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Sample records for dota-tetraamide complexes considerations

  1. Substituent effects on fluoride binding by lanthanide complexes of DOTA-tetraamides.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Octavia A; Routledge, Jack D; Jennings, Laura B; Rees, Nicholas H; Kenwright, Alan M; Beer, Paul D; Faulkner, Stephen

    2016-02-21

    Fluoride binding by a series of europium and ytterbium complexes of DOTA-tetraamide ligands derived from primary, secondary and tertiary amides has been studied by NMR and luminescence spectroscopies. In all the systems studied, fluoride binding results in a change in the nature of the magnetic anisotropy at the metal centre from an easy axis, to an easy plane anisotropy. This results in reversal of the peaks in the NMR spectra, and in changes to the fine structure of the luminescence spectra. Furthermore, changes to the periphery of the binding cavity are implicated in determining the affinity constant for fluoride. There are clear differences in the entropic contribution to the free energy of activation between systems with benzylic amides and those with methylamides. PMID:26765788

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of lanthanide ion DOTA-tetraamide complexes bearing peripheral hydroxyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Azhar; Lin, Mai; Tircsó, Gyula; Rostollan, Cynthia L.; Woods, Mark; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Sun, Xiankai

    2009-01-01

    The use of lanthanide-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an integral component of this important diagnostic modality. These inert chelates typically possess high thermodynamic stability constants that serve as a predictor for in vivo stability and low toxicity. Recently a new class of contrast agents was reported having a significantly lower degree thermodynamic stability while exhibiting biodistribution profiles indicative of high stability under biological conditions. These observations are suggestive that the nature of contrast agent stability is also dependent upon the kinetics of complex dissociation; a feature of potential importance when contemplating the design of new chelates for in vivo use. In this paper we present a study of the kinetics of acid catalyzed dissociation, thermodynamic stability, serum stability and biodistribution of a series of DOTA-tetraamide complexes that have been substituted with peripheral hydroxyl groups. The data indicate that these non-traditional contrast agents exhibit in vivo stability comparable to agents with much higher log KML values demonstrating the important contribution of kinetic inertness. PMID:19083028

  3. Improved synthesis of DOTA tetraamide ligands for lanthanide(III) ions: a tool for increasing the repertoire of potential PARACEST contrast agents for MRI and/or fluorescent sensors.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Viswanathan, Subha; Sherry, A Dean

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of new DOTA tetraamide (DOTAMR(4)) compounds is of great interest given their application in the formation of Ln(III) complexes as potential PARACEST contrast agents in MRI or fluorescent molecular probes. In this context amino acid and peptide DOTAMR(4) derivatives are particularly attractive since the amino-acid and/or peptide moiety can show responsive properties dependent on a given stimuli which might translate to changes in water exchange rates of the corresponding Ln(III) complex. Current synthesis of DOTAMR(4) derivatives is typically carried out by reacting haloacetamide intermediates with cyclen. However, this method fails to generate the tetra-substituted products when bulky substituents are present in the haloacetamide and in some cases this intermediate cannot be prepared by conventional acylation procedures limiting the number of DOTAMR(4) compounds available for study. As a solution to these limitations, an improved methodology for the synthesis of DOTAMR(4) by coupling DOTA to an appropriate amine containing reagent (i.e. protected amino-acids with the alpha-amino group free) is presented in this work. Several DOTAMR(4) derivatives which are difficult or impossible to prepare with the traditional methodologies were easily obtained starting with DOTA. A new protocol was derived using this methodology for the solution-phase synthesis of DOTA peptide derivatives. With this methodology, many other DOTAMR(4) peptide and non-peptide derivatives have been prepared in our laboratories with several of these new compounds showing interesting properties for molecular imaging.

  4. Improved synthesis of DOTA tetraamide lanthanide(III) ligands: tool for increasing the repertoire of potential PARACEST contrast agents for MRI and/or fluorescent sensors

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Viswanathan, Subha; Sherry, A. Dean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of new DOTA tetra-amide (DOTAMR4) compounds is of great interest given their application in the formation of Ln(III) complexes which are potential PARACEST contrast agents in MRI or fluorescent molecular probes. In this context amino acid and peptide DOTAMR4 derivatives are particularly attractive since the amino-acid and/or peptide moiety can show responsive properties dependent on a given stimuli which might translate to changes in water exchange rates of the corresponding Ln(III) complex. Current synthesis of DOTAMR4 derivatives is typically carried out by reacting haloacetamide intermediates with cyclen. However, this method fails to generate the tetra-substituted products when bulky substituents are present in the haloacetamide and in some cases this intermediate cannot be prepared by conventional acylation procedures limiting the number of DOTAMR4 compounds available for study. As a solution to these limitations, an improved methodology for the synthesis of DOTAMR4 by coupling DOTA to an appropriate amine containing reagent (i.e. protected amino-acids with the α-amino group free) is presented in this work. Several DOTAMR4 derivatives which are difficult or impossible to prepare with the traditional methodologies were easily obtained starting with DOTA. A new protocol was derived using this methodology for the solution phase synthesis of DOTA peptide derivatives. With this methodology, many other DOTAMR4 peptide and non-peptide derivatives have been prepared in our laboratories with several of these new compounds showing interesting properties for molecular imaging. PMID:20586036

  5. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Perioperative Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team. PMID:24940133

  6. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span. PMID:26303410

  7. Case-only exome sequencing and complex disease susceptibility gene discovery: study design considerations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lang; Schaid, Daniel J; Sicotte, Hugues; Wieben, Eric D; Li, Hu; Petersen, Gloria M

    2015-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify the potential aetiological role of rare functional variants in human complex diseases. Large-scale collaborations have generated germline WES data on patients with a number of diseases, especially cancer, but less often on healthy controls under the same sequencing procedures. These data can be a valuable resource for identifying new disease susceptibility loci if study designs are appropriately applied. This review describes suggested strategies and technical considerations when focusing on case-only study designs that use WES data in complex disease scenarios. These include variant filtering based on frequency and functionality, gene prioritisation, interrogation of different data types and targeted sequencing validation. We propose that if case-only WES designs were applied in an appropriate manner, new susceptibility genes containing rare variants for human complex diseases can be detected.

  8. Global optimization algorithms to compute thermodynamic equilibria in large complex systems with performance considerations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Piro, M. H. A.; Simunovic, S.

    2016-03-17

    Several global optimization methods are reviewed that attempt to ensure that the integral Gibbs energy of a closed isothermal isobaric system is a global minimum to satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the integral Gibbs energy function of a multicomponent system containing non-ideal phases may be highly non-linear and non-convex, which makes finding a global minimum a challenge. Consequently, a poor numerical approach may lead one to the false belief of equilibrium. Furthermore, confirming that one reaches a global minimum and that this is achieved with satisfactory computational performance becomes increasingly more challenging in systemsmore » containing many chemical elements and a correspondingly large number of species and phases. Several numerical methods that have been used for this specific purpose are reviewed with a benchmark study of three of the more promising methods using five case studies of varying complexity. A modification of the conventional Branch and Bound method is presented that is well suited to a wide array of thermodynamic applications, including complex phases with many constituents and sublattices, and ionic phases that must adhere to charge neutrality constraints. Also, a novel method is presented that efficiently solves the system of linear equations that exploits the unique structure of the Hessian matrix, which reduces the calculation from a O(N3) operation to a O(N) operation. As a result, this combined approach demonstrates efficiency, reliability and capabilities that are favorable for integration of thermodynamic computations into multi-physics codes with inherent performance considerations.« less

  9. Modeling and Performance Considerations for Automated Fault Isolation in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the modeling considerations and performance metrics that were examined in the development of a large-scale Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FDIR team members developed a set of operational requirements for the models that would be used for fault isolation and worked closely with the vendor of the software tools selected for fault isolation to ensure that the software was able to meet the requirements. Once the requirements were established, example models of sufficient complexity were used to test the performance of the software. The results of the performance testing demonstrated the need for enhancements to the software in order to meet the demands of the full-scale ground and vehicle FDIR system. The paper highlights the importance of the development of operational requirements and preliminary performance testing as a strategy for identifying deficiencies in highly scalable systems and rectifying those deficiencies before they imperil the success of the project

  10. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  11. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  12. Complexation equilibria involving salts in non-aqueous solvents: ion pairing and activity considerations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Harry W; Jones, Jason W; Zakharov, Lev N; Rheingold, Arnold L; Slebodnick, Carla

    2011-03-01

    Complexation of anions, cations and even ion pairs is now an active area of investigation in supramolecular chemistry; unfortunately it is an area fraught with complications when these processes are examined in low polarity organic media. Using a pseudorotaxane complex as an example, apparent K(a2) values (=[complex]/{[salt](o)-[complex]}{[host](o)-[complex]}) for pseudorotaxane formation from dibenzylammonium salts (2-X) and dibenzo-[24]crown-8 (1, DB24C8) in CDCl(3)/CD(3)CN 3:2 vary with concentration. This is attributable to the fact that the salt is ion paired, but the complex is not. We report an equilibrium model that explicitly includes ion pair dissociation and is based upon activities rather than molar concentrations for study of such processes in non-aqueous media. Proper analysis requires both a dissociation constant, K(ipd), for the salt and a binding constant for interaction of the free cation 2(+) with the host, K(a5); K(a5) for pseudorotaxane complexation is independent of the counterion (500 M(-1)), a result of the complex existing in solution as a free cation, but K(ipd) values for the salts vary by nearly two orders of magnitude from trifluoroacetate to tosylate to tetrafluoroborate to hexafluorophosphate anions. The activity coefficients depend on the nature of the predominant ions present, whether the pseudorotaxane or the ions from the salt, and also strongly on the molar concentrations; activity coefficients as low as 0.2 are observed, emphasizing the magnitude of their effect. Based on this type of analysis, a method for precise determination of relative binding constants, K(a5), for multiple hosts with a given guest is described. However, while the incorporation of activity coefficients is clearly necessary, it removes the ability to predict from the equilibrium constants the effects of concentration on the extent of binding, which can only be determined experimentally. This has serious implications for study of all such complexation

  13. Considerable fluorescence enhancement upon supramolecular complex formation between berberine and p-sulfonated calixarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megyesi, Mónika; Biczók, László

    2006-06-01

    Remarkably strong binding of berberine to 4-sulfonatocalix[8]arene was found in aqueous solution, which led to fluorescence quantum yield increase of a factor about 40 at pH 2. The hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence maximum implied that berberine sensed less polar microenvironment when confined to SCX8. The stability of the supramolecular complex significantly diminished when sulfocalixarenes of smaller ring size served as host compounds but the pH affected the association strength to a much lesser extent. All berberine complexes proved to be barely fluorescent at pH 12.2 because of excited state quenching by the hosts via electron transfer.

  14. Structured Programming Techniques: A Study of Relative Complexity--Some Programming Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Er, M.

    1993-01-01

    Examines a previous empirical study on the complexity of structured programing techniques and concludes that all of the Nassi-Schneiderman diagrams which employed structured programing techniques contained programing errors. A programing solution to the multilevel control break reporting logic problem is then presented. (LRW)

  15. The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations.

    PubMed

    Newberg, A B; Iversen, J

    2003-08-01

    Meditation is a complex mental process involving changes in cognition, sensory perception, affect, hormones, and autonomic activity. Meditation has also become widely used in psychological and medical practices for stress management as well as a variety of physical and mental disorders. However, until now, there has been limited understanding of the overall biological mechanism of these practices in terms of the effects in both the brain and body. We have previously described a rudimentary neuropsychological model to explain the brain mechanisms underlying meditative experiences. This paper provides a substantial development by integrating neurotransmitter systems and the results of recent brain imaging advances into the model. The following is a review and synthesis of the current literature regarding the various neurophysiological mechanisms and neurochemical substrates that underlie the complex processes of meditation. It is hoped that this model will provide hypotheses for future biological and clinical studies of meditation.

  16. Considerations of the chemical complexity of ETS with regard to inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C J; Smith, G

    1989-01-01

    Any inhalation study that investigates environmental tobacco smoke, ETS, is considering a very complex entity. ETS contains numerous chemicals that are continuously changing both in their absolute concentration, in the ratio of concentration between one and another, and even in their particulate to vapour phase distribution. Moreover, when considering ETS in real-life situations, many of the chemical components of ETS will be present as a result of sources other than tobacco smoking. This paper emphasises that the chemical and physical nature of ETS must be considered in the design and interpretation of any inhalation study on ETS, and illustrates the difficulty in defining precisely what constitutes ETS in such studies.

  17. Economic consideration of optimal vaccination distribution for epidemic Spreads in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    The main concern of epidemiological modeling is to implement an economical vaccine allocation to the population. Here, we investigate the optimal vaccination allocation in complex networks. We find that the optimal vaccine coverage depends not only on the relative cost of treatment to vaccination but also on the vaccine efficacy. Especially with a high cost of treatment, nodes with high degree are prioritized to vaccinate. These results may help us understand factors that may impact the optimal vaccination distribution in the control of epidemic dynamics.

  18. [Mainly abdominal "complex" polytrauma. Considerations on surgical strategy and clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Zito, Enzo Saverio; Romagnuolo, Giuseppe; Maglio, Mauro; La Rocca, Francesco; Castriconi, Maurizio; D'Ambrosio, Vito; Andreano, Mauro; Martino, Giovanni; Chianese, Francesco; Lassandro, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The Authors want to present un uncommon case of polytrauma managed with surgical treatment at the Trauma Center of the A. Cardarelli Hospital in Naples. Chest, abdomen, pelvis, and left lower limb have been severely injured. This case is so interesting because of the rareness of some lesions (i.e. diaphragm rupture) and the numerous lesions of internal organs (i.e. lungs, spleen, liver, pancreas, mesenterium) and of the bones (i.e. thigh-bone and pelvis). A very good outcome has been obtained for survival as well as for functionality and quality of life since we have strictly applied the rules for the management of the "complex" polytrauma. PMID:16910357

  19. Dental Treatment Considerations for Children with Complex Medical Histories: A Case of Townes-Brock Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elkaiali, Lujayn; Ratliff, Katelin; Oueis, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    It is common for oral health and dental care to be considered a lesser priority for children with complex medical histories than other aspects of their health care. Often, these patients are at a high risk for caries and infection due to poor oral health practices at home, special or restricted diets, and no early establishment of a dental home for routine dental care. Unfortunately, many of these patients present to their first dental visits with caries and require aggressive treatment, such as extractions instead of pulp therapy, or crowns instead of fillings, due to their high caries risk and the difficulty in safely managing them medically during treatment. A unique example of this occurred at the Children's Hospital of Michigan, where a patient with Townes-Brock syndrome (TBS) presented to the dental clinic with advanced caries. TBS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by major findings such as anomalies of the external ear, imperforate anus, renal malformations, and malformations of the hand. Like many medically complex cases, dental anomalies are not a direct consequence of TBS; however, due to the necessity of high calorie and high sugar feeding supplementation, many of these patients are at high risk for advanced dental caries. Due to this high caries risk, a more aggressive treatment plan is necessary to minimize the risk of recurrent decay and infection. It is critical to stress that even if the disease, syndrome, etc., of a patient does not have inherent dental consequences, it is imperative for regular dental care to be part of the comprehensive treatment plan for these patients. This includes the establishment of a dental home at a young age and proper oral health education of the patient's caregivers and their physicians. In the case of the patient with TBS, recommendations for daily brushing, especially after high sugar feedings was stressed, as well as the reduction of any other sweets within the diet. PMID:26882646

  20. Statistical considerations on the formation of circular photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Henry, Sarah; Cogdell, Richard J; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    Depending on growth conditions, some species of purple photosynthetic bacteria contain peripheral light-harvesting (LH2) complexes that are heterogeneous owing to the presence of different protomers (containing different αβ-apoproteins). Recent spectroscopic studies of Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown under low-light conditions suggest the presence of a C 3-symmetric LH2 nonamer comprised of two distinct protomers. The software program Cyclaplex, which enables generation and data-mining of virtual libraries of molecular rings formed upon combinatorial reactions, has been used to delineate the possible number and type of distinct nonamers as a function of numbers of distinct protomers. The yield of the C 3-symmetric nonamer from two protomers (A and B in varying ratios) has been studied under the following conditions: (1) statistical, (2) enriched (preclusion of the B-B sequence), and (3) seeded (pre-formation of an A-B-A block). The yield of C 3-symmetric nonamer is at most 0.98 % under statistical conditions versus 5.6 % under enriched conditions, and can be dominant under conditions of pre-seeding with an A-B-A block. In summary, the formation of any one specific nonamer even from only two protomers is unlikely on statistical grounds but must stem from enhanced free energy of formation or a directed assembly process by as-yet unknown factors.

