of carbon monoxide has been developed to produce a portable electrochemical instrument capable of the personal exposure to carbon monoxide. The performance characteristics of this device have been studied so that the unambiguous interpretation of field data could be performed. A study of the carbon monoxide exposure in a light manufacturing facility illustrate that effective dosimetry can be performed with expectations of accuracy typically better than +/- 15%, and that voluntary carbon monoxide exposures such as smoking were a significant contribution to the individual's exposure. Significant definition of the carbon monoxide exposure profile can be achieved with an instrument approach to the collection of the dosimetric data.

  7. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  8. Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1923-01-01

    The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.

  9. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT.

    PubMed

    Low, Daniel A; Moran, Jean M; Dempsey, James F; Dong, Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  10. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  11. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-04-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student's previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant's undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  12. Boundary Electron and Beta Dosimetry-Quantification of the Effects of Dissimilar Media on Absorbed Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Josane C.

    1991-02-01

    This work quantifies the changes effected in electron absorbed dose to a soft-tissue equivalent medium when part of this medium is replaced by a material that is not soft -tissue equivalent. That is, heterogeneous dosimetry is addressed. Radionuclides which emit beta particles are the electron sources of primary interest. They are used in brachytherapy and in nuclear medicine: for example, beta -ray applicators made with strontium-90 are employed in certain ophthalmic treatments and iodine-131 is used to test thyroid function. More recent medical procedures under development and which involve beta radionuclides include radioimmunotherapy and radiation synovectomy; the first is a cancer modality and the second deals with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the possibility of skin surface contamination exists whenever there is handling of radioactive material. Determination of absorbed doses in the examples of the preceding paragraph requires considering boundaries of interfaces. Whilst the Monte Carlo method can be applied to boundary calculations, for routine work such as in clinical situations, or in other circumstances where doses need to be determined quickly, analytical dosimetry would be invaluable. Unfortunately, few analytical methods for boundary beta dosimetry exist. Furthermore, the accuracy of results from both Monte Carlo and analytical methods has to be assessed. Although restricted to one radionuclide, phosphorus -32, the experimental data obtained in this work serve several purposes, one of which is to provide standards against which calculated results can be tested. The experimental data also contribute to the relatively sparse set of published boundary dosimetry data. At the same time, they may be useful in developing analytical boundary dosimetry methodology. The first application of the experimental data is demonstrated. Results from two Monte Carlo codes and two analytical methods, which were developed elsewhere, are compared

  13. Pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion: part I.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Michael M; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A; Thumma, Sridhar; Upadhye, Sampada B; Battu, Sunil Kumar; McGinity, James W; Martin, Charles

    2007-09-01

    Interest in hot-melt extrusion techniques for pharmaceutical applications is growing rapidly with well over 100 papers published in the pharmaceutical scientific literature in the last 12 years. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) has been a widely applied technique in the plastics industry and has been demonstrated recently to be a viable method to prepare several types of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Hot-melt extruded dosage forms are complex mixtures of active medicaments, functional excipients, and processing aids. HME also offers several advantages over traditional pharmaceutical processing techniques including the absence of solvents, few processing steps, continuous operation, and the possibility of the formation of solid dispersions and improved bioavailability. This article, Part I, reviews the pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion, including equipment, principles of operation, and process technology. The raw materials processed using this technique are also detailed and the physicochemical properties of the resultant dosage forms are described. Part II of this review will focus on various applications of HME in drug delivery such as granules, pellets, immediate and modified release tablets, transmucosal and transdermal systems, and implants.

  14. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  15. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J. Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Yung H.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Iagaru, Andre H.; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  16. Radioembolization dosimetry: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-04-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  17. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  18. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  19. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    SciTech Connect

    DUNFORD, CHARLIE

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  20. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  1. Report from the dosimetry working group to CEDR project management

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J J

    1994-08-01

    On August 2, 1989, Admiral Watkins, Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE), presented a four-point program designed to enhance the DOE epidemiology program. One part of this program was the establishment of a Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to facilitate independent research to validate and supplement DOE research on human health effects. A Dosimetry Working Group was formed during May 1991 to evaluate radiation dose variables and associated documentation that would be most useful to researchers for retrospective and prospective studies. The Working Group consisted of thirteen individuals with expertise and experience in health physics, epidemiology, dosimetry, computing, and industrial hygiene. A final report was delivered to CEDR Project Management during February 1992. The report contains a number of major recommendations concerning collection, interpretation, and documentation of dosimetry data to maximize their usefulness to researchers using CEDR for examining possible health effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

  2. The next decade in external dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine.

    PubMed

    Chu, R Y; Ekeh, S; Basmadjian, G

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of 131I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96 +/- 0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for 123I, 125I and 131I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 7 mu Gray, 5 mu Gray and 29 mu Gray per MBq of 123I, 125I, and 131I administered respectively.

  4. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  5. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  6. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  7. Remote optical fiber dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, A. L.; Justus, B. L.; Falkenstein, P. L.; Miller, R. W.; Ning, H.; Altemus, R.

    2001-09-01

    Optical fibers offer a unique capability for remote monitoring of radiation in difficult-to-access and/or hazardous locations. Optical fiber sensors can be located in radiation hazardous areas and optically interrogated from a safe distance. A variety of remote optical fiber radiation dosimetry methods have been developed. All of the methods take advantage of some form of radiation-induced change in the optical properties of materials such as: radiation-induced darkening due to defect formation in glasses, luminescence from native defects or radiation-induced defects, or population of metastable charge trapping centers. Optical attenuation techniques are used to measure radiation-induced darkening in fibers. Luminescence techniques include the direct measurement of scintillation or optical excitation of radiation-induced luminescent defects. Optical fiber radiation dosimeters have also been constructed using charge trapping materials that exhibit thermoluminescence or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL).

  8. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  9. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general

  10. Application of dosimetry systems and cytogenetic status of the child population exposed to diagnostic X-rays by use of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Milković, Durđica; Ranogajec-Komor, Mária; Miljanić, Saveta; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2011-10-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiation used for medical purposes is one of the definite risk factors for cancer development, and children exposed to ionizing radiation are at a relatively greater cancer risk as they have more rapidly dividing cells than adults and have longer life expectancy. Since cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay has become one of the standard endpoints for radiation biological dosimetry, we used that assay in the present work for the assessment of different types of chromosomal damage in children exposed to diagnostic X-ray procedures. Twenty children all with pulmonary diseases between the ages of 4 and 14 years (11.30 ± 2.74) were evaluated. Absorbed dose measurements were conducted for posterior-anterior projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest and back. Doses were measured using thermoluminescence and radiophotoluminescent dosimetry systems. It was shown that, after diagnostic X-rays, the mean total number of CBMN Cyt assay parameters (micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds) was significantly higher than prior to diagnostic procedure and that interindividual differences existed for each monitored child. For the nuclear division index counted prior and after examination, no significant differences were noted among mean group values. These data suggest that even low-dose diagnostic X-ray exposure may induce damaging effect in the somatic DNA of exposed children, indicating that immense care should be given in both minimizing and optimizing radiation exposure to diminish the radiation burden, especially in the youngest population.

  11. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  12. Bayesian internal dosimetry calculations using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Martz, H F; Little, T T; Guilmette, R

    2002-01-01

    A new numerical method for solving the inverse problem of internal dosimetry is described. The new method uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo and the Metropolis algorithm. Multiple intake amounts, biokinetic types, and times of intake are determined from bioassay data by integrating over the Bayesian posterior distribution. The method appears definitive, but its application requires a large amount of computing time.

  13. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... Allocations and special requirements in international regulations, recommendations, agreements, and...

  14. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... Allocations and special requirements in international regulations, recommendations, agreements, and...

  15. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... Allocations and special requirements in international regulations, recommendations, agreements, and...

  16. Probabilistic Reverse dOsimetry Estimating Exposure Distribution (PROcEED)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PROcEED is a web-based application used to conduct probabilistic reverse dosimetry calculations.The tool is used for estimating a distribution of exposure concentrations likely to have produced biomarker concentrations measured in a population.

  17. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... towers. (g) Part 20 of this chapter governs commercial mobile radio services. (h) Part 21. This part... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5. This part contains rules prescribing the manner in which parts of the radio...

