Science.gov

Sample records for dosimetry applications part

  1. RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    2011-05-05

    The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

  2. Code for internal dosimetry (CINDY): Part 1, Conceptual representation

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The computer code CINDY (Computerized Internal Dosimetry Software Package) has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach contained in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30. The code assists in the interpretation of bioassay data, the evaluation of committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, and the preparation of reports, consistent with revised DOE orders. The code is easy to use and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. The CINDY code is an interactive computer program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. 30 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and its Applications in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Matthew; Metcalfe, Peter

    2011-05-05

    Radiochromic film can be a fast and inexpensive means for performing accurate quantitative radiation dosimetry. The development of new radiochromic compositions that have greater dose sensitivity and fewer environmental dependencies has led to an ever increasing use of the film in radiotherapy applications. In this report the various physical and dosimetric properties of radiochromic film are presented and the strategies to adequately manage these properties when using radiochromic film for radiotherapy applications are discussed.

  4. Highlights and pitfalls of 20 years of application of computerised glow curve analysis to thermoluminescence research and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Y S; Moscovitch, M

    2013-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of computerised glow curve analysis are described in detail including a review of the current 'state-of-the-achieved' in applications to environmental and personal dosimetry, clinical dosimetry, quality control, characterisation of new materials, continuing characterisation of 'old' materials, heavy charged particle dosimetry, mixed field n-gamma dosimetry, X-ray dosimetry and other aspects of thermoluminescence dosimetry. Fearless emphasis is placed on 'pitfalls' as well as successes.

  5. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses.

  6. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  7. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  8. Applications of nuclear data in human radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Eckerman, K.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to ionizing radiations in two ways: from radiation sources external to the body or from internal sources. In either case, the magnitude of the radiation dose to the sensitive tissues of the body is of primary concern. Radiation dose (or absorbed dose) is a physical quantity defined as the amount of ionizing energy absorbed per unit mass of material. For radiation protection purposes, however, it is also necessary to use the dose equivalent, which includes modifiers of absorbed dose to more fully reflect the biological considerations associated with different ionizing radiations. A research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has focused on defining the exposure-dose relationship (i.e., the relationship between radiation exposure from internal or external sources and the radiation dose received by tissues of the body). Although radiation can be readily detected and measured, it is not feasible to make direct measurements of the dose within the organs and tissues of the body. Nuclear data have been extensively used in these studies but improvements are needed in the current nuclear data base. Examples of these applications include studies dealing with (a) the application of the recommendations of Publication 26 of the International Committee on Radiological Protection in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides and (b) the reassessment of radiation dosimetry for the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  9. 4D dosimetry and its applications to pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry of VMAT treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, F.; Wetterstedt, S. af; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a 4D dosimetry concept was developed. This concept included a method for calculation of 3D reference absorbed dose matrices at every control point of the delivery using a clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Further, the gamma evaluation method was extended to incorporate the 4th dimension of the TPS calculated dose distributions. The applications of the 4D dosimetry concept on pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry were investigated.

  10. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study.

  11. EPR retrospective dosimetry with fingernails: report on first application cases.

    PubMed

    Trompier, Francois; Queinnec, François; Bey, Eric; De Revel, Thierry; Lataillade, Jean Jacques; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    For localized irradiation to hands, in case of sources accidentally handled, it is very difficult to estimate the dose distribution by calculation. Doses may reach several tens of grays, and the dose distribution is usually very heterogeneous. Until recently, doses in such situations could be estimated only by analysis of bone biopsies using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This technique was used previously on surgical wastes or after amputation of a finger. In this case, the dose information was available in one or a few locations on the hand only, due to the limited number of biopsy fragments usually collected. The idea to measure free radicals (FRs) induced by radiation in nails to estimate a dose is not new, but up to now, no application cases were reported. As a matter of fact, the EPR analysis of nails is complex due to the presence of intrinsic signals and parasitic signals induced by the mechanical stress (when nails are collected), which overlaps the radio-induced components. In addition, the radio-induced FRs identified up to now are unstable and very sensitive to humidity. In these conditions, it was difficult to foresee any application for dosimetry with fingernails. Recently, stable radio-induced FRs in nails has been identified and an associated protocol for dose assessment developed. This protocol has been applied by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire on fingernail samples from victims of three different radiological accidents that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in different places.

  12. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  13. EPR retrospective dosimetry with fingernails: report on first application cases.

    PubMed

    Trompier, Francois; Queinnec, François; Bey, Eric; De Revel, Thierry; Lataillade, Jean Jacques; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    For localized irradiation to hands, in case of sources accidentally handled, it is very difficult to estimate the dose distribution by calculation. Doses may reach several tens of grays, and the dose distribution is usually very heterogeneous. Until recently, doses in such situations could be estimated only by analysis of bone biopsies using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This technique was used previously on surgical wastes or after amputation of a finger. In this case, the dose information was available in one or a few locations on the hand only, due to the limited number of biopsy fragments usually collected. The idea to measure free radicals (FRs) induced by radiation in nails to estimate a dose is not new, but up to now, no application cases were reported. As a matter of fact, the EPR analysis of nails is complex due to the presence of intrinsic signals and parasitic signals induced by the mechanical stress (when nails are collected), which overlaps the radio-induced components. In addition, the radio-induced FRs identified up to now are unstable and very sensitive to humidity. In these conditions, it was difficult to foresee any application for dosimetry with fingernails. Recently, stable radio-induced FRs in nails has been identified and an associated protocol for dose assessment developed. This protocol has been applied by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire on fingernail samples from victims of three different radiological accidents that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in different places. PMID:24776914

  14. Radiation dosimetry of a conformal heat-brachytherapy applicator.

    PubMed

    Taschereau, Richard; Stauffer, Paul R; Hsu, I-Chow; Schlorff, Jaime L; Milligan, Andrew J; Pouliot, Jean

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the radiation dosimetric characteristics of a new combination applicator for delivering heat and radiation simultaneously to large area superficial disease <1.5 cm deep. The applicator combines an array of brachytherapy catheters (for radiation delivery) with a conformal printed circuit board microwave antenna array (for heat generation), and a body-conforming 5-10 mm thick temperature-controlled water bolus. The rationale for applying both modalities simultaneously includes the potential for significantly higher response rate due to enhanced synergism of modalities, and lower peak toxicity due to temporal extension of heat and radiation induced toxicities. Treatment plans and radiation dosimetry are calculated with IPSA (an optimization tool developed at UCSF) for 15 x 15 cm(2) and 35 x 24 cm(2) applicators, lesion thicknesses of 5 to 15 mm, flat and curved surfaces, and catheter separation of 5 and 10 mm. The effect on skin dose of bolus thickness and presence of thin copper antenna structures between radiation source and tissue are also evaluated. Results demonstrate the ability of the applicator to provide conformal radiation dose coverage for up to 15 mm deep target volumes under the applicator. For clinically acceptable plans, tumor coverage is > 98%, homogeneity index > 0.95 and the percentage of normal tissue irradiated is < 20%. The dose gradient at the skin surface varies from 3 to 5 cGy/mm depending on bolus thickness and lesion depth. Attenuation of the photon beam by the printed circuit antenna array is of the order 0.25% and secondary electron emissions are absorbed completely within 5 mm of water bolus and plastic layers. Both phenomena can then be neglected in dose calculations allowing commercial software to be used for treatment planning. This novel applicator should prove useful for the treatment of diffuse chestwall disease located over contoured anatomy that may be difficult to treat with single field

  15. Radiation dosimetry of a conformal heat-brachytherapy applicator.

    PubMed

    Taschereau, Richard; Stauffer, Paul R; Hsu, I-Chow; Schlorff, Jaime L; Milligan, Andrew J; Pouliot, Jean

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the radiation dosimetric characteristics of a new combination applicator for delivering heat and radiation simultaneously to large area superficial disease <1.5 cm deep. The applicator combines an array of brachytherapy catheters (for radiation delivery) with a conformal printed circuit board microwave antenna array (for heat generation), and a body-conforming 5-10 mm thick temperature-controlled water bolus. The rationale for applying both modalities simultaneously includes the potential for significantly higher response rate due to enhanced synergism of modalities, and lower peak toxicity due to temporal extension of heat and radiation induced toxicities. Treatment plans and radiation dosimetry are calculated with IPSA (an optimization tool developed at UCSF) for 15 x 15 cm(2) and 35 x 24 cm(2) applicators, lesion thicknesses of 5 to 15 mm, flat and curved surfaces, and catheter separation of 5 and 10 mm. The effect on skin dose of bolus thickness and presence of thin copper antenna structures between radiation source and tissue are also evaluated. Results demonstrate the ability of the applicator to provide conformal radiation dose coverage for up to 15 mm deep target volumes under the applicator. For clinically acceptable plans, tumor coverage is > 98%, homogeneity index > 0.95 and the percentage of normal tissue irradiated is < 20%. The dose gradient at the skin surface varies from 3 to 5 cGy/mm depending on bolus thickness and lesion depth. Attenuation of the photon beam by the printed circuit antenna array is of the order 0.25% and secondary electron emissions are absorbed completely within 5 mm of water bolus and plastic layers. Both phenomena can then be neglected in dose calculations allowing commercial software to be used for treatment planning. This novel applicator should prove useful for the treatment of diffuse chestwall disease located over contoured anatomy that may be difficult to treat with single field

  16. The application of thermoluminescence dosimetry in X-ray energy discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V K; Holloway, L; McLean, I D

    2015-12-01

    Clinical dosimetry requires an understanding of radiation energy to accurately determine the delivered dose. For many situations this is known, however there are also many situations where the radiation energy is not well known, thus limiting dosimetric accuracy. This is the case in personnel dosimetry where thermo luminescent (TL) dosimetry is the method of choice. Traditionally beam energy characteristics in personnel dosimetry are determined through discrimination with the use of various filters fitted within a radiation monitor. The presence of scattered and characteristic radiation produced by these metallic filters, however, can compromise the results. In this study the TL response of five materials TLD100, TLD100H, TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500, was measured at various X-ray energies. The TL sensitivity ratio for various combinations of materials as a function of X-ray energy was calculated. The results indicate that in personal dosimetry a combination of three or more TL detector system has a better accuracy of estimation of effective radiation energy of an X-ray beam than some of the current method of employed for energy estimation and has the potential to improve the accuracy in dose determination in a variety of practical situations. The development of this method also has application in other fields including quality assurance of the orthovoltage therapy machines, dosimetry intercomparisons of kilovoltage X-ray beams, and measurement of the dose to critical organs outside a treatment field of a megavoltage therapy beam. PMID:26330215

  17. The application of thermoluminescence dosimetry in X-ray energy discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V K; Holloway, L; McLean, I D

    2015-12-01

    Clinical dosimetry requires an understanding of radiation energy to accurately determine the delivered dose. For many situations this is known, however there are also many situations where the radiation energy is not well known, thus limiting dosimetric accuracy. This is the case in personnel dosimetry where thermo luminescent (TL) dosimetry is the method of choice. Traditionally beam energy characteristics in personnel dosimetry are determined through discrimination with the use of various filters fitted within a radiation monitor. The presence of scattered and characteristic radiation produced by these metallic filters, however, can compromise the results. In this study the TL response of five materials TLD100, TLD100H, TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500, was measured at various X-ray energies. The TL sensitivity ratio for various combinations of materials as a function of X-ray energy was calculated. The results indicate that in personal dosimetry a combination of three or more TL detector system has a better accuracy of estimation of effective radiation energy of an X-ray beam than some of the current method of employed for energy estimation and has the potential to improve the accuracy in dose determination in a variety of practical situations. The development of this method also has application in other fields including quality assurance of the orthovoltage therapy machines, dosimetry intercomparisons of kilovoltage X-ray beams, and measurement of the dose to critical organs outside a treatment field of a megavoltage therapy beam.

  18. Applicability study on existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Kojima, Takuji; Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-12-01

    Applicability of the existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation was investigated through a dose intercomparison study, where several dosimeters were irradiated in the dose range 4-12 kGy in identical polyethylene phantoms in a Bremsstrahlung beam obtained from a 5-MeV electron accelerator. Included in the study were alanine dosimeters molded by three different binders, three types of liquid dosimeters—ceric-cerous, dichromate and ethanol-chlorobenzen (ECB), and glutamine powder. The dosimeter responses for Bremsstrahlung radiation were analyzed at the issuing laboratories, and the dose values determined using calibration based on cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation. Dose values for all the three dose levels for all dosimetry systems were in good agreement—better than 3%. The results of the study demonstrate that these existing dosimetry systems have a potential for application to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation.

  19. Application of the LEPRICON methodology to LWR pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Maerker, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A second example of applying the LEPRICON methodology to an existing pressurized water reactor is described. The present application is an analysis of ad hoc dosimetry inserted into the H.B. Robinson-2 reactor to monitor the effects on pressure vessel fluence produced by the introduction of a low-leakage fuel management scheme during cycle 9. The use of simultaneous dosimetry at both a downcomer location and in the reactor cavity allows a quantitative evaluation to be made by the LEPRICON procedure of the relative merits of each location, and the cavity location is found to be superior.

  20. The fission track detector revisited: application to individual neutron dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Prêtre, S; Aroua, A; Boschung, M; Grecescu, M; Valley, J F; Wernli, C

    1996-08-01

    A system based on fission fragment tracks had previously been developed for individual neutron dosimetry. The dosimeter detects both fast neutrons by means of the 232Th(n,f) reaction, and thermal and albedo neutrons by means of the 235U(n,f) reaction. The fission tracks produced in a plastic foil are chemically etched and counted by spark discharges. The response of the dosimeter has recently been re-investigated in 36 different neutron fields: monoenergetic beams, reference fields near isotopic sources, and radiation fields encountered in a variety of situations inside nuclear power plants. The results obtained have been compared to those computed by convolution of the neutron spectra with the energy response functions of the dosimeters. In practical situations, it is essential to know the shape of the neutron spectrum, approximately at least, in order to perform an acceptably accurate dose evaluation. For that purpose, the neutron fields encountered inside nuclear power plants have been grouped into four categories, for which algorithms for dose evaluation have been developed. Concerning the neutron equivalent dose, the error associated with this approach does not exceed a factor of 2, a performance which is comparable to other detection systems used in the field of individual neutron dosimetry. PMID:8690594

  1. A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a parameterization method based on singular value decomposition (SVD), and to provide analytical parameterization of the mean glandular dose (MGD) conversion factors from eight references for evaluating breast tomosynthesis dose in the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) protocol and in the UK, European, and IAEA dosimetry protocols.Methods: MGD conversion factor is usually listed in lookup tables for the factors such as beam quality, breast thickness, breast glandularity, and projection angle. The authors analyzed multiple sets of MGD conversion factors from the Hologic Selenia Dimensions quality control manual and seven previous papers. Each data set was parameterized using a one- to three-dimensional polynomial function of 2–16 terms. Variable substitution was used to improve accuracy. A least-squares fit was conducted using the SVD.Results: The differences between the originally tabulated MGD conversion factors and the results computed using the parameterization algorithms were (a) 0.08%–0.18% on average and 1.31% maximum for the Selenia Dimensions quality control manual, (b) 0.09%–0.66% on average and 2.97% maximum for the published data by Dance et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1211–1219 (1990); ibid. 45, 3225–3240 (2000); ibid. 54, 4361–4372 (2009); ibid. 56, 453–471 (2011)], (c) 0.74%–0.99% on average and 3.94% maximum for the published data by Sechopoulos et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 221–232 (2007); J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 9, 161–171 (2008)], and (d) 0.66%–1.33% on average and 2.72% maximum for the published data by Feng and Sechopoulos [Radiology 263, 35–42 (2012)], excluding one sample in (d) that does not follow the trends in the published data table.Conclusions: A flexible parameterization method is presented in this paper, and was applied to breast tomosynthesis dosimetry. The resultant data offer easy and accurate computations of MGD conversion factors for evaluating mean glandular breast dose in the MQSA

  2. Characterization of a gated fiber-optic-coupled detector for application in clinical electron beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tanyi, James A.; Nitzling, Kevin D.; Lodwick, Camille J.; Huston, Alan L.; Justus, Brian L.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Assessment of the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of a novel gated fiber-optic-coupled dosimetry system for clinical electron beam irradiation. Methods: The response of fiber-optic-coupled dosimetry system to clinical electron beam, with nominal energy range of 6-20 MeV, was evaluated for reproducibility, linearity, and output dependence on dose rate, dose per pulse, energy, and field size. The validity of the detector system's response was assessed in correspondence with a reference ionization chamber. Results: The fiber-optic-coupled dosimetry system showed little dependence to dose rate variations (coefficient of variation {+-}0.37%) and dose per pulse changes (with 0.54% of reference chamber measurements). The reproducibility of the system was {+-}0.55% for dose fractions of {approx}100 cGy. Energy dependence was within {+-}1.67% relative to the reference ionization chamber for the 6-20 MeV nominal electron beam energy range. The system exhibited excellent linear response (R{sup 2}=1.000) compared to reference ionization chamber in the dose range of 1-1000 cGy. The output factors were within {+-}0.54% of the corresponding reference ionization chamber measurements. Conclusions: The dosimetric properties of the gated fiber-optic-coupled dosimetry system compare favorably to the corresponding reference ionization chamber measurements and show considerable potential for applications in clinical electron beam radiotherapy.

  3. Application of Monte Carlo codes to neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Prevo, C.T.

    1982-06-15

    In neutron dosimetry, calculations enable one to predict the response of a proposed dosimeter before effort is expended to design and fabricate the neutron instrument or dosimeter. The nature of these calculations requires the use of computer programs that implement mathematical models representing the transport of radiation through attenuating media. Numerical, and in some cases analytical, solutions of these models can be obtained by one of several calculational techniques. All of these techniques are either approximate solutions to the well-known Boltzmann equation or are based on kernels obtained from solutions to the equation. The Boltzmann equation is a precise mathematical description of neutron behavior in terms of position, energy, direction, and time. The solution of the transport equation represents the average value of the particle flux density. Integral forms of the transport equation are generally regarded as the formal basis for the Monte Carlo method, the results of which can in principle be made to approach the exact solution. This paper focuses on the Monte Carlo technique.

  4. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  5. Implementation of in vivo dosimetry using diodes as part of quality assurance in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, L. I.; Espinoza, W. P.; Bayas, M. V.

    2012-02-01

    An in vivo dosimetry system for photon beams was implemented in the Oncology Hospital SOLCA-QUITO. The implementation included the calibration of two diodes and a preliminary study with patients. One diode was calibrated for 6 MV and another for 18 MV photon beams. In the preliminary study the doses measured by the diodes were compared with those obtained from the Treatment Planning System for 33 patients with treatment sites: pelvis, abdomen, chest, breast and head-neck in specific treatment fields. The variations between the measured and the reference doses were statistically less than 5% and depended on photon beam energy with a confidence level of 99.9%. In fact, a tolerance of 5% for 6 MV beams and 3% for 18 MV beams were defined. This tolerance will use for the in vivo dosimetry system by personnel in the Hospital.