  1. The complexities of defining optimal sleep: empirical and theoretical considerations with a special emphasis on children.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Sarah; Galland, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The main aim of this paper is to consider relevant theoretical and empirical factors defining optimal sleep, and assess the relative importance of each in developing a working definition for, or guidelines about, optimal sleep, particularly in children. We consider whether optimal sleep is an issue of sleep quantity or of sleep quality. Sleep quantity is discussed in terms of duration, timing, variability and dose-response relationships. Sleep quality is explored in relation to continuity, sleepiness, sleep architecture and daytime behaviour. Potential limitations of sleep research in children are discussed, specifically the loss of research precision inherent in sleep deprivation protocols involving children. We discuss which outcomes are the most important to measure. We consider the notion that insufficient sleep may be a totally subjective finding, is impacted by the age of the reporter, driven by socio-cultural patterns and sleep-wake habits, and that, in some individuals, the driver for insufficient sleep can be viewed in terms of a cost-benefit relationship, curtailing sleep in order to perform better while awake. We conclude that defining optimal sleep is complex. The only method of capturing this elusive concept may be by somnotypology, taking into account duration, quality, age, gender, race, culture, the task at hand, and an individual's position in both sleep-alert and morningness-eveningness continuums. At the experimental level, a unified approach by researchers to establish standardized protocols to evaluate optimal sleep across paediatric age groups is required.

  2. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit. PMID:26299123

  3. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  4. Facility design criteria AN/GSC-39(V) 1 Earth terminal complex fixed site configuration. Addendum 1. HEMP considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. A., Jr.; Chase, R. J.; Penar, J. D.

    1981-03-01

    This addendum provides high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) hardening design criteria for the AN/GSC-39 Earth Terminal Complex fixed site facilities. In addition to other criteria, this addendum is to be used for preparing construction plans and specifications for the Earth terminal complex. These HEMP criteria are based on two reports for HEMP hardening of the AN/FSC-78 Satellite Communications Terminal. The hardening measures developed in this Addendum will enhance protection for the digital communications subsystem.

  5. Methodological Considerations in Using Complex Survey Data: An Applied Example with the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; McWayne, Christine M.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Complex survey data are collected by means other than simple random samples. This creates two analytical issues: nonindependence and unequal selection probability. Failing to address these issues results in underestimated standard errors and biased parameter estimates. Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child…

  6. The Effect of Multiple Scaffolding Tools on Students' Understanding, Consideration of Different Perspectives, and Misconceptions of a Complex Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of multiple scaffolding tools in helping students understand a complex problem. In order to support students with this task, a multimedia learning environment was developed based on the cognitive flexibility theory (CFT) and scaffolding through computer-based tools. Seventy-nine 10th-grade students in an…

  7. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  8. Bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  9. Prosthodontic considerations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T D; Belser, U; Mericske-Stern, R

    2000-01-01

    The prosthodontic section of the 1997 ITI Consensus Conference in Vitznau, Switzerland, examined a broad spectrum of issues related to the prosthodontic phase of dental implant therapy. Topics included diagnosis and treatment planning, considerations for the use of ITI prosthodontic components, management of the partially edentulous patient, management of the edentulous patient, implant occlusion, and the use of narrow- and wide-body implants. The management of partially and totally edentulous patients will be discussed in separate papers. This paper is written so that each major consensus point discussed by the prosthodontic section is the first sentence of a paragraph. The remainder of each paragraph serves as background information or justification for the consensus statement. It should be noted that agreement on all points was reached by voting within the prosthodontic section. Many of the consensus statements were reached unanimously, while some were reached through compromise and split vote. Not all of the points presented here were presented to the plenum session on the final day of the conference. PMID:11168260

  10. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  11. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high molecular weight peaks than did plastic bottles. PMID:23416600

  12. Dolphin social intelligence: complex alliance relationships in bottlenose dolphins and a consideration of selective environments for extreme brain size evolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Connor, Richard C

    2007-04-29

    Bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, live in a large, unbounded society with a fission-fusion grouping pattern. Potential cognitive demands include the need to develop social strategies involving the recognition of a large number of individuals and their relationships with others. Patterns of alliance affiliation among males may be more complex than are currently known for any non-human, with individuals participating in 2-3 levels of shifting alliances. Males mediate alliance relationships with gentle contact behaviours such as petting, but synchrony also plays an important role in affiliative interactions. In general, selection for social intelligence in the context of shifting alliances will depend on the extent to which there are strategic options and risk. Extreme brain size evolution may have occurred more than once in the toothed whales, reaching peaks in the dolphin family and the sperm whale. All three 'peaks' of large brain size evolution in mammals (odontocetes, humans and elephants) shared a common selective environment: extreme mutual dependence based on external threats from predators or conspecific groups. In this context, social competition, and consequently selection for greater cognitive abilities and large brain size, was intense. PMID:17296597

  13. [Staghorn or complex calculi: surgical considerations].

    PubMed

    Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O

    2008-12-01

    It is recommended to treat staghorn calculi by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) either alone or in combination with Extra Corporeal Shockwave Lithotrips (ESWL). Antegrade or retrograde fibroscopy, multiple accesses could also improve PCNL stone-free rates. ESWL alone is limited to partial staghorn calculi in adults or to staghorn calculi in children. Open surgery has more or less completely passed.

  14. Prescribing in prison: complexities and considerations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Amanda

    2014-01-28

    Prescribing in prison is challenging because of environmental constraints, drug-seeking behaviour and the potential for drug trafficking. Risk management is, therefore, a fundamental part of the non-medical prescriber's role as he or she attempts to balance health needs with security requirements. This article highlights the need for an insightful, yet impartial, approach to prescribing for offenders.

  15. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  16. Regulatory Considerations for Biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or “biosimilars” in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved “similar” biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products. PMID:21829775

  17. Physiology Considerations in Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Alvis, Bret D; Hughes, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Physiology changes at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as people age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system develops higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system undergoes a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin levels, the gastrointestinal system experiences delayed gastric emptying and reduction of hepatic metabolism, and the renal system experiences a diminished glomerular filtration rate. Combined, these changes create a complex physiologic condition. This unique physiology must be taken into consideration for geriatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:26315630

  18. Anesthetic consideration for neurointerventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Joung, Kyung Woon; Yang, Ku Hyun; Shin, Won Jung; Song, Myung Hee; Ham, Kyungdon; Jung, Seung Chul; Lee, Deok Hee; Suh, Dae Chul

    2014-09-01

    Interventional neuroradiology (INR) has been a rapidly expanding and advancing clinical area during the past few decades. As the complexity and diversity of INR procedures increases, the demand for anesthesia also increases. Anesthesia for interventional neuroradiology is a challenge for the anesthesiologist due to the unfamiliar working environment which the anesthesiologist must consider, as well as the unique neuro-interventional components. This review provides an overview of the anesthetic options and specific consideration of the anesthesia requirements for each procedure. We also introduce the anesthetic management for interventional neuroradiology performed in our medical institution.

  19. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  20. Translational considerations for cancer nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephan T.; Hall, Jennifer B.; Yu, Lee L.; Wood, Laura J.; Paciotti, Giulio F.; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Long, Stephen E.; McNeil, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    There are many important considerations during preclinical development of cancer nanomedicines, including: 1) unique aspects of animal study design; 2) the difficulties in evaluating biological potency, especially for complex formulations; 3) the importance of analytical methods that can determine platform stability in vivo, and differentiate bound and free active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in biological matrices; and 4) the appropriateness of current dose scaling techniques for estimation of clinical first-in-man dose from preclinical data. Biologics share many commonalities with nanotechnology products with regard to complexity and biological attributes, and can, in some cases, provide context for dealing with these preclinical issues. In other instances, such as the case of in vivo stability analysis, new approaches are required. This paper will discuss the significance of these preclinical issues, and present examples of current methods and best practices for addressing them. Where possible, these recommendations are justified using the existing regulatory guidance literature. PMID:20385183

  1. Facility Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, William W.

    1967-01-01

    Increasing need for vocational education under the impetus of federal aid is generating a demand for vocational teaching facilities. Factors to be considered in planning these facilities inclued--(1) site development, (2) program needs, (3) administrative considerations, (4) environmental controls. (5) mechanical systems, and (6) area and space…

  2. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  3. High-luminosity considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    There appears to be some controversy over how high a luminosity one can use before a variety of detector limitations impose a practical limit. Factors leading to flux limitations for a variety of detector types are discussed, and practical considerations to extending those limits are reviewed. Also, a method of reducing the effects of pileup inherent in calorimeter use at L = 10/sup 33//cm/sup 2//sec is given.

  4. Fusion facility siting considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussell, G. T.

    1985-02-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. An important consideration in this regard is site selection. Major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion are examined.

  5. Practical considerations in aeroelastic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rommel, B. A.; Dodd, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The structural design process for large transport aircraft is described. Critical loads must be determined from a large number of load cases within the flight maneuver envelope. The structural design is also constrained by considerations of producibility, reliability, maintainability, durability, and damage tolerance, as well as impact dynamics and multiple constraints due to flutter and aeroelasticity. Aircraft aeroelastic design considerations in three distinct areas of product development (preliminary design, advanced design, and detailed design) are presented and contrasted. The present state of the art is challenged to solve the practical difficulties associated with design, analysis, and redesign within cost and schedule constraints. The current practice consists of largely independent engineering disciplines operating with unorganized data interfaces. The need is then demonstrated for a well-planned computerized aeroelastic structural design optimization system operating with a common interdisciplinary data base. This system must incorporate automated interfaces between modular programs. In each phase of the design process, a common finite-element model for static and dynamic optimization is required to reduce errors due to modeling discrepancies. As the design proceeds from the simple models in preliminary design to the more complex models in advanced and detailed design, a means of retrieving design data from the previous models must be established.

  6. Endoscopic considerations in children.

    PubMed

    Lobritto, S J

    2001-01-01

    Endoscopy often is required in the management of patients with chronic liver disease. Endoscopy in this pediatric population is a safe and effective diagnostic and therapeutic modality for the appropriate clinical situation. The clear advantage afforded by reduced-sized equipment, new anesthetic agents, better operator training, and specialized pediatric endoscopy units have resulted in better outcomes and reduced risk to the patient. Advances in technical innovations will expand the currently offered diagnostic and therapeutic options for management of pediatric with portal hypertension. This article reviews specific considerations for endoscopy in this demanding patient population. PMID:11175977

  7. Desegregation: Futuristic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.

    One premise of the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision was that racial injustice could be eliminated through court ordered desegregation. Twenty-three years after Brown I, segregation continues to be one of the most complex issues confronting the country. The failure to distinguish between means (busing school children) and ends…

  8. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  9. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  10. Ophthalmic considerations in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sushil; Chaudhary, Tarun; Aggarwal, S.; Maiti, G.D.; Jaiswal, Kulharsh; Yadav, Jairam

    2013-01-01

    The eyes are our window to the world and offer us an island of vision in the sea of darkness. Equally, the eyes are also a window to peep into what is going on in the milieu interior. Pregnancy is a natural state of physiological stress for the body. Each organ system of the body in a pregnant lady behaves at variation than in a non-pregnant state. A complex interplay exists between how the pregnancy affects the eye and how ocular physiology and pathology may lead to the modification of the management of pregnancy. Added to this is the effect of systemic conditions on the eye which gets modified by pregnancy. An awareness of the interaction of Ophthalmology and Obstetrics for the benefit of the mother and the child requires a basic understanding of these complex interactions. This article aims at presenting to the reader in a simplified and organized manner the common ophthalmic issues encountered in a pregnant woman, their management and the effect of various ophthalmic medication on the fetus. PMID:24600123

  11. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  12. [Postoperative digestive fistulas. Etiopathogenic considerations].

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Iulia; Stefan, S; Sirbu-Boeti, Mirela; Popescu, R; Burcoveanu, Ioana; Topală, Roxana; Burcoveanu, C

    2009-01-01

    The digestive fistula is one of the most serious complications that might appear following different types of resectional digestive surgery. This condition still carries a considerable morbidity and mortality rate and therefore all surgical and ICU staff pay a great deal of attention and intensify their care to avoid the fatalities. The postoperative digestive fistulas, through their physiopathological and clinical complexity induce the disturbance of the biological equilibrium with vital consequences. The trend of the last decades is the increasing of digestive fistulas incidence with a variable mortality rate after different authors. A therapeutic algorithm is needed. The mortality rate due to digestive fistulas, two decades ago was, around 60%; at the present there is a decrease of the mortality rate, which is around 10%. The explanation is the introduction of the new methods of treatment such as lactic acid lavage aspiration for alkaline fistulas or total parenteral nutrition, continuous enteral nutrition and antiexocrine chemotherapy. A fistula is a communication between two epithelial or endothelial surfaces, lined by granulation tissue. It can be a life-threatening condition. PMID:21495307

  13. Anatomic Considerations in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of the complex anatomic variants comprising the frontal sinus outflow tract is essential for successful surgical intervention. Deviation from sound technique increases the potential for a variety of deleterious sequelae, including recurrent disease as well as catastrophic intracranial and orbital injury. Furthermore, incomplete removal of elements occluding the frontal recess can result in severe stenosis that can increase the difficulty of further interventions. This review covers anatomic considerations that should be kept in mind when performing frontal sinus surgery. PMID:27329978

  14. Safety Considerations in Design of Spacecraft Hatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Johnson, Gary W.

    2010-09-01

    Human spaceflight missions have grown longer and more complex as international spaceflight programs have evolved. This has presented additional safety considerations in the design of hatches for habitable spacecraft. One important decision in the design of spacecraft is whether to use pressure-sealing hatches that open inward(i.e., internal cabin pressure keeps the hatch sealed on orbit) or hatches that open outward(i.e., facilitates crew egress during pre-launch and post-landing events). This paper will explore safety considerations that influence that decision, as well as hazards associated with hatches. Safety considerations include mission duration, mission profile(relatively short sorties to ISS versus extended journeys to the Moon or planets), intended usage(e.g., flight and ground crew ingress/egress during ground phases, flight crew ingress/egress during EVA, or inter-spacecraft access during docked operations), reliability/complexity(usually involving mechanisms and/or pyrotechnics), and off-nominal ground ingress/egress(how many crew members must egress within a specified length of time under what circumstances). In addition, this paper will provide a historical survey of hatch designs for manned spacecraft, including a brief list of incidents involving hatches.

  15. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  16. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  17. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  18. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  19. The complex 'whole': exploring homoeopathic and spiritual considerations.

    PubMed

    Bell, F

    2000-04-01

    Unlike the biomedical model, holistic health care takes a much broader view of what constitutes health and the responsibility for helping restore an individual's health. Homoeopathy addresses the physical, mental and emotional aspects of the whole individual, while alternative practices such as yoga, hypnotherapy and meditation can be described as 'functional' spiritual practices which demonstrate the taking of personal responsibility for health care to the individual.

  20. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  1. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  2. [Considerations on aging in Cuba].

    PubMed

    López Fernández, R

    1996-12-01

    This article presents some considerations about how the elderly Cuban population is behaving and the challenges for the near future. It also offers information on the main characteristics of the old woman in Cuba.

  3. Theoretical Considerations for Project Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles E.; Johnson, Cecil G.

    This bulletin is a reprint of Part 3 of the College of Education, University of Georgia's proposal to the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education (USOE) to undertake a feasibility study of the Georgia educational model (Johnson, 1969). It is a discussion of the theoretical considerations underlying procedures which…

  4. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  5. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration.