  18. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  19. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  20. Studies in Ultrasonic Dosimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouni, Abderrachid

    The widespread use of ultrasonic devices in both industry and medicine confirms the great importance of ultrasound as a source of nonionizing radiation. The biological effects of this type of radiation are not completely known up to today, and the need for proper dosimetry is evident. Previous work in the field has been limited to the determination of ultrasonic energy deposition by attenuation measurements of traveling sound waves in homogenized specimens. Alternatively, observed effects were correlated to the output of the source. The objective of this work was to correlate the absorption properties of sound absorbing media to their elastic properties and deduce a correlation between the sonic absorption coefficient and the corresponding Young's modulus. Energy deposition measurements were performed in isotropic rubber samples and in anisotropic meat specimens by the use of the thermocouple probe method which measures the absorbed energy directly. Elasticity measurements were performed for the different types of materials used. The Young's modulus for each type was deduced from defletion measurements on rectangular strips when subjected to successive forces of varying magnitude. The final experimental results showed the existence of a linear relationship between the absorption coefficient of a given elastic material and the inverse square root of its Young's modulus.

  1. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5... relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of part 15. (f.... (h) Part 21. This part contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and...

  2. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5... relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of part 15. (f.... (h) Part 21. This part contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and...

  3. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5... relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of part 15. (f.... (h) Part 21. This part contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and...

  4. A THIN-LAYER LIF THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSEMETER SYSTEM WITH FAST READOUT FOR THE USE IN PERSONAL DOSIMETRY SERVICES.

    PubMed

    Walbersloh, J; Busch, F

    2016-09-01

    A newly developed thermoluminescence dosemeter system is presented that is suitable for application in fields where personal monitoring of a large number of users is required. The system presented here is intended to be used as the upcoming main dosemeter for whole body dosimetry at the dosimetry service of the MPA NRW (Germany) with ∼110,000 evaluations per month.

  5. Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part 2: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Chung, H.H.

    1995-07-11

    As pointed out in the introduction of Part 1, the isolation strategy can be used to effectively decouple a` structure from its environment and thus the structure can be protected from damaging seismic loads or unwanted vibrations and noises from the environment. The method has been used for solving vibration and shock problems in machinery and equipment for many years, but its application to the protection of structures from seismic loadings is relatively recent. Owing to the current interest generated by the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, an but one of the papers in this publication deal with seismic isolation. The one paper on vibration isolation by Yonekura discusses a measure to protect buildings from detrimental excitations of running trains. Seismic or base isolation has been used to protect bridges, buildings, industrial facilities, and nuclear reactors from damaging seismic loads since 1970. For each of these applications base isolation offers some unique advantages that the conventional strengthening method cannot. Some of these advantages are discussed in papers presented in this publication.

  6. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  7. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  8. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  9. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP`s new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential {alpha} energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP`s recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ``Normalization`` of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for {alpha} dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk.

  10. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research.

  12. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Méndez, I

    2015-05-21

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to provide better results than using Micke-Mayer perturbation models. Among the models being compared, the triple-channel model with Truncated Normal perturbations, net optical density as the response and subject to the application of lateral corrections was found to be the most accurate model. The scope of this study was circumscribed by the limits under which the models were tested. In this study, the films were irradiated with megavoltage radiotherapy beams, with doses from about 20-600 cGy, entire (8 inch  × 10 inch) films were scanned, the functional form of the sensitometric curves was a polynomial and the different lots were calibrated using the plane-based method.

  13. Dosimetry of x-ray beams: The measure of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    This document contains the text of an oral presentation on dosimetry of analytical x-ray equipment presented at the Denver X-Ray Conference. Included are discussions of sources of background radiation, exposure limits from occupational sources, and the relationship of these sources to the high dose source of x-rays found in analytical machines. The mathematical basis of x-ray dosimetry is reviewed in preparation for more detailed notes on personnel dosimetry and the selection of the most appropriate dosimeter for a specific application. The presentation concludes with a discussion common to previous x-ray equipment accidents. 2 refs. (TEM)

  14. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  15. ESR spectrometry: a future-oriented tool for dosimetry and dating.

    PubMed

    Regulla, Dieter F

    2005-02-01

    ESR spectroscopy is currently taking root as a key technology in dosimetry, dating and imaging. In dosimetry, it competes with cytometry in the fields of biological dosimetry and retrospective dosimetry, leads in high-level reference and routine dosimetry, is high-ranking among the methods to identify radiation preserved foods, represents a method of choice to date geological, archaeological and paleontological materials back millions of years, and has demonstrated capacity for imaging. Further scientific and technological progress as predicted in the recent past (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52 (2000) 1023) is reviewed here. Additionally, the review is expanded to include international reports and recommendations on ESR dosimetry and dose reconstruction, under way at the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the International Organisation of Standards (ISO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Emphasis is placed on interpretation of tooth enamel doses in terms of organ and effective doses, using CT-based virtual humans. The future of EPR spectroscopy for in situ dose measurements is noted, depicting a non-destructive in vivo dosimetry applicable directly to individuals, but also to hominid and animal fossils for direct dating.

  16. Dosimetry for audit and clinical trials: challenges and requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, T.; Haworth, A.; Williams, I.

    2013-06-01

    Many important dosimetry audit networks for radiotherapy have their roots in clinical trial quality assurance (QA). In both scenarios it is essential to test two issues: does the treatment plan conform with the clinical requirements and is the plan a reasonable representation of what is actually delivered to a patient throughout their course of treatment. Part of a sound quality program would be an external audit of these issues with verification of the equivalence of plan and treatment typically referred to as a dosimetry audit. The increasing complexity of radiotherapy planning and delivery makes audits challenging. While verification of absolute dose delivered at a reference point was the standard of external dosimetry audits two decades ago this is often deemed inadequate for verification of treatment approaches such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). As such, most dosimetry audit networks have successfully introduced more complex tests of dose delivery using anthropomorphic phantoms that can be imaged, planned and treated as a patient would. The new challenge is to adapt this approach to ever more diversified radiotherapy procedures with image guided/adaptive radiotherapy, motion management and brachytherapy being the focus of current research.

  17. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE DOSIMETRY FOR A LARGE-SCALE RADIATION INCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Harold M.; Flood, Ann Barry; Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Swarts, Steven G.; He, Xiaoming; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Demidenko, Eugene; Gui, Jiang; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Kmiec, Maciej M.; Kobayashi, Kyo; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Marsh, Stephen D.P.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Pennington, Patrick M.; Raynolds, Timothy; Salikhov, Ildar; Wilcox, Dean E.; Zaki, Bassem I.

    2013-01-01

    With possibilities for radiation terrorism and intensified concerns about nuclear accidents since the recent Fukushima Daiichi event, the potential exposure of large numbers of individuals to radiation that could lead to acute clinical effects has become a major concern. For the medical community to cope with such an event and avoid overwhelming the medical care system, it is essential to identify not only individuals who have received clinically significant exposures and need medical intervention but also those who do not need treatment. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance to measure radiation-induced paramagnetic species, which persist in certain tissues (e.g., teeth, fingernails, toenails, bone, and hair), has led this technique to become a prominent method for screening significantly exposed individuals. Although the technical requirements needed to develop this method for effective application in a radiation event are daunting, remarkable progress has been made. In collaboration with General Electric, and through funding committed by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry of the upper incisors is being developed to become a Food and Drug Administration-approved and manufacturable device designed to carry out triage for a threshold dose of 2 Gy. Significant progress has also been made in the development of electron paramagnetic resonance nail dosimetry based on measurements of nails in situ under point-of-care conditions, and in the near future this may become a second field-ready technique. Based on recent progress in measurements of nail clippings, we anticipate that this technique may be implementable at remotely located laboratories to provide additional information when the measurements of dose on site need to be supplemented. We conclude that electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry is likely to be a useful part of triage for a large-scale radiation incident. PMID:22850230

  18. Dosimetry of two new interstitial brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Pooneh; Sadeghi, Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    With increased demand for low 103Pd (palladium) seed sources, to treat prostate and eye cancers, new sources have been designed and introduced. This article presents the two new palladium brachytherapy sources, IR03-103Pd and IR04-103Pd that have been developed at Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute. The dosimetry parameters such as the dose rate constant Λ, the radial dose function g(r), and the anisotropy function F(r,θ), around the sources have been characterized using Version 5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code in accordance with the update AAPM Task Group No. 43 report (TG-43U1). The results indicated the dose rate constant of 0.689±0.02 and 0.667±0.02 cGy h-1 U-1 for the IR03-103Pd and IR04-103Pd sources respectively, which are in acceptable agreement with other commercial seeds. The calculated results were compared with published results for those of other source manufacturers. However, they show an acceptable dose distribution, using for clinical applications is pending experimental dosimetry.

  19. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

  20. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... spectrum may be made available for experimentation. (e) Part 15. This part sets forth the requirements...

  1. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Claus E.