  6. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, A. S.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al2O3:C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al2O3:C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF3:Eu2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al2O3:C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice for point dose

  7. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A S; Lee, J I; Kim, J L

    2008-07-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al(2)O(3):C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al(2)O(3):C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF(3):Eu(2+) appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al(2)O(3):C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice

  8. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A S; Lee, J I; Kim, J L

    2008-07-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al(2)O(3):C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al(2)O(3):C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF(3):Eu(2+) appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al(2)O(3):C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice

  9. Application of jade samples for high-dose dosimetry using the EPR technique.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maria Inês; Melo, Adeilson P; Ferraz, Gilberto M; Caldas, Linda V E

    2010-01-01

    The dosimeter characteristics of jade samples were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. Jade is the common denomination of two silicates: jadeite and actinolite. The EPR spectra of different jade samples were obtained after irradiation with absorbed doses of 100 Gy up to 20 kGy. The jade samples present signals that increase with the absorbed dose (g-factors around 2.00); they can be attributed to electron centers. The EPR spectra obtained for the USA jade samples and their main dosimetric properties as reproducibility, calibration curves and energy dependence were investigated.

  10. Thermoluminescence in CVD diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Flores, M; Meléndrez, R; Chernov, V; Castañeda, B; Pedroza-Montero, M; Gan, B; Ahn, J; Zhang, Q; Yoon, S F

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z =6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z =7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220), 320 and 370 degrees C. The 120 and 370 degrees C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 degrees C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of CVD diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications. PMID:12382917

  11. Geomagnetic cutoffs: a review for space dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    1994-10-01

    The earth's magnetic field acts as a shield against charged particle radiation from interplanetary space, technically described as the geomagnetic cutoff. The cutoff rigidity problem (except for the dipole special case) has "no solution in closed form". The dipole case yields the Stormer equation which has been repeatedly applied to the earth in hopes of providing useful approximations of cutoff rigidities. Unfortunately the earth's magnetic field has significant deviations from dipole geometry, and the Stormer cutoffs are not adequate for most applications. By application of massive digital computer power it is possible to determine realistic geomagnetic cutoffs derived from high order simulation of the geomagnetic field. Using this technique, "world-grids" of directional cutoffs for the earth's surface and for a limited number of satellite altitudes have been derived. However, this approach is so expensive and time consuming it is impractical for most spacecraft orbits, and approximations must be used. The world grids of cutoff rigidities are extensively used as lookup tables, normalization points and interpolation aids to estimate the effective geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of a specific location in space. We review the various options for estimating the cutoff rigidity for earth-orbiting satellites.

  12. Verification of Dosimetry Measurements with Timepix Pixel Detectors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Idarraga-Munoz, J.; Hoang, S. M.; Semones, E.; Bahadori, A.; Stoffle, N.; Rios, R.; Vykydal, Z.; Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S.; Turecek, D.; Kitamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    The current capabilities of modern pixel-detector technology has provided the possibility to design a new generation of radiation monitors. Timepix detectors are semiconductor pixel detectors based on a hybrid configuration. As such, the read-out chip can be used with different types and thicknesses of sensors. For space radiation dosimetry applications, Timepix devices with 300 and 500 microns thick silicon sensors have been used by a collaboration between NASA and University of Houston to explore their performance. For that purpose, an extensive evaluation of the response of Timepix for such applications has been performed. Timepix-based devices were tested in many different environments both at ground-based accelerator facilities such as HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan), and at NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY), as well as in space on board of the International Space Station (ISS). These tests have included a wide range of the particle types and energies, from protons through iron nuclei. The results have been compared both with other devices and theoretical values. This effort has demonstrated that Timepix-based detectors are exceptionally capable at providing accurate dosimetry measurements in this application as verified by the confirming correspondence with the other accepted techniques.

  13. Dosimetry of Strontium eye applicator: Comparison of Monte Carlo calculations and radiochromic film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoues, M.; Khelifi, R.; Moussa, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Strontium-90 eye applicators are a beta-ray emitter with a relatively high-energy (maximum energy about 2.28 MeV and average energy about 0.9 MeV). These applicators come in different shapes and dimensions; they are used for the treatment of eye diseases. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The main aim of our study is to simulate the dosimetry of the SIA.20 eye applicator with Monte Carlo GATE 6.1 platform and to compare the calculated results with those measured with EBT2 films. This means that GATE and EBT2 were used to quantify the surface and depths dose- rate, the relative dose profile and the dosimetric parameters in according to international recommendations. Calculated and measured results are in good agreement and they are consistent with the ICRU and NCS recommendations.

  14. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  15. Development of a silicon calorimeter for dosimetry applications in a water-moderated reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, Kendall Russell; King, Donald Bryan; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer Michael; Keltner, Ned R.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Griffin, Patrick Joseph

    2005-05-01

    High fidelity active dosimetry in the mixed neutron/gamma field of a research reactor is a very complex issue. For passive dosimetry applications, the use of activation foils addresses the neutron environment while the use of low neutron response CaF{sub 2}:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) addresses the gamma environment. While radiation-hardened diamond photoconducting detectors (PCD) have been developed that provide a very precise fast response (picosecond) dosimeter and can provide a time-dependent profile for the radiation environment, the mixed field response of the PCD is still uncertain and this interferes with the calibration of the PCD response. In order to address the research reactor experimenter's need for a dosimeter that reports silicon dose and dose rate at a test location during a pulsed reactor operation, a silicon calorimeter has been developed. This dosimeter can be used by itself to provide a dose in rad(Si) up to a point in a reactor pulsed operation, or, in conjunction with the diamond PCD, to provide a dose rate. This paper reports on the development, testing, and validation of this silicon calorimeter for applications in water-moderated research reactors.

  16. International Reactor Dosimetry Data.

    1982-06-28

    Version 00 IRDF-82 contains 620 neutron group cross sections (SAND-II format) based on the ENDF/B-V Special Purpose Dosimetry File as well as other reaction cross sections important for dosimetry applications. In addition, multigroup spectra for ten reference benchmarks are also provided.

  17. Design and construction of an optical computed tomography scanner for polymer gel dosimetry application.

    PubMed

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-04-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples.

  18. Design and Construction of an Optical Computed Tomography Scanner for Polymer Gel Dosimetry Application

    PubMed Central

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples. PMID:24761377

  19. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  20. Application of MOSFET Detectors for Dosimetry in Small Animal Radiography Using Short Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G. Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2008-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

  1. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    PubMed

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

  2. Thermoluminescence kinetics in materials exposed to the low doses applicable to dating and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P.W.

    1984-11-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) kinetics have been investigated for low dose situations applicable to dating, dosimetry, and recent geological deposits. Studied were the general one-trap kinetic equation, which reduces to the well known 1st and 2nd order kinetic equations when various assumptions apply, and the interactive kinetic equations, which describes TL in materials exhibiting more than one glow peak. In materials with one glow peak area varies linearly with dose; however, peak height is not linear with dose unless the TL obeys 1st order kinetics at all doses. In materials with two or more glow peaks neither peak height nor peak area varies linearly with dose, except in special situations. In fact, many peak height vs dose curves will be supralinear with the initial low-slope region occurring at relatively low doses. These considerations indicate: (1) Dating and dosimetry technique based on assumed linear peak height vs dose curves will usually underestimate the accumulated dose. (2) Dating techniques can be improved and/or made more reliable by determining the TL kinetics of the glow peaks measured.

  3. Extension of RAPTOR-M3G to r-θ-z Geometry for Use in Reactor Dosimetry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Melissa A.; Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3-D Geometries) is a new deterministic radiation transport code that was originally developed for x-y-z geometry. The development of the r-θ-z version of RAPTOR-M3G and its application to determine ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a typical 2-loop pressurized water reactor is presented. The neutron dosimetry responses determined from RAPTOR-M3G and TORT 3-D r-θ-z calculations are compared to actual measured responses.

  4. Development of europium doped BaSO4 TL OSL dual phosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results on the preparation and characterization of Europium-doped Barium sulfate (BaSO4: Eu) TL /OSL dual phosphor. The OSL sensitivity was found to be 11% of the commercially available Al2O3: C, using area integration method. The sample also shows good TL sensitivity and the dosimetric peak appears around 190°C with a shoulder at 282°C. After OSL readout, No change in the TL glow curve is observed. Since the observed TL peaks are not responsible for the observed OSL, good OSL as well as TL sensitivity and low fading will make this phosphor suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry using OSL as well as TL.

  5. Applications, dosimetry and biological interactions of static and time-varying magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenforde, T. S.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics of this presentation include: (1) the applications of magnetic fields in research, industry, and medical technologies; (2) mechanisms of interaction of static and time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; (3) human health effects of exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields in occupational, medical, and residential settings; and (4) recent advances in the dosimetry of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The discussion of these topics is centered about two issues of considerable contemporary interest: (1) potential health effects of the fields used in magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, and (2) the controversial issue of whether exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in the home and workplace leads to an elevated risk of cancer.

  6. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rivera, T

    2012-12-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is applied worldwide for personal and medical dosimetry. TLD method has resulted in many interesting findings in medicine as TL dosimeters have many relevant advantages such as high sensitivity, small physical size, tissue equivalence, etc. The main characteristics of various TL materials used in radiation measurements and their practical consequences are overviewed: well defined TL glow curve, batch homogeneity, signal stability after irradiation, precision and accuracy, response with dose, and influence of energy. In this paper a brief summary of the advances in the application of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) to dosimetry in radiation therapy application is presented.

  7. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  8. Three-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry: Application of Radiobiologic Modeling to Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Imaging–Based Internal Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Andrew R.; Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F.; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2010-01-01

    Phantom-based and patient-specific imaging-based dosimetry methodologies have traditionally yielded mean organ-absorbed doses or spatial dose distributions over tumors and normal organs. In this work, radiobiologic modeling is introduced to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose into biologically effective dose and equivalent uniform dose parameters. The methodology is illustrated using data from a thyroid cancer patient treated with radioiodine. Methods Three registered SPECT/CT scans were used to generate 3-dimensional images of radionuclide kinetics (clearance rate) and cumulated activity. The cumulated activity image and corresponding CT scan were provided as input into an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo calculation: The cumulated activity image was used to define the distribution of decays, and an attenuation image derived from CT was used to define the corresponding spatial tissue density and composition distribution. The rate images were used to convert the spatial absorbed dose distribution to a biologically effective dose distribution, which was then used to estimate a single equivalent uniform dose for segmented volumes of interest. Equivalent uniform dose was also calculated from the absorbed dose distribution directly. Results We validate the method using simple models; compare the dose-volume histogram with a previously analyzed clinical case; and give the mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for an illustrative case of a pediatric thyroid cancer patient with diffuse lung metastases. The mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for the tumor were 57.7, 58.5, and 25.0 Gy, respectively. Corresponding values for normal lung tissue were 9.5, 9.8, and 8.3 Gy, respectively. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates the impact of radiobiologic modeling on response prediction. The 57% reduction in the equivalent dose value for the tumor reflects a high level of dose

  9. A survey of physical dosimetry to date and in the near future: Part 1. Review of standards and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Cassata, James R

    2002-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of the relevant standards and current regulatory issues for use of physical dosimetry devices for the occupational worker in the United States. Included is a summary of relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG-Series, the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP), and the U.S. Military Specifications and Standards (MIL-STD). Proposed changes to ANSI N13.11-1993, "American National Standard for Dosimetry-Personnel Dosimetry Performance Criteria for Testing," are listed. The strategic changes that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making in rulemaking activities related to dosimetry and standards are given. The status of Measurement Program Description (MPD) C.18, "Implementation of Electronic Dosimetry for Primary Dosimetry," from the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) is given. PMID:11873507

  10. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part II, parameter sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential for the assessment of internal doses and a radiation risk analysis for the public and occupational workers exposed to radionuclides. In the present study, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. In the first part of the paper, the parameter uncertainty was analyzed for two biokinetic models of zirconium (Zr); one was reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and one was developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU). In the second part of the paper, the parameter uncertainties and distributions of the Zr biokinetic models evaluated in Part I are used as the model inputs for identifying the most influential parameters in the models. Furthermore, the most influential model parameter on the integral of the radioactivity of Zr over 50 y in source organs after ingestion was identified. The results of the systemic HMGU Zr model showed that over the first 10 d, the parameters of transfer rates between blood and other soft tissues have the largest influence on the content of Zr in the blood and the daily urinary excretion; however, after day 1,000, the transfer rate from bone to blood becomes dominant. For the retention in bone, the transfer rate from blood to bone surfaces has the most influence out to the endpoint of the simulation; the transfer rate from blood to the upper larger intestine contributes a lot in the later days; i.e., after day 300. The alimentary tract absorption factor (fA) influences mostly the integral of radioactivity of Zr in most source organs after ingestion.

  11. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  12. Application of a canine {sup 238}Pu biokinetics/dosimetry model to human bioassay data

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, A.W. |; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    Associated with the use of {sup 238}Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes is the potential for human exposure, primarily by inhalation and most likely as {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Several models have been developed for assessing the level of intake and predicting the resulting radiation dose following human exposure to {sup 239}Pu. However, there are indications that existing models do not adequately describe the disposition and dosimetry of {sup 239}Pu following human exposure. In this study, a canine model that accounts for these differences has been adapted for use with human excretion data. The model is based on existing knowledge about organ retention of plutonium. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to changes in aerosol-associated properties indicated that predictions of urinary excretion are most sensitive to changes in particle solubility and diameter and in the ratio of fragment:particle surface area. Application of the model to urinary excretion data from seven workers exposed to a {sup 238}Pu ceramic aerosol gave estimated intakes of 390-8,200 Bq and associated initial pulmonary burdens of 80-1,700 Bq. The resulting 50-y dose commitments to critical organs per Bq of {sup 238}Pu intake were estimated to be 0.5 mSv for the thoracic region, 0.2 mSv for the liver, and 1 mSv for the bone surfaces. 29 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 OSL nanophosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor was developed by synthesizing a nano phosphor which is treated at 1000 °C. Excellent OSL properties are observed in the developed phosphor and the sensitivity is found to be 1.26 times to that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer Inc.) phosphor based on area integration method. The sample showed a single TL glow peak around 230 °C which is found to reduce by 47% after the OSL readout. Sublinear dose response with the saturation around 100 mGy is observed in this sample which suggests that it is extremely sensitive and hence will be suitable in detecting very low dose levels. Minimum measurable dose on the used set up is estimated to be 1.42 μGy. Practically no fading is observed for first ten days and the phosphor has excellent reusability. High sensitivity, low fading, excellent reusability will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry applications using OSL.

  14. Application of a canine 238Pu biokinetics/dosimetry model to human bioassay data.

    PubMed

    Hickman, A W; Griffith, W C; Roessler, G S; Guilmette, R A

    1995-03-01

    Associated with the use of 238Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes is the potential for human exposure, primarily by inhalation and most likely as 238PuO2. Several models have been developed for assessing the level of intake and predicting the resulting radiation dose following human exposure to 239Pu. However, there are indications that existing models do not adequately describe the disposition and dosimetry of 238Pu following human exposure. In this study, a canine model that accounts for these differences has been adapted for use with human excretion data. The model is based on existing knowledge about organ retention of plutonium. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to changes in aerosol-associated properties indicated that predictions of urinary excretion are most sensitive to changes in particle solubility and diameter and in the ratio of fragment:particle surface area. Application of the model to urinary excretion data from seven workers exposed to a 238Pu ceramic aerosol gave estimated intakes of 390-8,200 Bq and associated initial pulmonary burdens of 80-1,700 Bq. The resulting 50-y dose commitments to critical organs per Bq of 238Pu intake were estimated to be 0.5 mSv for the thoracic region, 0.2 mSv for the liver, and 1 mSv for the bone surfaces. PMID:7860307

  15. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part I, parameter uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential in internal dose assessments and radiation risk analysis for the public, occupational workers, and patients exposed to radionuclides. In this paper, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part of the study published here, the uncertainty sources of the model parameters for zirconium (Zr), developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), were identified and analyzed. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the biokinetic experimental measurement performed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU) for developing a new biokinetic model of Zr was analyzed according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, published by the International Organization for Standardization. The confidence interval and distribution of model parameters of the ICRP and HMGU Zr biokinetic models were evaluated. As a result of computer biokinetic modelings, the mean, standard uncertainty, and confidence interval of model prediction calculated based on the model parameter uncertainty were presented and compared to the plasma clearance and urinary excretion measured after intravenous administration. It was shown that for the most important compartment, the plasma, the uncertainty evaluated for the HMGU model was much smaller than that for the ICRP model; that phenomenon was observed for other organs and tissues as well. The uncertainty of the integral of the radioactivity of Zr up to 50 y calculated by the HMGU model after ingestion by adult members of the public was shown to be smaller by a factor of two than that of the ICRP model. It was also shown that the distribution type of the model parameter strongly influences the model prediction, and the correlation of the model input parameters affects the model prediction to a

  16. Potential use of P-32 ophthalmic applicator: Monte Carlo simulations for design and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung-Joon; Kim, Il Han; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Mee Kum; Han, Hyon Soo; Son, Kwang-Jae; Park, Ul Jae

    2008-05-15

    Postoperative {beta}-irradiation after pterygium excision has been considered a valuable therapeutic procedure to reduce the recurrence rate. Recently, it was reported that {beta}-irradiation also substantially reduced the risk of surgical failure after glaucoma surgery. Pure {beta}-irradiation using a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator has been almost exclusively used for this purpose. As an alternative to {sup 90}Sr/Y {beta}-irradiation, we propose treatment with betas of a {sup 32}P source. While {sup 32}P has a lower maximum energy (1.71 MeV) than {sup 90}Sr/Y (2.27 MeV), it has an average energy comparable to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. Furthermore, it can be produced easily in a nuclear reactor by neutron activation and is considered a less hazardous material. Monte Carlo simulations for the dosimetry of proposed {sup 32}P applicators were performed using the MCNP5 code. The structure and dimension of the {sup 32}P applicators were based on those of the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicators currently available, while medical plastic encapsulation and liquid source were chosen to enhance {beta}-dose to the surface of the conjunctiva. The {sup 32}P applicator showed that the surface dose distribution (up to 0.75 mm depth) is very similar to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. However, beyond 0.75 mm depth, the {sup 32}P doses decrease with depths more rapidly than {sup 90}Sr/Y doses. In order to achieve the same surface dose rate, the required {sup 32}P activity is about three times that for a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. We conclude that the proposed {sup 32}P applicator can deliver therapeutic doses to the target lesion while sparing the lens better than the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. The {sup 32}P activity required to deliver therapeutic doses can be produced in a 30 MW reactor available at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

  17. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  18. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  19. Application of a new dosimetry formalism to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Karen E.; Bedford, James L.