  6. Prosthetic considerations in reconstructive implantology.

    PubMed

    Finger, I M; Guerra, L R

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment planning are essential prior to the placement of any dental implant. An overview of prosthodontic considerations in the restoration of such implants is presented in this article. Concepts for both the edentulous and partially edentulous mouth are discussed.

  7. Basic Considerations in Interviewing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Rick L.

    This manual summarizes and highlights basic considerations in interviewing children. The relationship between interviewing for data collection and interviewing within the counseling or psychotherapeutic context is discussed. The Interviewer's Functional Checklist is presented to provide a method for self-evaluating interviewer behavior, and for…

  8. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  9. Considerations when collecting coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Olechiw, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    There are several applications in the handling of coal in which capturing coal dust is important. They are in pulverizing operations at belt conveyor transfer points and pneumatic conveying receivers. In each case the processing and handling of coal generates considerable dust which is suspended in the air. Health and safety, environmental considerations and good housekeeping practices dictate that the suspended coal dust be captured, contained and transferred for re-use or disposal. It is no longer acceptable practice to expose operating personnel to breathing dust (OSSA regulations). In addition particulate emissions are being more closely regulated both in total mass and particle size (PM-10 legislation). In general dusty environments reduce the efficiency of operating equipment by fouling bearings and rollers, increasing friction, clogging air filters and increasing wear and tear on equipment and energy costs. Of paramount concern is the fact that spontaneous combustion can occur where coal dust accumulates on horizontal surfaces.

  10. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  11. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  12. Physiology Considerations in the Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Alvis, Bret D.; Hughes, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis A person’s physiology is ever-changing at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as they age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system result in higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system result in a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin, the gastrointestinal system result in delayed gastric emptying with a reduction of hepatic metabolism, and the renal system experiences a diminished glomerular filtration rate. All these changes are variable from patient to patient; however, combined, they create a complex physiological condition. This unique physiology must be taken into consideration for a geriatric patient undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:26315630

  13. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  14. Considerations for Calibrating a Laser Doppler Anemometer

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Michael L; Keck, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometers have long been the device-of-choice for air velocity measurements due to their avoidance of turbulence induced by insertion-method air velocity measurement devices. At first glance, the use of a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) for calibrating air velocity meters appears to be a relatively simple and straightforward process. As is typical in most metrological applications the process becomes much more complex when attempting to use the apparatus to make high-performance, metrology measurements. This paper focuses on the considerations for calibration of a LDA beginning with a discussion why an LDA needs to be calibrated. Other areas of discussion include alignment of the optics, dealing with imperfections in the alignment process, establishing the traceability of measurements from the apparatus and design and development of and experiences with using a calibration apparatus.

  15. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement.

  16. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  17. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  18. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  19. Health Considerations in Female Runners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian Y; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2016-02-01

    Female participation in running is at a historical high. Special consideration should be given to this population, in whom suboptimal nutritional intake, menstrual irregularity, and bone stress injury are common. Immature athletes should garner particular attention. Advances in the understanding of the Triad and Triad-related conditions have largely informed the approach to the health of this population. Clinicians should be well versed in the identification of Triad-related risk factors. A multidisciplinary team may be necessary for the optimal treatment of at-risk runners. Nonpharmacologic strategies to increase energy availability in athletes should be used as first-line treatment. PMID:26616182

  20. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  1. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  2. Defect mitigation considerations for EUV photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Capelli, Renzo; Blumrich, Frederik; Magnusson, Krister; Waiblinger, Markus; Scheruebl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Goldstein, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into manufacturing requires changes in all aspects of the infrastructure, including the photomask. EUV reflective masks consist of a sophisticated multilayer (ML) mirror, capping layer, absorber layer, and anti-reflective coating thereby dramatically increasing the complexity of the photomask. In addition to absorber type defects similar to those the industry was forced to contend with for deep ultraviolet lithography, the complexity of the mask leads to new classes of ML defects. Furthermore, these approaches are complicated not only by the mask itself but also by unique aspects associated with the exposure of the photomask by the EUV scanner. This paper focuses on the challenges for handling defects associated with inspection, review, and repair for EUV photomasks. Blank inspection and pattern shifting, two completely new steps within the mask manufacturing process that arise from these considerations, and their relationship to mask review and repair are discussed. The impact of shadowing effects on absorber defect repair height is taken into account. The effect of mask biasing and the chief ray angle rotation due to the scanner slit arc shape will be discussed along with the implications of obtaining die-to-die references for inspection and repair. The success criteria for compensational repair of ML defects will be reviewed.

  3. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  4. Safety considerations in clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Scott, R N; Paasche, P E

    1986-01-01

    Clinical engineering is a professional specialty which emerged in the 1960s primarily in response to concern about the hazard of electrocution in hospitals. It has already developed to encompass a much broader range of topics affecting the safe and effective use of technology in health care. However, safety remains as one major focus of clinical engineering. In this paper, issues arising in relation to electrical safety and treated in considerable detail. The next major safety area of concern involves medical gases. This area is newer and, consequently, the issues are less well resolved and therefore it is treated in less detail. Other safety issues, which are numerous, await review at some time in the future.

  5. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.E.; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  6. Cultural variation: considerations and implications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D

    2001-07-01

    Cultural systems vary widely across the world. Partly this is due to different cultures' occupying different ecological and environmental niches. But partly it is due to similar circumstances giving rise to multiple stable equilibriums, each with a distinct cultural form. Using insights and examples from various fields, this article illustrates the way that multiple equilibriums can emerge and the forces that push a culture toward one equilibrium point or another. Considerations of game theory principles, mutual interdependence, historical circumstance, dependence on initial conditions, and crucial choice points are highlighted in discussing the ways humans create and re-create their culture. Cultural traits develop within physical, social, intracultural, and intercultural niches, and implications of this for how culture might be studied and the benefits of combining an "equilibrium" perspective and a "meaning" perspective are discussed. PMID:11439707

  7. P value interpretations and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ronna, Brenden; Ott, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification. PMID:27747028

  8. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  9. Canonical considerations in corporate restructuring.

    PubMed

    Holland, S

    1985-03-01

    Religious institutes sponsoring Catholic health facilities face competitive economic pressures that impel them to seek corporate restructuring and joint ventures to fulfill their mission to the poor. They especially must look to the Church's Code of Canon Law to protect ecclesiastical goods and maintain their Catholic identity when entering such ventures. The U.S. bishops directives also assist in guaranteeing patient expectations that the health facility will observe the Church's ethical principles. Institutes first must ensure that subsidiaries will operate according to Catholic mission and philosophy. The canons delineate proper protection of assets and identify ends toward which the religious must apply temporal goods, such as supporting clergy and performing charitable works. Alienation, or conveyance of goods, is a critical consideration in such financial transactions; canons specify the institute's administrative limits and require superiors' written permission along with their councils' consent. All involved must be "thoroughly informed concerning the economic situation," show "just cause" for the transaction, and obtain expert estimates of property values. Religious administrators retain certain faith and executive obligations, such as amending the charter, appointing the board, and merging or dissolving the corporation. With the canons they help to ensure that collaborative efforts preserve the institute's corporate mission and allow religious to carry out their responsibility for ecclesiastical goods. Though alternatives to corporate ventures may be limited, options regarding how to structure and with whom to affiliate do exist. Sponsoring bodies dedicated to providing high-quality care must explore these options

  10. Pharmacogenomic considerations in opioid analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Vuilleumier, Pascal H; Stamer, Ulrike M; Landau, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Translating pharmacogenetics to clinical practice has been particularly challenging in the context of pain, due to the complexity of this multifaceted phenotype and the overall subjective nature of pain perception and response to analgesia. Overall, numerous genes involved with the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of opioids response are candidate genes in the context of opioid analgesia. The clinical relevance of CYP2D6 genotyping to predict analgesic outcomes is still relatively unknown; the two extremes in CYP2D6 genotype (ultrarapid and poor metabolism) seem to predict pain response and/or adverse effects. Overall, the level of evidence linking genetic variability (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) to oxycodone response and phenotype (altered biotransformation of oxycodone into oxymorphone and overall clearance of oxycodone and oxymorphone) is strong; however, there has been no randomized clinical trial on the benefits of genetic testing prior to oxycodone therapy. On the other hand, predicting the analgesic response to morphine based on pharmacogenetic testing is more complex; though there was hope that simple genetic testing would allow tailoring morphine doses to provide optimal analgesia, this is unlikely to occur. A variety of polymorphisms clearly influence pain perception and behavior in response to pain. However, the response to analgesics also differs depending on the pain modality and the potential for repeated noxious stimuli, the opioid prescribed, and even its route of administration. PMID:23226064

  11. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  14. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real...

  15. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  16. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  17. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    PubMed

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  18. Percutaneous penetration--methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-07-01

    Studies on percutaneous penetration are needed to assess the hazards after unintended occupational skin exposures to industrial products as well as the efficacy after intended consumer exposure to topically applied medicinal or cosmetic products. During recent decades, a number of methods have been developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present MiniReview discusses some of the existing and well-known experimental in vitro and in vivo methods for studies of percutaneous penetration together with some more recent and promising methods. After this, some considerations and recommendations about advantages and limitations of the different methods and their relevance for the prediction of percutaneous penetration are given. Which method to prefer will depend on the product to be tested and the question asked. Regulatory guidelines exist for studies on percutaneous penetration, but researchers as well as regulatory bodies need to pay specific attention to the vehicles and solvents used in donor and sampling fluids so that it reflects in-use conditions as closely as possible. Based on available experimental data, mathematical models have been developed to aid predictions of skin penetration. The authors question the general use of the present mathematical models in hazard assessment, as they seem to ignore outliers among chemicals as well as the heterogeneity of skin barrier properties and skin conditions within the exposed populations. PMID:24373389

  19. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets.

  20. Ethical considerations in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, J D; Rhodes, R; Springfield, D S

    2000-01-01

    Because our actions as physicians have far-reaching consequences, and because society allows us to do things to others that no one else is free to do, physicians' professional activities fall under the domain of ethical evaluation. We are charged with the obligation to use specialized scientific knowledge, to work in concert with others, and to act for the good of our patients. In fact, acting for the good of our patients is the central tenet of ethical medical behavior. What constitutes the good of the patient, however, is not always clear. In general, we act to limit disease, restore function, alleviate suffering, and prolong life. We understand fully, however, that these goals may conflict with one another. Judgment about what is right for a particular patient leads us to another crucial consideration of ethical behavior, namely, respect for patient autonomy. We recognize that individuals have the right to control their own destiny. Patients have a right, therefore, to make choices about their medical care. As physicians, we must respect those rights. As such, certain ethical behavior is expected of us. We must be honest with our patients. We must provide them with accurate information on which to base their decisions. We must convey to them information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, even when it is unpleasant to do so. We must be open about our expertise and level of training for a particular procedure. We must respect their privacy and their right to withhold information even from family and friends. In short, we must respect their choices, even if we may disagree with those choices. To truly respect patient autonomy is to understand that, ultimately, the final decision lies with the patient. PMID:10829220

  1. Considerations on causality in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Causality has been a topic of debate by philosophers, scientists, lawyers and for centuries. It is essential to define as precisely as possible all steps in the logical chain of events, since each may strengthen or confound an argument. Almost always there are issues of missing and conflicting data that need to be addressed specifically. In pharmacovigilance, as in many other situations, there is not just one possible causation for an effect but several. Each must be evaluated in the given context for probability. There is also likely to be a causal chain of events to the adverse effect under consideration, and each must be considered. In an individual patient diagnosis the components of patient history, clinical findings and various laboratory test findings are combined to point to the probability of the patho-physiological diagnosis, which in turn is related to possible causes with a strength determined by the constellation of findings. The established Bradford-Hill criteria are valuable in considering all the possible causal factors. Pharmacoepidemiology allows for population incidences of causes for particular effects and therefore provides an a priori probability listing for competing possible causes, or at least of one possible cause against the background of all others in a control group. Since adverse effects of medicines are generally rare, it is not possible to exclude drug causation in an individual by reliance on epidemiological evidence alone, only to argue that the incidence is below a level determined by statistical power, of the study or studies combined. Other areas of society are concerned with the process of causal inference, and this is especially true in legal cases in which judgements are made on possible personal injury by drugs.

  2. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  3. Operative considerations for rectovaginal fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Kniery, Kevin R; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    To describe the etiology, anatomy and pathophysiology of rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs); and to describe a systematic surgical approach to help achieve optimal outcomes. A current review of the literature was performed to identify the most up-to-date techniques and outcomes for repair of RVFs. RVFs present a difficult problem that is frustrating for patients and surgeons alike. Multiple trips to the operating room are generally needed to resolve the fistula, and the recurrence rate approaches 40% when considering all of the surgical options. At present, surgical options range from collagen plugs and endorectal advancement flaps to sphincter repairs or resection with colo-anal reconstruction. There are general principles that will allow the best chance for resolution of the fistula with the least morbidity to the patient. These principles include: resolving the sepsis, identifying the anatomy, starting with least invasive surgical options, and interposing healthy tissue for complex or recurrent fistulas. PMID:26328032

  4. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration.

    PubMed

    Thuot, P J; Harbaugh, G J

    1995-07-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented. PMID:11541312

  5. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  6. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  7. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example. PMID:16198459

  8. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration.

    PubMed

    Thuot, P J; Harbaugh, G J

    1995-07-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented.

  9. Geomorphic considerations for erosion prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Current soil-erosion prediction technology addresses processes of rainsplash, overland-flow sediment transport, and rill erosion in small watersheds. The effects of factors determining sediment yield from larger-scale drainage basins, in which sediment movement is controlled by the combined small-scale processes and a complex set of channel and other basin-scale sediment-delivery processes, such as soil creep, bioturbation, and accelerated erosion due to denudation of vegetation, have been poorly evaluated. General suggestions are provided for the development of erosion-prediction technology at the geomorphic or drainage-basin scale based on the separation of sediment-yield data for channel and geomorphic processes from those of field-scale soil loss. An emerging technology must consider: (1) the effects on sediment yield of climate, geology and soils, topography, biotic interactions with other soil processes, and land-use practices; (2) all processes of sediment delivery to a channel system; and (3) the general tendency in most drainage basins for progressively greater sediment storage in the downstream direction.

  10. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  11. Ethical considerations in dermatologic photography.

    PubMed

    Lakdawala, Nikita; Fontanella, Demian; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    In dermatology, clinical photographs are an essential component of patient care, enabling clinicians to document changes in skin pathology over time. Recent advances in digital technology and the electronic medical record have revolutionized clinical photography; however, these advances bring with them new ethical, legal, and social concerns. Photographs, more than other forms of documentation, have the potential to make patients uncomfortable. The act of photography, especially for those images requiring exposure of the genital area or the entire body, can be an uncomfortable experience for patients, necessitating the clinician and photographer to take an empathic stance in this setting. The Internet has elicited an increasing, and a very real, concern for patients about possible distribution and use of images outside of their individual care. The clinician and staff can allay these fears by professionally and empathetically addressing their concerns. In addition, it is important that patients receive appropriate informed consent about clinical photographs and the potential use of the images in their care, education, and research. Given the multitude of methods for recording clinical photographs, combined with the increasing complexity of image storage, standardization becomes a critical tool in providing consistency among images and achieving more equitable and efficacious care. To achieve this goal and improve the baseline standard of continuity of care for dermatological practices, we review the role of photographs, develop a model for patient consent, and establish standards for photography so as to provide the most ethical care for the patient.

  12. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  13. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations.

    PubMed

    Welshman, A

    2005-01-01

    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  14. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Coninx, Rudi

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes. PMID:17768523

  15. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  16. Getting causal considerations back on the right track

    PubMed Central

    Höfler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In their commentary on my paper Phillips and Goodman suggested that counterfactual causality and considerations on causality like those by Bradford Hill are only "guideposts on the road to common sense". I argue that if common sense is understood to mean views that the vast majority of researchers share, Hill's considerations did not lead to common sense in the past – precisely because they are so controversial. If common sense is taken to mean beliefs that are true, then Hill's considerations can only lead to common sense in the simple and well-understood causal systems they apply to. Counterfactuals, however, are largely common sense in the latter meaning. I suggest that the road of scientific endeavour should lead epidemiologic research toward sound strategies that equip researchers with skills to separate causal from non-causal associations with minimal error probabilities. This is undeniably the right direction and the one counterfactual causality leads to. Hill's considerations are merely heuristics with which epidemiologists may or may not find this direction, and they are likely to fail in complex landscapes (causal systems). In such environments, one might easily lose orientation without further aids (e.g., defendable assumptions on biases). Counterfactual causality tells us when and how to apply these heuristics. PMID:16854222

  17. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  18. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set... may waive the monetary limit in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section where the applicant proposes...