    2011-05-01

    Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub-mm detector size, high dynamic range (below a mGy to several Gy), microsecond time resolution, and absence of electrical wires or other electronics in the dosimeter probe head. Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry systems typically consist of one or more small samples of phosphor, e.g. a mg of plastic scintillator, attached to 10-20 m long optical fiber cables of plastic. During irradiation, each dosimeter probe spontaneously emits radioluminescence (RL) in proportion to the dose rate. The luminescence intensity can be detected with photomultiplier tubes, CCD cameras or other highly sensitive photodetectors. Some crystalline phosphors, such as carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) have the ability to store charge produced in the crystal during irradiation. The stored charge may later be released by fiber-guided laser light under emission of so-called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The OSL signal therefore reflects the passively integrated dose. In contrast to thermoluminescence dosimetry, fiber-coupled OSL dosimetry may be performed in vivo while the dosimeter is still in the patient. Within the last few years, several improvements and new applications of these techniques have been published, and the objective of this review is to provide an introduction to this field and to outline some of these new results. Emphasis will be given to applications in medical dosimetry such as in vivo real-time dose verification in brachytherapy and methods aimed for improved quality assurance of linear accelerators.

  2. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Claus E.

    2011-05-05

    Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub-mm detector size, high dynamic range (below a mGy to several Gy), microsecond time resolution, and absence of electrical wires or other electronics in the dosimeter probe head. Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry systems typically consist of one or more small samples of phosphor, e.g. a mg of plastic scintillator, attached to 10-20 m long optical fiber cables of plastic. During irradiation, each dosimeter probe spontaneously emits radioluminescence (RL) in proportion to the dose rate. The luminescence intensity can be detected with photomultiplier tubes, CCD cameras or other highly sensitive photodetectors. Some crystalline phosphors, such as carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) have the ability to store charge produced in the crystal during irradiation. The stored charge may later be released by fiber-guided laser light under emission of so-called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The OSL signal therefore reflects the passively integrated dose. In contrast to thermoluminescence dosimetry, fiber-coupled OSL dosimetry may be performed in vivo while the dosimeter is still in the patient. Within the last few years, several improvements and new applications of these techniques have been published, and the objective of this review is to provide an introduction to this field and to outline some of these new results. Emphasis will be given to applications in medical dosimetry such as in vivo real-time dose verification in brachytherapy and methods aimed for improved quality assurance of linear accelerators.

  3. Dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Nath, R; Gray, L

    1987-06-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am emit primarily 60 keV photons which, because of multiple Compton scattering, produce dose distributions in water that are comparable to those from 226Ra or 137Cs. However, americium gamma rays can be shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials since the half value layer thickness is only 1/8th of a mm of lead for americium gamma rays as compared to a value of 12 mm for 226Ra gamma rays. This may allow effective in vivo shielding of critical organs, for example; the bladder can be partially shielded by hypaque solution, and the rectum and sigmoid colon by barium sulfate. In addition, the exposure to medical personnel involved in intracavitary application and patient care may be reduced substantially by the use of relatively thin lead aprons and light weight, portable shields. To investigate the feasibility of 241Am sources for intracavitary irradiation, dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources have been performed and a computer model for the determination of dose distributions around encapsulated cylindrical sources of 241Am has been developed and tested. Results of dosimetry measurements using ionization chambers, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, a scanning scintillation probe, and film dosimetry, confirm theoretical predictions that these sources can deliver dose rates adequate for intracavitary irradiation. Further dosimetry measurements in simulated clinical situations using lead foils and test tubes filled with hypaque or barium sulfate, confirm the predicted effectiveness of in vivo shielding which can be readily achieved with 241Am sources.

  4. Dose calibration optimization and error propagation in polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirasek, A.; Hilts, M.

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the relative precision, relative error, and dose differences observed when using a new full-image calibration technique in NIPAM-based x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. The effects of calibration parameters (e.g. gradient thresholding, dose bin size, calibration fit function, and spatial remeshing) on subsequent errors in calibrated gel images are reported. It is found that gradient thresholding, dose bin size, and fit function all play a primary role in affecting errors in calibrated images. Spatial remeshing induces minimal reductions or increases in errors in calibrated images. This study also reports on a full error propagation throughout the CT gel image pre-processing and calibration procedure thus giving, for the first time, a realistic view of the errors incurred in calibrated CT polymer gel dosimetry. While the work is based on CT polymer gel dosimetry, the formalism is valid for and easily extended to MRI or optical CT dosimetry protocols. Hence, the procedures developed within the work are generally applicable to calibration of polymer gel dosimeters.

  5. 25 CFR 547.4 - What are the rules of general application for this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the rules of general application for this part... of general application for this part? (a) Fairness. No Class II gaming system may cheat or mislead... and/or verify the mathematical expectations of game play, where applicable, in accordance with...

  6. 25 CFR 547.4 - What are the rules of general application for this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the rules of general application for this part... of general application for this part? (a) Fairness. No Class II gaming system may cheat or mislead... and/or verify the mathematical expectations of game play, where applicable, in accordance with...

  7. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  8. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  9. Dosimetry of (125)I and (103)Pd COMS eye plaques for intraocular tumors: report of Task Group 129 by the AAPM and ABS.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Astrahan, Melvin A; Finger, Paul T; Followill, David S; Meigooni, Ali S; Melhus, Christopher S; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Rogers, D W O; Thomson, Rowan M

    2012-10-01

    Dosimetry of eye plaques for ocular tumors presents unique challenges in brachytherapy. The challenges in accurate dosimetry are in part related to the steep dose gradient in the tumor and critical structures that are within millimeters of radioactive sources. In most clinical applications, calculations of dose distributions around eye plaques assume a homogenous water medium and full scatter conditions. Recent Monte Carlo (MC)-based eye-plaque dosimetry simulations have demonstrated that the perturbation effects of heterogeneous materials in eye plaques, including the gold-alloy backing and Silastic insert, can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. Even additional levels of complexity introduced through the use of gold foil "seed-guides" and custom-designed plaques can be calculated accurately using modern MC techniques. Simulations accounting for the aforementioned complexities indicate dose discrepancies exceeding a factor of ten to selected critical structures compared to conventional dose calculations. Task Group 129 was formed to review the literature; re-examine the current dosimetry calculation formalism; and make recommendations for eye-plaque dosimetry, including evaluation of brachytherapy source dosimetry parameters and heterogeneity correction factors. A literature review identified modern assessments of dose calculations for Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) design plaques, including MC analyses and an intercomparison of treatment planning systems (TPS) detailing differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous plaque calculations using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-43U1 brachytherapy dosimetry formalism and MC techniques. This review identified that a commonly used prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth in homogeneous medium delivers about 75 Gy and 69 Gy at the same 5 mm depth for specific (125)I and (103)Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS plaque heterogeneities. Thus, the adoption of

  10. Optimization of the Thermal Dosimetry for Endocavitary HICU Ablation of Sectorial Digestive Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rata, Mihaela; Salomir, Rares; Lafon, Cyril; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Cotton, François; Bonmartin, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Effective treatment of malignant tumours demands well controlled energy deposition in the region of interest. Generally, two major steps must be fulfilled: pre-operative optimal planning of the thermal dosimetry and per-operative active control of the delivered thermal dose. The first issue is addressed here in the particular case of the ultrasound therapy for endocavitary tumours (oesophagus, colon or rectum) with phased array cylindrical contact applicators. Computation is divided into two main parts: 1. definition of the heating sequence parameters (the total sonication time, the number of independent beams, the orientation and the applied time for every beam), and 2. calculation of the corresponding thermal dose. One slice orthogonal to the symmetry axis of the High Intensity Contact Ultrasound (HICU) device is considered. User defined tumoral geometry is divided into a regular polar grid (5.625 degrees step). The different duration applied for interleaved fast switched beams corresponding to selected orientations is exponentially scaled to the measured depth along each direction. Iterative 2D Fourier transformation of the BHTE equation allows fast calculation of the temperature and thermal dose (computing time accomplished with Matlab language ˜ 3 minutes for a medium size tumour). Border conditions (cooling balloon) are taken into account with a binary mask applied to the simulated temperature at each iteration. The planned thermal dose covered the target region at 300% of lethal threshold with extra margin ranged from 1 to 3 mm. The short computing time allows near real time, in-situ planning of the dosimetry.

  11. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  12. SU-D-19A-05: The Dosimetric Impact of Using Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for Treatment with the Xoft 30 Mm Diameter Vaginal Applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, S; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods: MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.