    2009-12-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers a challenge to classical dosimetry protocols as the beams are dynamic in orientation and aperture shape and may include small apertures. The aim of this paper is to apply a formalism to VMAT beams that has recently been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working party to improve the dosimetry for small and non-standard fields. We investigated three possible fields and assessed their suitability as plan class specific reference (pcsr) fields. The factors in the new dosimetry formalism were investigated: the conversion of dose to water from the conventional reference field to the pcsr and then from the pcsr to a treatment plan, using a PTW semiflex chamber, two Farmer chambers and an electron diode. Finally, the dose was compared for Alanine, the new formalism and calculated using Pinnacle3 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) for two typical clinical VMAT beams. Correction factors between the reference field and the pcsr determined with Alanine range from 0.1% to 2.3% for the three pcsr fields. Dose to water measured using the calibrated ionization chambers is less than 2% different to the dose calculated by Pinnacle3. VMAT planning and delivery procedures have been successfully implemented and a new dosimetry protocol has been investigated for this new technique. Calibration factors for pcsr fields are found to be up to 2.3% different when using the new formalism, compared to using a standard dosimetry protocol. Using the calibration factors determined in the pcsr fields, the ionization chambers and electron diode agree to within 1% with Alanine dosimetry for two clinical VMAT plans. Good agreements between calculations and measurements are found for these two plans when the new formalism is used.

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeever, Stephen W.

    1999-02-01

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimetry is attractive to the health physics and dosimetry community due to its all-optical character, fast data acquisition and the avoidance of heating the detector. Until recently there was no luminescent material sensitive enough to radiation, and at the same time suitable for stimulation with visible light, for use in this application. However, anion-deficient aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al2O3:C) appears to be not only an extremely sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) material, but is also well-suited to OSL applications. Several OSL readout protocols have been suggested, including cw-OSL, pulsed OSL (POSL), and 'delayed' OSL (DOSL). The paper discusses the physical mechanisms that give rise to the OSL signals and the dependence of these signals upon absorbed dose. Example applications of the use of OSL from Al2O3:C in environmental radiation and ultraviolet-B dosimetry are discussed.

  1. A survey of physical dosimetry to date and in the near future: Part 2. Review of commercially available products.

    PubMed

    Cassata, James R

    2002-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of physical dosimetry for the occupational worker. The review of commercially available physical dosimetry systems was limited to the following technologies: thermoluminescent dosimeters, electronic personnel dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters, and direction ion storage dosimeters. Product reviews were limited to the top models and largest commercial manufacturers in each category. The physical principles of each dosimeter type are discussed. Information was gathered from journal literature, by direct experience, and by inviting six commercial vendors to present their newest technologies. Each system was found to have strengths and weaknesses. Many of the technologies presented by major vendors were still in development and thus could be considered near-future systems. PMID:11873508

  2. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  3. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel; Jan, Sébastien; Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  4. Epid Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  5. Epid Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  6. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  7. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  8. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T and O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. Methods: For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} photon histories from a {sup 137}Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for {sup 137}Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5-8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5 Degree-Sign increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm){sup 3} isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T and O implant plan. Results: The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105 Degree-Sign ) was 3.1 Degree-Sign -4.7 Degree-Sign . A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign , and

  9. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  10. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand; Ranouil, Julien; Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier; Walker, Paul; Brunotte, François

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  11. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin-film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin-film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low-power operation, and low-cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin-film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm² - cm² areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device used for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm × 5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin-film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low-power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low-noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are used to irradiate different thin

  12. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize dosimetric properties of thin film photovoltaic sensors as a platform for development of prototype dose verification equipment in radiotherapy. Towards this goal, flexible thin-film sensors of dose with embedded data acquisition electronics and wireless data transmission are prototyped and tested in kV and MV photon beams. Fundamental dosimetric properties are determined in view of a specific application to dose verification in multiple planes or curved surfaces inside a phantom. Uniqueness of the new thin-film sensors consists in their mechanical properties, low-power operation, and low-cost. They are thinner and more flexible than dosimetric films. In principle, each thin-film sensor can be fabricated in any size (mm² - cm² areas) and shape. Individual sensors can be put together in an array of sensors spreading over large areas and yet being light. Photovoltaic mode of charge collection (of electrons and holes) does not require external electric field applied to the sensor, and this implies simplicity of data acquisition electronics and low power operation. The prototype device used for testing consists of several thin film dose sensors, each of about 1.5 cm × 5 cm area, connected to simple readout electronics. Sensitivity of the sensors is determined per unit area and compared to EPID sensitivity, as well as other standard photodiodes. Each sensor independently measures dose and is based on commercially available flexible thin-film aSi photodiodes. Readout electronics consists of an ultra low-power microcontroller, radio frequency transmitter, and a low-noise amplification circuit implemented on a flexible printed circuit board. Detector output is digitized and transmitted wirelessly to an external host computer where it is integrated and processed. A megavoltage medical linear accelerator (Varian Tx) equipped with kilovoltage online imaging system and a Cobalt source are used to irradiate different thin

  13. Applicability of EPR/alanine dosimetry for quality assurance in proton eye radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Michalec, B; Mierzwinska, G; Ptaszkiewicz, M; Sowa, U; Stolarczyk, L; Weber, A

    2014-06-01

    A new quality assurance and quality control method for proton eye radiotherapy based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetry has been developed. It is based on Spread-Out Bragg Peak entrance dose measurement with alanine detectors. The entrance dose is well correlated with the dose at the facility isocenter, where, during the therapeutic irradiation, the tumour is placed. The unique alanine detector features namely keeping the dose record in a form of stable radiation-induced free radicals trapped in the material structure, and the non-destructive read-out makes this type of detector a good candidate for additional documentation of the patient's exposure over the therapy course.

  14. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Nunez Ochoa, M. A.; Wiart, J.; Peyman, A.; Bloch, I.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.

  15. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images*

    PubMed Central

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. Results With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. PMID:25741101

  16. Development of europium doped BaSO{sub 4} TL OSL dual phosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patle, Anita Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents the results on the preparation and characterization of Europium-doped Barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}: Eu) TL /OSL dual phosphor. The OSL sensitivity was found to be 11% of the commercially available Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: C, using area integration method. The sample also shows good TL sensitivity and the dosimetric peak appears around 190°C with a shoulder at 282°C. After OSL readout, No change in the TL glow curve is observed. Since the observed TL peaks are not responsible for the observed OSL, good OSL as well as TL sensitivity and low fading will make this phosphor suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry using OSL as well as TL.

  17. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  18. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for EPR retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Israelsson, A; Gustafsson, H; Lund, E

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD).

  19. Performance characteristics of the EPR dosimetry system with table sugar in radiotherapy applications.

    PubMed

    Mikou, M; Ghosne, N; El Baydaoui, R; Zirari, Z; Kuntz, F

    2015-05-01

    Performance characteristics of the megavoltage photon dose measurements with EPR and table sugar were analyzed. An advantage of sugar as a dosimetric material is its tissue equivalency. The minimal detectable dose was found to be 1.5Gy for both the 6 and 18MV photons. The dose response curves are linear up to at least 20Gy. The energy dependence of the dose response in the megavoltage energy range is very weak and probably statistically insignificant. Reproducibility of measurements of various doses in this range performed with the peak-to-peak and double-integral methods is reported. The method can be used in real-time dosimetry in radiation therapy. PMID:25698642

  20. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  1. Verification of the pure alanine in PMMA tube dosimeter applicability for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Al-Karmi, Anan M; Ayaz, Ali Asghar H; Al-Enezi, Mamdouh S; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Dwaikat, Nidal

    2015-09-01

    Alanine dosimeters in the form of pure alanine powder in PMMA plastic tubes were investigated for dosimetry in a clinical application. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure absorbed radiation doses by detection of signals from radicals generated in irradiated alanine. The measurements were performed for low-dose ranges typical for single-fraction doses often used in external photon beam radiotherapy. First, the dosimeters were irradiated in a solid water phantom to establish calibration curves in the dose range from 0.3 to 3 Gy for 6 and 18 MV X-ray beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Next, the dosimeters were placed at various locations in an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom to measure the dose delivery of a conventional four-field box technique treatment plan to the pelvis. Finally, the doses measured with alanine dosimeters were compared against the doses calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The results showed that the alanine dosimeters have a highly sensitive dose response with good linearity and no energy dependence in the dose range and photon beams used in this work. Also, a fairly good agreement was found between the in-phantom dose measurements with alanine dosimeters and the TPS dose calculations. The mean value of the ratios of measured to calculated dose values was found to be near unity. The measured points in the in-field region passed dose-difference acceptance criterion of 3% and those in the penumbral region passed distance-to-agreement acceptance criterion of 3 mm. These findings suggest that the pure alanine powder in PMMA tube dosimeter is a suitable option for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams.

  2. Verification of the pure alanine in PMMA tube dosimeter applicability for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Al-Karmi, Anan M; Ayaz, Ali Asghar H; Al-Enezi, Mamdouh S; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Dwaikat, Nidal

    2015-09-01

    Alanine dosimeters in the form of pure alanine powder in PMMA plastic tubes were investigated for dosimetry in a clinical application. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure absorbed radiation doses by detection of signals from radicals generated in irradiated alanine. The measurements were performed for low-dose ranges typical for single-fraction doses often used in external photon beam radiotherapy. First, the dosimeters were irradiated in a solid water phantom to establish calibration curves in the dose range from 0.3 to 3 Gy for 6 and 18 MV X-ray beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Next, the dosimeters were placed at various locations in an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom to measure the dose delivery of a conventional four-field box technique treatment plan to the pelvis. Finally, the doses measured with alanine dosimeters were compared against the doses calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The results showed that the alanine dosimeters have a highly sensitive dose response with good linearity and no energy dependence in the dose range and photon beams used in this work. Also, a fairly good agreement was found between the in-phantom dose measurements with alanine dosimeters and the TPS dose calculations. The mean value of the ratios of measured to calculated dose values was found to be near unity. The measured points in the in-field region passed dose-difference acceptance criterion of 3% and those in the penumbral region passed distance-to-agreement acceptance criterion of 3 mm. These findings suggest that the pure alanine powder in PMMA tube dosimeter is a suitable option for dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams. PMID:26138456

  3. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  4. Dosimetry in radiotherapy using a-Si EPIDs: Systems, methods, and applications focusing on 3D patient dose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2013-06-01

    An overview is provided of the use of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetric purposes in radiation therapy, focusing on 3D patient dose estimation. EPIDs were originally developed to provide on-treatment radiological imaging to assist with patient setup, but there has also been a natural interest in using them as dosimeters since they use the megavoltage therapy beam to form images. The current generation of clinically available EPID technology, amorphous-silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers, possess many characteristics that make them much better suited to dosimetric applications than earlier EPID technologies. Features such as linearity with dose/dose rate, high spatial resolution, realtime capability, minimal optical glare, and digital operation combine with the convenience of a compact, retractable detector system directly mounted on the linear accelerator to provide a system that is well-suited to dosimetric applications. This review will discuss clinically available a-Si EPID systems, highlighting dosimetric characteristics and remaining limitations. Methods for using EPIDs in dosimetry applications will be discussed. Dosimetric applications using a-Si EPIDs to estimate three-dimensional dose in the patient during treatment will be overviewed. Clinics throughout the world are implementing increasingly complex treatments such as dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, as well as specialized treatment techniques using large doses per fraction and short treatment courses (ie. hypofractionation and stereotactic radiosurgery). These factors drive the continued strong interest in using EPIDs as dosimeters for patient treatment verification.

  5. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Part 17. This part contains requirements for the construction, marking and lighting of antenna towers... structure registration applications. (g) Part 20 of this chapter governs commercial mobile radio...

  6. Application of radiation physics to improve dosimetry in early breast cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Ellen Mary

    2005-07-15

    Radiotherapy for early breast cancer has been shown to be a highly effective treatment in a number of long term studies. The radiation dose uniformity of the current standard treatments is often poor, however, with dose variations across the breast much higher than those recommended in international guidelines. This work aimed to explore methods for improving this aspect of the radiation dosimetry of early breast cancer radiotherapy. An experimental method was validated by applying it to computed tomography data from 14 patients with a variety of breast shapes and sizes. The volume of the breast receiving the desired dose levels increased by a mean of 6.9% (range -0.8% to 15.9%) and this benefit was shown to increase with breast volume. The quality of reference images in the verification of treatments was improved by introducing differential filtering to the imaging beams on a radiotherapy simulator. The positive results from the first two studies were applied in a clinical trial (which used the experimental technique). The unique set of data from the trial was analyzed and confirmation of dosimetric improvement, and the increased benefit, for larger breasted women were found. In addition, an analysis of the position of high doses showed these occurred in the upper or lower third of the breast and affected 46% and 30% of patients, respectively, with standard treatment but only 1% of patients with the improved method. Other published methods for improving breast dosimetry were explored by building a simple physical model and carrying out a comparative planning study. The physical model was shown to be effective in predicting the dosimetric consequences of each method. The planning study showed that there was little difference between the methods generally but dosimetric improvement could be increased for larger breast volumes by an appropriate choice of technique. A final study explored how breathing control could be used to reduce cardiac doses in patients with

  7. Development of Kilovoltage X-ray Dosimetry Methods and Their Application to Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Michael J.

    The increase in popularity of pre-treatment imaging procedures in radiation therapy, such as kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), has been accompanied by an increase in the dose delivered to the patient from these imaging procedures. The measurement of dose from CBCT scans is complicated, as currently available kilovoltage dosimetry protocols are based on air-kerma standards and radiation detectors exhibit large energy responses at the low photon energies used in the imaging procedures. This work aims to provide the tools and methodology needed to measure the dose from these scans more accurately and precisely. Through the use of a validated Monte Carlo (MC) model of the moderately filtered (M-series) x-ray beams at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, dose-to-water rates were obtained in a water phantom for the M-series x-ray beams with tube potentials from 40-250 kVp. The resulting dose-to-water rates were consistent with previously established methods, but had significantly reduced uncertainties. While detectors are commonly used to measure dose in phantom, previous investigations of the energy response of common detectors in the kilovoltage energy range have been limited to in-air geometries. The newly determined dose-to-water rates were used to characterize the in-phantom energy and depth response of thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization chambers. When compared to previous investigations of the in-air detector response, the impact of scatter and absorption of the photon beam by the water medium was found to have a significant impact on the response of certain detectors. The dose to water in the NIST-traceable M-series x-ray beams was transferred to clinical CBCT beams and the resulting doses agreed with other dose-to-water measurement techniques. The dose to water in the CBCT beams was used to characterize the energy and depth responses of a number of detectors. The energy response in the CBCT beams agreed

  8. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  9. OSL and thermally assisted OSL response in dental enamel for its possible application in retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D R; Polymeris, G S; Bhatt, B C; Kulkarni, M S

    2014-11-01

    Dental enamel was studied for its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) defects. The TL studies showed a wide glow curve with multiple peaks. The thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) studies showed that the integrated TA-OSL and thus OSL signal increases with readout temperature between 100 and 250 °C, due to the temperature dependence of OSL. The thermally assisted energy E A associated with this increase is found to be 0.21 ± 0.015 eV. On the other hand, the signal intensity decreases with temperature between 260 and 450 °C. This decrease could be due to depletion of OSL active traps or possible thermal quenching. The increase of the OSL signal at increased temperature can be used to enhance the sensitivity of dental enamel for ex vivo measurements in retrospective dosimetry. The emission and excitation spectra of its luminescence centers were studied by photoluminescence and were found to be at 412 and 324 nm, respectively. It was found to possess multiple OSL active traps having closely lying photoionization cross sections characterized by continuous wave OSL and nonlinear OSL methods. The investigated dental enamel samples showed a linear OSL dose response up to 500 Gy. The dose threshold was found to be 100 mGy using a highly sensitive compact OSL reader with blue LED (470 nm) stimulation.

  10. On application of low doses from beta radiation source in OSL retrospective dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przegietka, K.; Chruscinska, A.

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on three levels of dose rates obtainable from single beta source: (133±3) mGy/s, (17.8±0.3) mGy/s and (1.94±0.04) mGy/s, as calibrated for quartz sand grains. These values were achieved for different attenuation stages of beta radiation emitted by standard 90Sr/90Y source with the nominal activity of 1.48 GBq attached to an automatic luminescence reader. Lower dose rates give opportunity for exact dosing, which is especially required in luminescence dating applied to young samples as well as in environmental dosimetry. Moreover new method for determining time lag in opening the source in the Riso beta irradiator is presented. This allowed to resolve the contradiction appearing in the literature. The time delay was found to be (0.15±0.01) s per single irradiation. For improving accuracy the dose rate correction is suggest to be taken into account for irradiations shorter than 30 s.

  11. OSL and thermally assisted OSL response in dental enamel for its possible application in retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D R; Polymeris, G S; Bhatt, B C; Kulkarni, M S

    2014-11-01

    Dental enamel was studied for its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) defects. The TL studies showed a wide glow curve with multiple peaks. The thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) studies showed that the integrated TA-OSL and thus OSL signal increases with readout temperature between 100 and 250 °C, due to the temperature dependence of OSL. The thermally assisted energy E A associated with this increase is found to be 0.21 ± 0.015 eV. On the other hand, the signal intensity decreases with temperature between 260 and 450 °C. This decrease could be due to depletion of OSL active traps or possible thermal quenching. The increase of the OSL signal at increased temperature can be used to enhance the sensitivity of dental enamel for ex vivo measurements in retrospective dosimetry. The emission and excitation spectra of its luminescence centers were studied by photoluminescence and were found to be at 412 and 324 nm, respectively. It was found to possess multiple OSL active traps having closely lying photoionization cross sections characterized by continuous wave OSL and nonlinear OSL methods. The investigated dental enamel samples showed a linear OSL dose response up to 500 Gy. The dose threshold was found to be 100 mGy using a highly sensitive compact OSL reader with blue LED (470 nm) stimulation. PMID:24929347

  12. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately.

  13. Realistic multi-cellular dosimetry for 177Lu-labelled antibodies: model and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcatili, S.; Pichard, A.; Courteau, A.; Ladjohounlou, R.; Navarro-Teulon, I.; Repetto-Llamazares, A.; Heyerdahl, H.; Dahle, J.; Pouget, J. P.; Bardiès, M.

    2016-10-01

    Current preclinical dosimetric models often fail to take account of the complex nature of absorbed dose distribution typical of in vitro clonogenic experiments in targeted radionuclide therapy. For this reason, clonogenic survival is often expressed as a function of added activity rather than the absorbed dose delivered to cells/cell nuclei. We designed a multi-cellular dosimetry model that takes into account the realistic distributions of cells in the Petri dish, for the establishment of survival curves as a function of the absorbed dose. General-purpose software tools were used for the generation of realistic, randomised 3D cell culture geometries based on experimentally determined parameters (cell size, cell density, cluster density, average cluster size, cell cumulated activity). A mixture of Monte Carlo and analytical approaches was implemented in order to achieve as accurate as possible results while reducing calculation time. The model was here applied to clonogenic survival experiments carried out to compare the efficacy of Betalutin®, a novel 177Lu-labelled antibody radionuclide conjugate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, to that of 177Lu-labelled CD20-specific (rituximab) and non-specific antibodies (Erbitux) on lymphocyte B cells. The 3D cellular model developed allowed a better understanding of the radiative and non-radiative processes associated with cellular death. Our approach is generic and can also be applied to other radiopharmaceuticals and cell distributions.