  19. 12 CFR 308.157 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 308.157 Section 308.157 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures and Standards Applicable to an Application Pursuant to Section 19 of the FDIA § 308.157 Relevant considerations....

  20. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set... the policies of the Act. (2) Specific unacceptable programs. The Maritime Administrator will not...

  1. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  2. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the...

  4. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed... extent that the Commission finds that, as a matter of law: (i) The decision of the MSPB constitutes...

  5. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Processing of Submissions § 51.34 Expedited consideration. (a) When a submitting authority...

  6. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National... Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army is... receipts unless otherwise authorized by law. Reimbursement for utilities and services furnished to...

  7. 49 CFR 209.119 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.119 Section 209.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Penalties § 209.119 Assessment considerations. The assessment of a civil penalty under § 209.117 is...

  8. 49 CFR 209.329 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.329 Section 209.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Assessment considerations. (a) Proof of a respondent's willful violation of one of the requirements of...

  9. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  10. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  11. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  12. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  13. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  14. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  15. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in...

  16. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1)...

  17. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1)...

  18. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  19. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  20. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  1. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  2. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  3. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  4. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  5. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  6. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  7. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  8. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  10. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  12. 16 CFR 1061.3 - Statutory considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory considerations. 1061.3 Section... PREEMPTION § 1061.3 Statutory considerations. (a) The Commission's statutory preemption provisions provide... made unenforceable, if both are designed to protect against the same risk of injury or illness,...

  13. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  15. 14 CFR 25.795 - Security considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this document under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (2) You may review copies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security considerations. 25.795 Section 25... § 25.795 Security considerations. (a) Protection of flightcrew compartment. If a flightdeck door...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  17. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) directs that a five point...

  18. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) directs that a five point...

  19. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  20. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  1. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  2. Consideration of VT5 etch-based OPC modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChinTeong; Temchenko, Vlad; Kaiser, Dieter; Meusel, Ingo; Schmidt, Sebastian; Schneider, Jens; Niehoff, Martin

    2008-03-01

    Including etch-based empirical data during OPC model calibration is a desired yet controversial decision for OPC modeling, especially for process with a large litho to etch biasing. While many OPC software tools are capable of providing this functionality nowadays; yet few were implemented in manufacturing due to various risks considerations such as compromises in resist and optical effects prediction, etch model accuracy or even runtime concern. Conventional method of applying rule-based alongside resist model is popular but requires a lot of lengthy code generation to provide a leaner OPC input. This work discusses risk factors and their considerations, together with introduction of techniques used within Mentor Calibre VT5 etch-based modeling at sub 90nm technology node. Various strategies are discussed with the aim of better handling of large etch bias offset without adding complexity into final OPC package. Finally, results were presented to assess the advantages and limitations of the final method chosen.

  3. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  4. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  5. Methodological considerations in the study of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Susan; Taylor, Sandra; Otlowski, Margaret; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Stranger, Mark; Chenoweth, Kellie

    2004-01-01

    The potential significance and dimensions of genetic discrimination have been described extensively in published literature, but epidemiological and verified case data are limited. Obtaining unbiased data from individuals about discrimination which has been based on erroneous or unjustifiable assumptions about their genetic predispositions poses unique challenges. Through review and discussion of research literature, we identify methodological considerations for collecting valid epidemiological data on genetic discrimination from individuals in the community; in particular, we consider issues which relate to sampling, selection and response. We identify issues to promote sound study design, with particular attention to verification of genetic discrimination, and highlight the importance of clinical and genetic knowledge of complex genotype-phenotype relationships.

  6. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  7. CSM RCS Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Define major Command and Service Module (CSM) design considerations; b) List Command Module (CM) RCS failures and lessons learned; and c) List Service Module (SM) RCS failures and lessons learned.

  8. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD § 51.8 Relevant considerations. In determining the equity and propriety of... applicant's capability to serve, the DRB considers such factors as the applicant's age and...

  9. Aggressive dogs: assessment and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2008-05-01

    The question of what to do with an aggressive dog involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This first column on the subject addresses the clinical aspects from the standpoint of the general veterinarian. PMID:18581290

  10. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  11. Surgery Considerations for Adults and Children

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery Considerations for Adults and Children 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... orbdnrc@nof.org Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue Suite 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel (800) ...

  12. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  13. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  14. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  15. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  16. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  17. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  18. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  19. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  20. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... natives; Asian or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, and Blacks, not of Hispanic Origin. The special consideration element is provided as one of several evaluation criteria contained in the regulations at 15...

  1. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  2. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  3. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  4. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  5. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  6. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  7. Considerations for Future Climate Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P. T.; Chapman, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, we will describe the lessons learned based on processing and generating a decade of gridded AIRS and MODIS IR sounding data. We describe the challenges faced in accessing and sharing very large data sets, maintaining data provenance under evolving technologies, obtaining access to legacy calibration data and the permanent preservation of Earth science data records for on demand services. These lessons suggest a new approach to data stewardship will be required for the next decade of hyper spectral instruments combined with cloud resolving models. It will not be sufficient for stewards of future data centers to just provide the public with access to archived data but our experience indicates that data needs to reside close to computers with ultra large disc farms and tens of thousands of processors to deliver complex services on demand over very high speed networks much like the offerings of search engines today. Over the first decade of the 21st century, petabyte data records were acquired from the AIRS instrument on Aqua and the MODIS instrument on Aqua and Terra. NOAA data centers also maintain petabytes of operational IR sounders collected over the past four decades. The UMBC Multicore Computational Center (MC2) developed a Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance gridding system (SOAR) to allow users to select IR sounding instruments from multiple archives and choose space-time- spectral periods of Level 1B data to download, grid, visualize and analyze on demand. Providing this service requires high data rate bandwidth access to the on line disks at Goddard. After 10 years, cost effective disk storage technology finally caught up with the MODIS data volume making it possible for Level 1B MODIS data to be available on line. However, 10Ge fiber optic networks to access large volumes of data are still not available from CSFC to serve the broader community. Data transfer rates are well below 10MB/s limiting their usefulness for climate studies. During

  8. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  9. Federal Budget Considerations for Colleges, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document highlights federal budget considerations for colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. A key focus of the budget is the Federal Government's Canadian Opportunities Strategy, which supports the acquisition of skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. The budget's emphasis on education over other social…

  10. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  11. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  12. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  13. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law, contracting officers shall consider including, as a factor in source selection, the extent to which...

  14. Testing the Receptive Skills: Some Basic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L.

    1984-01-01

    Reacts to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," concentrating on three areas: (1) the nature of the receptive skills and the requirements of a valid instrument to measure them, (2) the design features that are consistent with his test design principles, and (3) adaptive testing procedures.…

  15. Practical Considerations in Receptive Skills Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," focusing on the third section, "Suggestions for improvements in receptive language testing." Considers such areas as: (1) level descriptions for academic use, (2) item and item types, and (3) validation. (SED)

  16. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., when added to the amount of the monetary payment to be made by the lessee, must equal the appraised... academic instructions, through high school level, at no monetary consideration. Where bare land is leased... performed by the lessee as part of the lease obligations. It is the policy of the DA that land leased...

  17. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS...

  18. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  19. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  20. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  1. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  2. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  3. Saturn V - Design Considerations and Launch Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Understand some of the design considerations that went into creating the Saturn V launch vehicle; b) Gain an appreciation for some of the manufacturing issues concerning the Saturn V; and c) Review three major problems that affected Saturn V launches.

  4. Statistical considerations in designing raptor surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Careful sampling design is required to obtain useful estimates of raptor abundance. Well-defined objectives, selection of appropriate sample units and sampling scheme, and attention to detail to reduce extraneous sources of variability and error are all important considerations in designing a raptor survey.

  5. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  6. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  8. Conversion Therapy: Ethical Considerations in Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…

  9. 49 CFR 107.331 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 107.331 Section 107.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.331 Assessment...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.41 - Disclosure considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure considerations. 806b.41 Section 806b.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION....mil/pubfiles/af/33/afi33-329/afi33-329.pdf....

  11. 7 CFR 1786.203 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special considerations. 1786.203 Section 1786.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Refinancing and Prepayment of RUS Guaranteed FFB Loans Pursuant to Section 306(C) of the RE Act §...

  12. Some Ethical Considerations Regarding Scholarly Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Gordon; Mallory, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Discusses ethical considerations and possible censorship that can accompany technological advances in the transmission of information among scholars. Topics addressed include academic ethics and academic library ethics; peer review and scholarly communication; controversies and the selection of library materials; academic whistle blowers; and…

  13. SEU and Test Considerations for FPGA Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Malanie

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), what they are, implementations in space missions, and current available technologies. Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and Single Event Transients (SETs) are discussed in relation to their effects on FPGAs. Testing goals, considerations, and data analysis are reviewed.

  14. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  15. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  16. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  17. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  18. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  19. Patient safety considerations regarding dermal filler injections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jill K

    2006-01-01

    Today's population is seeking procedures that enhance or improve its appearance, that require little or no downtime, and that provide immediate results. Dermal filler injections are among the top five procedures performed for this purpose. Patient safety must remain the ultimate goal of any practitioner delivering such procedures. This column will examine pertinent safety considerations in relation to the delivery of dermal filler injections.

  20. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  1. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    PubMed

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  2. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  3. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  4. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  5. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  6. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion...

  7. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16...

  8. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  9. 48 CFR 2944.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 2944.202-2 Section 2944.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... the contracting officer, and included in the contract file....

  10. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  11. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  12. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., AND PENALTIES § 391.2 Equitable considerations. For reasons of equity and good conscience, late charges may be waived under the circumstances identified in this section. (a) Where, without fault or bad... waiver provision in 4 CFR 102.13(g) may be extended. Such waiver will be considered on a...

  13. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND PENALTIES § 391.2 Equitable considerations. For reasons of equity and good conscience, late charges may be waived under the circumstances identified in this section. (a) Where, without fault or bad... waiver provision in 4 CFR 102.13(g) may be extended. Such waiver will be considered on a...

  14. Our Television--Conceptions and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hase, Karl-Gunther

    1978-01-01

    In response to public criticism of television broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany, audience dependency, network research findings, and broadcasting's role in society are discussed. A policy of unbiased programing in consideration of party-political pressure is reaffirmed, and some orientation points for future television work are…

  15. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the...

  16. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  17. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development...

  18. 7 CFR 1942.310 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Other considerations. 1942.310 Section 1942.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development...

  20. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development...

  1. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a..., EISs, RODs, and documents prepared according to E.O. 12114. (b) Evaluate proposed actions for possible CATEX from environmental impact analysis (appendix B). (c) Make environmental documents, comments,...

  2. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  3. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  5. Existential Considerations for Contemporary Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This article was written to remind career counselors of the potential depth and subjective impact of both unemployment and employment transitions. An existential framework is used in discussing today's world of work, previous and contemporary career counseling models, existential theory in career counseling, and existential considerations for…

  6. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316...

  7. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section...

  8. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared, circulated among interested Federal, State and local agencies, and... agency, until the required EIS has be submitted to the EPA unless a “Finding of No Significant Impact... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section...

  9. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the National... Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508); and certain other... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to comply with 7 CFR part 1794, which sets forth applicable requirements of the National... Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508); and certain other... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section...

  11. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  12. 10 CFR 72.90 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 72.90 Section 72.90 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation...

  13. Fourteenth Amendment Considerations and Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Joyce

    The implementation of any competency testing program must take into consideration the due process clause and the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Examples of the violation of the due process clause would be to implement a testing program without adequate notice or to cover material not taught. Instructional validity must be…

  14. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  15. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  16. Single-port laparoscopy: Considerations in children

    PubMed Central

    Ponsky, Todd A; Krpata, David M

    2011-01-01

    As the quest to minimize scars from surgery continues, innovative methods of surgery, including single-port surgery, have come to the forefront. Here, we review considerations for surgery in children with particular attention to appendectomy and cholecystectomy. We discuss the future technologies that will aid in single-port surgery and how they apply to the paediatric population. PMID:21197252

  17. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity.

  18. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  19. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  20. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  1. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  2. Plantar fasciitis: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Roxas, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition can have a dramatic impact on physical mobility. The etiology of this condition is not clearly understood and is probably multi-factorial in nature. Weight gain, occupation-related activity, anatomical variations, poor biomechanics, overexertion, and inadequate footwear are contributing factors. Although plantar fasciitis is generally regarded as a self-limited condition, it can take months to years to resolve, presenting a challenge for clinicians. Many treatment options are available that demonstrate variable levels of efficacy. Conservative therapies include rest and avoidance of potentially aggravating activities, stretching and strengthening exercises, orthotics, arch supports, and night splinting. Other considerations include use of anti-inflammatory agents, ultrasonic shockwave therapy, and, in the most extreme cases, surgery. This article reviews plantar fasciitis, presents the most effective treatment options currently available, and proposes nutritional considerations that may be beneficial in the management of this condition.

  3. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment.

  4. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. PMID:27534590

  5. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  6. Anaesthetic consideration for neonatal surgical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Pani, Nibedita; Panda, Chinmaya K

    2012-09-01

    A newborn requires constant vigilance, rapid recognition of the events and swift intervention during anaesthesia. The anaesthetic considerations in neonatal surgical emergencies are based on the physiological immaturity of various body systems, poor tolerance of the anaesthetic drugs, associated congenital disorders and considerations regarding the use of high concentration of oxygen. The main goal is for titration of anaesthetics to desired effects, while carefully monitoring of the cardiorespiratory status. The use of regional anaesthesia has shown to be safe and effective. Advancements in neonatology have resulted in the improvement of the survival of the premature and critically ill newborn babies. Most of the disorders previously considered as neonatal surgical emergencies in the past no longer require immediate surgery due to new technology and new methods of treating sick neonates. This article describes the common neonatal surgical emergencies and focuses on factors that affect the anaesthetic management of patients with these disorders.

  7. Medical considerations for the master athlete.

    PubMed

    Arlis-Mayor, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    As the American population ages, older adults are likely to continue their active lifestyles including participation in high-level competitive sports. Physicians caring for the older athlete will need to guide activity and return-to-play to optimize the athlete's performance, as well as safely support their physical and mental health. Many medical concerns of the older athlete have the same etiology and treatment as those of their younger counterpart However, there are medical considerations of the mature athlete that are unique to this population. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the medical considerations that may arise in the care of the older athlete. For the purpose of this review, the mature athlete is de!ned as an individual over the age of 40, who participates in sport at a competitive level.

  8. Prosthodontic Considerations in Post-cancer Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Boonsiriphant, Piriya; Hirsch, Joel A; Greenberg, Alex M; Genden, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    The restoration of function after oncologic surgery of the oral cavity constitutes one of the major challenges facing head and neck oncology. Within the general objective of securing esthetic as well as functional reconstructions, dental rehabilitation is crucial for achieving a good outcome. Adequate dental rehabilitation allows the patient to chew food and considerably improves speech and swallowing. These reconstructions will be driven biologically or prosthetically following surgical design and outcome. PMID:25951959

  9. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  10. Legal Considerations for Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Sherry; Hoffman, Andrew L

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) solutions provide many potential benefits for dental practices, whether those programs run internally on a dental practice's computers or are cloud-based solutions. However, these programs also create new risks for a dental practice, which may be mitigated through due diligence and adequate contractual provisions to ensure protection for dentists. This article addresses the legal considerations associated with a dentist entering into a service contract with an EHR vendor.