  13. EDITORIAL: Special issue on radiation dosimetry Special issue on radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Peter

    2009-04-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radiation dosimetry is the second in a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurements, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The work of Section II, on radionuclide metrology, was covered in issue 44(4), published in 2007, and that of Section III, on neutron metrology, will be covered in a special issue to be published shortly. This issue covers the work of Section I (x-rays and γ rays, and charged particles). The proposal to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the CCRI Sections was first made in 2003 and refined at the two subsequent meetings of the CCRI in 2005 and 2007. The overall aim is to present the work of the CCRI to a wider metrological audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of the field. The main focus of our special issue on dosimetry metrology is on the 'state of the art' in the various areas covered, with an indication of the current developments taking place and the problems and challenges that remain. Where appropriate, this is set in a brief historical context, although it is not the aim to give a historical review. The need for accurate measurement has been appreciated from the pioneering days of the use of ionizing radiation in the early 20th century, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Over the years, the range of applications for ionizing radiation has expanded both in scope and in the types and energies of radiation employed. This has led to the need to develop a wide variety of measurement techniques and standards covering fields ranging from the low doses experienced in environmental and protection applications to the extremely high doses used in industrial processing. The different types of radiation employed give rise to the need for dose measurements in radiation beams whose effective penetration through a material such as water ranges from a

  14. SU-E-I-24: Design and Fabrication of a Multi-Functional Neck and Thyroid Phantom for Medical Dosimetry and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Faghihi, R; Babaei, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the design and fabrication of a multipurpose anthropomorphic neck and thyroid phantom for use in medical applications (i.e. quality control of images in nuclear medicine, and dosimetry). Methods: The designed neck phantom is composed of seven elliptic cylindrical slices with semi-major axis of 14 and semi-minor axis of 12.5 cm, each having the thickness of 2cm. Thyroid gland, bony part of the neck, and the wind pipe were also built inside the neck phantom. Results: The phantom contains some removable plugs,inside and at its surface to accommodate the TLD chips with different shapes and dimensions, (i.e. rod, cylindrical and cubical TLD chips)for the purpose of medical dosimetry (i.e. in radiology, radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine). For the purpose of quality control of images in nuclear medicine, the removable thyroid gland was built to accommodate the radioactive iodine. The female and male thyroid glands were built in two sizes separately. Conclusion: The designed phantom is a multi-functional phantom which is applicable for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, and quality control of images in nuclear medicine.

  15. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry for gamma knife using a gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Kazi Muazzam

    The use of three-dimensional radiation dosimetry has been limited. With the use of water phantoms and ionization chambers, it has been possible to determine three dimensional dose distributions on a gross scale for cobalt 60 and linear accelerator sources. This method has been somewhat useful for traditional radiotherapy. There is, however, a need for more precise dosimetry, particularly with stereotactic radiosurgery. Most gamma knife facilities use either thermoluminescant dosimetry or film, neither of which provides three dimensional dose distributions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a gel dosimetry system that relies on the production of a ferric ion-xylenol orange colored complex. This work demonstrates the use of laser light and a detector to quantify radiation-induced colorimetric changes in absorbance for the gel dosimeter. The absorbance has been reconstructed by the back projection technique to demonstrate the applicability of the gel dosimeter to gamma knife 3D-dose distributions.

  16. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  17. Framework and need for dosimetry and measurements: quantitation matters.

    PubMed

    Guilmette, Raymond A

    2015-02-01

    It has always been recognized that radiation measurements and dosimetry (M &8; D) play a crucial role in developing radiation protection programs for workers and members of the public, particularly as they relate to mitigating potential health risks from exposure to radiation. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has always devoted significant resources to these scientific disciplines in terms of its published reports, and it is anticipated that this emphasis will continue. This includes focus on both external and internal radiation exposure as well as radiation and radioactivity measurement methodology. NCRP, as part of its management of scientific activities, has designated Program Area Committee 6 to focus on radiation M &8; D. This paper briefly describes how radiation M &8; D has been addressed historically in terms of NCRP activities. It reports how the emphases have changed over the years and how NCRP has worked effectively with other radiation protection organizations, such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, to leverage its expertise in advancing the science of M &8; D. Current and prospective activities in M &8; D by NCRP are also described to frame the future in these areas of interest necessary for the optimum application of radiation protection principles and programs.

  18. Unexplained overexposures on physical dosimetry reported by biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Montoro, A; Almonacid, M; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G

    2009-01-01

    The Medical Service of the Radiation Protection Service from the University Hospital La Fe (Valencia, Spain), carries out medical examinations of the workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory is developing its activity since 2001. Up to now, the activities have been focused in performing biological dosimetry studies of Interventionists workers from La Fe Hospital. Recently, the Laboratory has been authorized by the Health Authority in the Valencian Community. Unexplained overexposures of workers and patients are also studied. Workers suspected of being overexposed to ionising radiation were referred for investigation by cytogenetic analysis. Two of these were from Hospitals of the Valencian Community and one belonged to an uranium mine from Portugal. Hospital workers had a physical dose by thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD) that exceeded the established limit. The worker of the uranium mine received a dose from a lost source of Cesium 137 with an activity of 170 mCi. All three cases showed normal values after the hematological analysis. Finally, the aim of this study consist to determine whether the dose showed by the dosimeter is reliable or not. In the case of workers that wore dosimeter, it is concluded that the doses measured by dosimeter are not corresponding to real doses. Hospital worker with a physical dose of 2.6 Sv and 0.269 Sv had an estimated absorbed dose by biological dosimetry of 0.076 Gy (0-0.165 Gy) and 0 Gy (0-0.089 Gy), respectively. In case of the mine worker an estimated absorbed dose of 0.073 Gy (0-0.159 Gy) was obtained by biological dosimetry. In all cases we used the odds ratio to present the results due to a very low frequency of observed aberrations [1].

  19. SU-D-213-05: Design, Evaluation and First Applications of a Off-Site State-Of-The-Art 3D Dosimetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, J; Mein, S; McNiven, A; Letourneau, D; Oldham, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design, construct and commission a prototype in-house three dimensional (3D) dose verification system for stereotatic body radiotherapy (SBRT) verification at an off-site partner institution. To investigate the potential of this system to achieve sufficient performance (1mm resolution, 3% noise, within 3% of true dose reading) for SBRT verification. Methods: The system was designed utilizing a parallel ray geometry instigated by precision telecentric lenses and an LED 630nm light source. Using a radiochromic dosimeter, a 3D dosimetric comparison with our gold-standard system and treatment planning software (Eclipse) was done for a four-field box treatment, under gamma passing criteria of 3%/3mm/10% dose threshold. Post off-site installation, deviations in the system’s dose readout performance was assessed by rescanning the four-field box irradiated dosimeter and using line-profiles to compare on-site and off-site mean and noise levels in four distinct dose regions. As a final step, an end-to-end test of the system was completed at the off-site location, including CT-simulation, irradiation of the dosimeter and a 3D dosimetric comparison of the planned (Pinnacle{sup 3}) to delivered dose for a spinal SBRT treatment(12 Gy per fraction). Results: The noise level in the high and medium dose regions of the four field box treatment was relatively 5% pre and post installation. This reflects the reduction in positional uncertainty through the new design. This At 1mm dose voxels, the gamma pass rates(3%,3mm) for our in-house gold standard system and the off-site system were comparable at 95.8% and 93.2% respectively. Conclusion: This work will describe the end-to-end process and results of designing, installing, and commissioning a state-of-the-art 3D dosimetry system created for verification of advanced radiation treatments including spinal radiosurgery.

  20. Development and application of a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals in the human body.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) in the human body. The ExDoM2 is a revised version of a respiratory tract model (ExDoM) incorporating a new particle clearance mechanism in the respiratory tract model and a Physiologically-Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) model. The revised respiratory tract model was used to calculate the deposition, clearance and retention of particles in the human respiratory tract and the mass transferred to the oesophagus (gastrointestinal tract) and blood. The PBPK module was used to analyze the distribution of metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) from the blood circulation system to other organs or tissues like liver, kidneys, heart, brain, muscle and bone. The model was applied to calculate the internal human dose for an adult Caucasian male exposed to particulate mass matter (PM), PMPb, PMCd, PMMn and PMCr in an urban area (Athens, Greece). The analysis showed that at the end of the exposure (one day exposure scenario) to PMPb, the major accumulation occurs in the bone, blood and muscle, whereas as regards PMCd the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues, like kidney and liver. In addition, for PMMn, the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues and lungs, whereas as regards PMCr the major accumulation occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lungs. Therefore, ExDoM2 is an important feature in studying deposition of particles in the human body.