  14. Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Leo, Bey Fen; Royce, Steven G.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Schwander, Stephan; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess unique characteristics affecting their interactions in biological media and biological tissues. Systematic investigation of the effects of particle properties on biological toxicity requires a comprehensive modeling framework which can be used to predict ENM particokinetics in a variety of media. The Agglomeration-diffusion-sedimentation-reaction model (ADSRM) described here is stochastic, using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study the evolution of nanoparticles in biological media, as they interact with each other and with the media over time. Nanoparticle diffusion, gravitational settling, agglomeration, and dissolution are treated in a mechanistic manner with focus on silver ENMs (AgNPs). The ADSRM model utilizes particle properties such as size, density, zeta potential, and coating material, along with medium properties like density, viscosity, ionic strength, and pH, to model evolving patterns in a population of ENMs along with their interaction with associated ions and molecules. The model predictions for agglomeration and dissolution are compared with in vitro measurements for various types of ENMs, coating materials, and incubation media, and are found to be overall consistent with measurements. The model has been implemented for an in vitro case in cell culture systems to inform in vitro dosimetry for toxicology studies, and can be directly extended to other biological systems, including in vivo tissue subsystems by suitably modifying system geometry. PMID:25598696

  15. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately. PMID:21816724

  16. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  17. Applicator for light delivery and in situ light dosimetry during endobronchial photodynamic therapy: First measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Murrer, L H; Marijnissen, J P; Baas, P; Van Zandwijk, N; Star, W M

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a design of an applicator for light delivery and light dosimetry during endobronchial photodynamic therapy (EB-PDT). The design incorporates a linear diffuser that is fixed in the centre of the lumen by a steel spring basket that does not block air flow. An isotropic light detector is included in this design, to measure the light fluence actually delivered to the bronchial mucosa surface. The applicator is designed for use with common bronchoscopy equipment, and can be used with bronchoscopes with a large biopsy channel ( approximately 3 mm). The first clinical measurements were performed and caused no additional discomfort to the (nonphotosensitized) patients. The data showed considerable inter-patient variability of the light fluence rate measured as a result of fixed output power of the diffuser. This fact and the expected strong dependence of the fluence rate on the lumen diameter stress the importance of in situ fluence rate measurement for a proper evaluation of the relationship between light fluence and the biological response of EB-PDT. PMID:20803333

  18. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  19. Normoxic polymer gel dosimetry using less toxic monomer of N-isopropyl acrylamide and X-ray computed tomography for radiation therapy applications

    PubMed Central

    Ghavami, Seyed-Mostafa; Mesbahi, Asghar; Pesianian, Ismaeel; Shafaee, Abbas; Aliparasti, Mohammad-Reza

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymer gel dosimetry has been used extensively in radiation therapy for its capability in depicting a three dimensional view of absorbed dose distribution. However, more studies are required to find less toxic and more efficient polymers for application in radiotherapy dosimetry. Aim The purpose of this work was to evaluate the N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimetric characteristics and optimize the protocol for X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of gel dosimeters for radiation therapy application. Material and methods A polymer gel dosimeter based on NIPAM monomer was prepared and irradiated with 60Co photons. The CT number changes following irradiation were extracted from CT images obtained with different sets of imaging parameters. Results The results showed the dose sensitivity of ΔNCT (H) = 0.282 ± 0.018 (H Gy−1) for NIPAM gel dosimeter. The optimized set of imaging exposure parameters was 120 kVp and 200 mA with the 10 mm slice thickness. Results of the depth dose measurement with gel dosimeter showed a great discrepancy with the actual depth dose data. Conclusion According to the current study, NIPAM-based gel dosimetry with X-ray CT imaging needs more technical development and formulation refinement to be used for radiation therapy application. PMID:24376945

  20. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  1. Use of new radiochromic devices for peripheral dose measurement: potential in-vivo dosimetry application

    PubMed Central

    Chiu-Tsao, S-T; Chan, MF

    2009-01-01

    The authors have studied the feasibility of using three new high-sensitivity radiochromic devices in measuring the doses to peripheral points outside the primary megavoltage photon beams. The three devices were GAFCHROMIC® EBT film, prototype Low Dose (LD) Film, and prototype LD Card. The authors performed point dosimetry using these three devices in water-equivalent solid phantoms at x = 3,5,8,10, and 15 cm from the edge of 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams of 10x10 cm2, and at depths of 0, 0.5 cm, and depth of maximum dose. A full sheet of EBT film was exposed with 5000 MU. The prototype LD film pieces were 1.5x2 cm2 in size. Some LD films were provided in the form of a card in 1.8x5 cm2 holding an active film in 1.8x2 cm2. These are referred to as “LD dosimeter cards”. The small LD films and cards were exposed with 500 MU. For each scanned film, a 6 mm circular area centered at the measurement point was sampled and the mean pixel value was obtained. The calibration curves were established from the calibration data for each combination of film/cards and densitometer/scanner. The doses at the peripheral points determined from the films were compared with those obtained using ion chamber at respective locations in a water phantom and general agreements were found. It is feasible to accurately measure peripheral doses of megavoltage photon beams using the new high-sensitivity radiochromic devices. This near real-time and inexpensive method can be applied in a clinical setting for dose measurements to critical organs and sensitive patient implant devices. PMID:21610987

  2. Application of a canine {sup 238}Pu dosimetry model to human bioassay data

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, A.W. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Associated with the use of 2{sup 238}Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes and power supplies for cardiac devices is the potential for human exposure to {sup 238}Pu, primarily by inhalation. In the event of human internal exposure, a means is needed for assessing the level of intake and calculating radiation doses. Several bioassay/dosimetry models have been developed for {sup 239}Pu. However, results from studies with laboratory animals have indicated that the biokinetics, and therefore the descriptive models, of {sup 238}Pu are significantly different from those for {sup 239}Pu. A canine model accounting for these differences has been applied in this work to urinary excretion data from seven humans occupationally exposed to low levels of an insoluble {sup 238}Pu compound. The modified model provides a good description of the urinary excretion kinetics observed in the exposed humans. The modified model was also used to provide estimates of the initial intakes of {sup 238}Pu for the seven individuals; these estimates ranged from 4.5 nCi (170 Bq) to 87 nCi (3200 Bq). Autopsy data on the amount and distribution of {sup 238}Pu retained in the organs may be used in the future to validate or refute both these estimates and the assumptions used to formulate the human model. Modification of the human model to simulate an injection exposure to {sup 239}Pu gave patterns of retention in the organs and urinary excretion comparable to those seen previously in humans; further modification of the model using fecal data (unavailable for the subjects of this study) is indicated.

  3. Evaluation of a semiautomated lung mass calculation technique for internal dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, Nathan; Erwin, William; Pan, Tinsu

    2013-12-15

    calculated using the formula (lung HU − air HU)/(tissue HU − air HU), and mass = specific gravity × total volume × 1.04 g/cm{sup 3}.Results: The range of calculated lung masses was 0.51–1.29 kg. The average male and female lung masses during FB CT were 0.80 and 0.71 kg, respectively. The calculated lung mass varied across the respiratory cycle but changed to a lesser degree than did lung volume measurements (7.3% versus 15.4%). Lung masses calculated using deep inspiration breath-hold and average CT were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than were some masses calculated using respiratory-phase and FB CT. Increased voxel size and smooth reconstruction kernels led to high lung mass estimates owing to partial volume effects.Conclusions: Organ mass correction is an important component of patient-specific internal radionuclide dosimetry. Lung mass calculation necessitates scan-based density correction to account for volume changes owing to respiration. The range of lung masses in the authors’ patient population represents lung doses for the same absorbed energy differing from 25% below to 64% above the dose found using reference phantom organ masses. With proper management of acquisition parameters and selection of FB or midexpiration breath hold scans, lung mass estimates with about 10% population precision may be achieved.

  4. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions – Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kersaudy, Pierric; Sudret, Bruno; Varsier, Nadège; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  5. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... General Information § 87.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other applicable CFR title 47 parts include: (a... standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining...

  6. Radon Dosimetry and Monitoring in Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. F.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Atmosphere in Underground Mines * Origin of the radioactivity of the atmosphere in underground mines * Main characteristics of the atmosphere of mines * Temperature * Relative humidity * Particle size distribution of the aerosols * Volume concentration of radon * Age of the ventilation air * Volume concentration of radon decay products * Volume concentration of long-lived aerosols (LLA) * Order of magnitude of the volume concentrations to be measured * Dosimetry: Application to Miners * Dosimetry of miners in France * Integrated dosimetry system * Measuring head * Unit for the detection and measurement of exposure to potential alpha energy * Treatment and reading of the detector films * Expression of the results * Other examples of operational dosimetry * Use of closed passive dosimeters for the dosimetry of miners * Monitoring of Physical Parameters of the Atmospheres * Qualification of non-uranium mines * Monitoring of the environment of mining sites * Optimisation of radiation protection using the dosimetric data * Concluding Remarks * References

  7. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  8. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... version of Part 718 set forth in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 2010, applies to... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. (a) With the exception...

  9. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which Federal... of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal financial... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of part. 611.2 Section 611.2...

  10. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which Federal... of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal financial... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of part. 611.2 Section 611.2...

  11. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which Federal... of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal financial... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of part. 611.2 Section 611.2...

  12. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  13. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  14. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  15. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally

  16. Applicability of ACR breast dosimetry methodology to a digital mammography system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomon, John J.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Swenson, Kristin N.; Schauer, David A.

    2006-03-15

    Determination of mean glandular dose (MGD) to breast tissue is an essential aspect of mammography equipment evaluations and exposure controls. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Quality Control Manual outlines the procedure for MGD determination in screen-film mammography based upon conversions of entrance skin exposures (ESEs) measured with an ionization chamber (IC). The development of digital mammography has increased with the demand for improved object resolution and tissue contrast. This change in image receptor from screen-film to a solid-state detector has led to questions about the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography. This research has validated the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography in the GE digital mammography system Senographe 2000D[reg]. MGD was determined using light output measurements from thermoluminescent dosimeters (MGD{sub TL}), exposure measurements from an IC (MGD{sub IC}) and conversion factors from the ACR Mammography Quality Control Manual. MGD{sub TL} and MGD{sub IC} data indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the two measurements with the Senographe 2000D[reg]. However, the applicability of the ACR's methodology was validated by calculating MGD at various depths in a 50/50 breast phantom. Additionally, the results of backscatter measurements from the image receptors of both mammography modalities indicate there is a difference (all P values <0.001) in the radiation backscattered from each image receptor.

  17. SU-E-T-308: Systematic Characterization of the Energy Response of Different LiF TLD Crystals for Dosimetry Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, E; Caprile, P; Sanchez-Nieto, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The thermoluminiscense dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used in personal and clinical dosimetry due to its small size, good sensitivity and tissue equivalence, among other advantages. This study presents the characterization of Lithium Fluoride based TLDs, in terms of their absorbed dose response to successive irradiation cycles in a broad range of beam energies, measured under reference conditions. Methods: Four types of Harshaw TLD chips were used: TLD-100, TLD-600 TLD-700 and 100-H. They were irradiated with 10 photon beams of different energy spectrums, from 28 kVp to 18MV (in 30 consecutive cycles for 6 and 18 MV). Results: It was found that the response of the dosimetric system was stabilized (less than ±3%) after 10 cycles for TLD-600 and TLD-700. In the case of TLD-100 and TLD-100H this dependence was not observed. A decreased response to increasing beam energy in terms of absorbed dose to water was observed, as expected, except for TLD-100H which showed the opposite behavior. The less energy dependent detector was the TLD-100H exhibiting a maximum deviation of 12%. The highest variation observed was 33% for TLD-100. The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy. Conclusion: The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy.

  18. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry: development of approaches to application in populated areas downwind of the Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Bailiff, I K; Stepanenko, V F; Göksu, H Y; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Correcher, V; Delgado, A; Jungner, H; Khamidova, L G; Kolizshenkov, T V; Meckbach, R; Petin, D V; Orlov, M Yu; Petrov, S A

    2005-09-01

    The cumulative absorbed dose in fired-clay bricks collected from ten buildings in the populated contaminated settlement (137Cs, 1,470 kBq m(-2)) of Stary Vishkov, located 175 km downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the Bryansk administrative region of Russia, was determined using luminescence techniques by five laboratories. At each location, the cumulative dose, after subtraction of the natural background dose, was translated to absorbed dose in air using conversion factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations employed source distributions inferred from contemporary soil contamination data and also took into account heterogeneity of fallout deposition. At four locations the cumulative dose at a reference location was calculated, enabling the luminescence determinations to be compared directly with values of cumulative absorbed dose in air obtained using deterministic models. A "local" conversion factor was also derived from the Monte Carlo simulations for locations where the disturbance of soil was significant. Values of the "local" cumulative dose in air calculated using this factor were compared with those predicted using the deterministic models at each sampled location, allowing location factors to be calculated. The methodology developed is generally applicable to populated areas contaminated by radioactive fallout in which brick buildings are found. The sensitivity of the luminescence techniques for bricks from this region of Russia was sufficient to evaluate cumulative absorbed dose in brick due to fallout of less than 20 mGy.

  19. Investigation and application of neutron damage to bipolar transistors in light water reactor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Roknizadeh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fast neutron metrology and a basis for prediction of changes in performance parameters of semiconductor devices in power plant radiation environments has been established using Cf-252 sources. Three general purpose NPN bipolar transistors (PN2222A, ECG-196, and ECG-184) were chosen as the neutron damage monitors and the change in inverse d.c. current gain before and after irradiation was chosen as the damage parameter for the measurement. The main findings of the investigation were as follows: the change in inverse d.c. current gain for PN2222A transistors was approximately a linear function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/cm/sup 2/. The concept of 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence which characterizes an incident energy-fluence spectrum in terms of the fluence of monoenergetic neutrons at 1 MeV, is in error for application to common transistors in a typical power plant environment. Finally, the normalized damage coefficient which is the ratio of damage to 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence divided by the measured base transit time of individual transistors, for all three types of transistors is nearly the same with an average value of 1.27E - 7 +/- 15.0% cm/sup 2//m(1 MeV).Sec.

  20. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to each program for which Federal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 1203.2 Section...

  1. 22 CFR 209.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 209.2 Application of this part. This part applies to all programs carried on within the United States... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 209.2 Section...

  2. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to all recipients of Federal financial assistance administered by the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of this part....

  3. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to all recipients of Federal financial assistance administered by the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of this part....

  4. 30 CFR 270.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of this part. 270.2 Section 270.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.2 Application of this part. This part applies to any...

  5. 30 CFR 270.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of this part. 270.2 Section 270.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.2 Application of this part. This part applies to any...

  6. 30 CFR 270.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of this part. 270.2 Section 270.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.2 Application of this part. This part applies to any...

  7. Two-dimensional discrete ordinates photon transport calculations for brachytherapy dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daskalov, G.M.; Baker, R.S.; Little, R.C.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Williamson, J.F.

    2000-02-01

    The DANTSYS discrete ordinates computer code system is applied to quantitative estimation of water kerma rate distributions in the vicinity of discrete photon sources with energies in the 20- to 800-keV range in two-dimensional cylindrical r-z geometry. Unencapsulated sources immersed in cylindrical water phantoms of 40-cm diameter and 40-cm height are modeled in either homogeneous phantoms or shielded by Ti, Fe, and Pb filters with thicknesses of 1 and 2 mean free paths. The obtained dose results are compared with corresponding photon Monte Carlo simulations. A 210-group photon cross-section library for applications in this energy range is developed and applied, together with a general-purpose 42-group library developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, for DANTSYS calculations. The accuracy of DANTSYS with the 42-group library relative to Monte Carlo exhibits large pointwise fluctuations from {minus}42 to +84%. The major cause for the observed discrepancies is determined to be the inadequacy of the weighting function used for the 42-group library derivation. DANTSYS simulations with a finer 210-group library show excellent accuracy on and off the source transverse plane relative to Monte Carlo kerma calculations, varying from {minus}4.9 to 3.7%. The P{sub 3} Legendre polynomial expansion of the angular scattering function is shown to be sufficient for accurate calculations. The results demonstrate that DANTSYS is capable of calculating photon doses in very good agreement with Monte Carlo and that the multigroup cross-section library and efficient techniques for mitigation of ray effects are critical for accurate discrete ordinates implementation.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This Appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  14. A probabilistic respiratory tract dosimetry model with application to beta-particle and photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, Eduardo Balderrama

    2002-01-01

    Predicting equivalent dose in the human respiratory tract is significant in the assessment of health risks associated with the inhalation of radioactive aerosols. A complete respiratory tract methodology based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 66 model was used in this research project for beta-particle and photon emitters. The conventional methodology has been to use standard values (from Reference Man) for parameters to obtain a single dose value. However, the methods used in the current study allow lung dose values to be determined as probability distributions to reflect the spread or variability in doses. To implement the methodology, a computer code, LUDUC, has been modified to include inhalation scenarios of beta-particle and photon emitters. For beta particles, a new methodology was implemented into Monte Carlo simulations to determine absorbed fractions in target tissues within the thoracic region of the respiratory tract. For photons, a new mathematical phantom of extrathoracic and thoracic regions was created based on previous studies to determine specific absorbed fractions in several tissues and organs of the human body due to inhalation of radioactive materials. The application of the methodology and developed data will be helpful in dose reconstruction and prediction efforts concerning the inhalation of short-lived radionuclides or radionuclides of Inhalation Class S. The resulting dose distributions follow a lognormal distribution shape for all scenarios examined. Applying the probabilistic computer code LUDUC to inhalation of strontium and yttrium aerosols has shown several trends, which could also be valid for many S radionuclide compounds that are beta-particle emitters. The equivalent doses are, in general, found to follow lognormal distributions. Therefore, these distributions can be described by geometric means and geometric standard deviations. Furthermore, a mathematical phantom of the extrathoracic and

  15. Application of a practical method for the isocenter point in vivo dosimetry by a transit signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Angelo; Fidanzio, Andrea; Azario, Luigi; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Onofrio, Guido; Cilla, Savino; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio; Russo, Aniello; Iadanza, Luciano; Zucca, Sergio; Fusco, Vincenzo; Di Napoli, Nicola; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Balducci, Mario; Cellini, Numa; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Morganti, Alessio G.

    2007-08-01

    This work reports the results of the application of a practical method to determine the in vivo dose at the isocenter point, Diso, of brain thorax and pelvic treatments using a transit signal St. The use of a stable detector for the measurement of the signal St (obtained by the x-ray beam transmitted through the patient) reduces many of the disadvantages associated with the use of solid-state detectors positioned on the patient as their periodic recalibration, and their positioning is time consuming. The method makes use of a set of correlation functions, obtained by the ratio between St and the mid-plane dose value, Dm, in standard water-equivalent phantoms, both determined along the beam central axis. The in vivo measurement of Diso required the determination of the water-equivalent thickness of the patient along the beam central axis by the treatment planning system that uses the electron densities supplied by calibrated Hounsfield numbers of the computed tomography scanner. This way it is, therefore, possible to compare Diso with the stated doses, Diso,TPS, generally used by the treatment planning system for the determination of the monitor units. The method was applied in five Italian centers that used beams of 6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV x-rays and 60Co γ-rays. In particular, in four centers small ion-chambers were positioned below the patient and used for the St measurement. In only one center, the St signals were obtained directly by the central pixels of an EPID (electronic portal imaging device) equipped with commercial software that enabled its use as a stable detector. In the four centers where an ion-chamber was positioned on the EPID, 60 pelvic treatments were followed for two fields, an anterior-posterior or a posterior-anterior irradiation and a lateral-lateral irradiation. Moreover, ten brain tumors were checked for a lateral-lateral irradiation, and five lung tumors carried out with three irradiations with different gantry angles were followed. One center

  16. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Subiel, A; Moskvin, V; Welsh, G H; Cipiccia, S; Reboredo, D; Evans, P; Partridge, M; DesRosiers, C; Anania, M P; Cianchi, A; Mostacci, A; Chiadroni, E; Di Giovenale, D; Villa, F; Pompili, R; Ferrario, M; Belleveglia, M; Di Pirro, G; Gatti, G; Vaccarezza, C; Seitz, B; Isaac, R C; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Mendonca, M S; Sorensen, A; Boyd, M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10(-5) neutrons cm(-2) per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE.