  11. Ethical Considerations of Whole-Eye Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sivak, Wesley N; Davidson, Edward H; Komatsu, Chiaki; Li, Yang; Miller, Maxine R; Schuman, Joel S; Solari, Mario G; Magill, Gerard; Washington, Kia M

    2016-01-01

    Whole eye transplantation (WET) remains experimental. Long presumed impossible, recent scientific advances regarding WET suggest that it may become a clinical reality. However, the ethical implications of WET as an experimental therapeutic strategy remain largely unexplored. This article evaluates the ethical considerations surrounding WET as an emerging experimental treatment for vision loss. A thorough review of published literature pertaining to WET was performed; ethical issues were identified during review of the articles. PMID:27045309

  12. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  13. Researching children: some methodological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I T

    1998-09-01

    This paper examines some of the methodological issues and ethical considerations in researching children. Collecting data from children raises issues of informed consent, establishing rapport, and privacy and confidentiality. Children's consent to research remains a contentious issue that requires further deliberations. Researchers need to be flexible in their research with children and be cognisant of the strategies that can be used to enhance the quality of responses from children.

  14. Design considerations for EOS direct broadcast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, Charles H.; Chan, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    The critical issues associated with EOS direct broadcast are investigated, and design approaches are recommended for the EOS direct broadcast transmission and ground receiving. In particular, the discussion covers the choice of data subsets for direct broadcast; the mode of transmission; impact of power, mass, and cost; design of ground stations; and the feasibility of on-board processing for direct broadcast. Data acquisition considerations for stations with data rates of 100 and 10 Mbps are examined.

  15. Legal Considerations for Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Sherry; Hoffman, Andrew L

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) solutions provide many potential benefits for dental practices, whether those programs run internally on a dental practice's computers or are cloud-based solutions. However, these programs also create new risks for a dental practice, which may be mitigated through due diligence and adequate contractual provisions to ensure protection for dentists. This article addresses the legal considerations associated with a dentist entering into a service contract with an EHR vendor. PMID:26798899

  16. Clinical hypnosis for labour and birth: a consideration.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Labour pain is one of the most important factors in shaping women's experiences of birth. Choice around pharmacological relief can be complex. Clinical hypnosis is a non-pharmacological option which a number of women have chosen to use, often paying privately to do so. Self hypnosis allows women the opportunity to take control of this technique. Research findings relating to the therapy vary; some trials have found positive effects by way of a reduction in use of pharmacological pain relief, oxytocin use and shortened first stage of labour. Inclusion of the therapy as a means to invoke relaxation and counter the effects of stress and anxiety alone may be valid reasons for consideration of its use. This article outlines the framework used in clinical hypnosis and discusses some of the issues relating to the evidence base for it. PMID:23789248

  17. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  18. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Liu, Y. K.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.; Gao, X.

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  19. General public health considerations for responding to animal hoarding cases.

    PubMed

    Castrodale, Louisa; Bellay, Yvonne M; Brown, Catherine M; Cantor, Fredric L; Gibbins, John D; Headrick, Marcia L; Leslie, Mira J; MacMahon, Kathleen; O'Quin, Jeanette M; Patronek, Gary J; Silva, Rodrigo A; Wright, James C; Yu, Diana T

    2010-03-01

    Animal hoarding is an under-recognized problem that exists in most communities and adversely impacts the health, welfare, and safety of humans, animals, and the environment. These guidelines address public health and worker safety concerns in handling situations where animal hoarding or other dense concentrations of animals have caused unhealthy and unsafe conditions. Because animal hoarding situations are often complex, a full response is likely to be prolonged and require a cross-jurisdictional multiagency effort. Each animal hoarding case has unique circumstances related to the types and numbers of animals involved, the physical structure(s) where they are being kept, and the health status of the animals, among other factors that must be taken into account in planning a response. Some general public health considerations and associated recommendations for personal protective equipment use are presented that apply to all cases, however.

  20. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  1. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  2. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  3. Numerical considerations for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models: Eliminating rogue trajectories, and the importance of numerical accuracy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...

  4. Next Generation Science Standards: Considerations for Curricula, Assessments, Preparation, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief provides an overview of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), discusses policy considerations for adopting or adapting the new standards, and presents examples from states considering or implementing the NGSS. Changing academic standards is a complex process that requires significant investments of time, money, and human…

  5. Hydraulic Tomography Implementation Considerations at a Recalcitrant Environmental Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, C. H. M.; Mok, C. M. W.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Illman, W. A.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic Tomography (HT) is a robust aquifer characterization method that is capable of providing high-resolution mapping of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage distributions or tomograms. This method is particularly cost-effective to recalcitrant sites where existing pump-and-treat system and monitoring network can be utilized. The high-resolution tomograms generated can provide critical information for targeted in-situ remediation of potential source zones and optimization of existing remediation strategies. In addition, zones for potential back diffusion can be identified. Conducting HT surveys in operating pump-and-treat sites with complex hydrogeologic conditions requires special considerations. The design of the experiment has to be compatible to site-specific constraints. For example, a minimum total pumping rate may have to be met for the treatment facility to function. Many of the existing monitoring wells may not have been designed for HT surveys and have very long screen intervals. Using our current work at a Department of Defense site with more than twenty candidate extraction and injection wells, as well as over a hundred available monitoring wells as an example, we discuss our implementation strategy, and the HT analysis modifications to cope with these constrains. Lessons learnt from this work provide guidance on future implementation considerations of HT at recalcitrant environmental sites.

  6. The future of complexity engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

  7. Evanescent waves and complex rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einziger, P. D.; Felsen, L. B.

    1982-07-01

    An approximate scheme for determining the configuration of phase paths in implementing evanescent wave theory is discussed. The evanescent wave tracking method is reviewed, the special canonical solution that generates confocal hyperbolic phase paths is generated, and it is shown that these correspond to the complex ray fields generated by a source point at a complex location. The local hyperbolic matching hypothesis is described and its deficiencies are noted. The asymptotic solution is obtained by complex ray tracing and is interpreted physically in terms of the previously described EWT. The limitations of complex ray theory and EWT, especially in regard to strongly evanescent fields, are established by consideration of the rigorously formulated Green's function. The problem of evanescent plane wave and Gaussian beam diffraction by a circular cylinder is reconsidered in the light of the results obtained.

  8. Complex deformations of Bjorken flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Through a complex shift of the time coordinate, a modification of Bjorken flow is introduced which interpolates between a glasma-like stress tensor at forward rapidities and Bjorken-like hydrodynamics around mid-rapidity. A Landau-like full-stopping regime is found at early times and rapidities not too large. Approximate agreement with BRAHMS data on the rapidity distribution of produced particles at top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies can be achieved if the complex shift of the time coordinate is comparable to the inverse of the saturation scale. The form of the stress tensor follows essentially from symmetry considerations, and it can be expressed in closed form.

  9. Considerations for the Next Revision of STRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of NASAs Software Defined Radio architecture, the Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS), was initiated in 2004 with a goal of reducing the cost, risk and schedule when implementing Software Defined Radios (SDR) for NASA space missions. Since STRS was first flown in 2012 on three Software Defined Radios on the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, only minor changes have been made to the architecture. Multiple entities have since implemented the architecture and have provided significant feedback for consideration for the next revision of the standard. The focus for the first set of updates to the architecture is items that enhance application portability. Items that require modifications to existing applications before migrating to the updated architecture will only be considered if there is compelling reasons to make the change. The significant suggestions that were further evaluated for consideration include expanding and clarifying the timing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), improving handle name and identification (ID) definitions and use, and multiple items related to implementation of STRS Devices. In addition to ideas suggested while implementing STRS, SDR technology has evolved significantly and this impact to the architecture needs to be considered. These include incorporating cognitive concepts - learning from past decisions and making new decisions that the radio can act upon. SDRs are also being developed that do not contain a General Purpose Module which is currently required for the platform to be STRS compliant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the comments received, provide a summary of the evaluation considerations, and examine planned dispositions

  10. Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Kress, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study.

  11. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  12. Considerations for proper selection of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Simon, James F; Darnell, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper cement for sufficient bond strength has become progressively complicated as the number of different materials for indirect restorations has increased. The success of any restoration is highly dependent on the proper cement being chosen and used. The function of the cement is not only to seal the restoration on the tooth but also, in some cases, to support the retention of the restoration. This ability to strengthen retention varies by the cement chosen by the clinician; therefore, careful consideration must precede cement selection.

  13. Health impacts of urban development: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Capon, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    The urban environment is an important determinant of health. Health impact assessment is a tool for systematic analysis of the health consequences of urban development and management. This paper identifies key considerations, including opportunities for physical activity, food access and local economic development. Time use by urban residents has health implications. The schedule for infrastructure development in new release areas (in particular transport, education and health infrastructure) also has health implications. Health impacts should be considered a primary outcome of urban development and management.

  14. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media.

  15. Wing design with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Shrout, B. L.; Darden, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A CAD process that includes leading-edge thrust considerations for wings with high aerodynamic efficiencies is outlined. Rectangular grids are used for evaluation of both subsonic and supersonic pressure loadings. Account is taken of the Mach number, Re, the wing planform, the presence of camber, the airfoil geometry and the locations and forces induced by shed vortices. Optimization techniques are applied to the candidate surfaces in order to consider the attainable thrust. Inclusion of the optimization techniques permits analyses of mission-adaptive wings and various flap systems and the elimination of singularities in the flight envelope.

  16. Breast Molecular Profiling and Radiotherapy Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Omar; Haffty, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen major changes in the management of breast cancer. Heterogeneity regarding histology, therapeutic response, dissemination patterns, and patient outcome is evident. Molecular profiling provides an accurate tool to predict treatment outcome compared with classical clinicopathologic features. The genomic profiling unveiled the heterogeneity of breast cancer and identified distinct biologic subtypes. These advanced techniques were integrated into the clinical management; predicting systemic therapy benefit and overall survival. Utilizing genotyping to guide locoregional management decisions needs further characterization. In this chapter we will review available data on molecular classification of breast cancer, their association with locoregional outcome, their radiobiological properties and radiotherapy considerations. PMID:26987532

  17. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  18. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  19. Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

  20. Considerations When Using Videos in Lamaze Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner’s attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators. PMID:23730131

  1. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media. PMID:23633902

  2. Phototherapy in children: Considerations and indications.

    PubMed

    Crall, Cary S; Rork, Jillian F; Delano, Sophia; Huang, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy can be a safe and effective treatment for various skin diseases in children. Special considerations governing the use of this treatment modality in pediatric populations include patient, family, and facility-based factors that are oriented around heightened concerns with regard to safety and tolerability of treatment. Although phototherapy has been found to be effective in a wide range of dermatologic conditions affecting pediatric populations, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis lichenoides, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and vitiligo, there is need for additional research on other conditions in which phototherapy has shown promise. PMID:27638444

  3. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  4. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  5. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations Regarding the Use of Virus-Induced Carcinogenesis and Oncolytic Viral Models.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephanie D; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2016-01-01

    The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise. Responsible animal use integrates good science, humane care, and regulatory compliance. To meet those standards, the IACUC, in conjunction with the research investigator and attending veterinarian, must address a wide range of issues, including animal model selection, cancer model selection, humane end point considerations, experimental considerations, postapproval monitoring, reporting requirements, and animal management and personnel safety considerations.

  6. Efficiency considerations in triangular adaptive mesh refinement.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Jörn; Bader, Michael

    2009-11-28

    Locally or adaptively refined meshes have been successfully applied to simulation applications involving multi-scale phenomena in the geosciences. In particular, for situations with complex geometries or domain boundaries, meshes with triangular or tetrahedral cells demonstrate their superior ability to accurately represent relevant realistic features. On the other hand, these methods require more complex data structures and are therefore less easily implemented, maintained and optimized. Acceptance in the Earth-system modelling community is still low. One of the major drawbacks is posed by indirect addressing due to unstructured or dynamically changing data structures and correspondingly lower efficiency of the related computations. In this paper, we will derive several strategies to circumvent the mentioned efficiency constraint. In particular, we will apply recent computational sciences methods in combination with results of classical mathematics (space-filling curves) in order to linearize the complex data and access structure.

  7. Considerations on non equilibrium thermodynamics of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Nature can be considered the "first" engineer! For scientists and engineers, dynamics and evolution of complex systems are not easy to predict. A fundamental approach to study complex system is thermodynamics. But, the result is the origin of too many schools of thermodynamics with a consequent difficulty in communication between thermodynamicists and other scientists and, also, among themselves. The solution is to obtain a unified approach based on the fundamentals of physics. Here we suggest a possible unification of the schools of thermodynamics starting from two fundamental concepts of physics, interaction and flows.

  8. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  9. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurological disorder producing peripheral neurogenic inflammatory process in hands and feet distal to injury, which may lead to severe disability. Symptoms are often out of proportion to the initiating event and not limited to a single peripheral nerve. There is no gold standard in diagnosis of this entity, and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for proper diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most useful diagnostic modalities in early stages of CRPS (when clinical diagnosis is most difficult), the most desirable time to diagnose this disorder to expedite treatment and improve function. This article discusses MRI findings of CRPS, particularly in the early phase, and differential considerations. PMID:27518298

  10. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  11. Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

  12. Considerations for blending data from various sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Brian P.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    A project is being proposed at the EROS Data Center to blend the information from sensors aboard various satellites. The problems of, and considerations for, blending data from several satellite-borne sensors are discussed. System descriptions of the sensors aboard the HCMM, TIROS-N, GOES-D, Landsat 3, Landsat D, Seasat, SPOT, Stereosat, and NOSS satellites, and the quantity, quality, image dimensions, and availability of these data are summaries to define attributes of a multi-sensor satellite data base. Unique configurations of equipment, storage, media, and specialized hardware to meet the data system requirement are described as well as archival media and improved sensors that will be on-line within the next 5 years. Definitions and rigor required for blending various sensor data are given. Problems of merging data from the same sensor (intrasensor comparison) and from different sensors (intersensor comparison), the characteristics and advantages of cross-calibration of data, and integration of data into a product matrix field are addressed. Data processing considerations as affected by formation, resolution, and problems of merging large data sets, and organization of data bases for blending data are presented. Examples utilizing GOES and Landsat data are presented to demonstrate techniques of data blending, and recommendations for future implementation of a set of standard scenes and their characteristics necessary for optimal data blending are discussed.

  13. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Financial and operating advantages of alternative types and makes of equipment. (3) Cumulative rental.... (6) Maintenance and other service costs. (7) Potential obsolescence of the equipment because of... appropriate, depending on the type, cost, complexity, and estimated period of use of the equipment:...

  14. Considerations in Change Management Related to Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, John S.; Hilty, Donald M.; Worley, Linda L.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances.…

  15. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... comparative costs and other factors. The following factors are the minimum that should be considered: (1... imminent technological improvements. (b) The following additional factors should be considered, as... servicing capability, especially for highly complex equipment; e.g., can the equipment be serviced by...

  16. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, D; Michal, M; Síma, R; Grossmann, P; Kazakov, D V

    2011-10-01

    Carney complex is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, with at least two genetic loci including the PRKAR1A gene located on chromosome 17 and the CNC2 locus mapped to chromosome 2. Clinically this syndrome is characterized by multiple myxomas occurring in different anatomic sites, mucocutaneous pigmentary lesions, and a variety of non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, often causing endocrine abnormalities, involving various organs. Knowledge of morphological findings in CNC patients with their typical locations is necessary to raise suspicion of this syndrome by pathologists. Confirmation of the diagnosis allows regular clinical check-ups and early treatment of these patients. PMID:22145222

  17. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  18. Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Carney complex is a rare, dominantly inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, affecting endocrine glands as the adrenal cortex (causing Cushing's syndrome), the pituitary and the thyroid. It is associated with many other nonendocrine tumors, including cardiac myxomas, testicular tumors, melanotic schwannoma, breast myxomatosis, and abnormal pigmentation (lentiginosis) or myxomas of the skin. The gene located on the CNC1 locus was identified 12 years ago as the regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) located at 17q22-24. Inactivating heterozygous germline mutations of PRKAR1A are observed in about two thirds of Carney complex patients with some genotype-phenotype correlation useful for follow-up and prognosis. More rarely, mutations of phosphodiesterase genes have been reported in patients presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies help to understand how R1A inactivation leads to tumorigenesis. PRKAR1A appears to be a relatively weak tumorigenic signal which can cooperate with other signaling pathways and tumor suppressors. PMID:23652670

  19. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  20. Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D A

    1978-01-01

    The problem of reducing the sugar content of sugary foods is presented from the food manufacturer's point of view. The distinction is made between the need for artificial sweeteners and the more pressing need for bulking agents with at least some of the technological properties of sugar. In view of the considerable sales success of sugarless confections, accounting for over an estimated 30,000,000 lbs. of sorbitol per annum, the clouded prospect for more general sugar substitution in other food categories is discussed with especial reference to the consequent problems in product claims and nomenclature, and the enormous expense of proving safety and dental claims. Finally, an overview of the competitive consumer and regulatory pressures is given, with an urgent appeal to the dental profession to take the initiative for guiding the food processor to dentally improved foods.