  1. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. MMS authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  2. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  3. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  4. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  5. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National... extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of the program... located wholly or in part of the space....

  6. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Part 1580 Security measure and rule section Freight railroad carriers NOT transporting specified hazardous materials Freight railroad carriers transporting specified hazardous materials (§ 1580.100(b... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 1580 Security measure and rule section Freight railroad carriers NOT transporting specified hazardous materials Freight railroad carriers transporting specified hazardous materials (§ 1580.100(b... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations...

  9. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  10. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

  11. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  12. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1. Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    NO. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1 Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications 7...tldt It ntctf try mid Idtnlltr by block numOtr) Meteorological Satellite Systems Analysis and Forecast Applications Indian Ocean Northeast Monsoon...by block numbtr) Case studies describing regional environmental analysis and forecast applications based on satellite data and conventional

  13. Monte Carlo simulations to optimize experimental dosimetry of narrow beams used in Gamma Knife radio-surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lymperopoulou, G.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Papagiannis, P.; Steiner, M.; Spevacek, V.; Semnicka, J.; Dvorak, P.; Seimenis, I.

    2007-09-01

    The Leksell Gamma Knife is a stereotactic radio-surgery unit for the treatment of small volumes (on the order of 25 mm 3) that employs a hemispherical configuration of 201 60Co sources and appropriate configurations of collimation to form beams of 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm nominal diameter at the Unit Center Point (UCP). Although Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is well suited for narrow-beam dosimetry, experimental dosimetry is required at least for acceptance testing and quality assurance purposes. Besides other drawbacks of conventional point dosimeters, the main problems associated with narrow-beam dosimetry in stereotactic applications are accurate positioning and volume averaging. In this work, MCNPX and EGSnrc MC simulation dosimetry results for a Gamma Knife unit are benchmarked through their comparison to treatment planning software calculations based on radio-chromic film measurements. Then, MC dosimetry results are utilized to optimize the only three-dimensional experimental dosimetry method available; the polymer gel-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) method. MC results are used to select the spatial resolution in the imaging session of the irradiated gels and validate a mathematical tool for the localization of the UCP in the three-dimensional experimental dosimetry data acquired. Experimental results are compared with corresponding MC calculations and shown capable to provide accurate dosimetry, free of volume averaging and positioning uncertainties.

  14. Latest developments in silica-based thermoluminescence spectrometry and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D A; Jafari, S M; Siti Shafiqah, A S; Tamcheck, N; Shutt, A; Siti Rozaila, Z; Abdul Sani, S F; Sabtu, Siti Norbaini; Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Amouzad Mahdiraji, G; Abdul Rashid, H A; Maah, M J

    2016-11-01

    Using irradiated doped-silica preforms from which fibres for thermoluminescence dosimetry applications can be fabricated we have carried out a range of luminescence studies, the TL yield of the fibre systems offering many advantages over conventional passive dosimetry types. In this paper we investigate such media, showing emission spectra for irradiated preforms and the TL response of glass beads following irradiation to an (241)Am-Be neutron source located in a tank of water, the glass fibres and beads offering the advantage of being able to be placed directly into liquid. The outcomes from these and other lines of research are intended to inform development of doped silica radiation dosimeters of versatile utility, extending from environmental evaluations through to clinical and industrial applications.

  15. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  16. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, K.L.; Schwanke, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer`s dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain.

  17. Dosimetry and microdosimetry using COTS ICs: A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, L.; Swift, G.; Guertin, S.; Roth, D.; McNulty, P.; Nguyen, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new method using an array of MOS transistors formeasuring dose absorbed from ionizing radiation is compared to previous dosimetric methods., The accuracy and precision of dosimetry based on COTS SRAMs, DRAMs, and WPROMs are compared and contrasted. Applications of these devices in various space missions will be discussed. TID results are presented for this summary and microdosimetricresults will be added to the full paper. Finally, an analysis of the optimal condition for a digital dosimeter will be presented.

  18. Optimization of the double dosimetry algorithm for interventional cardiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, Vadim; Morgun, Artem; Bakhanova, Elena; Voloskiy, Vitalii; Borodynchik, Elena

    2014-11-01

    A double dosimetry method is recommended in interventional cardiology (IC) to assess occupational exposure; yet currently there is no common and universal algorithm for effective dose estimation. In this work, flexible and adaptive algorithm building methodology was developed and some specific algorithm applicable for typical irradiation conditions of IC procedures was obtained. It was shown that the obtained algorithm agrees well with experimental measurements and is less conservative compared to other known algorithms.

  19. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 13 contains information and rules for the licensing of commercial radio operators. (e... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION...

  20. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND... Programs, Agency for International Development, International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington... $_____ in Further Guaranteed Payments as defined in Section 204.01(i) of the Standard Terms and...

  1. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND... Programs, Agency for International Development, International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington... $_____ in Further Guaranteed Payments as defined in Section 204.01(i) of the Standard Terms and...

  2. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 13 contains information and rules for the... lighting of antenna towers, and the environmental notification process that must be completed before...

  3. 49 CFR 21.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.3 Application of... title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal... real property or an interest in real property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or...

  4. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant to § 30.10 C Appendix C to Part 30... TRANSACTIONS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of... Register citations affecting appendix C to part 30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  5. Dosimetry studies in Zaborie village.

    PubMed

    Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Stepanenko, V F; Kondrashov, A E; Petin, D; Skvortsov, V; Ivannikov, A; Tikounov, D; Gavrilin, Y; Snykov, V P

    2000-05-01

    Dosimetry studies in Zaborie, a territory in Russia highly contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, were carried out in July, 1997. Studies on dosimetry for people are important not only for epidemiology but also for recovery of local social activity. The local contamination of the soil was measured to be 1.5-6.3 MBq/m2 of Cs-137 with 0.7-4 microSv/h of dose rate. A case study for a villager presently 40 years old indicates estimations of 72 and 269 mSv as the expected internal and external doses during 50 years starting in 1997 based on data of a whole-body measurement of Cs-137 and environmental dose rates. Mean values of accumulated external and internal doses for the period from the year 1986 till 1996 are also estimated to be 130 mSv and 16 mSv for Zaborie. The estimation of the 1986-1996 accumulated dose on the basis of large scale ESR teeth enamel dosimetry provides for this village, the value of 180 mSv. For a short term visitor from Japan to this area, external and internal dose are estimated to be 0.13 mSv/9d (during visit in 1997) and 0.024 mSv/50y (during 50 years starting from 1997), respectively.

  6. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose.

  7. Nucleon-induced excitation of collective bands in /sup 12/C and the application to neutron dosimetry at E/sub n/ > 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani Meigooni, A.

    1984-01-01

    This work involves the measurement and analysis of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross section from /sup 12/C at incident neutron energies between 20 and 26 MeV. These data cover an energy range that has not previously been investigated with neutrons and where the direct interaction mechanism should be dominant. These energies are also of particular interest in the fields of radiation protection and radio-therapy. The objectives of the present work are to analyze excitation of the measured collective states in /sup 12/C and to develop an energy dependent optical model potential that can be used to calculate quantities of importance to neutron dosimetry at all energies between 20 and 100 MeV. In addition, a separate series of experiments was performed using a large sample (47.45 gm) at 22 and 24 MeV to investigate the weakly excited states above the 3/sub 1/..sqrt..(9.641 MeV) level in /sup 12/C. Differential cross sections for nine excited states in the first 15 MeV excitation of /sup 12/C were resolved and measured. New rotation-vibration formalisms were developed to be used with the code ECIS79 in order to analyze the collective motions of /sup 12/C. Excellent agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculation is obtained for (a) the ground state rotation band, (b) O/sub 2//sup +/ (7.655 MeV) state using ..beta..-vibration plus breathing mode, (c) the 1/sub 1//sup -/ (10.84 MeV) and 2/sub 1//sup -/ (11.83 MeV) states using K/sup ..pi../ = 1/sup -/ octupole vibration, and (d) the 3/sub 1//sup -/ (9.64 MeV) and 4/sub 1//sup -/ (13.35 MeV) states using K/sup ..pi../ = 3/sup -/ octupole vibration. An energy dependent optical model potential has been obtained that describes the present neutron scattering data, differential proton scattering data of higher energies and total neutron cross sections between 20 and 100 MeV.

  8. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-21

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  9. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-01

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  10. Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II).