  17. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Subiel, A; Moskvin, V; Welsh, G H; Cipiccia, S; Reboredo, D; Evans, P; Partridge, M; DesRosiers, C; Anania, M P; Cianchi, A; Mostacci, A; Chiadroni, E; Di Giovenale, D; Villa, F; Pompili, R; Ferrario, M; Belleveglia, M; Di Pirro, G; Gatti, G; Vaccarezza, C; Seitz, B; Isaac, R C; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Mendonca, M S; Sorensen, A; Boyd, M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10(-5) neutrons cm(-2) per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE. PMID:25207591

  18. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts..., and treaties. This part also contains standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency... contains rules relating to commercial mobile radio services. (i) Part 20 which governs commercial...

  19. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts..., and treaties. This part also contains standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency... contains rules relating to commercial mobile radio services. (i) Part 20 which governs commercial...

  20. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... C of part 727 of this subchapter (see 20 CFR 725.4(d)) cannot be approved under that subpart, such... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. With the exception of...

  1. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... C of part 727 of this subchapter (see 20 CFR 725.4(d)) cannot be approved under that subpart, such... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. With the exception of...

  2. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... C of part 727 of this subchapter (see 20 CFR 725.4(d)) cannot be approved under that subpart, such... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. With the exception of...

  3. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  5. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  6. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  7. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a) This part, in conjunction with the EDGAR Filer Manual and the electronic filing provisions of applicable rules, regulations and forms, shall govern the electronic submission of documents filed...

  8. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a) This part, in conjunction with the EDGAR Filer Manual and the electronic filing provisions of applicable rules, regulations and forms, shall govern the electronic submission of documents filed...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model...

  11. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions...

  12. Photon beam dosimetry with EBT3 film in heterogeneous regions: Application to the evaluation of dose-calculation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyunuk; Kum, Oyeon; Han, Youngyih; Park, Byungdo; Cheong, Kwang-Ho

    2014-12-01

    For a better understanding of the accuracy of state-of-the-art-radiation therapies, 2-dimensional dosimetry in a patient-like environment will be helpful. Therefore, the dosimetry of EBT3 films in non-water-equivalent tissues was investigated, and the accuracy of commercially-used dose-calculation algorithms was evaluated with EBT3 measurement. Dose distributions were measured with EBT3 films for an in-house-designed phantom that contained a lung or a bone substitute, i.e., an air cavity (3 × 3 × 3 cm3) or teflon (2 × 2 × 2 cm3 or 3 × 3 × 3 cm3), respectively. The phantom was irradiated with 6-MV X-rays with field sizes of 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 5 × 5 cm2. The accuracy of EBT3 dosimetry was evaluated by comparing the measured dose with the dose obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A dose-to-bone-equivalent material was obtained by multiplying the EBT3 measurements by the stopping power ratio (SPR). The EBT3 measurements were then compared with the predictions from four algorithms: Monte Carlo (MC) in iPlan, acuros XB (AXB), analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) in Eclipse, and superposition-convolution (SC) in Pinnacle. For the air cavity, the EBT3 measurements agreed with the MC calculation to within 2% on average. For teflon, the EBT3 measurements differed by 9.297% (±0.9229%) on average from the Monte Carlo calculation before dose conversion, and by 0.717% (±0.6546%) after applying the SPR. The doses calculated by using the MC, AXB, AAA, and SC algorithms for the air cavity differed from the EBT3 measurements on average by 2.174, 2.863, 18.01, and 8.391%, respectively; for teflon, the average differences were 3.447, 4.113, 7.589, and 5.102%. The EBT3 measurements corrected with the SPR agreed with 2% on average both within and beyond the heterogeneities with MC results, thereby indicating that EBT3 dosimetry can be used in heterogeneous media. The MC and the AXB dose calculation algorithms exhibited clinically-acceptable accuracy (<5%) in

  13. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801 Section 91.801 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... chapter. (b) Unless otherwise specified, as used in this subpart “part 36” refers to 14 CFR part...

  14. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application. PMID:20142941

  15. Novel approaches in radon and thoron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressyanov, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.; Mitev, K.

    2014-07-01

    This report presents some novel approaches for radon/radon progeny and thoron measurements that can help to resolve some long-lasting problems in dosimetry, but which are not yet part of the common practice. The focus is in two directions: The use of CDs/DVDs as radon and thoron detectors and the employment of grab-sampling and/or integrated radon progeny measurements for diagnostic of the air conditions related to mitigation and indoor ventilation. The potential of these approaches is illustrated by several successful applications: (1) Study of the 222Rn distribution in large buildings and identification of places with radon problem; (2) Radon and thoron monitoring in underground mines; (3) Radon measurements in natural waters, including directly in the water source; (4) Grab sampling 222Rn progeny measurements for the purposes of pre- and post-mitigation diagnostic; (5) Integrated measurements of individual 222Rn short-lived decay products for diagnostic of indoor ventilation conditions.

  16. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Wang, M.; Liu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  17. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Wang, M; Liu, Q

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  18. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Wang, M; Liu, Q

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry. PMID:26301501

  19. 49 CFR 21.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.3 Application of... title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 21.3 Section......

  20. Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

  1. Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants for evaluation. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) was used as the primary radiation source in PDIS 1--12 and radioisotopic neutron sources at DOSAR's Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) were mainly used, along with sources and accelerators at cooperating institutions, in PDIS 13--16. Conclusions based on 13,560 measurements made by 146 different participating organizations (102 - US) are presented.

  2. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arne

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed.

  3. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  4. Practical considerations for TLD-400/700-based gamma ray dosimetry for BNCT applications in a high thermal neutron fluence.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, S W; Johnson, J E; Vostmyer, C E; Albertson, B D; Binney, S E

    1995-12-01

    Operating experience with thermoluminescent dosimeters used in a boron neutron capture therapy research project is reported. In particular, certain facets of the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters for gamma ray dose measurements in the presence of a high thermal neutron fluence are discussed, including a comparison of TLD-400 and TLD-700 for gamma ray dosimetry, annealing procedures, and the effects of neutrons (56Mn activation) on TLD-400. The TLD-400 were observed to have a thermal neutron sensitivity (due to 56Mn beta decay) of 1.5 x 10(-13) Gy per n cm-2. An algorithm was developed to correct for the 56Mn beta decay thermal neutron-induced effects on TLD-400 by using a two-stage thermoluminescent readout for the thermoluminescent dosimeter chips.

  5. Modelling the effective atomic number and the packing factor of polyatomic compounds: Applications to refractive index and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, H.; Couto dos Santos, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, based on fundamental physics and chemistry (charge distribution, electronegativity, induced dipole moment), we are introducing an analytical expression for Zeff and a general way of calculating the crystal packing factor, p, of any ionic material. By using the average separation between the atomic and crystal(ionic) radii of the interacting ions, we are postulating an effective distance(Rij) between the positive and the negative centre of charge. When compared to the available experimental data, predictions within 20% have been obtained to Zeff of materials applied to dosimetry. In photonics, the increasing behaviour of the refractive index with Zeff is confirmed. By combining crystal field and effective charge models, we have predicted Zeff of the Eu2O3 within the range of available experimental data.

  6. 20 CFR 718.2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of this subchapter (see 20 CFR 725.4(d)) cannot be approved under that subpart, such claim may be... DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.2 Applicability of this part. With the exception of the...

  7. 26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-2 Application of part. (a) Property covered..., 1929, and Treasury Decision 4514, approved January 18, 1935 (26 CFR (1938 ed.) 452.1-452.10). (b)...

  8. Neodymium as a magnesium tetraborate matrix dopant and its applicability in dosimetry and as a temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Luiza F.; Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2015-06-01

    MgB4O7 doped with lanthanides such as Dy3+ and Tm3+ are phosphors with very well established use in routine personal dosimetry. Certain characteristics, for example linearity in a broad dose range, low energy dependence, Zeff=8.5, high sensitivity and a relatively simple thermoluminescent (TL) emission curve make MgB4O7 a good material for thermoluminescent dosimetry. With the aim of analyzing other doping possibilities, this paper presents some preliminary results on the use of Nd3+ as a dopant in the MgB4O7 matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of using two different lanthanides, Nd and Dy, in the host matrix. In the present work, the phosphors were produced through solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction confirmed the success of the technique. The TL behavior of MgB4O7:Nd was assessed when irradiated with gamma (60Co) and beta radiation, to determine the effect of the dopant concentration and the dose-response over a broad dose range. We also evaluated the dose-response of MgB4O7:Nd,Dy when irradiated with 60Co. The TL responses of the phosphors were compared with that of MgB4O7:Dy. These preliminary studies show that for the absorbed dose range studied, the sensitivity of MgB4O7:Nd,Dy was 3.8 and 28 times higher than that of MgB4O7:Dy and MgB4O7:Nd. The materials also presented linearity from 5 to 40 Gy. Above this value, the dose response curve exhibited sublinear behavior. These preliminary results will assist in developing a new temperature sensor based on a MgB4O7 dosimeter.

  9. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... within two business days before or after the electronic Form ID filing, a notarized document, manually...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a) This part, in conjunction with the EDGAR Filer Manual and the electronic filing provisions...

  10. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... within two business days before or after the electronic Form ID filing, a notarized document, manually...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a) This part, in conjunction with the EDGAR Filer Manual and the electronic filing provisions...

  11. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... within two business days before or after the electronic Form ID filing, a notarized document, manually...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a) This part, in conjunction with the EDGAR Filer Manual and the electronic filing provisions...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Generally Applicable Requirements A Appendix A to Part 600 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Pt. 600, App. A... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to...

  13. 19 CFR 202.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.1 Applicability of part. This part 202 applies specifically to investigations... interested party, shall investigate the differences in the costs of production of any domestic article and...

  14. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  15. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  16. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are...

  18. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a......

  19. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a......

  20. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a......

  1. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801 Section 91.801 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to...

  2. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  3. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  4. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Brian W; Elliott, Jonathan T; Kanick, Stephen C; Davis, Scott C; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Maytin, Edward V; Pereira, Stephen P; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  5. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Brian W; Elliott, Jonathan T; Kanick, Stephen C; Davis, Scott C; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Maytin, Edward V; Pereira, Stephen P; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  6. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  7. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeever, Stephen W. S.

    2001-09-01

    Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

  9. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators.

  10. Measurement of the neutron energy spectrum on the Godiva IV fast burst assembly for application to neutron dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Hsu, H.H.; Paternoster, R.R.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    In June, 1995, Los Alamos National Laboratory hosted the 23rd U.S. Department of Energy sponsored Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Study at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The participants tested their facilities accident dosimeters under a variety of neutrons fields produced by the Solution High Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) and the Godiva IV fast burst assembly. To provide useful information for the evaluation of the results, the neutron energy Spectrum was determined and the delivered absorbed dose to tissue. The measurement of the neutron energy spectrum on Godiva provides a unique problem in that the burst, which is nearly Gaussian in time, has a full width at half maximum of around 50 microseconds. The neutron spectrum was first determined at low-power while running at delayed critical using a standard set of Bonner spheres. At the same time, the response of a set of TLD dosimeters were measured. After that, measurements were conducted during a burst with another set of TLDs and with sulfur pellets.

  11. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  12. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  13. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  14. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations (private... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of...)) Rail operations at certain facilities that ship (i.e., offer, prepare, or load for...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations (private... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of...)) Rail operations at certain facilities that ship (i.e., offer, prepare, or load...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations (private... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of...)) Rail operations at certain facilities that ship (i.e., offer, prepare, or load for...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations (private... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of...)) Rail operations at certain facilities that ship (i.e., offer, prepare, or load for...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations (private... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of...)) Rail operations at certain facilities that ship (i.e., offer, prepare, or load...

  20. Application of computational fluid dynamics to regional dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Gross, E A; Joyner, D R; Godo, M N; Morgan, K T

    1993-08-01

    For certain inhaled air pollutants, such as reactive, water soluble gases, the distribution of nasal lesions observed in F344 rats may be closely related to regional gas uptake patterns in the nose. These uptake patterns can be influenced by the currents of air flowing through the upper respiratory tract during the breathing cycle. Since data on respiratory tract lesions in F344 rats are extrapolated to humans to make predictions of risk to human health, a better understanding of the factors affecting these responses is needed. To assess potential effects of nasal airflow on lesion location and severity, a methodology was developed for creation of computer simulations of steady-state airflow and gas transport using a three-dimensional finite element grid reconstructed from serial step-sections of the nasal passages of a male F344 rat. Simulations on a supercomputer used the computational fluid dynamics package FIDAP (FDI, Evanston, IL). Distinct streams of bulk flow evident in the simulations matched inspiratory streams reported for the F344 rat. Moreover, simulated regional flow velocities matched measured velocities in concurrent laboratory experiments with a hollow nasal mold. Computer-predicted flows were used in simulations of gas transport to nasal passage walls, with formaldehyde as a test case. Results from the uptake simulations were compared with the reported distribution of formaldehyde-induced nasal lesions observed in the F344 rat, and indicated that airflow-driven uptake patterns probably play an important role in determining the location of certain nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde. This work demonstrated the feasibility of applying computational fluid dynamics to airflow-driven dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract.

  1. A perspective matrix-based seed reconstruction algorithm with applications to C-arm based intra-operative dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sreeram; Cho, Paul S.

    2006-03-01

    Currently available seed reconstruction algorithms are based on the assumption that accurate information about the imaging geometry is known. The assumption is valid for isocentric x-ray units such as radiotherapy simulators. However, the large majority of the clinics performing prostate brachytherapy today use C-arms for which imaging parameters such as source to axis distance, image acquisition angles, central axis of the image are not accurately known. We propose a seed reconstruction algorithm that requires no such knowledge of geometry. The new algorithm makes use of perspective projection matrix, which can be easily derived from a set of known reference points. The perspective matrix calculates the transformation of a point in 3D space to the imaging coordinate system. An accurate representation of the imaging geometry can be derived from the generalized projection matrix (GPM) with eleven degrees of freedom. In this paper we show how GPM can be derived given a theoretical minimum number of reference points. We propose an algorithm to compute the line equation that defines the backprojection operation given the GPM. The algorithm can be extended to any ray-tracing based seed reconstruction algorithms. Reconstruction using the GPM does not require calibration of C-arms and the images can be acquired at arbitrary angles. The reconstruction is performed in near real-time. Our simulations show that reconstruction using GPM is robust and accuracy is independent of the source to detector distance and location of the reference points used to generate the GPM. Seed reconstruction from C-arm images acquired at unknown geometry provides a useful tool for intra-operative dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy.

  2. A fast, high spatial resolution optical tomographic scanner for measurement of absorption in gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Doom, T; Bhat, M; Rutten, T P; Tran, T; Costanzo, A

    2005-06-01

    A fast tomographic optical density measurement system has been constructed and evaluated for application in Fricke 3D gel dosimetry. Although the potential for full three-dimensional radiation dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters has been extensively reported, its application has been limited due to a lack of fast optical density measurement systems. In this work, the emphasis of the design has been to achieve a short scan time through the use of precision optics and minimal moving parts. The system has been demonstrated in the laboratory to be able to achieve better than 1mm resolution and a scanning time per tomographic slice of 2.4 seconds. Full volumetric sampling of a 10 cm diameter by 7cm long cylinder can be achieved in 3 minutes. When applied with a Fricke based gel dosimeter a linear response between reconstructed CT number and absolute dose was better than 3%.

  3. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  4. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  5. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS...(f) of the Standard Terms and Conditions of the above-mentioned Guarantee) 1 was due on ______, 19... Eligible Notes. 2 Alternate language for zero-coupon Eligible Notes. 3 In the event the Application...

  6. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND... $_____ in Further Guaranteed Payments as defined in Section 204.01(i) of the Standard Terms and Conditions... Washington, DC. 1 Strike inapplicable portion. 2 In the event the Application for Compensation relates...

  7. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 §...

  8. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 §...

  9. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  10. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  11. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  12. 30 CFR 270.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of this part. 270.2 Section 270.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... exploration for or development and production of oil, gas, or other minerals or materials in the OCS under...

  13. 30 CFR 570.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of this part. 570.2 Section 570.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION... more in connection with any activity related to the exploration for or development and production...

  14. 30 CFR 570.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of this part. 570.2 Section 570.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION... more in connection with any activity related to the exploration for or development and production...

  15. 30 CFR 570.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of this part. 570.2 Section 570.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION... more in connection with any activity related to the exploration for or development and production...

  16. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (DEOA); and (2) Was administered by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education, and... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS,...

  17. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (DEOA); and (2) Was administered by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education, and... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS,...

  18. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (DEOA); and (2) Was administered by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education, and... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS,...

  19. 5 CFR 2423.0 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 2423.0 Section 2423.0 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS §...

  20. 5 CFR 2423.0 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 2423.0 Section 2423.0 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS §...

  1. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  2. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  3. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  4. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  5. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  6. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  7. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  8. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  9. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid, property... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...

  10. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid, property... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...

  11. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid, property... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES...

  12. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or...

  13. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... on the grounds of race, color, or national origin in a program or activity receiving...

  14. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  15. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  16. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  17. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  18. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  19. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality...

  20. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRIES § 208.2 Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. The term “beneficiary sub-Saharan African country” means those countries so designated by the President under 19 U.S.C. 2466a. (b) Lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. The term “lesser...

  1. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... General Services (41 CFR 101-6.2)....

  2. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... General Services (41 CFR 101-6.2)....

  3. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  4. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  5. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  6. a Decade of Dosimetry for Magnox Reactor Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. A.; Thornton, D. A.

    2003-06-01

    This paper reviews the reactor dosimetry program that has supported steel pressure vessel integrity assessments for magnox power plants over the last ten years. The dosimetry program has aimed to achieve consistent:. • calculated and measured fast and thermal neutron doses. • data for surveillance specimens and reactor pressure vessels. Throughout the program, the flux measurements on the plants have been judged essential for any doses where a high degree of confidence is required. The work to support operation is now largely complete and the dosimetry is being extended to assess radioactive inventories as part of the decommissioning process.

  7. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  8. Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1923-01-01

    The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.