  1. Advances in Musculoskeletal MRI – Technical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren; Harish, Monica; Hargreaves, Brian; Staroswiecki, Ernesto; Gold, Garry

    2012-01-01

    The technology of musculoskeletal MRI imaging is advancing at a dramatic rate. MR imaging is now done at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and post processing techniques than ever before. These numerable technical advances are advantageous as they lead to an increased signal to noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. However, at the same time they potentially produce more imaging artifacts when compared with past techniques. Substantial technical advances have considerable clinical challenges in musculoskeletal radiology such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review, we consider technical advances in hardware and software of musculoskeletal MR imaging along with their clinical applications. PMID:22987756

  2. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  3. Statistical Considerations for Analysis of Microarray Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Owzar, Kouros; Barry, William T.; Jung, Sin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Microarray technologies enable the simultaneous interrogation of expressions from thousands of genes from a biospecimen sample taken from a patient. This large set of expressions generate a genetic profile of the patient that may be used to identify potential prognostic or predictive genes or genetic models for clinical outcomes. The aim of this article is to provide a broad overview of some of the major statistical considerations for the design and analysis of microarrays experiments conducted as correlative science studies to clinical trials. An emphasis will be placed on how the lack of understanding and improper use of statistical concepts and methods will lead to noise discovery and misinterpretation of experimental results. PMID:22212230

  4. Accuracy considerations of portable electrochemical NOX analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanopoulos, C.; Hobbs, B.

    1996-12-31

    Two key components contributing to measurement errors of electrochemical analyzers are discussed. These are the sample conditioning system and the electrochemical nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide sensors. The problems associated with various types of conditioning systems are discussed and some experimental results are presented using analyte spiking methods. Permeation drier based systems are shown to cause the smallest loss of the analyte. Two major problems of the NO and NO{sub 2} sensors are examined. The first problem deals with the significant effect of temperature on the sensor and its associated interference rejection filter. The requirement for maintaining sensor and filter temperature below 30{degree}C is demonstrated. The second deals with the saturation and drift considerations caused by over exposure to the gas, The significance of capillary size to minimize drift for diffusion sensors is discussed. Experimental results are presented and discussed with a view to the recently published EPA CTM-022 Method. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Diagnostic radiology in the tropics: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; McLean, Ian Donald

    2011-11-01

    An estimated two thirds of the world's population is currently without access to diagnostic radiology services, and most of them live in resource-limited tropical regions with harsh environments. Most patients are diagnosed and treated in poorly equipped government-funded hospitals and clinics that have insufficiently trained staff and are barely operational. Any available imaging equipment is likely to be functioning suboptimally and be poorly maintained. The root of the problem is usually a lack of know-how and a quality culture, combined with insufficient basic equipment and infrastructure. Radiological imaging is an essential aspect of primary care and used in the critical diagnosis and management of trauma, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, and other respiratory and abdominal diseases. Considerations such as quality management and infrastructure, personnel, equipment, and radiation protection and safety are important to ensure the proper functioning and rational use of a diagnostic radiology facility in the tropics.

  6. Pharmacogenetic considerations in the treatment of gout.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Stamp, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common forms of arthritis and the prevalence is increasing. Management comprises rapid and effective control of the inflammation in acute gout and sustained urate lowering in the long term. Improving the outcomes for cheaper old drugs and for the increasing number of new, more expensive agents is an important clinical goal. The role of pharmacogenetics in predicting response and adverse events to gout therapies is of considerable interest. Currently, prospective screening is employed to detect HLA-B*5801 carriage and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, to minimize occurrence of allopurinol hypersensitivity and pegloticase-related hemolytic anemia. In the future it is likely that other genetic markers of drug response will make the transition to clinical practice to further improve the efficacy and safety of gout therapies. In this review, we will examine the potential clinical relevance of specific genetic variants in the management of gout.

  7. MicroRNA profiling: approaches and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Colin C.; Cheng, Heather H.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (~22 nt long) that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms, in both normal physiologic and disease contexts. MiRNA expression profiling is gaining popularity because miRNAs, as key regulators in gene expression networks, can influence many biological processes and have also shown promise as biomarkers for disease. Technological advances have enabled the development of various platforms for miRNA profiling, and an understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches can aid in the effective use of miRNA profiling for diverse applications. We review here the major considerations for carrying out and interpreting results of miRNA profiling studies, as well as current and emerging applications of miRNA profiling. PMID:22510765

  8. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  9. Considerations in insulin delivery device selection.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Virginia; Kruger, Davida F

    2010-06-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes promote the use of insulin sooner rather than later in patients with type 2 diabetes to achieve goal range glucose control (< 7%) but remain silent on a recommendation for delivery system. Even though there is widespread consensus among experts and payers that people with type 2 diabetes should use insulin earlier to achieve tight control, it still remains an elusive goal. Benefits of pen-type delivery devices include accurate dosing, faster and easier setting of dose and injection times, and increased patient acceptance and adherence. Before healthcare professionals can recommend a delivery device, it is critical they understand not only the medication in the device but also the various features and benefits to the different devices available and how those impact the patient. We will present considerations to assist in making appropriate device selection, to optimize patient success. PMID:20515315

  10. A theoretical consideration of percutaneous drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Ishizaki, T

    1985-02-01

    The percutaneous drug absorption process and its clinical significance are not fully known. In this article we propose a theoretical method to obtain two parameters (kd and kc) of percutaneous drug absorption from in vivo data. These parameters are related to diffusion of a drug through the skin and removal process at the skin-capillary boundary, respectively, characterizing several pharmacokinetic aspects of the drug applied to the skin. Moreover, by employing these two kinetic constants, a simulation of percutaneous drug absorption can be theoretically generated. On the basis of our theoretical considerations on the percutaneous drug absorption process described herein, we conclude that the percutaneous drug absorption process is better understood by employing two kinetic constants in a mathematical model and that its clinical application would be highly possible. PMID:4020622

  11. Quality in managed care: developments and considerations.

    PubMed

    Spoeri, R K

    1997-01-01

    With the rapid movement of both individuals and groups away from fee-for-service health care into managed care, concerns have been expressed appropriately that the quality of care may be affected adversely. Over the past several years, a number of developments have taken place to respond to these concerns. This quality movement in managed care has not been without some issues and considerations, however. This article first describes the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the prominent role it has played in this movement. Next, quality improvement study design is addressed in the context of assuring quality, controlling costs, and achieving NCQA accreditation. The effect that capitation, as a payment strategy for providers, has on data quality is then described. Fourth, the value of partnering is explored. Finally, the newest version of NCQA's performance measurement template is discussed: the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set, version 3.0.

  12. Gimbal bearing design considerations and friction control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The design considerations of bearing selection, bearing fits, bearing installation, and thermal control are discussed for a gimbal with a high stiffness, low friction torque requirement. Tradeoffs between a quad set of small diameter spread apart or a large diameter bearing pair resulted in a cleaner, lighter, stiffer unit with the latter selection. Bearing fits were designed to eliminate clearances with tolerances of .00127 mm 00005 in) on the bearing shafts and housings. The problems in metrology are discussed and a perferred technique for measurement of small cross-section bearings described. A technique for installation to assure proper seating of the bearing is offered. Where transient thermal conditions are involved, a method of controlling bearing friction by active control of bearing temperature gradients including the use of bearing unload test curves is described.

  13. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  14. Current Considerations About the Elderly and Firearms

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, more than 17 million people aged 65 years or older own a firearm. They have the highest rate of suicide by a firearm, and recent data suggest that a disproportionate number apply to carry a concealed weapon. At least one new handgun has been designed and marketed for older people. Memory, thinking, and judgment as well as physical and behavioral competence issues related to an elderly person's safe operation of a motor vehicle apply to firearms, too. Gun availability can pose a particular risk to those with dementia and to their caretakers. The elderly constitute a substantial and rapidly growing population and market segment for whom the public health implications of firearm production, promotion, access, ownership, and use merit consideration. PMID:22390501

  15. Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Smith, JohnEric W; Holmes, Megan E; McAllister, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. PMID:26464898

  16. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  17. Dust storms on Mars: Considerations and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Iverson, J. D.; Leach, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Aeolian processes are important in modifying the surface of Mars at present, and appear to have been significant in the geological past. Aeolian activity includes local and global dust storms, the formation of erosional features such as yardangs and depositional features such as sand dunes, and the erosion of rock and soil. As a means of understanding aeolian processes on Mars, an investigation is in progress that includes laboratory simulations, field studies of earth analogs, and interpretation of spacecraft data. This report describes the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel, an experimental facility established at NASA-Ames Research Center, and presents some results of the general investigation. Experiments dealing with wind speeds and other conditions required for the initiation of particle movement on Mars are described and considerations are given to the resulting effectiveness of aeolian erosion.

  18. Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JohnEric W.; Holmes, Megan E.; McAllister, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. PMID:26464898

  19. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  20. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  1. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  2. Operational considerations for reusable launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adelgren, R.G.; Ray, D.; Lashinski, P.

    1997-01-01

    The reusable launch vehicle single stage to orbit concept is a long term goal of the space program. With the reusable concept, government and industry hope to reduce the cost of spacelift and provide fast reliable access to space. For a viable reusable concept, certain operational areas should be well thought out and considered. For instance, {open_quotes}aircraft like{close_quotes} operations should be a goal of the reusable launch vehicle concept. This paper outlines some initial operational considerations for a reusable launch vehicle. The operational areas considered are viewed from the standpoint of operationally testing the system in the areas of effectiveness and suitability. This paper represents thoughts and ideas of the authors and does not represent official Air Force or Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center policies, positions, or direction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Satellite sound broadcasting system study: Mobile considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the mobile reception part of a study to investigate a satellite sound broadcast system in the UHF or L bands. Existing propagation and reception measurements are used with proper interpretation to evaluate the signaling, coding, and diversity alternatives suitable for the system. Signal attenuation in streets shadowed by buildings appear to be around 29 db, considerably higher than the 10 db adopted by CCIR. With the marriage of proper technologies, an LMSS class satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability in UHF or L bands for high quality mobile and portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers. This scheme requires terrestrial repeaters for satisfactory mobile reception in urban areas. A specialized bandwidth efficient spread spectrum signalling technique is particularly suitable for the terrestrial repeaters.

  4. Design considerations for piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Brown, L F

    2000-01-01

    Much work has been published on the design of ultrasound transducers using piezoelectric ceramics, but a great deal of this work does not apply when using the piezoelectric polymers because of their unique electrical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to review and present new insight into seven important considerations for the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers: piezoelectric polymer materials selection, transducer construction and packaging requirements, materials characterization and modeling, film thickness and active area design, electroding selection, backing material design, and front protection/matching layer design. Besides reviewing these design considerations, this paper also presents new insight into the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic transducers. The design and fabrication of an immersible ultrasonic transducer, which has no adhesive layer between the active element and backing layer, is included. The transducer features direct deposition of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer onto an insulated aluminum backing substrate. Pulse-echo tests indicated a minimum insertion loss of 37 dB and -6 dB bandwidth of 9.8 to 22 MHz (71%). The use of polymer wear-protection/quarter-wave matching layers is also discussed. Test results on a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer showed that a Mylar/sup TM/ front layer provided a slight increase in pulse-echo amplitude of 15% (or 1.2 dB) and an increase in -6 dB pulse-echo fractional bandwidth from 86 to 95%. Theoretical derivations are reported for optimizing the active area of the piezoelectric polymer element for maximum power transfer at resonance. These derivations are extended to the special case for a low profile (i.e., thin) shielded transducer. A method for modeling the non-linear loading effects of a commercial pulser-receiver is also included.

  5. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  6. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  7. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  8. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  9. Cogeneration in large complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, J.M.; Franklin, J.C.

    1982-02-01

    Power cogeneration in large chemical plants producing sulfuric acid and phosphate fertilizers is covered. In these plants, a large quantity of ''by-product steam'' is generated which can be expanded prior to extraction for process use. Steam generated in excess of process needs can be expanded through the steam turbine to a condenser. The combination of a sulfuric acid production facility with a phosphate complex producing wet process phosphoric acid and diammonium phosphate provides a unique opportunity for cogeneration. The exothermic oxidation reactions in the production of sulfuric (or nitric) acid provide the thermal energy for ''by-product'' steam production at elevated steam conditions. Expanding the steam generated in an automatic extraction, condensing steam turbine-generator permits power generation without any incremental fuel requirement in the process plant. Furthermore, steam demands for the phosphate complex for evaporators, vaporizers and other uses would be extracted from the steam turbine-generator. Many of the practical energy systems as well as hardware considerations have been briefly discussed. The data and examples presented illustrate the attractive economics and operational flexibility which are available through use of these cogeneration systems.

  10. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  11. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  12. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  13. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  14. Fast mask writers: technology options and considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Lloyd C.; Groves, Timothy; Hughes, Greg

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as the complexity of technology increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which have added to the complexity of making masks because of the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low-k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that funding on the order of 50M to 90M for non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development poses a high risk for an individual supplier. The structure of the mask fabrication marketplace separates the mask writer equipment customer (the mask supplier) from the final customer (wafer manufacturer) that will be most effected by the increase in mask cost that will result if a high speed mask writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed.

  15. Drones--ethical considerations and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Drones enhance military capability and form a potent element of force protection, allowing humans to be removed from hazardous environments and tedious jobs. However, there are moral, legal, and political dangers associated with their use. Although a time may come when it is possible to develop a drone that is able to autonomously and ethically engage a legitimate target with greater reliability than a human, until then military drones demand a crawl-walk-run development methodology, consent by military personnel for weapon use, and continued debate about the complex issues surrounding their deployment.

  16. Growth and development considerations for craniomaxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Costello, Bernard J; Rivera, Reynaldo D; Shand, Jocelyn; Mooney, Mark

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of craniomaxillofacial surgery is to improve function, occlusion, craniofacial balance, and aesthetics. Accurate diagnosis, assessment, and careful treatment planning are essential in achieving a successful outcome, and an understanding of the pattern of facial growth is integral in this process. Patients with craniofacial congenital dysmorphologies, posttraumatic asymmetries, or disturbances of facial balance from radiation may have functional and/or aesthetic issues that require treatment. Understanding the complexities of growth in the skull and face is a key component to appropriate treatment planning for these disorders. This article reviews growth and development in the craniofacial skeleton.

  17. Drones--ethical considerations and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Drones enhance military capability and form a potent element of force protection, allowing humans to be removed from hazardous environments and tedious jobs. However, there are moral, legal, and political dangers associated with their use. Although a time may come when it is possible to develop a drone that is able to autonomously and ethically engage a legitimate target with greater reliability than a human, until then military drones demand a crawl-walk-run development methodology, consent by military personnel for weapon use, and continued debate about the complex issues surrounding their deployment. PMID:22558742

  18. Engineering considerations for large astrophysics projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Modern astrophysics projects involve interactions among scientific objectives, hardware capabilities, operational constraints, and data-analysis methodologies, all mediated by complex software. I discuss trade-offs between hardware and software costs, resolve some age-old tensions between the taking of science data and calibration data, and promote some ideas about getting the most out of our data using probabilistic inference. I illustrate my points with examples taken from the SDSS, P1640, Kepler, and Euclid projects. The key idea is that we will only benefit maximally from the next generation of enormous data-taking projects if we design our operations and software with great care.