    PubMed

    Khan Malek, Chantal G

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews applications of laser-based techniques to the fabrication of microfluidic devices for biochips and addresses some of the challenges associated with the manufacture of these devices. Special emphasis is placed on the use of lasers for the rapid prototyping and production of biochips, in particular for applications in which silicon is not the preferred material base. This review addresses applications and devices based on ablation using femtosecond lasers, infrared lasers as well as laser-induced micro-joining, and the laser-assisted generation of micro-replication tools, for subsequent replication of polymeric chips with a technique like laser LIGA.

  11. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  12. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  13. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  14. EPR/PTFE dosimetry for test reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vehar, D.W.; Griffin, P.J.; Quirk, T.J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with materials such as alanine is well established as a technique for measurement of ionizing radiation absorbed dose in photon and electron fields such as Co-60, high-energy bremsstrahlung and electron-beam fields [1]. In fact, EPR/Alanine dosimetry has become a routine transfer standard for national standards bodies such as NIST and NPL. In 1992 the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia National Laboratories implemented EPR/Alanine capabilities for use in routine and calibration activities at its Co-60 and pulsed-power facilities. At that time it also investigated the usefulness of the system for measurement of absorbed dose in the mixed neutron/photon environments of reactors such as the Sandia Pulsed Reactor and the Annular Core Research Reactor used for hardness testing of electronics. The RML concluded that the neutron response of alanine was a sufficiently high fraction of the overall dosimeter response that the resulting uncertainties in the photon dose would be unacceptably large for silicon-device testing. However, it also suggested that non-hydrogenous materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) would exhibit smaller neutron response and might be useful in mixed environments. Preliminary research with PTFE in photon environments indicated considerable promise, but further development was not pursued at that time. Because of renewed interest in absorbed dose measurements that could better define the individual contributions of photon and neutron components to the overall dose delivered to a test object, the RML has re-initiated the development of an EPR/PTFE dosimetry system. This effort consists of three stages: 1) Identification of PTFE materials that may be suitable for dosimetry applications. It was speculated that the inconsistency of EPR signatures in the earlier samples may have been due to variability in PTFE manufacturing processes. 2) Characterization of dosimetry in

  15. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum weights of more than 75,000 pounds and— (i) If U.S. registered, that have standard airworthiness... achieve results equivalent to those achievable under, part 36 for that airplane. Determinations made under... maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 75,000 pounds operating to or from an airport in the...

  16. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of... contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and multichannel multipoint distribution...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  2. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  3. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  4. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  5. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  6. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  9. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... due on ___, 20__, on $_ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $_ was not received on such...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  12. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  13. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  15. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  16. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  17. 17 CFR 289.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 13(a) OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCE... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the International Finance Corporation (“IFC”) pursuant to section 13(a) of the International Finance Corporation Act....

  18. The Shaped Charge Concept. Part 3. Applications of Shaped Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    discus.A in Part 2. The MISTEL ( mistletoe ) concept used a fighter aircraft mounted piggyback on the top of a large bomber aircraft The unmanned...Tech. Pub. 2158, p.12. March 1947. Coles, R., and P. L Rickson. ’ Mistletoe - The Deadly Parasite," Air Classics Ouarterly Re’ew. Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 38

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A Appendix A to Part 284 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  2. 13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. 107.20 Section 107.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.20 Legal basis and applicability of this...

  3. 34 CFR 609.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Eligible Institution Apply for a Grant? § 609.20 What are the application requirements for a grant under this part? In order to receive a grant under this part, an... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the application requirements for a grant...

  4. 34 CFR 609.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Eligible Institution Apply for a Grant? § 609.20 What are the application requirements for a grant under this part? In order to receive a grant under this part, an... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the application requirements for a grant...

  5. 34 CFR 609.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Eligible Institution Apply for a Grant? § 609.20 What are the application requirements for a grant under this part? In order to receive a grant under this part, an... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the application requirements for a grant...

  6. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Application Guidance and Compliance With Core Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Compliance With Core Principles A Appendix A to Part 39 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 39, App. A Appendix A to Part 39—Application... with which applicants must demonstrate the ability to comply and with which registered...

  7. 8 CFR 245a.6 - Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart B. 245a.6 Section 245a.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... 1986 (IRCA) Legalization Provisions § 245a.6 Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 201 - Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) B Appendix B to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  9. [Innovation in gynaecological brachytherapy: new technologies, pulse dose-rate brachytherapy, image, definition of new volumes of interest and their impact on dosimetry: application in a clinical research programme "STIC"].

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, C; Peiffert, D

    2006-11-01

    Brachytherapy plays a fundamental role in the therapeutic approach of patients with stage I-IV cervical carcinoma. Technical modalities have evolved during the last decades: stepping source technology, imaging modalities development, specially IMN, treatment planning system integrating 3D images. Images from CT-Scan and MRI have contributed to a better knowledge of tumoral extension and critical organs. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better definition of tumour volume compared to traditional approaches. The introduction of 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV requires new definitions and a common language. In 2000, a working group within GEC-ESTRO was created to support 3D image based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT. The task was to determine a common terminology enabling various groups to use a common language. Recommendations were described and proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions. Two CTVs were described en relation to the risk for recurrence: high-risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. In order to better define the role of such definitions and their potential impact on the complication incidence in patients with cervical cancer, a special French programme was developed. The aim of this programme is to study the incidence of the severe 2-year complication rate in two comparable patient populations: one population is treated using PDR brachytherapy with CT-Scan or MRI with the applicators in place allowing a 3D dosimetry with optimization, the second population is treated using standard X-rays radiographs without any delineation of the target nor optimisation. Each population arm includes 425 patients. A medicoeconomic assessment is performed, allowing a real cost of the most sophisticated approach compared to a historical dosimetric system.

  10. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  11. On flattening filter-free portal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Eduardo; Castro Novais, Juan; Molina López, María Yolanda; Ruiz Maqueda, Sheila

    2016-07-08

    Varian introduced (in 2010) the option of removing the flattening filter (FF) in their C-Arm linacs for intensity-modulated treatments. This mode, called flattening filter-free (FFF), offers the advantage of a greater dose rate. Varian's "Portal Dosimetry" is an electronic portal imager device (EPID)-based tool for IMRT verification. This tool lacks the capability of verifying flattening filter-free (FFF) modes due to saturation and lack of an image prediction algorithm. (Note: the latest versions of this software and EPID correct these issues.) The objective of the present study is to research the feasibility of said verifications (with the older versions of the software and EPID). By placing the EPID at a greater distance, the images can be acquired without saturation, yielding a linearity similar to the flattened mode. For the image prediction, a method was optimized based on the clinically used algorithm (analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA)) over a homogeneous phantom. The depth inside the phantom and its electronic density were tailored. An application was developed to allow the conversion of a dose plane (in DICOM format) to Varian's custom format for Portal Dosimetry. The proposed method was used for the verification of test and clinical fields for the three qualities used in our institution for IMRT: 6X, 6FFF and 10FFF. The method developed yielded a positive verification (more than 95% of the points pass a 2%/2 mm gamma) for both the clinical and test fields. This method was also capable of "predicting" static and wedged fields. A workflow for the verification of FFF fields was developed. This method relies on the clinical algorithm used for dose calculation and is able to verify the FFF modes, as well as being useful for machine quality assurance. The procedure described does not require new hardware. This method could be used as a verification of Varian's Portal Dose Image Prediction.

  12. Radiation accident dosimetry on plastics by EPR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Bassinet, C; Clairand, I

    2010-02-01

    In case of acute exposure to ionizing radiation, the dose absorbed by the victims has to be rapidly and accurately assessed in order to choose an appropriate medical treatment. Tooth enamel and bone biopsies measured by EPR spectrometry are often used as dose indicators, due to the good radiation sensitivity and the stability of EPR radiation-sensitive signals. Nevertheless, the invasive sampling of teeth and bones limits the application of this technique to retrospective dosimetry. Therefore, we have investigated an alternative non-invasive methodology. We have surveyed with EPR spectrometry the dosimetric properties of the plastics that can be found in personal effects such as glasses (CR-39, polycarbonate), mobile phones (PMMA, polycarbonate), watches and buttons. Dose response, signal stability and effects of storage conditions were investigated. Significant signal fading limits the use for radiation accident dosimetry. Few plastics present the required characteristics to be used in case of a radiation accident.

  13. STATUS REPORT: EVIDENCE BASED ADVANCES IN INHALATION DOSIMETRY FOR GASES WITH EFFECTS IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT AND IN THE BODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the status of specific inhalation dosimetry procedures for gases as outlined in U.S. EPA’s 1994 Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Applications of Inhalation Dosimetry (U.S. EPA 1994) and reviews recent scientific advances in...

  14. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  15. Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part 2. Dysbiosis markers.