  9. Retrospective dosimetry of Iodine-131 exposures using Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 inventories in soils--A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Romantschuk, L D; Alfimov, V; Synal, H-A

    2015-12-01

    The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations. PMID:26254721

  10. Retrospective dosimetry of Iodine-131 exposures using Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 inventories in soils--A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Romantschuk, L D; Alfimov, V; Synal, H-A

    2015-12-01

    The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations.

  11. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty.

  12. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  13. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Bhudatt; Tewatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed. PMID:20098555

  14. Monte Carlo simulations and radiation dosimetry measurements of peripherally applied HDR 192Ir breast brachytherapy D-shaped applicators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Rivard, Mark J

    2009-03-01

    Conformal dose coverage for accelerated partial breast irradiation or radiotherapy boost can be obtained with AccuBoost D-shaped brachytherapy applicators using a flattened surface positioned near the patient. Three D-shaped applicators (D45/D53/D60) were dosimetrically characterized using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5), air ionization chambers (Farmer and Markus), and radiochromic film (GafChromic EBT) in polystyrene and ICRU 44 breast tissue. HDR 192Ir source dwell times were either constant or optimized to improve skin dose uniformity. Scatter dose decreased as depth decreased. 10 mm beyond the applicator aperture, dose reductions of 90% and 51% were observed at depths of 0 and 30 mm, respectively. Similarly, planar dose uniformity improved as depth decreased and was also due to scatter and applicator geometry. Dose uniformity inside the applicator aperture was approximately 11% and 15% for all three applicators at the skin and 30 mm deep, respectively. Depth dose measurements in polystyrene using ion chamber and radiochromic film agreed with Monte Carlo results within 2%. Discrepancies between film and Monte Carlo dose profiles at 30 mm depth were within 1%.

  15. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. PMID:20655679

  16. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  17. Passive detectors for neutron personal dosimetry: state of the art.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Bos, Adrie J J

    2004-01-01

    Passive, solid-state detectors still dominate the field of neutron personal dosimetry, mainly thanks to their low cost, high reliability and elevated throughput. However, the recent appearance in the market of several electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons presents a challenge to the exclusive use of passive systems for primary or official dosimetry. This scenario drives research and development activities on passive dosemeters towards systems offering greater accuracy of response and lower detection limits. In addition, further applications and properties of the passive detectors, which are not met by the electronic devices, are also being explored. In particular, extensive investigations are in progress on the use of solid-state detectors for aviation and space dosimetry, where high-energy neutron fields are encountered. The present situation is also stimulating an acceleration in the development of international standards on performance and test requirements for passive dosimetry systems, which can expedite significantly the implementation of techniques in commercial personal dosimetry services. Upcoming standards will cover thermoluminescence albedo dosemeters, etched-track detectors, superheated emulsions and direct ion storage chambers, attesting to the level of maturity reached by these techniques. This work reviews the developments in the field of passive neutron dosimetry emerged since the previous Neutron Dosimetry Symposium, reporting on the current status of the subject and indicating the direction of ongoing research. PMID:15353644

  18. From ``micro`` to ``macro`` internal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation dose is the amount of radiation energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing tissue. Internal dosimetry applies to assessments of dose to internal organs from penetrating radiation sources outside the body and from radionuclides taken into the body. Dosimetry is essential for correlating energy deposition with biological effects that are observed when living tissues are irradiated. Dose-response information provides the basis for radiation protection standards and risk assessment. Radiation interactions with living matter takes place on a microscopic scale, and the manifestation of damage may be evident at the cellular, multi-cellular, and even organ levels of biological organization. The relative biological effectiveness of ionization radiation is largely determined by the spatial distribution of energy deposition events within microscopic as well as macroscopic biological targets of interest. The spatial distribution of energy imparted is determined by the spatial distribution of radionuclides and properties of the emitted charged-particle radiation involved. The nonuniformity of energy deposition events in microscopic volumes, particularly from high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, results in large variations in the amount of energy imparted to very small volumes or targets. Microdosimetry is the study of energy deposition events at the cellular level. Macrodosimetry is a term for conventional dose averaging at the tissue or organ level. In between is a level of dosimetry sometimes referred to as multi-cellular dosimetry. The distinction between these terms and their applications in assessment of dose from internally deposited radionuclides is described.

  19. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  20. Pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion: part I.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Michael M; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A; Thumma, Sridhar; Upadhye, Sampada B; Battu, Sunil Kumar; McGinity, James W; Martin, Charles

    2007-09-01

    Interest in hot-melt extrusion techniques for pharmaceutical applications is growing rapidly with well over 100 papers published in the pharmaceutical scientific literature in the last 12 years. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) has been a widely applied technique in the plastics industry and has been demonstrated recently to be a viable method to prepare several types of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Hot-melt extruded dosage forms are complex mixtures of active medicaments, functional excipients, and processing aids. HME also offers several advantages over traditional pharmaceutical processing techniques including the absence of solvents, few processing steps, continuous operation, and the possibility of the formation of solid dispersions and improved bioavailability. This article, Part I, reviews the pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion, including equipment, principles of operation, and process technology. The raw materials processed using this technique are also detailed and the physicochemical properties of the resultant dosage forms are described. Part II of this review will focus on various applications of HME in drug delivery such as granules, pellets, immediate and modified release tablets, transmucosal and transdermal systems, and implants.

  1. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  2. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  3. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  4. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  5. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.; Mariotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {mu}m brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  6. X-ray dose response of calcite-A comprehensive analysis for optimal application in TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various annealing treatments on dosimetric characteristics of orange calcite (CaCO3) mineral has been studied in detail. Quantitative analysis on the dose response shows that the 573 K annealed sample showed sublinear dose response from 10 mGy to 1 Gy. The fading and reproducibility of this sample are also good enough for dosimetric application. However, a specific annealing treatment after irradiation shows some significant improvements in the dosimetric characteristics of the sample. The 773 K pre-annealed sample, after X-ray irradiation post-annealing at 340 K for 6 min provides linear dose response from 10 mGy to 3.60 Gy, very less fading and good reproducibility. Moreover, this sample after post-annealing at 380 K for 6 min shows linear dose response from 10 mGy to 5.40 Gy when analyzed from the ∼408 K thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak. Analysis of TL glow curves confirmed that the 1.30 eV trap center in calcite crystal is the most effective trapping site for dosimetric application.

  7. Properties of thin film radiation detectors and their application to dosimetry and quality assurance in x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshahat, Bassem

    The characteristics of two different types of thin-film radiation detectors are experimentally investigated: organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) and a new self-powered detector that operates based on high-energy secondary electrons (HEC). Although their working principles are substantially different, they both can be used for radiation detection and image formation in medical applications. OPVs with different active layer material thicknesses and aluminum electrode areas were fabricated. The OPV cell consisted of P3HT: PCBM photoactive materials, composed of donor and acceptor semiconducting organic materials, sandwiched between an aluminum electrode as anode and an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as a cathode. The detectors were exposed to 60150 kVp x rays, which generated photocurrent in the active layer. The electric charge production in the OPV cells was measured. The net current as function of beam energy (kVp) was proportional to ~1/kVp0.45 when adjusted for x-ray beam output. The best combination of parameters for these cells was 270-nm active layer thicknesses for 0.7cm-2 electrode area. The measured current ranged from about 0.7 to 2.4 nA/cm2 for 60-150 kVp, corresponding to about 0.09 -- 0.06 nA/cm2/mGy, respectively, when adjusted for the output x-ray source flux. The HEC detection concept was recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated by a UML/HMS research group. HEC detection employs direct conversion of high-energy electron current to detector signal without external power and amplification. The potential of using HEC detectors for diagnostic imaging application was investigated by using a heterogeneous phantom consisting of a water cylinder with Al and wax rod inserts.

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  10. Review of doped silica glass optical fibre: their TL properties and potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D A; Hugtenburg, R P; Nisbet, A; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Issa, Fatma; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Alalawi, Amani

    2012-12-01

    Review is made of dosimetric studies of Ge-doped SiO(2) telecommunication fibre as a 1-D thermoluminescence (TL) system for therapeutic applications. To-date, the response of these fibres has been investigated for UV sources, superficial X-ray beam therapy facilities, a synchrotron microbeam facility, electron linear accelerators, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, covering the energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Dosimetric characteristics include, reproducibility, fading, dose response, reciprocity between TL yield and dose-rate and energy dependence. The fibres produce a flat response to fixed photon and electron doses to within better than 3% of the mean TL distribution. Irradiated Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres show limited signal fading, with an average loss of TL signal of ~0.4% per day. In terms of dose response, Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres have been shown to provide linearity to x and electron doses, from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 2 kGy. The dosimeters have also been used in measuring photoelectron generation from iodinated contrast media; TL yields being some 60% greater in the presence of iodine than in its absence. The review is accompanied by previously unpublished data.

  11. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review.

    PubMed

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-11-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  12. Passive particle dosimetry. [silver halide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Present methods of dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the processes using silver chloride crystals for ionizing particle dosimetry. Differences between the ability of various crystals to record ionizing particle paths are directly related to impurities in the range of a few ppm (parts per million). To understand the roles of these impurities in the process, a method for consistent production of high purity silver chloride, and silver bromide was developed which yields silver halides with detectable impurity content less than 1 ppm. This high purity silver chloride was used in growing crystals with controlled doping. Crystals were grown by both the Czochalski method and the Bridgman method, and the Bridgman grown crystals were used for the experiments discussed. The distribution coefficients of ten divalent cations were determined for the Bridgman crystals. The best dosimeters were made with silver chloride crystals containing 5 to 10 ppm of lead; other impurities tested did not produce proper dosimeters.

  13. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  14. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  15. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs.

  16. Handbook for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for personnel dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The program contained in this Handbook provides a significant advance in the field of radiation protection through a structured means for assuring the quality of personnel dosimetry performance. Since personnel dosimetry performance is directly related to the assurance of worker safety, it has been of key interest to the Department of Energy. Studies conducted over the past three decades have clearly demonstrated a need for personnel dosimetry performance criteria, related testing programs, and improvements in dosimetry technology. In responding to these needs, the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (EH) has developed and initiated a DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) which is intended to improve the quality of personnel dosimetry through (1) performance testing, (2) dosimetry and calibration intercomparisons, and (3) applied research. In the interest of improving dosimetry technology, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is also designed to encourage cooperation and technical interchange between DOE laboratories. Dosimetry intercomparison programs have been scheduled which include the use of transport standard instruments, transport standard radioactive sources and special dosimeters. The dosimeters used in the intercomparison program are designed to obtain optimum data on the comparison of dosimetry calibration methodologies and capabilities. This data is used in part to develop enhanced calibration protocols. In the interest of overall calibration update, assistance and guidance for the calibration of personnel dosimeters is available through the DOELAP support laboratories. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  17. 75 FR 14212 - Proposed Generic Communications; Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 49352), clarified the applicability of various requirements to each of the licensing... of considerations that accompanied the final rule (3150-AG24) for Part 52 (72 FR 49352; August 28... Standard Design Certifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity...

  18. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  19. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  20. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  1. 20 CFR 802.102 - Applicability of part 801 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part 801 of this chapter... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions Introductory § 802.102 Applicability of part 801 of this chapter. Part 801 of this chapter VII sets forth rules of general applicability covering the...

  2. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  3. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  4. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  5. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts of this chapter. 80... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... requirements for construction, marking and lighting of antenna towers. (f) Part 20 of this chapter...

  6. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part are subject to recall regulations specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart S, except for the items set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability of 40 CFR part...

  10. 14 CFR 300.0a - Applicability of 49 CFR part 99.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Applicability of 49 CFR part 99. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each DOT employee... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of 49 CFR part 99. 300.0a... Conduct” in 49 CFR part 99. (b) The rules in this part shall be construed as being consistent with...

  11. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees. PMID:26553474

  12. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  18. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  19. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  20. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the.... Subpart F includes the rules for the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for...

  1. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the.... Subpart F includes the rules for the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for...

  2. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the... the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for filing electronically via the ULS....

  3. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the... the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for filing electronically via the ULS....

  4. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the... the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for filing electronically via the ULS....

  5. 20 CFR 725.4 - Applicability of other parts in this title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1978), which established the... 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999. (e) Part 410. Part 410 of this title... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of other parts in this...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  9. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum weights of more than 75,000 pounds and— (i) If U.S. registered, that have standard airworthiness... chapter. (b) Unless otherwise specified, as used in this subpart “part 36” refers to 14 CFR part 36... achieve results equivalent to those achievable under, part 36 for that airplane. Determinations made...

  10. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of... towers. (g) Part 20 of this chapter governs commercial mobile radio services. (h) Part 21. This...

  11. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of... towers. (g) Part 20 of this chapter governs commercial mobile radio services. (h) Part 21. This...

  12. Topical Review: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukihara, E. G.; McKeever, S. W. S.

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews fundamental and practical aspects of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry pertaining to applications in medicine, having particularly in mind new researchers and medical physicists interested in gaining familiarity with the field. A basic phenomenological model for OSL is presented and the key processes affecting the outcome of an OSL measurement are discussed. Practical aspects discussed include stimulation modalities (continuous-wave OSL, pulsed OSL and linear modulation OSL), basic experimental setup, available OSL readers, optical fiber systems and basic properties of available OSL dosimeters. Finally, results from the recent literature on applications of OSL in radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics and heavy charged particle dosimetry are discussed in light of the theoretical and practical framework presented in this review. Open questions and future challenges in OSL dosimetry are highlighted as a guide to the research needed to further advance the field.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, provisions applicable to subpart G § 63.1(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3),...

  14. Characterisation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped silica glass fibre for applications in medical radiation therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahaimi, N. A.; Zin, H.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Rahman, A. L. Abdul; Bradley, D. A.; Rahman, A. T. Abdul

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the characterisation of new fabricated material Ge doped silica glass thermoluminescence TL dosimeter (Photonic Research Centre, University of Malaya) for medical radiation dosimetry at therapy energy. Previously, the dosimeter has been studied to provide ideal dosimetry system, suitable to ensure an accurate delivery of radiation doses to tumour tissue while minimising the amount of radiation administrated to healthy tissue. Both energies of photon and electron were used in this experiment for a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy. The various sizes of core diameter Ge doped silica glass (120, 241, 362, 483 and 604 μm) were exposed by using linear accelerator at Pantai Medical Centre. For both energies, the optical fibres were found to produce a flat response to a fixed photon and electron doses to within 4% (S.D) of the mean of the TL distribution. In terms of dose response, the fibres provide linear response over the range investigated, from a fraction of 1-5 Gy. The finding shows 120 μm fibres have 1.82 greater dose response than 604 pm fibres irradiated at 6 MV photon with a fixed dose of 3 Gy. While for electron energy 12 MeV, the response shows 120 μm fibres have 1.58 greater dose response compared to 604 μm fibres. The good responses are suitable to make these tailor-made doped silica fibres a promising TL material for use as a dosimetric system in medical radiation therapy.

  15. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, H., IV

    2000-03-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products — Requirements for validation and routine control — Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but

  16. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  17. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  18. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN... Reconstruction and Development; Botswana; and Namibia. (c) Applicable 1-year period. The term “applicable...

  19. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN... Reconstruction and Development; Botswana; and Namibia. (c) Applicable 1-year period. The term “applicable...

  20. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN... Reconstruction and Development; Botswana; and Namibia. (c) Applicable 1-year period. The term “applicable...

  1. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  2. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J. Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Yung H.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Iagaru, Andre H.; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  3. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  4. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  5. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  6. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  8. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  9. Laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    We report a novel laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimeter that is radically different from previous laser-heated dosimeters. The dosimeter is a semiconductor and metal ion doped silica glass that has excellent optical transparency. The high optical quality of the glass essentially eliminates laser power loss due to light scattering. This efficient utilization of the laser power permits operation of the dosimeter without strong absorption of the laser, as is required in traditional laser-heated dosimetry. Our laser-heated dosimeter does not rely on the diffusion of heat from a separate, highly absorbing substrate, but operates via intimate, localized heating within the glass dosimeter due to the absorption of the laser light by rare earth ion dopants in the glass. Following absorption of the laser light, the rare earth ions transfer energy to the surrounding glass via nonradiative relaxation processes, resulting in rapid, localized temperature increases sufficient to release all the filled traps near the ions. As the heat diffuses radially away from the rare earth ions the temperature plummets dramatically on a manometer distance scale and the release of additional filled traps subsides. A key distinguishing feature of this laser-heated dosimeter is the ability to read the dose information more than once. While laser-heating provides complete information about the radiation exposure experienced by the glass due to the release of locally heated traps, the process leaves the remaining filled bulk traps undisturbed. The bulk traps can be read using traditional bulk heating methods and can provide a direct determination of an accumulated dose, measured following any number of laser-heated readouts. Laser-heated dosimetry measurements have been performed using a solid state diode laser for the readout following radiation exposure with a {sup 60}Co source.

  10. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  15. 42 CFR 56.114 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.114 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost principles, shall apply to all... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 56.114 Section...

  16. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  17. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space.

  18. The next decade in external dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  19. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be amended by 46 FR 49546 (October 6, 1981). Nondiscrimination Provisions in Federally Assisted Construction Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p....

  1. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  2. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  3. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  4. 12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part? 516.5 Section 516.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.5 Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part? OTS processes...

  5. Report from the dosimetry working group to CEDR project management

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J J

    1994-08-01

    On August 2, 1989, Admiral Watkins, Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE), presented a four-point program designed to enhance the DOE epidemiology program. One part of this program was the establishment of a Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to facilitate independent research to validate and supplement DOE research on human health effects. A Dosimetry Working Group was formed during May 1991 to evaluate radiation dose variables and associated documentation that would be most useful to researchers for retrospective and prospective studies. The Working Group consisted of thirteen individuals with expertise and experience in health physics, epidemiology, dosimetry, computing, and industrial hygiene. A final report was delivered to CEDR Project Management during February 1992. The report contains a number of major recommendations concerning collection, interpretation, and documentation of dosimetry data to maximize their usefulness to researchers using CEDR for examining possible health effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

  6. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  7. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  8. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part II: applications.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of experimental design to optimize some analytical chemistry techniques such as extraction, chromatography separation, capillary electrophoresis, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical methods.

  9. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general

  10. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together... Conservation Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6383) (EPCA) and section 1(c) of the Energy Supply and...

  11. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in 7 CFR 11.1, pursuant to 7 CFR... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has...

  12. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in 7 CFR 11.1, pursuant to 7 CFR... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in 7 CFR 11.1, pursuant to 7 CFR... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in 7 CFR 11.1, pursuant to 7 CFR... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, “Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has...

  15. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF TVA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... appendix A shall not mean, if Title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application......

  16. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF TVA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... appendix A shall not mean, if Title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application......

  17. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF TVA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... appendix A shall not mean, if Title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application......

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Pt. 63, Subpt. DDD, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63...

  19. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  20. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  1. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  2. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  3. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  4. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  5. 8 CFR 245a.6 - Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1986 (IRCA) Legalization Provisions § 245a.6 Treatment of denied application under part 245a... to temporary resident status, the LIFE Legalization application shall be deemed converted to...

  6. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  7. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  8. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  9. Pipe line pigs have varied applications in operations. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vernooy, B.