  19. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  20. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  1. Theoretical considerations and measurements for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Jie

    2008-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in current optometry practice. The quality and verification of the instrument are of the utmost importance. In 1997, International Organization for Standardization published the first ISO standard for requirements of phoropters. However, in China, few standard and test method are suggested for phoropters. Research work on test method for phoropters was carried out early in 2004 by China National Institute of Metrology. In this paper, first, structure of phoropters is described. Then, theoretical considerations for its optical design are analyzed. Next, a newly developed instrument is introduced and measurements are taken. By calibration, the indication error of the instrument is not over 0.05m-1. Finally, measurement results show that the quality situation of phoropters is not as good as expected because of production and assembly error. Optical design shall be improved especially for combinations of both spherical and cylindrical lenses with higher power. Besides, optical requirements specified in ISO standard are found to be a little strict and hard to meet. A proposal for revision of this international standard is drafted and discussed on ISO meeting of 2007 held in Tokyo.

  2. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-02-16

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes.

  3. Considerations for small to medium liquefaction plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Juergen

    2012-06-01

    The basic requirements for a user to size and design small to medium helium liquefaction systems are quite multilayer. The feed gas composition, for example, defines whether impurities can be removed by an internal adsorber system or if a purifier (internal or external) is required and if the purification operation is a continuous or batch process. The liquefaction rate of the system furthermore is dependant on the running time, e.g. if the system is operated during the whole week or stopped on weekends and if a turn-down of the system is required. This will also determine the size of the liquid dewar and storage tank. Another important issue is the availability of liquid nitrogen for pre-cooling purposes. In the US liquid nitrogen is a commodity with a liter price equal to the price for a kW hour of electricity, whereas in Europe LN2 is more expensive and used only if necessary or easily available. In case LN2 is used the components like the compressor and coldbox can be smaller with less consumption of electric power. The presentation will cover a number of issues showing important considerations in specifying a helium liquefaction system.

  4. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  5. Force-Response Considerations in Ciliary Mechanosensation

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Andrew; Hopfer, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Considerable experimental evidence indicates that the primary, nonmotile cilium is a mechanosensory organelle in several epithelial cell types. As the relationship between cellular responses and nature and magnitude of applied forces is not well understood, we have investigated the effects of exposure of monolayers of renal collecting duct chief cells to orbital shaking and quantified the forces incident on cilia. An exposure of 24 h of these cells to orbital shaking resulted in a decrease of amiloride-sensitive sodium current by ∼60% and ciliary length by ∼30%. The sensitivity of the sodium current to shaking was dependent on intact cilia. The drag force on cilia due to induced fluid flow during orbital shaking was estimated at maximally 5.2 × 10−3 pN at 2 Hz, ∼4 times that of thermal noise. The major structural feature of cilia contributing to their sensitivity appears to be ciliary length. As more than half of the total drag force is exerted on the ciliary cap, one function of the slender stalk may be to expose the cap to greater drag force. Regardless, the findings indicate that the cilium is a mechanosensory organelle with a sensitivity much lower than previously recognized. PMID:17526573

  6. Some geophysical considerations in radioisotope dating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Radioisotope dating only assumes radioactive decay laws are taking place allowing closed form solutions to be obtained in generating a sample date estimate. To be discussed in this work is the isotopic distribution expected in geological samples due to mass diffusion superimposed on that from simple radioactive decay. By taking into consideration the isotope effect (differential mass diffusion rates) when measuring isotopic ratios from very old samples, the distribution dependency will cause a bias if isotopic diffusion rates are not identical throughout a material (or at least across the boundaries of all samples measured). The isotope effect being that isotopes having a smaller atomic mass will diffuse faster in a medium than will their heavier counterparts causing concentration gradients of their ratios even when there are no contributions from radioactive decay which will tend to bias all sample ages (slopes of the isochron) to have a more linear distribution. The application to Sr/Rb dating is evaluated and shown to result in expected age overestimates. Suggested methods to test for this effect along with sample preparation techniques to minimize it are discussed. Special thanks the NCSU Nuclear Engineering Department.

  7. Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.

  8. Imaging system considerations in Doppler global velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, H.D.; Tatam, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) is a full-field optical technique for the measurement of fluid flow velocities. The flow is illuminated using a light sheet, and the Doppler shift imposed on light scattered from moving particles within the sheet is imaged through a cell containing iodine vapor onto a solid-state array camera, thereby converting the Doppler frequency shifts into intensity variations in the image. In this paper, a DGV system is presented based around an argon-ion laser source and a fast digital image-processing system, which allows the DGV velocity map to be updated at camera frame rate. Interpretation of DGV images is complicated by errors which arise at positions some way out in the field of view due to the modified illumination and viewing vectors corresponding to these positions. Typical magnitudes of such errors are calculated. Significant errors can arise for points more than about 5{degree} out from the center of the field of view, and for divergence angles of the illumination beam exceeding about 10{degree} at a distance of 5 cm from the beam axis. Other considerations affecting system accuracy are also discussed.

  9. Seeding materials: Health and safety considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of a proper seeding material for laser velocimeters must include health and safety considerations. Failure to do so can lead to catastrophic results. All materials are toxic, and laser velocimeter seeding materials are no exception. Toxicity may be considered an inherent property of a given material. The manifestation of that property or the physiological response to the material is dependent on dose and exposure conditions. An approximate physiological classification of toxicity is given in tablular form. Toxicity in some situations is not necessarily the most restrictive factor in selection of materials. It is also very important to consider how the material is used so that actual exposure to the material in a damaging form can result. For example, nickel and cadmium are both extremely toxic as systemic poisons and in the case of nickel as a carcinogen. Seeding materials are dispersed in air under conditions that favor personnel exposure. Dispersal equipment is frequently if not normally manned, and personnel are often required to make frequent adjustments to assure proper operations.

  10. Design considerations for a scintillating plate calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, P. K.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Handler, T.; Gabriel, T. A.

    1992-06-01

    Results of the simulation studies for the design of a scintillating plate calorimeter for an SSC detector are presented. These simulation studies have been carried out with the CALOR89 code. The results show that both lead and uranium can yield good compensation in practical sampling geometries. However, the significant delayed energy release in the uranium systems can lead to a serious pile up problem at high rates. In the energy range under consideration, an iron-scintillator system is not compensating at any absorber to scintillator ratio. An inhomogeneous calorimeter with 4γ of lead-scintillator in a compensating configuration followed by 4γ of iron-scintillator with moderate sampling is found to perform as well as a homogeneous lead-scintillator compensating calorimeter. In such inhomogeneous systems the hadronic signal from different segments are weighted by a scheme based on minimum ionizing d E/d X. We show that, in a properly optimised three segment, compensation and good hadronic resolution can be achieved by appropriately weighting the signal from the segments.

  11. Operational and support considerations in standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, W. T.

    Military applications in the era of the 1990's and beyond, require capabilities beyond those available in most existing systems. These capabilities must be provided in a manner that will achieve a low logistic support cost and that can be maintained with relatively inexperienced personnel. This paper presents the design considerations that must be addressed in each of the standardized subsystems and modules that will provide the operational and support needs for tomorrow and beyond. Advanced maintenance concepts, such as two and one level maintenance, are described together with the operational and life cycle cost benefits that will be achieved. A new operation concept called deferred maintenance, which provides sustained operation without maintenance support, is presented. The fault tolerant architecture which will permit a standardized modular design to efficiently accommodate a variety of system applications is presented. The concerns discussed include combat damage survivability, fail safe and fail operational needs, as well as high availability for long life applications as is required for systems employed in the Space Defense Initiative (SDI).

  12. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  13. Research and quality management studies: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, P A

    1994-04-01

    Federal legislation requires that an IRB must review all research studies receiving federal funding and involving human subjects for the protection of human rights. In addition there must be a provision for informed consent so that subjects can freely choose whether or not to participate. Most health care agencies have adopted this as the standard for conducting research. The ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, guide review boards in making decisions for protecting human subjects. The standards for conducting QM studies have not been as explicit, but it seems that similar ethical principles could provide a guiding framework. To protect human subjects in QM studies, it has been suggested that studies be submitted to an IRB when they: (a) are prospective, (b) have potential scientific merit, and/or (c) may have application beyond the study setting. In addition even when data are coming from existing sources or patient records and used only for evaluation purposes within the study setting, mechanisms for ensuring privacy, confidentiality, and consent need consideration. PMID:8173626

  14. Design Considerations for High Temperature Power Inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2005-01-01

    A uniform B-field approximation model is used to develop design formulas for single-layer wound, toroidal core, ac power inductors that must handle a specified current. Such a geometry is well suited for high temperature, high frequency inductors, where removal of heat from the core becomes critical. Explicit expressions are derived for core radii, core and winding volumes, winding turns and core permeability as functions of a dimensional scaling ratio (S). A limit on the maximum allowed core B-field leads to the result that the minimum core volume is proportional to the permeability, which has a lower bound. Plots versus S are provided for a specific case, to show that good designs can be picked in the overlap regions around the minima in mass and overall size, where the mass and size are relatively flat. Data to 250 C are presented for an MPP core based inductor to show that a quasi-linear, high temperature inductor can be constructed with available materials. A similar development is applied to a toroidal air-core geometry, showing that for the same ratings, such an inductor is considerably bigger and more massive, at least in the single-layer version.

  15. Peer Interventions to Promote Health: Conceptual Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Franks, Julie C.; Lehavot, Keren; Yard, Samantha S.

    2013-01-01

    Peers have intervened to promote health since ancient times, yet few attempts have been made to describe theoretically their role and their interventions. After a brief overview of the history and variety of peer-based health interventions, a 4-part definition of peer interveners is presented here with a consideration of the dimensions of their involvement in health promotion. Then, a 2-step process is proposed as a means of conceptualizing peer interventions to promote health. Step 1 involves establishing a theoretical framework for the intervention’s main focus (i.e., education, social support, social norms, self-efficacy, and patient advocacy), and Step 2 involves identifying a theory that justifies the use of peers and might explain their impact. As examples, the following might be referred to: theoretical perspectives from the mutual support group and self-help literature, social cognitive and social learning theories, the social support literature, social comparison theory, social network approaches, and empowerment models. PMID:21729015

  16. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964

  17. Contaminants in fish: risk-benefit considerations.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G

    2007-09-01

    Fish provide a healthful source of dietary protein and are high in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence of beneficial effects of fish consumption in coronary heart disease, stroke, age-related macular degeneration, and growth and development. Yet, benefits may be offset by the presence of contaminants, such as methylmercury (MeHg), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several other halogenated persistent organic pollutants. MeHg is a known developmental neurotoxicant, as evidenced by several animal studies and episodes of human intoxication in Japan and Iraq. Fish represent the main source of exposure to MeHg for the general population, and large predatory fish (swordfish, tuna) have the highest levels of MeHg contamination. Provisional tolerable weekly intakes of 0.7 microg kg(-1) to 1.6 microg kg(-1) have been set by regulatory agencies. Concern for contamination of fish with dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs stems from their reported carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicities. Farmed and wild-caught fish appear to have similar levels of contaminants. Advisories are in place that recommend limited consumption of certain fish in children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Careful risk-benefit considerations should foster fish consumption while minimizing exposure to toxic contaminants.

  18. [Considerations on limits and profits of registries].

    PubMed

    Addis, Antonio; Costa, Enrico; De Palma, Rossana; Magrini, Nicola; Marata, Anna Maria; Martelli, Luisa; Papini, Donato; Traversa, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The article collects the summary of the discussion occurred in the setting of PRIER II, in the session dedicated to the taxonomy of registries. Shown below, some specific contributions by health professionals working at the regional departments, which deal with registries, as well as the contribution on the same subject by specialists working at some pharmaceutical companies. In particular, after the presentation summarized in the article by prof. Giuseppe Costa1, the contributions, respectively by a representative of the Emilia-Romagna Region, of a health and hospital service and by the PRIER II workgroup, are following. Finally, a collective work with all participants to the working group took place to focus on all the issues considered to be crucial in defining clinical registries. At the same discussion table, institutional representatives of the regulatory national and regional branch were also invited to take into consideration the points of view of all public and private registry users, in particular in their benefits, limits and purposes. Going through the discussion on a specific check list and deepening a number of statements identified by the working group, a list of key points, essential to characterize each clinical registry, was produced. PMID:26418504

  19. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  20. Considerations in planning vegan diets: infants.

    PubMed

    Mangels, A R; Messina, V

    2001-06-01

    Appropriately planned vegan diets can satisfy nutrient needs of infants. The American Dietetic Association and The American Academy of Pediatrics state that vegan diets can promote normal infant growth. It is important for parents to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations when working with vegan families include composition of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supplements, type and amount of dietary fat, and solid food introduction. Growth of vegan infants appears adequate with post-weaning growth related to dietary adequacy. Breast milk composition is similar to that of non-vegetarians except for fat composition. For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants. PMID:11424546

  1. Disaster behavioral health: legal and ethical considerations in a rapidly changing field.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian W; Speier, Anthony H

    2014-08-01

    Disaster behavioral health is increasingly regarded as a central part of disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Legal and ethical issues have received relatively little attention and have sparked divergent opinions. Optimally, understanding and applying legal and ethical considerations requires an understanding of the evolution of the disaster behavioral health field and the context of disaster response and recovery. In addition, there are many legal and ethical questions identified for consideration, and many ways to approach reaching understanding and consensus. Traditionally, discussions of disaster behavioral health, including legal and ethical issues, have not included understanding decision making processes that occur in extreme circumstances. Models which interpret disaster response operations as complex adaptive systems are presented for consideration as useful tools for preparing mental health workers for effectively delivering services in acute disaster response environments.

  2. 12 CFR 907.13 - Consideration and Final Decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consideration and Final Decisions. 907.13 Section 907.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... § 907.13 Consideration and Final Decisions. (a) Consideration by Board of Directors. The Board...

  3. 20 CFR 405.373 - Requesting consideration of new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consideration of new evidence. (a) If the administrative law judge's decision is our final decision, the... consideration by the administrative law judge at the earliest possible opportunity, but no later than 30 days... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requesting consideration of new evidence....

  4. 38 CFR 17.803 - Order of consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of consideration... Transitional Housing Loan Program § 17.803 Order of consideration. Loan applications will be considered on a... available for loans, applications will be retained in the order of receipt for consideration as funds...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  8. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  9. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  10. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  15. 40 CFR 122.49 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 122... Conditions § 122.49 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply... must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular...

  16. 40 CFR 122.49 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 122... Conditions § 122.49 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply... must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular...

  17. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Losada Grande, Eladio José; Al Kassam Martínez, Daniel; González Boillos, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, and endocrine overactivity. Skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi. Myxomas may occur in breast, skin and heart. Cardiac myxomas may be multiple and occur in any cardiac chamber, and are more prone to recurrence. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD may occur isolated, with no other signs of CNC. Pituitary and thyroid glands and gonads are also involved. The PRKAR1A gene, located in 17 q22-24, encodes type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found in 70% of patients with CNC. PRKAR1A is a key component of the c-AMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis. Many different mutations have been reported in the PRKAR1A gene. In almost all cases the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and the resultant mutant mRNA was subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with CNC. Genetic analysis should be performed in all CNC index cases. All affected patients should be monitored for clinical signs of CNC at least once a year. Genetic diagnosis allows for more effective preparation of more appropriate and effective therapeutic strategies and genetic counseling for patients and gene carriers, and to avoid unnecessary tests to relatives not carrying the gene. PMID:21536508

  18. A matter of life or death: special considerations and heightened practice standards in capital sentencing evaluations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M D; Reidy, T J

    2001-01-01

    Mental health evaluations at capital sentencing represent a complex and specialized arena of practice. The moral culpability focus of capital sentencing is distinct from guilt-phase considerations of criminal responsibility, and has a specialized literature. Capital violence risk assessment is uniquely oriented to a prison context, relying on past adjustment to incarceration, as well as group statistical data specific to capital offenders and other inmate groups. Personality testing is a more complex consideration in capital sentencing evaluations. The implications of interviewing the defendant, as well as the parameters and documentation of an interview, make full disclosure and informed consent of particular importance. Defense- and prosecution-retained experts are subject to specific ethical vulnerabilities. These are examined in this paper through the lens of current professional standards.