    PubMed

    Lord, Richard S; Bralley, J Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Part 1 of this series focused on urinary organic acids as markers of detoxification; part 2 focuses on dysbiosis markers. Intestinal microbial growth is accompanied by the release of products of their metabolism that may be absorbed and excreted in urine. Several organic acids are known to be specific products of bacterial metabolic action on dietary polyphenols or unassimilated amino acids or carbohydrates. Associated gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms may result from irritation of the intestinal mucosa or systemic distribution of absorbed neurotoxic products. Detection of abnormally elevated levels of these products is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with gastrointestinal or toxicological symptoms. Test profiles of urinary organic acids associated with microbial overgrowth can include benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, cresol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyphenylacetate, hydroxyphenylpropionate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate, indican, tricarballylate, D-lactate, and D-arabinitol. Effective treatments for the associated microbial overgrowths may be directed at reducing microbial populations, introducing favorable microbes, and restoring intestinal mucosal integrity.

  16. Physics of High-Temperature Air. Part. 2. Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    2MAiW ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people have helped with identifying the specific topics addressed in both parts of this document, with reviewing one or more...in the wind and are eventually deposited as radioactive fallout, which produces a serious long-term health hazard for people (see ENW, 1977, Ch. 9...34 produce some damage, while some long- term injuries to people are caused by radioactive fallout. Some representative damage radii on the ground for a

  17. Advanced Artificial Dielectric Materials for Millimeter Wavelength Applications. Part A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-30

    permeability and permilttivity) of artificial dielectrics with metal particles (I Auto 37 j)randomly loaded into both polymeric and inorganic binders. The alloy...Part B, which contains classified material, treats magneto- i dielectric composites. A model dielectric consisting of a randomly packed, metal ... metal particles (.-I ý= to .-37 jm) randomly loaded into both polymeric and inorganic glassy binders up Sto 40 vol%. The metal alloy powder, N192Cr8, is

  18. Surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology: Part 2. Application aspects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Ward, Owen P

    2007-01-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds which can reduce surface and interfacial tensions by accumulating at the interface of immiscible fluids and increase the solubility, mobility, bioavailability and subsequent biodegradation of hydrophobic or insoluble organic compounds. Chemically synthesized surfactants are commonly used in the petroleum, food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifiers and wetting agents. Biosurfactants produced by some microorganisms are becoming important biotechnology products for industrial and medical applications due to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, relative ease of preparation and widespread applicability. They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Addition of a surfactant of chemical or biological origin accelerates or sometimes inhibits the bioremediation of pollutants. Surfactants also play an important role in enhanced oil recovery by increasing the apparent solubility of petroleum components and effectively reducing the interfacial tensions of oil and water in situ. However, the effects of surfactants on bioremediation cannot be predicted in the absence of empirical evidence because surfactants sometimes stimulate bioremediation and sometimes inhibit it. For medical applications, biosurfactants are useful as antimicrobial agents and immunomodulatory molecules. Beneficial applications of chemical surfactants and biosurfactants in various industries are discussed in this review.

  19. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 3351 et seq.) (hereinafter NAFTA... investigations under section 312(c) of the NAFTA Implementation Act; subpart D sets forth rules specifically applicable to petitions and investigations under section 302 of the NAFTA Implementation Act; and subpart...

  20. Scientific Applications of the Apple Game Port: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratzlaff, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    The Apple game port has two types of inputs: the paddle input and the button input. Scientific applications of these input-output units are discussed, examining analog inputs (potentiometers, thermistors, and photoresistors), single bit digital inputs, and single-bit outputs. (JN)

  1. Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 1. The neuroradiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E T S

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application and usage in clinical practice of techniques of detection and measurement of imaging biomarkers. Some commentaries in the article derive from a literature search and include summaries of recently published material compiled and linked to each other by extensive use of the text contained in the material examined.

  2. [Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2010-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest

  3. High precision EPR dosimetry as a reference tool for validation of other techniques.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V V; Sholom, S V; Bakhanova, E V; Pasalskaya, L F; Musijachenko, A V

    2005-02-01

    We present here a particular application area for EPR dosimetry with teeth--use as a source of reference dose values for validation/verification of other retrospective dosimetry techniques and existing dose records. The conditions of application of EPR dosimetry in this role as well as practical design of such studies are shown. Particular attention is given to the requirements to the techniques in terms of precision and throughput, as well as to the issue of availability of samples for analysis and practical solution of this problem. Practical application of this approach is illustrated by several examples of completed validation sub-studies, which were performed in the framework of large-scale post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies.

  4. Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

  5. White Paper for Streamlined Development of Part 70 Permit Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Purposes and Applicability § 300.2 Applicability... education of children with disabilities, including: (i) The State educational agency (SEA). (ii) Local... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of this part to State and local...

  7. Dosimetry at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    Although the primary reason for the existence of the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility is to provide basic data on the physics of systems of fissile material, the physical arrangements and ability to provide sources of radiation have led to applications for all types of radiation dosimetry. In the broad definition of radiation phenomena, the facility has provided sources to evaluate biological effects, radiation shielding and transport, and measurements of basic parameters such as the evaluation of delayed neutron parameters. Within the last 15 years, many of the radiation measurements have been directed to calibration and intercomparison of dosimetry related to nuclear criticality safety. Future plans include (1) the new applications of Godiva IV, a bare-metal pulse assembly, for dosimetry (including an evaluation of neutron and gamma-ray room return); (2) a proposal to relocate the Health Physics Research Reactor from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Los Alamos, which will provide the opportunity to continue the application of a primary benchmark source to radiation dosimetry; and (3) a proposal to employ SHEBA, a low-enrichment solution assembly, for accident dosimetry and evaluation.

  8. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  9. The future of medical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  10. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Robert D.

    2015-07-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  11. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 1, geological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suárez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Organic petrology developed as coal petrology at the beginning of the 20th century dedicated mainly to the study of coals because of their utilization in industry. Coal petrology was then considered a branch of coal science. Later, with the development of specialized nomenclature, classification of coal components, and the standardization and improvement of analytical (microscopical) methods, this discipline expanded in interests and name, becoming organic petrology. Organic petrology carries a broader context, being as well a tool applied in the study of dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks due to its importance in exploration for fossil fuel resources. At present, organic petrology is a discipline widely recognized for its role in fundamental and applied research with respect to both coal utilization and in geosciences. Throughout the 20th century several important monographs have been published on the discipline of organic petrology, including “Stach's textbook of coal petrology” (1st edition 1935, 2nd 1975, 3rd 1982), updated as the more general “Organic petrology” by Taylor et al. (1998). More recently, the text “Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization” was published by Suárez-Ruiz and Crelling (2008). This review is the first in a two-part review series that describes and updates the role of organic petrology in geosciences. A second part complementing this one and focused on the applications of organic petrology to other scientific fields will follow.

  12. Characterizations for Besov spaces and applications. Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-Ying; Luo, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    The main theorem of this paper gives a characterization for holomorphic Besov space Bp(D) over a large class of bounded domains D in , which states that there is a bounded linear operator so that PVD=I on Bp(D), where P is the Bergman projection, and is the biholomorphic invariant measure with K(z,z) being Bergman kernel function for D. Moreover, some application for characterizing Schatter von Neumann p-class small Hankel operation is given as a direct consequence of this theorem.

  13. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.; Ragan, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  15. INTRINSIC DOSIMETRY: A POTENTIAL NEW TOOL FOR NUCLEAR FORENSICS INVESTIGATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Richard A.; Miller, Steven D.; Robertson, Dave J.; Gregg, Roger A.; Murphy, Mark K.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-08-11

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure dose effects on the raw stock material of borosilicate container glass from different geographical locations. Effects were studied at times up to 60 days post-irradiation at doses from 0.15 to 20 Gy. The minimum detectable dose using this technique was estimated to be 0.15 Gy which is roughly equivalent to a 24 hr irradiation 1 cm from a 50 ng source of 60Co. Two peaks were identified in the TL glow curve, a relatively unstable peak around 125°C and a more stable peak around 225°C. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were also observed for the glasses from different geographical origins. We investigate radiation induced defects in glass to further develop the technique of intrinsic dosimetry–the measurement of the total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. Intrinsic dosimetry is intended to be used as an interrogation tool to provide enhanced pathway information on interdicted or newly discovered waste containers of unknown origin or history by considering the total absorbed dose received by a container in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within that container. One hypothetical scenario is presented to illustrate the application of intrinsic dosimetry to waste management and nuclear forensics.