    1980-10-01

    In the early days of pipelining, it was discovered that running a swab equipped with leather disks through the line removed paraffin deposited on the pipe wall increasing the flow without increasing the power input. Blades were added to the device later to improve the efficiency of wax removal, which also decreased the number of runs and the cost of pigging. Pig developers learned from their successes as well as their failures. Part 1 of this work focused on the construction and kaliper pigs, and the second part describes the general form and function of the different operational pigs, i.e., calipers, cleaners, and spheres.

  10. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time. PMID:26224358

  11. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting appendix C to part 30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant to § 30.10 C Appendix C to Part 30... TRANSACTIONS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application...

  12. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 9(a) OF THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR... reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (“EBRD”) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  13. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f) Wastewaters are wastes that contain less than 1% by weight total organic carbon (TOC) and less than 1% by... part the following terms have the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs...

  14. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f) Wastewaters are wastes that contain less than 1% by weight total organic carbon (TOC) and less than 1% by... part the following terms have the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs...

  15. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f) Wastewaters are wastes that contain less than 1% by weight total organic carbon (TOC) and less than 1% by... part the following terms have the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs...

  16. Taurine for EPR dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Maghraby, A; Mansour, A; Tarek, E

    2012-08-01

    EPR dosimetry is characterized by its non-destructive read-out and the possibility of dose archival. Here, taurine is proposed as a radiation dosimeter using EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectrum of taurine was studied and assigned, and changes in the taurine EPR spectrum as a result of the change in both modulation amplitude and microwave power were quantified. For gamma radiation, the energy absorption coefficient and the collision mass stopping power of taurine were compared to the corresponding values of soft tissue and alanine, in addition to calculation of effective atomic numbers. The response of taurine to gamma radiation doses in the range from 0.1 to 50 kGy was investigated, as well as that in the range from 1.0 to 20.0 Gy using numerically enhanced EPR taurine spectra. Both response curves showed a linear behavior. In addition, the time dependence of radiation-induced radicals was studied for short (during the first 6 h after irradiation) and long (during about 3 months after irradiation) time periods, and a reasonable degree of stability of the taurine radicals was observed. It is concluded that taurine is a promising dosimeter, which is characterized by its simple spectrum, radical stability, and wide range of linear response to gamma radiation.

  17. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  18. 12 CFR 1007.102 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... only performs real estate brokerage activities (as defined in 12 U.S.C. 5102(4)(D)) and is licensed or registered as a real estate broker in accordance with applicable state law, unless the individual is... Act, 15 U.S.C. 1602(v)) or residential real estate upon which is constructed or intended to...

  19. Scientific Applications of the Apple Game Port: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratzlaff, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    The Apple game port has two types of inputs: the paddle input and the button input. Scientific applications of these input-output units are discussed, examining analog inputs (potentiometers, thermistors, and photoresistors), single bit digital inputs, and single-bit outputs. (JN)

  20. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  1. [Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2010-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest

  2. 45 CFR 303.0 - Scope and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope and applicability of this part. 303.0 Section 303.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT... HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.0 Scope and applicability of this part. This...

  3. 45 CFR 303.0 - Scope and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope and applicability of this part. 303.0 Section 303.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT... HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.0 Scope and applicability of this part. This...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A Appendix A to Part 284 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards...

  5. 13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. 107.20 Section 107.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.20 Legal basis and applicability of this...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part 263 Navigation and Navigable... Pt. 263, App. B Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to...

  7. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part 263 Navigation and Navigable... Pt. 263, App. B Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part 263 Navigation and Navigable... Pt. 263, App. B Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part 263 Navigation and Navigable... Pt. 263, App. B Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to...

  10. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP`s new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential {alpha} energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP`s recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ``Normalization`` of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for {alpha} dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk.

  12. Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research.

  13. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, I.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to provide better results than using Micke-Mayer perturbation models. Among the models being compared, the triple-channel model with Truncated Normal perturbations, net optical density as the response and subject to the application of lateral corrections was found to be the most accurate model. The scope of this study was circumscribed by the limits under which the models were tested. In this study, the films were irradiated with megavoltage radiotherapy beams, with doses from about 20-600 cGy, entire (8 inch  × 10 inch) films were scanned, the functional form of the sensitometric curves was a polynomial and the different lots were calibrated using the plane-based method.

  14. A THIN-LAYER LIF THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSEMETER SYSTEM WITH FAST READOUT FOR THE USE IN PERSONAL DOSIMETRY SERVICES.

    PubMed

    Walbersloh, J; Busch, F

    2016-09-01

    A newly developed thermoluminescence dosemeter system is presented that is suitable for application in fields where personal monitoring of a large number of users is required. The system presented here is intended to be used as the upcoming main dosemeter for whole body dosimetry at the dosimetry service of the MPA NRW (Germany) with ∼110,000 evaluations per month.

  15. Fundamentals and applications of solar energy. Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraq, I. H.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    Applications of techniques of chemical engineering to the development of materials, production methods, and performance optimization and evaluation of solar energy systems are discussed. Solar thermal storage systems using phase change materials, liquid phase Diels-Alder reactions, aquifers, and hydrocarbon oil were examined. Solar electric systems were explored in terms of a chlorophyll solar cell, the nonequilibrium electric field effects developed at photoelectrode/electrolyte interfaces, and designs for commercial scale processing of solar cells using continuous thin-film coating production methods. Solar coal gasification processes were considered, along with multilayer absorber coatings for solar concentrator receivers, solar thermal industrial applications, the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of crop residues to produce methane, and a procedure for developing a computer simulation of a solar cooling system.

  16. Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

  17. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 240 - Optional Forms for Powers of Attorney and Their Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 31 CFR part 240) as attorney-in-fact, but must describe the purpose for which the checks are... and Their Application A Appendix A to Part 240 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS DRAWN ON THE UNITED STATES TREASURY Pt. 240, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  18. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part 53 of this chapter not applicable... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter not... the regulations contained in part 53 of this chapter, but all such claims shall be presented and...

  19. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research related to minerals other than oil, gas, and sulphur is covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 580. ... applicability of this part. BSEE authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities...

  20. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research related to minerals other than oil, gas, and sulphur is covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 580. ... applicability of this part. BSEE authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities...

  1. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research related to minerals other than oil, gas, and sulphur is covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 580. ... applicability of this part. BSEE authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities...

  2. Advances in kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Robin; Healy, Brendan; Holloway, Lois; Kuncic, Zdenka; Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2014-03-01

    This topical review provides an up-to-date overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry. Kilovoltage x-ray beams have the property that the maximum dose occurs very close to the surface and thus, they are predominantly used in the treatment of skin cancers but also have applications for the treatment of other cancers. In addition, kilovoltage x-ray beams are used in intra operative units, within animal irradiators and in on-board imagers on linear accelerators and kilovoltage dosimetry is important in these applications as well. This review covers both reference and relative dosimetry of kilovoltage x-ray beams and provides recommendations for clinical measurements based on the literature to date. In particular, practical aspects for the selection of dosimeter and phantom material are reviewed to provide suitable advice for medical physicists. An overview is also presented of dosimeters other than ionization chambers which can be used for both relative and in vivo dosimetry. Finally, issues related to the treatment planning and the use of Monte Carlo codes for solving radiation transport problems in kilovoltage x-ray beams are presented.

  3. Dosimetry of x-ray beams: The measure of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    This document contains the text of an oral presentation on dosimetry of analytical x-ray equipment presented at the Denver X-Ray Conference. Included are discussions of sources of background radiation, exposure limits from occupational sources, and the relationship of these sources to the high dose source of x-rays found in analytical machines. The mathematical basis of x-ray dosimetry is reviewed in preparation for more detailed notes on personnel dosimetry and the selection of the most appropriate dosimeter for a specific application. The presentation concludes with a discussion common to previous x-ray equipment accidents. 2 refs. (TEM)

  4. Optoelectronic workshops. Part 4: Liquid Crystals for Laser Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen; Pohlmann, Juergen

    1988-05-01

    This optoelectronic workshop represents the fourth of a series of intensive academic/government interactions in the field of advanced electro-optics as part of the Army sponsored University Research Initiative. The workshops are a collaboration between the Center of Opto-Electronic Systems Research at the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York and the U.S. Army Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia. By documenting the associated technology status and dialogue it is hoped that this baseline will serve all interested parties towards providing a solution to high priority Army requirements. Responsible for program and program execution are Dr. Nicholas George, University of Rochester (ARO-URI) and Dr. Rudy Buser, NVEOC.

  5. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 1, geological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suárez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Organic petrology developed as coal petrology at the beginning of the 20th century dedicated mainly to the study of coals because of their utilization in industry. Coal petrology was then considered a branch of coal science. Later, with the development of specialized nomenclature, classification of coal components, and the standardization and improvement of analytical (microscopical) methods, this discipline expanded in interests and name, becoming organic petrology. Organic petrology carries a broader context, being as well a tool applied in the study of dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks due to its importance in exploration for fossil fuel resources. At present, organic petrology is a discipline widely recognized for its role in fundamental and applied research with respect to both coal utilization and in geosciences. Throughout the 20th century several important monographs have been published on the discipline of organic petrology, including “Stach's textbook of coal petrology” (1st edition 1935, 2nd 1975, 3rd 1982), updated as the more general “Organic petrology” by Taylor et al. (1998). More recently, the text “Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization” was published by Suárez-Ruiz and Crelling (2008). This review is the first in a two-part review series that describes and updates the role of organic petrology in geosciences. A second part complementing this one and focused on the applications of organic petrology to other scientific fields will follow.

  6. GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  7. SU-D-19A-05: The Dosimetric Impact of Using Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for Treatment with the Xoft 30 Mm Diameter Vaginal Applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, S; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods: MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.

  8. Dosimetry for audit and clinical trials: challenges and requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, T.; Haworth, A.; Williams, I.

    2013-06-01

    Many important dosimetry audit networks for radiotherapy have their roots in clinical trial quality assurance (QA). In both scenarios it is essential to test two issues: does the treatment plan conform with the clinical requirements and is the plan a reasonable representation of what is actually delivered to a patient throughout their course of treatment. Part of a sound quality program would be an external audit of these issues with verification of the equivalence of plan and treatment typically referred to as a dosimetry audit. The increasing complexity of radiotherapy planning and delivery makes audits challenging. While verification of absolute dose delivered at a reference point was the standard of external dosimetry audits two decades ago this is often deemed inadequate for verification of treatment approaches such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). As such, most dosimetry audit networks have successfully introduced more complex tests of dose delivery using anthropomorphic phantoms that can be imaged, planned and treated as a patient would. The new challenge is to adapt this approach to ever more diversified radiotherapy procedures with image guided/adaptive radiotherapy, motion management and brachytherapy being the focus of current research.

  9. Analytical equations for CT dose profiles derived using a scatter kernel of Monte Carlo parentage with broad applicability to CT dosimetry problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2011-07-15

    SCBCT (allowing direct cross-comparison between CT scan modes and mathematical proofs of several hypotheses of practical utility in CT dosimetry). A fast, analytical dose simulator{sup 6} is also demonstrated--successfully matching complex dose distributions measured using OSL and film dosimetry. Conclusions: The model described allows one to obtain analytical functions describing both the primary and scatter components of the axial dose profile. This model (using no empirical functions or adjustable fit parameters) provides a good match to the experimental data, as well as a complete analytical description of dose for both conventional (axial and helical) CT and cone beam CT. An efficient method whereby the complete data set for both modalities can be obtained from a single measurement of either CTDI{sub 100} or f(0) is illustrated. This method is also flexible--allowing calculation of heretofore unattainable doses for recently-introduced shift-variant protocols [e.g., variable pitch (irregular scan spacing), variable aperture, shuttle mode acquisition, and mA modulation schemes].

  10. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  11. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE DOSIMETRY FOR A LARGE-SCALE RADIATION INCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Harold M.; Flood, Ann Barry; Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Swarts, Steven G.; He, Xiaoming; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Demidenko, Eugene; Gui, Jiang; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Kmiec, Maciej M.; Kobayashi, Kyo; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Marsh, Stephen D.P.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Pennington, Patrick M.; Raynolds, Timothy; Salikhov, Ildar; Wilcox, Dean E.; Zaki, Bassem I.

    2013-01-01

    With possibilities for radiation terrorism and intensified concerns about nuclear accidents since the recent Fukushima Daiichi event, the potential exposure of large numbers of individuals to radiation that could lead to acute clinical effects has become a major concern. For the medical community to cope with such an event and avoid overwhelming the medical care system, it is essential to identify not only individuals who have received clinically significant exposures and need medical intervention but also those who do not need treatment. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance to measure radiation-induced paramagnetic species, which persist in certain tissues (e.g., teeth, fingernails, toenails, bone, and hair), has led this technique to become a prominent method for screening significantly exposed individuals. Although the technical requirements needed to develop this method for effective application in a radiation event are daunting, remarkable progress has been made. In collaboration with General Electric, and through funding committed by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry of the upper incisors is being developed to become a Food and Drug Administration-approved and manufacturable device designed to carry out triage for a threshold dose of 2 Gy. Significant progress has also been made in the development of electron paramagnetic resonance nail dosimetry based on measurements of nails in situ under point-of-care conditions, and in the near future this may become a second field-ready technique. Based on recent progress in measurements of nail clippings, we anticipate that this technique may be implementable at remotely located laboratories to provide additional information when the measurements of dose on site need to be supplemented. We conclude that electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry is likely to be a useful part of triage for a large-scale radiation incident. PMID:22850230

  12. SU-D-213-05: Design, Evaluation and First Applications of a Off-Site State-Of-The-Art 3D Dosimetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, J; Mein, S; McNiven, A; Letourneau, D; Oldham, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design, construct and commission a prototype in-house three dimensional (3D) dose verification system for stereotatic body radiotherapy (SBRT) verification at an off-site partner institution. To investigate the potential of this system to achieve sufficient performance (1mm resolution, 3% noise, within 3% of true dose reading) for SBRT verification. Methods: The system was designed utilizing a parallel ray geometry instigated by precision telecentric lenses and an LED 630nm light source. Using a radiochromic dosimeter, a 3D dosimetric comparison with our gold-standard system and treatment planning software (Eclipse) was done for a four-field box treatment, under gamma passing criteria of 3%/3mm/10% dose threshold. Post off-site installation, deviations in the system’s dose readout performance was assessed by rescanning the four-field box irradiated dosimeter and using line-profiles to compare on-site and off-site mean and noise levels in four distinct dose regions. As a final step, an end-to-end test of the system was completed at the off-site location, including CT-simulation, irradiation of the dosimeter and a 3D dosimetric comparison of the planned (Pinnacle{sup 3}) to delivered dose for a spinal SBRT treatment(12 Gy per fraction). Results: The noise level in the high and medium dose regions of the four field box treatment was relatively 5% pre and post installation. This reflects the reduction in positional uncertainty through the new design. This At 1mm dose voxels, the gamma pass rates(3%,3mm) for our in-house gold standard system and the off-site system were comparable at 95.8% and 93.2% respectively. Conclusion: This work will describe the end-to-end process and results of designing, installing, and commissioning a state-of-the-art 3D dosimetry system created for verification of advanced radiation treatments including spinal radiosurgery.

  13. Development and application of a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals in the human body.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) in the human body. The ExDoM2 is a revised version of a respiratory tract model (ExDoM) incorporating a new particle clearance mechanism in the respiratory tract model and a Physiologically-Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) model. The revised respiratory tract model was used to calculate the deposition, clearance and retention of particles in the human respiratory tract and the mass transferred to the oesophagus (gastrointestinal tract) and blood. The PBPK module was used to analyze the distribution of metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) from the blood circulation system to other organs or tissues like liver, kidneys, heart, brain, muscle and bone. The model was applied to calculate the internal human dose for an adult Caucasian male exposed to particulate mass matter (PM), PMPb, PMCd, PMMn and PMCr in an urban area (Athens, Greece). The analysis showed that at the end of the exposure (one day exposure scenario) to PMPb, the major accumulation occurs in the bone, blood and muscle, whereas as regards PMCd the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues, like kidney and liver. In addition, for PMMn, the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues and lungs, whereas as regards PMCr the major accumulation occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lungs. Therefore, ExDoM2 is an important feature in studying deposition of particles in the human body.

  14. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

  15. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Claus E.

    2011-05-01

    Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub-mm detector size, high dynamic range (below a mGy to several Gy), microsecond time resolution, and absence of electrical wires or other electronics in the dosimeter probe head. Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry systems typically consist of one or more small samples of phosphor, e.g. a mg of plastic scintillator, attached to 10-20 m long optical fiber cables of plastic. During irradiation, each dosimeter probe spontaneously emits radioluminescence (RL) in proportion to the dose rate. The luminescence intensity can be detected with photomultiplier tubes, CCD cameras or other highly sensitive photodetectors. Some crystalline phosphors, such as carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) have the ability to store charge produced in the crystal during irradiation. The stored charge may later be released by fiber-guided laser light under emission of so-called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The OSL signal therefore reflects the passively integrated dose. In contrast to thermoluminescence dosimetry, fiber-coupled OSL dosimetry may be performed in vivo while the dosimeter is still in the patient. Within the last few years, several improvements and new applications of these techniques have been published, and the objective of this review is to provide an introduction to this field and to outline some of these new results. Emphasis will be given to applications in medical dosimetry such as in vivo real-time dose verification in brachytherapy and methods aimed for improved quality assurance of linear accelerators.

  16. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Claus E.

    2011-05-05

    Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub-mm detector size, high dynamic range (below a mGy to several Gy), microsecond time resolution, and absence of electrical wires or other electronics in the dosimeter probe head. Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry systems typically consist of one or more small samples of phosphor, e.g. a mg of plastic scintillator, attached to 10-20 m long optical fiber cables of plastic. During irradiation, each dosimeter probe spontaneously emits radioluminescence (RL) in proportion to the dose rate. The luminescence intensity can be detected with photomultiplier tubes, CCD cameras or other highly sensitive photodetectors. Some crystalline phosphors, such as carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) have the ability to store charge produced in the crystal during irradiation. The stored charge may later be released by fiber-guided laser light under emission of so-called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The OSL signal therefore reflects the passively integrated dose. In contrast to thermoluminescence dosimetry, fiber-coupled OSL dosimetry may be performed in vivo while the dosimeter is still in the patient. Within the last few years, several improvements and new applications of these techniques have been published, and the objective of this review is to provide an introduction to this field and to outline some of these new results. Emphasis will be given to applications in medical dosimetry such as in vivo real-time dose verification in brachytherapy and methods aimed for improved quality assurance of linear accelerators.

  17. Dose calibration optimization and error propagation in polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirasek, A.; Hilts, M.

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the relative precision, relative error, and dose differences observed when using a new full-image calibration technique in NIPAM-based x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. The effects of calibration parameters (e.g. gradient thresholding, dose bin size, calibration fit function, and spatial remeshing) on subsequent errors in calibrated gel images are reported. It is found that gradient thresholding, dose bin size, and fit function all play a primary role in affecting errors in calibrated images. Spatial remeshing induces minimal reductions or increases in errors in calibrated images. This study also reports on a full error propagation throughout the CT gel image pre-processing and calibration procedure thus giving, for the first time, a realistic view of the errors incurred in calibrated CT polymer gel dosimetry. While the work is based on CT polymer gel dosimetry, the formalism is valid for and easily extended to MRI or optical CT dosimetry protocols. Hence, the procedures developed within the work are generally applicable to calibration of polymer gel dosimeters.