  16. In vitro dosimetry of agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, V.; Kinnear, C.; Rodriguez-Lorenzo, L.; Monnier, C. A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B.; Balog, S.; Petri-Fink, A.

    2014-06-01

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological fluids is a pervasive phenomenon that leads to difficulty in the interpretation of results from in vitro exposure, primarily due to differing particokinetics of agglomerates to nanoparticles. Therefore, well-defined small agglomerates were designed that possessed different particokinetic profiles, and their cellular uptake was compared to a computational model of dosimetry. The approach used here paves the way for a better understanding of the impact of agglomeration on the nanoparticle-cell interaction.Agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological fluids is a pervasive phenomenon that leads to difficulty in the interpretation of results from in vitro exposure, primarily due to differing particokinetics of agglomerates to nanoparticles. Therefore, well-defined small agglomerates were designed that possessed different particokinetic profiles, and their cellular uptake was compared to a computational model of dosimetry. The approach used here paves the way for a better understanding of the impact of agglomeration on the nanoparticle-cell interaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ITC data for tiopronin/Au-NP interactions, agglomeration kinetics at different pHs for tiopronin-coated Au-NPs, UV-Vis spectra in water, PBS and DMEM and temporal correlation functions for single Au-NPs and corresponding agglomerates, calculation of diffusion and sedimentation parameters, modelling of relative cell uptake based on the ISDD model and cytotoxicity of single Au-NPs and their agglomerates, and synthesis and cell uptake of large spherical Au-NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00460d

  17. Fundamentals of materials, techniques and instrumentation for OSL and FNTD dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has already become a successful commercial tool in personal radiation dosimetry, medical dosimetry, diagnostic imaging, geological and archeological dating. This review briefly describes the history and fundamental principles of OSL materials, methods and instrumentation. The advantages of OSL technology and instrumentation in comparison with thermoluminescent technique are analyzed. Progress in material and detector engineering has allowed new and promising developments regarding OSL applications in the medical field. Special attention is dedicated to Al2O3:C as a material of choice for many dosimetric applications including fiberoptic OSL/RL sensors with diameters as small as 300 μm. A new RL/OSL fiberoptic system has a high potential for in vivo and in vitro dosimetry in both radiation therapy and diagnostic mammography. Different aspects of instrumentation, data processing algorithms, post-irradiation and real-time measurements are described. The next technological breakthrough was done with Fluorescent Nuclear Track detectors (FNTD) that has some important advantages in measuring fast neutron and high energy heavy charge particles that became the latest tool in radiation therapy. New Mg-doped aluminum oxide crystals and novel type of imaging instrumentation for FNTD technology were engineered and successfully demonstrated for occupational and accident dosimetry, for medical dosimetry and radiobiological research.

  18. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. No claim for indemnity for animals destroyed because of brucellosis shall hereafter be paid...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... available for public inspection and copying at the DOHA's public reading room and on the worldwide...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... the Federal Register and shall make the report available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... the Federal Register and shall make the report available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov....

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... available for public inspection and copying at the DOHA's public reading room and on the worldwide...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This... the Federal Register and shall make the report available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov....

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... available for public inspection and copying at the DOHA's public reading room and on the worldwide...

  5. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  6. International intercomparison for criticality dosimetry: the case of biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Roy, L; Buard, V; Delbos, M; Durand, V; Paillole, N; Grégoire, E; Voisin, P

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) organized a biological dosimetry international intercomparison with the purpose of comparing (i) dicentrics yield produced in human lymphocytes; (ii) the gamma and neutron dose estimate according to the corresponding laboratory calibration curve. The experimental reactor SILENE was used with different configurations: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield 1 and 2 Gy and a 60Co source 2 Gy. An increasing variation of dicentric yield per cell was observed between participants when there were more damages in the samples. Doses were derived from the observed dicentric rates according to the dose-effect relationship provided by each laboratory. Differences in dicentric rate values are more important than those in the corresponding dose values. The doses obtained by the participants were found to be in agreement with the given physical dose within 20%. The evaluation of the respective gamma and neutron dose was achieved only by four laboratories, with some small variations among them.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 270 - Application for Compensation of Vietnamese Commandos

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commandos A Appendix A to Part 270 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Pt. 270, App. A Appendix A to Part 270—Application for Compensation of Vietnamese Commandos All persons applying for payment shall submit a properly completed, signed and...

  8. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 240 - Optional Forms for Powers of Attorney and Their Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Their Application A Appendix A to Part 240 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS DRAWN ON THE UNITED STATES TREASURY Pt. 240, App. A Appendix A to Part 240..., either to the attorney-in-fact or to any other person. A special power of attorney is not effective...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  11. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  12. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  13. 25 CFR 161.5 - Can BIA waive the application of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of this part? Yes. If a provision of this part conflicts with the objectives of the agricultural resource management plan provided for in § 161.200, or with a tribal law, BIA may waive the application of... decision; or (b) Conflict with BIA's general trust responsibility under federal law....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

  15. 21 CFR 558.3 - Definitions and general considerations applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.3 Definitions and general considerations applicable to this part. (a) Regulations in this part provide for approved uses of drugs and combinations of drugs in...

  16. 21 CFR 558.3 - Definitions and general considerations applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.3 Definitions and general considerations applicable to this part. (a) Regulations in this part provide for approved uses of drugs and combinations of drugs in...

  17. 21 CFR 558.3 - Definitions and general considerations applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.3 Definitions and general considerations applicable to this part. (a) Regulations in this part provide for approved uses of drugs and combinations of drugs in...

  18. 76 FR 20962 - Applications for New Awards; Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions Part F Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... (including Times Roman or Arial Narrow) will not be accepted. The page limit does not apply to Part I, the..., which will be used to periodically gauge performance; b. The percentage of first-time, full-time degree... Applications for New Awards; Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions Part F Program AGENCY: Office...

  19. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. G Appendix G to Part 157—Timetables...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Audiograms F Appendix F to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F Appendix F to Part 227—Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms This appendix is...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Audiograms F Appendix F to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F Appendix F to Part 227—Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms This appendix is...

  3. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  5. Critical dosimetry measures and surrogate tools that can facilitate clinical success in PDT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Palanisami, Akilan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy can be a highly complex treatment with more than one parameter to control, or in some cases it is easily implemented with little control other than prescribed drug and light values. The role of measured dosimetry as related to clinical adoption has not been as successful as it could have been, and part of this may be from the conflicting goals of advocating for as many measurements as possible for accurate control, versus companies and clinical adopters advocating for as few measurements as possible, to keep it simple. An organized approach to dosimetry selection is required, which shifts from mechanistic measurements in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards just those essential dose limiting measurements and a focus on possible surrogate measures in phase II/III trials. This essential and surrogate approach to dosimetry should help successful adoption of clinical PDT if successful. The examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools which might be implemented in phase II and higher trials are discussed for solid tissue PDT with verteporfin and skin lesion treatment with aminolevulinc acid.

  6. Emerging technological bases for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Haskell, E H; Lucas, J N; Marchetti, A A; Likhtarev, I A; Chumak, V V; Romanyukha, A A; Khrouch, V T; Gavrilin YuI; Minenko, V F

    1997-01-01

    In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel.

  7. INTERSPECIES DOSIMETRY MODELS FOR PULMONARY PHARMACOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies Dosimetry Models for Pulmonary Pharmacology

    Ted B. Martonen, Jeffry D. Schroeter, and John S. Fleming

    Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  8. 13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of... MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability... Investment Act of 1958, as amended (15 U.S.C. 661 et seq.). All NMVC Companies must comply with...

  9. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  19. Intra-Operative Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    phantoms and pre-recorded patient data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Brachytherapy, X-ray reconstruction, C-arm, TRUS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...prostate brachytherapy system that provides dosimetry analysis (Aim-2), and evaluate the system experimentally on phantoms and pre-recorded patient data...prostate brachytherapy system to enable dosimetry calculation Aim-3: Experimental Validation: Evaluate the performance of the RUF system on phantoms and

  20. The Basket Method for Selecting Balanced Samples. Part II. Applications to Price Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    AD-AI12 949 CLEMSON UNIV SC OEPT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES F/B 12/1 THE BASKET METHOD FOR SELECTING BALANCED SAMPLES. PART 11. APPL-ETC(U) DEC SI K T...1111󈧝 1.4 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHARTNN’( 4~ THE BASKET METHOD FOR SELECTING BALANCED SAMPLES - PART II: APPLICATIONS TO PRICE ESTIMATION * K...for Selecting Balanced Samples Part I: Applications to Price Estimation AB9TRACT The "Basket Method" of sampling, a tool designed to achieve