  18. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. No claim for indemnity for animals destroyed because of brucellosis shall hereafter be paid...

  19. 36 CFR 1237.1 - What is the applicability and scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.1 What is the applicability and scope of this part? Agencies must manage audiovisual, cartographic... procedures for managing audiovisual, cartographic, and related records to ensure adequate and...

  20. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  1. Optimization of the Thermal Dosimetry for Endocavitary HICU Ablation of Sectorial Digestive Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rata, Mihaela; Salomir, Rares; Lafon, Cyril; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Cotton, François; Bonmartin, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Effective treatment of malignant tumours demands well controlled energy deposition in the region of interest. Generally, two major steps must be fulfilled: pre-operative optimal planning of the thermal dosimetry and per-operative active control of the delivered thermal dose. The first issue is addressed here in the particular case of the ultrasound therapy for endocavitary tumours (oesophagus, colon or rectum) with phased array cylindrical contact applicators. Computation is divided into two main parts: 1. definition of the heating sequence parameters (the total sonication time, the number of independent beams, the orientation and the applied time for every beam), and 2. calculation of the corresponding thermal dose. One slice orthogonal to the symmetry axis of the High Intensity Contact Ultrasound (HICU) device is considered. User defined tumoral geometry is divided into a regular polar grid (5.625 degrees step). The different duration applied for interleaved fast switched beams corresponding to selected orientations is exponentially scaled to the measured depth along each direction. Iterative 2D Fourier transformation of the BHTE equation allows fast calculation of the temperature and thermal dose (computing time accomplished with Matlab language ˜ 3 minutes for a medium size tumour). Border conditions (cooling balloon) are taken into account with a binary mask applied to the simulated temperature at each iteration. The planned thermal dose covered the target region at 300% of lethal threshold with extra margin ranged from 1 to 3 mm. The short computing time allows near real time, in-situ planning of the dosimetry.

  2. 5 CFR 3201.109 - Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION § 3201.109 Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation employees. The... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635...

  3. 5 CFR 3201.109 - Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION § 3201.109 Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation employees. The... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  7. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  8. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. 51.10 Section 51.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  12. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  13. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  16. 13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 564 - Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam Headlamp Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam Headlamp Units C Appendix C to Part 564 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... SOURCE AND SEALED BEAM HEADLAMP INFORMATION Pt. 564, App. C Appendix C to Part 564—Information...

  19. 40 CFR 91.603 - Applicability of part 91, subpart F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations under 40 CFR Part 91 et seq and the conditions of the test order. No emission-related changes to... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of part 91, subpart F. 91.603 Section 91.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 20 CFR 725.2 - Purpose and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sections set forth in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999, apply to the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose and applicability of this part. 725.2 Section 725.2 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  1. 20 CFR 725.2 - Purpose and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sections set forth in 20 CFR, parts 500 to end, edition revised as of April 1, 1999, apply to the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose and applicability of this part. 725.2 Section 725.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL...

  2. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 855 - Landing Permit Application Instructions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landing Permit Application Instructions 3 Attachment 3 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  4. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part 307—Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action EC02AU92.021 EC02AU92.022 EC02AU92.023...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part 307—Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action EC02AU92.021 EC02AU92.022 EC02AU92.023...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. A Appendix A to Part 307—Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action EC02AU92.021 EC02AU92.022 EC02AU92.023...

  8. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to minerals other than oil, gas, and sulphur is covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 280. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority and applicability of this part. 251.3 Section 251.3 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  9. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 4290.1940 Integration of this... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015,...

  10. 17 CFR 33.2 - Applicability of Act and rules; scope of part 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; scope of part 33. 33.2 Section 33.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.2 Applicability of Act... contract market for the purpose of trading commodity options pursuant to this part shall be deemed for...

  11. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    PubMed

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included.

  12. SU-E-I-24: Design and Fabrication of a Multi-Functional Neck and Thyroid Phantom for Medical Dosimetry and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Faghihi, R; Babaei, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the design and fabrication of a multipurpose anthropomorphic neck and thyroid phantom for use in medical applications (i.e. quality control of images in nuclear medicine, and dosimetry). Methods: The designed neck phantom is composed of seven elliptic cylindrical slices with semi-major axis of 14 and semi-minor axis of 12.5 cm, each having the thickness of 2cm. Thyroid gland, bony part of the neck, and the wind pipe were also built inside the neck phantom. Results: The phantom contains some removable plugs,inside and at its surface to accommodate the TLD chips with different shapes and dimensions, (i.e. rod, cylindrical and cubical TLD chips)for the purpose of medical dosimetry (i.e. in radiology, radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine). For the purpose of quality control of images in nuclear medicine, the removable thyroid gland was built to accommodate the radioactive iodine. The female and male thyroid glands were built in two sizes separately. Conclusion: The designed phantom is a multi-functional phantom which is applicable for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, and quality control of images in nuclear medicine.

  13. On multichannel film dosimetry with channel-independent perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez, I. Peterlin, P.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Different multichannel methods for film dosimetry have been proposed in the literature. Two of them are the weighted mean method and the method put forth byMicke et al. [“Multichannel film dosimetry with nonuniformity correction,” Med. Phys. 38, 2523–2534 (2011)] and Mayer et al. [“Enhanced dosimetry procedures and assessment for EBT2 radiochromic film,” Med. Phys. 39, 2147–2155 (2012)]. The purpose of this work was to compare their results and to develop a generalized channel-independent perturbations framework in which both methods enter as special cases. Methods: Four models of channel-independent perturbations were compared: weighted mean, Micke–Mayer method, uniform distribution, and truncated normal distribution. A closed-form formula to calculate film doses and the associated type B uncertainty for all four models was deduced. To evaluate the models, film dose distributions were compared with planned and measured dose distributions. At the same time, several elements of the dosimetry process were compared: film type EBT2 versus EBT3, different waiting-time windows, reflection mode versus transmission mode scanning, and planned versus measured dose distribution for film calibration and for γ-index analysis. The methods and the models described in this study are publicly accessible through IRISEU. Alpha 1.1 ( http://www.iriseu.com ). IRISEU. is a cloud computing web application for calibration and dosimetry of radiochromic films. Results: The truncated normal distribution model provided the best agreement between film and reference doses, both for calibration and γ-index verification, and proved itself superior to both the weighted mean model, which neglects correlations between the channels, and the Micke–Mayer model, whose accuracy depends on the properties of the sensitometric curves. With respect to the selection of dosimetry protocol, no significant differences were found between transmission and reflection mode scanning

  14. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003...

  16. 7 CFR 4290.1920 - RBIC's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 4290.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RBIC's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 4290. 4290.1920 Section 4290.1920 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 4290.1920 RBIC's application for...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports A Appendix A... Applications and Reports Type When due Number of copies for awarding office 1. Summary: 200 words on scope and... renewal 3 2. Renewal period ends 6 months before the budget 8 3. Progress Report period (or as part of...

  18. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section 1928.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Applicability...

  19. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section 1928.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Applicability...

  20. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section 1928.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Applicability...

  1. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions § 1208.3 Application of 5...

  2. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions § 1208.3 Application of 5...

  3. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 29 CFR 528.1 - Applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.1 Applicability of the regulations... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the regulations in this part. 528.1 Section 528.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 40 CFR 766.2 - Applicability and duration of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and duration of this part. 766.2 Section 766.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.2 Applicability...

  9. 40 CFR 766.2 - Applicability and duration of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability and duration of this part. 766.2 Section 766.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.2 Applicability...

  10. 40 CFR 766.2 - Applicability and duration of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability and duration of this part. 766.2 Section 766.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.2 Applicability...

  11. 40 CFR 766.2 - Applicability and duration of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability and duration of this part. 766.2 Section 766.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.2 Applicability...

  12. 5 CFR 210.101 - Applicability of various parts of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of various parts of regulations. 210.101 Section 210.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS (GENERAL) Applicability of Regulations; Definitions §...

  13. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... will be informed of the application number and filing date by a filing receipt, unless the...

  14. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... will be informed of the application number and filing date by a filing receipt, unless the...

  15. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... will be informed of the application number and filing date by a filing receipt, unless the...

  16. Heat transfer mechanisms and thermal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bowman, H F

    1982-06-01

    The heat transfer mechanisms that led to the development of the bioheat equation are reviewed. Thermal modeling and analytical judgments which must be made in application of the equation are noted. Temperature profiles that result from solution of the equation with a simple spherical model are considered with particular emphasis on the influence of thermal conductivity and perfusion. Thermal conductivity values of a host of both normal and tumor tissues are discussed. The importance of adequate macroscopic thermal dosimetry to the evaluation of the ultimate promise of hyperthermia is observed. Experience in the quantification of temperature, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and perfusion from a single, minimally invasive measurement in small volumes of tissue with the thermal diffusion probe is presented.

  17. Advanced Semiconductor Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2011-05-05

    Modern radiation therapy is very conformal, resulting in a complexity of delivery that leads to many small radiation fields with steep dose gradients, increasing error probability. Quality assurance in delivery of such radiation fields is paramount and requires real time and high spatial resolution dosimetry. Semiconductor radiation detectors due to their small size, ability to operate in passive and active modes and easy real time multichannel readout satisfy many aspects of in vivo and in a phantom quality assurance in modern radiation therapy. Update on the recent developments and improvements in semiconductor radiation detectors and their application for quality assurance in radiation therapy, based mostly on the developments at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, is presented.

  18. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  19. Optimization of the double dosimetry algorithm for interventional cardiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, Vadim; Morgun, Artem; Bakhanova, Elena; Voloskiy, Vitalii; Borodynchik, Elena

    2014-11-01

    A double dosimetry method is recommended in interventional cardiology (IC) to assess occupational exposure; yet currently there is no common and universal algorithm for effective dose estimation. In this work, flexible and adaptive algorithm building methodology was developed and some specific algorithm applicable for typical irradiation conditions of IC procedures was obtained. It was shown that the obtained algorithm agrees well with experimental measurements and is less conservative compared to other known algorithms.

  20. [Innovation in gynaecological brachytherapy: new technologies, pulse dose-rate brachytherapy, image, definition of new volumes of interest and their impact on dosimetry: application in a clinical research programme "STIC"].

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, C; Peiffert, D

    2006-11-01

    Brachytherapy plays a fundamental role in the therapeutic approach of patients with stage I-IV cervical carcinoma. Technical modalities have evolved during the last decades: stepping source technology, imaging modalities development, specially IMN, treatment planning system integrating 3D images. Images from CT-Scan and MRI have contributed to a better knowledge of tumoral extension and critical organs. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better definition of tumour volume compared to traditional approaches. The introduction of 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV requires new definitions and a common language. In 2000, a working group within GEC-ESTRO was created to support 3D image based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT. The task was to determine a common terminology enabling various groups to use a common language. Recommendations were described and proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions. Two CTVs were described en relation to the risk for recurrence: high-risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. In order to better define the role of such definitions and their potential impact on the complication incidence in patients with cervical cancer, a special French programme was developed. The aim of this programme is to study the incidence of the severe 2-year complication rate in two comparable patient populations: one population is treated using PDR brachytherapy with CT-Scan or MRI with the applicators in place allowing a 3D dosimetry with optimization, the second population is treated using standard X-rays radiographs without any delineation of the target nor optimisation. Each population arm includes 425 patients. A medicoeconomic assessment is performed, allowing a real cost of the most sophisticated approach compared to a historical dosimetric system.

  1. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, K.L.; Schwanke, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer`s dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain.

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ You must comply with the applicable General... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR Part...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ You must comply with the applicable General... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR Part...

  4. 40 CFR 270.125 - If I submit my RAP application as part of another document, what must I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I submit my RAP application as part... PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.125 If I submit my RAP application as part of another document, what must I do? If you submit your application for a RAP as a part...

  5. 40 CFR 270.125 - If I submit my RAP application as part of another document, what must I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If I submit my RAP application as part... PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.125 If I submit my RAP application as part of another document, what must I do? If you submit your application for a RAP as a part...

  6. 40 CFR 270.125 - If I submit my RAP application as part of another document, what must I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I submit my RAP application as part... PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.125 If I submit my RAP application as part of another document, what must I do? If you submit your application for a RAP as a part...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 2 to... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Appendix: Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH Table Appendix: Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 63 Protection...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 2 to... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Appendix: Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH Table Appendix: Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 63 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 2 to... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH Table Appendix: Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... HHH of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart HHH General...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Applicable 40 CFR Parts 60, 61, and 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Parts 60, 61, and 63..., Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 65—Applicable 40 CFR Parts 60, 61, and 63 General Provisions A. 40 CFR part 60, subpart A provisions for referencing subparts Ka, Kb, VV, DDD, III, NNN,...

  11. [Radon progeny as an experimental tool for dosimetry of nanoaerosols].

    PubMed

    Ruzer, L S; Apte, M G

    2009-01-01

    The study of aerosol exposure, dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry of nanotechnology. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  12. EPR/PTFE dosimetry for test reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vehar, D.W.; Griffin, P.J.; Quirk, T.J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with materials such as alanine is well established as a technique for measurement of ionizing radiation absorbed dose in photon and electron fields such as Co-60, high-energy bremsstrahlung and electron-beam fields [1]. In fact, EPR/Alanine dosimetry has become a routine transfer standard for national standards bodies such as NIST and NPL. In 1992 the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia National Laboratories implemented EPR/Alanine capabilities for use in routine and calibration activities at its Co-60 and pulsed-power facilities. At that time it also investigated the usefulness of the system for measurement of absorbed dose in the mixed neutron/photon environments of reactors such as the Sandia Pulsed Reactor and the Annular Core Research Reactor used for hardness testing of electronics. The RML concluded that the neutron response of alanine was a sufficiently high fraction of the overall dosimeter response that the resulting uncertainties in the photon dose would be unacceptably large for silicon-device testing. However, it also suggested that non-hydrogenous materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) would exhibit smaller neutron response and might be useful in mixed environments. Preliminary research with PTFE in photon environments indicated considerable promise, but further development was not pursued at that time. Because of renewed interest in absorbed dose measurements that could better define the individual contributions of photon and neutron components to the overall dose delivered to a test object, the RML has re-initiated the development of an EPR/PTFE dosimetry system. This effort consists of three stages: 1) Identification of PTFE materials that may be suitable for dosimetry applications. It was speculated that the inconsistency of EPR signatures in the earlier samples may have been due to variability in PTFE manufacturing processes. 2) Characterization of dosimetry in

  13. True 3D chemical dosimetry (gels, plastics): Development and clinical role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of volumetric chemical dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters in the 1980s, three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has been a promising technique for the clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for 3D dose measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. In the last decade, the potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced by the development of improved 3D dosimeters such as normoxic polymer gel systems, radiochromic plastics (such as PRESAGE) and, recently, newer radiochromic gel dosimeters. Some of these new 3D dosimetry systems were enabled by the availability of optical computed tomography imaging systems for fast dose readout. However, despite its promise, true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community. Its use has been confined primarily to select centres of expertise and to specialised quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. In this paper I review some of the current 3D chemical dosimeters available, discuss the requirements for their use and briefly review the roles that these systems can provide to complement the other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. I conclude by describing two roles that may be uniquely served by 3D chemical dosimetry in end-to-end process testing and validation in the complex environment coming into play with the development of Image Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy.

  14. On flattening filter-free portal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Eduardo; Castro Novais, Juan; Molina López, María Yolanda; Ruiz Maqueda, Sheila

    2016-07-08

    Varian introduced (in 2010) the option of removing the flattening filter (FF) in their C-Arm linacs for intensity-modulated treatments. This mode, called flattening filter-free (FFF), offers the advantage of a greater dose rate. Varian's "Portal Dosimetry" is an electronic portal imager device (EPID)-based tool for IMRT verification. This tool lacks the capability of verifying flattening filter-free (FFF) modes due to saturation and lack of an image prediction algorithm. (Note: the latest versions of this software and EPID correct these issues.) The objective of the present study is to research the feasibility of said verifications (with the older versions of the software and EPID). By placing the EPID at a greater distance, the images can be acquired without saturation, yielding a linearity similar to the flattened mode. For the image prediction, a method was optimized based on the clinically used algorithm (analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA)) over a homogeneous phantom. The depth inside the phantom and its electronic density were tailored. An application was developed to allow the conversion of a dose plane (in DICOM format) to Varian's custom format for Portal Dosimetry. The proposed method was used for the verification of test and clinical fields for the three qualities used in our institution for IMRT: 6X, 6FFF and 10FFF. The method developed yielded a positive verification (more than 95% of the points pass a 2%/2 mm gamma) for both the clinical and test fields. This method was also capable of "predicting" static and wedged fields. A workflow for the verification of FFF fields was developed. This method relies on the clinical algorithm used for dose calculation and is able to verify the FFF modes, as well as being useful for machine quality assurance. The procedure described does not require new hardware. This method could be used as a verification of Varian's Portal Dose Image Prediction.

  15. On flattening filter-free portal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Eduardo; Castro Novais, Juan; Molina López, María Yolanda; Ruiz Maqueda, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Varian introduced (in 2010) the option of removing the flattening filter (FF) in their C-Arm linacs for intensity-modulated treatments. This mode, called flattening filter-free (FFF), offers the advantage of a greater dose rate. Varian's "Portal Dosimetry" is an electronic portal imager device (EPID)-based tool for IMRT verification. This tool lacks the capability of verifying flattening filter-free (FFF) modes due to saturation and lack of an image prediction algorithm. (Note: the latest versions of this software and EPID correct these issues.) The objective of the present study is to research the feasibility of said verifications (with the older versions of the software and EPID). By placing the EPID at a greater distance, the images can be acquired without saturation, yielding a linearity similar to the flattened mode. For the image prediction, a method was optimized based on the clinically used algorithm (analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA)) over a homogeneous phantom. The depth inside the phantom and its electronic density were tailored. An application was developed to allow the conversion of a dose plane (in DICOM format) to Varian's custom format for Portal Dosimetry. The proposed method was used for the verification of test and clinical fields for the three qualities used in our institution for IMRT: 6X, 6FFF and 10FFF. The method developed yielded a positive verification (more than 95% of the points pass a 2%/2 mm gamma) for both the clinical and test fields. This method was also capable of "predicting" static and wedged fields. A workflow for the verification of FFF fields was developed. This method relies on the clinical algorithm used for dose calculation and is able to verify the FFF modes, as well as being useful for machine quality assurance. The procedure described does not require new hardware. This method could be used as a verification of Varian's Portal Dose Image Prediction. PMID:27455487

  16. Parallel Algorithms and Software for Nuclear, Energy, and Environmental Applications. Part II: Multiphysics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; Luanjing Guo; Glen Hansen; Hai Huang; Richard Johnson; Dana Knoll; Chris Newman; Hyeong Kae Park; Robert Podgorney; Michael Tonks; Richard Williamson

    2012-09-01

    This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first [1] focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy, and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.

  17. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  18. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  19. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...

  20. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low...