  19. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  20. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  1. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  2. [Methodological considerations concerning peripheral nerve morphometry].

    PubMed

    Cuadras, J; Butí, M; Calvet, S; Verdú, E; Navarro, X

    1995-01-01

    Morphometric studies of the peripheral nerve often present widely varying results which, in part at least, may be attributed to the different methodologies used. Two questions may be of importance with regard to the reliability of such results: the preselection of fibres according to their morphology and the method used in quantifying observations. In this work a morphological study was carried out on the myelinated fibres of the sciatic nerve of a rat in order to evaluate fibre selection criteria. A morphometric analysis was also performed using manual measurements, image digitalisation and surveying, and automatic image analysis. It was shown that morphological variability of transverse section fibres is considerable and that, really, the proportion of circular fibres with homogeneous compact myelin is only 50 to 70%, from which we can conclude that the selection of fibres carried out in some studies wishing to eliminate abnormal fibres is somewhat exaggerated. By analysing the fibres using various methods significant differences appear, some due to the fact that distinct methods may be used to calculate the same parameters in a different way. The most reliable parameters would appear to be those which do not depend on the shape of the fibres and those which automatic or semiautomatic methods can calculate directly such as areas and perimeters. In any case quantifying methods seem hardly discriminatory and the differences between methods disappear if analyses are carried out using random samples. Preselection of fibres appears unnecessary in this context as in no case are the results altered. Finally we suggest finishing quantitative analyses with qualitative studies which would permit getting more information especially useful in cases of ageing, regeneration or pathological studies. PMID:8597982

  3. Chronic kidney disease: considerations for nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Steiber, Alison L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and has major health consequences for patients. Caring for patients with CKD requires knowledge of the food supply, renal pathophysiology, and nutrition-related medications used to work synergistically with diet to control the signs and symptoms of the disease. The nutrition care process and International Dietetic and Nutrition Terminology allow for systematic, holistic, quality care of patients with this complex, progressive disease. Nutrition interventions must be designed with the individual patients needs in mind while prioritizing factors with the largest negative impact on health outcomes and mortality risk. New areas of nutrition treatment are emerging that involve a greater focus on micronutrient needs, the microbiome, and vegetarian-style diets. These interventions may improve outcomes by decreasing inflammation, improving energy and protein delivery, and lowering phosphorus, electrolytes, and fluid retention.

  4. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  5. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  6. EBF3 Design and Sustainability Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is a cross-cutting technology for producing structural metal parts using an electron beam and wire feed in a layer-additive fashion. This process was developed by researchers at NASA Langley to specifically address needs for aerospace applications. Additive manufacturing technologies like EBF3 enable efficient design of materials and structures by tailoring microstructures and chemistries at the local level to improve performance at the global level. Additive manufacturing also facilitates design freedom by integrating assemblies into complex single-piece components, eliminating flanges, fasteners and joints, resulting in reduced size and mass. These same efficiencies that permit new design paradigms also lend themselves to supportability and sustainability. Long duration space missions will require a high degree of self-sustainability. EBF3 is a candidate technology being developed to allow astronauts to conduct repairs and fabricate new components and tools on demand, with efficient use of feedstock materials and energy.

  7. COMPLEXITIES IN UNDERSTANDING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment of 03 impact requires consideration of many factors that, perhaps are not of concern in human health risk assessments. The episodic nature of 03 exposure, functional complexity of species assemblages, and the broad spatial and temporal scales character...

  8. Gene therapy for cancer: regulatory considerations for approval

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S R; Han, J; Au, P; Shannon, K; Puri, R K

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments for cancer patients. Advances in genetic modification of cancer and immune cells and the use of oncolytic viruses and bacteria have led to numerous clinical trials for cancer therapy, with several progressing to late-stage product development. At the time of this writing, no gene therapy product has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Some of the key scientific and regulatory issues include understanding of gene transfer vector biology, safety of vectors in vitro and in animal models, optimum gene transfer, long-term persistence or integration in the host, shedding of a virus and ability to maintain transgene expression in vivo for a desired period of time. Because of the biological complexity of these products, the FDA encourages a flexible, data-driven approach for preclinical safety testing programs. The clinical trial design should be based on the unique features of gene therapy products, and should ensure the safety of enrolled subjects. This article focuses on regulatory considerations for gene therapy product development and also discusses guidance documents that have been published by the FDA. PMID:26584531

  9. Automation and robotics considerations for a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Soloway, Donald I.; McKinney, William S., Jr.; Cornils, Karin; Doggett, William R.; Cooper, Eric G.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1992-09-01

    An envisioned lunar outpost shares with other NASA missions many of the same criteria that have prompted the development of intelligent automation techniques with NASA. Because of increased radiation hazards, crew surface activities will probably be even more restricted than current extravehicular activity in low Earth orbit. Crew availability for routine and repetitive tasks will be at least as limited as that envisioned for the space station, particularly in the early phases of lunar development. Certain tasks are better suited to the untiring watchfulness of computers, such as the monitoring and diagnosis of multiple complex systems, and the perception and analysis of slowly developing faults in such systems. In addition, mounting costs and constrained budgets require that human resource requirements for ground control be minimized. This paper provides a glimpse of certain lunar base tasks as seen through the lens of automation and robotic (A&R) considerations. This can allow a more efficient focusing of research and development not only in A&R, but also in those technologies that will depend on A&R in the lunar environment.

  10. Gene therapy for cancer: regulatory considerations for approval.

    PubMed

    Husain, S R; Han, J; Au, P; Shannon, K; Puri, R K

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly changing field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments for cancer patients. Advances in genetic modification of cancer and immune cells and the use of oncolytic viruses and bacteria have led to numerous clinical trials for cancer therapy, with several progressing to late-stage product development. At the time of this writing, no gene therapy product has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Some of the key scientific and regulatory issues include understanding of gene transfer vector biology, safety of vectors in vitro and in animal models, optimum gene transfer, long-term persistence or integration in the host, shedding of a virus and ability to maintain transgene expression in vivo for a desired period of time. Because of the biological complexity of these products, the FDA encourages a flexible, data-driven approach for preclinical safety testing programs. The clinical trial design should be based on the unique features of gene therapy products, and should ensure the safety of enrolled subjects. This article focuses on regulatory considerations for gene therapy product development and also discusses guidance documents that have been published by the FDA.

  11. Telemedicine: socio-ethical considerations in the Indian milieu.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Luv K; Rajput, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine is the rapidly developing application of clinical medicine by telephone, the internet or other networks for the purpose of consulting, and on occasions carrying out examinations or medical procedures. Telemedicine may be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over the telephone, or as complex as using satellite technology and video-conferencing equipment to conduct a real-time consultation between medical specialists in two different countries. Telemedicine offers real benefits in a country as vast as India where the majority of the population lives in remote areas with no access to even the most basic healthcare. As the practice of telemedicine spreads, maintaining standards, security and privacy, will be a challenge especially with regard to legal and regulatory measures and who will be held responsible if telemedicine-assisted surgery fails due to failure in connectivity? Is it the surgeon, the satellite provider or the software/hardware engineer? What is the legal status of telemedicine-based diagnosis and treatment? Other legal issues involve conflicting national laws and information piracy, the dangers of prescription drugs that are banned in one country but not in another and quacks who offer medical advice and prescribe drugs over the internet. This paper discusses some of the legal, ethical and social considerations in the Indian context. PMID:19731480

  12. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  13. Sensor and actuator considerations for precision, small machines: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S T; Seugling, R M

    2005-04-04

    This article reviews some design considerations for the scaling down in size of instruments and machines with a primary aim to identify technologies that may provide more optimal performance solutions than those, often established, technologies used at macroscopic, or conventional, scales. Dimensional metrology within emerging applications will be considered for meso- through micro-down to nanometer level systems with particular emphasis on systems for which precision is directly related to function. In this paper, attention is limited to some of the more fundamental issues associated with scaling. For example, actuator work or power densities or the effect of noise on the sensor signals can be readily evaluated and provide some guidance in the selection for any given size of device. However, with reductions in scale these parameters and/or phenomena that limit performance may change. Within this review, the authors have tried to assess these complex inter-relationships between performance and scale, again from a fundamental perspective. In practice, it is likely that the nuances of implementation and integration of sensor, actuator and/or mechanism designs will determine functionality and commercial viability of any particular system development.

  14. Bioavailability enhancement strategies: basics, formulation approaches and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Rizwan, Md; Irfanuddin, Md; Malini, D Shobha

    2011-11-01

    Poor solubility remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical industry, which is now considered to be an area of prime importance in the field of biomedical research. Approximately 40% new molecular entities (NMEs) synthesized in pharmaceutical R with advanced combinatorial chemistry and computer aided drug designing (CADD) approaches suffer from poor solubility and bioavailability related issues. Apart from these presence of intestinal tight junctional epithelial cells, transporters and enzymatic barriers further reduces the oral absorption of drugs. Implication of the novel lipid based nanocarriers and nanomaterials like dendrimers and carbon nanotubes as a delivery system can effectively enhance the oral bioavailability of drugs by breaching the barriers, and resolve all critics related to solubility and bioavailability. Thus prime objectives of this review are to give in-depth knowledge and critical appraisal on the barriers for poor oral bioavailability of drugs, along with various novel formulation approaches used for bioavailability enhancement such as lipid based formulations, nanosizing techniques, complexation with polymers and nanomaterials like dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and penetration enhancers. Also it gives a brief account on in vitro, in vivo screening methods used for assessment of oral bioavailability, and regulatory considerations for the approval.

  15. Considerations on a VXI based digital image surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.J.; Neumann, G.; Richter, B.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992 the International Atomic Energy Agency established the IAEA Integrated Safeguards Instrumentation Programme (I{sup 2}SIP) which provides a conceptual framework to guide new equipment development activities. One of the main goals of I{sup 2}SIP is to define the optimum structure of future safeguards equipment inventory that would enable the integration of containment, surveillance and unattended radiation monitoring modules for application in facilities with complex safeguards systems. This approach implies a modular equipment structure in both hardware and software. In December 1993, a Consultants Meeting concluded that the VXI instrument bus (VXIbus) standard does not appear to have any technical limitations that will inhibit the use of I{sup 2}SIP and should be considered the first choice for future safeguards equipment. The Agency`s development plan for Digital Image Surveillance (DIS) is part of the I{sup 2}SIP and has defined the need for `distributed systems`, i.e. for multichannel surveillance systems, which should accommodate the integration aspect and meet requirements for both mail-in of recorded information to the Agency and remote surveillance. The paper describes the basic considerations that have led to the selection of the VXI bus to be used for such a system including the different modules emphasizing the integration issue.

  16. Considerations about retirement from clinical practice by obstetrician-gynecologists.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Strunk, Albert L; Petterson, Stephen M

    2015-09-01

    Retirement of obstetrician-gynecologists is becoming a matter of increasing concern in light of an expected shortage of practicing physicians. Determining a retirement age is often complex. We address what constitutes a usual retirement age range from general clinical practice for an obstetrician-gynecologist, compare this with practitioners in other specialties, and suggest factors of importance to obstetrician-gynecologists before retirement. Although the proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists ≥55 years old is similar to other specialists, obstetrician-gynecologists retire at younger ages than male or female physicians in other specialties. A customary age range of retirement from obstetrician-gynecologist practice would be 59-69 years (median, 64 years). Women, who constitute a growing proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists in practice, retire earlier than men. The large cohort of "baby boomer" physicians who are approaching retirement (approximately 15,000 obstetrician-gynecologists) deserves tracking while an investigation of integrated women's health care delivery models is conducted. Relevant considerations would include strategies to extend the work longevity of those who are considering early retirement or desiring part-time employment. Likewise volunteer work in underserved community clinics or teaching medical students and residents offers continuing personal satisfaction for many retirees and preservation of self-esteem and medical knowledge. PMID:25794630

  17. Automation and robotics considerations for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Soloway, Donald I.; Mckinney, William S., Jr.; Cornils, Karin; Doggett, William R.; Cooper, Eric G.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    An envisioned lunar outpost shares with other NASA missions many of the same criteria that have prompted the development of intelligent automation techniques with NASA. Because of increased radiation hazards, crew surface activities will probably be even more restricted than current extravehicular activity in low Earth orbit. Crew availability for routine and repetitive tasks will be at least as limited as that envisioned for the space station, particularly in the early phases of lunar development. Certain tasks are better suited to the untiring watchfulness of computers, such as the monitoring and diagnosis of multiple complex systems, and the perception and analysis of slowly developing faults in such systems. In addition, mounting costs and constrained budgets require that human resource requirements for ground control be minimized. This paper provides a glimpse of certain lunar base tasks as seen through the lens of automation and robotic (A&R) considerations. This can allow a more efficient focusing of research and development not only in A&R, but also in those technologies that will depend on A&R in the lunar environment.

  18. Practical considerations for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Carmel M; Hart, Bruce W

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a well established class of therapeutics as evidenced by a large number of FDA approved mAbs for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal antibodies that are molecularly engineered for enhanced functions and pharmacokinetic properties are routinely being considered for development by many biotechnology companies. Safety evaluation of current generation of mAbs poses new challenges due to the highly complex nature of engineering aspects and variability induced by the diverse recombinant cell systems to generate them. This review provides a basic outline for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic antibodies. Important considerations for planning a preclinical program, the types of nonclinical safety studies, and a general timeline for their conduct in relation to clinical trials are described. A list of relevant regulatory documents issued by government agencies is also provided. Adoption of these principles will greatly enhance the quality and relevance of the nonclinical safety data generated and will facilitate future development of mAb therapeutics. PMID:20046568

  19. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  20. Methodological and analytic considerations for blood biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Robert H; Duh, Show-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers typically evolve from a research setting to use in clinical care as evidence for their independent contribution to patient management accumulates. This evidence relies heavily on knowledge of the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical characteristics of the biomarker's measurement. For the preanalytical phase, considerations such specimen type, acceptable anticoagulants for blood samples, biologic variation and stability of the biomarker under various conditions are key. The analytical phase entails critical details for development and maintenance of assays having performance characteristics that are "fit for service" for the clinical application at hand. Often, these characteristics describe the ability to measure minute quantities in the biologic matrix used for measurement. Although techniques such as mass spectrometry are used effectively for biomarker discovery, routine quantification often relies on use of immunoassays; early in development, the most common immunoassay used is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. As biomarkers evolve successfully, they will be adapted to large main laboratory platforms or, depending on the need for speed, point-of-care devices. Users must pay particular attention to performance parameters of assays they are considering for clinical implementation. These parameters include the limit of blank, a term used to describe the limit of analytical noise for an assay; limit of detection, which describes the lowest concentration that can reliably be discriminated from analytical noise; and perhaps most importantly, the limit of quantitation, which is the lowest concentration at which a biomarker can be reliably measured within some predefined specifications for total analytical error that is based on clinical requirements of the test. The postanalytical phase involves reporting biomarker values, which includes reporting units, any normalization factors, and interpretation. Standardization, a process that

  1. [Medical and social considerations of family planning].

    PubMed

    Slocker De Arce, C

    1983-01-01

    The motivations which led to creation of a family planning specialty within social medicine are discussed and currently available contraceptive methods are reviewed. Among considerations which lead to family planning are the universal worry about uncontrolled population growth and limited resources, especially in the 3rd World: the earth's population is expected to reach 6.5 billion in the year 2000, but already 2.2 billion persons lack adequate resources. Health education and family planning are needed to promote safe conditions for pregnancy and to avoid pregnancy in cases of genetic deficiency. Family planning is a purely medical problem when the woman has a medical problem that would be life threatening to her or her child in case of pregnancy. Illnesses that may be aggravated by pregnancy include cardiopathy, diabetes, nephropathies, thyroid disease, and tuberculosis. Family planning involves provision of information and counseling for patients suffering such disorders as well as for patients who are infertile. Among psychosocial indications for family planning are 2 major problems of modern society: the quality of life and abortion. Family planning has given women the possibility of becoming sexual companions, but the fact that they and not men must submit themselves to contraceptive methods is a negative psychological factor for the stability of the couple. A great change has occurred in Spanish society, in that marriage used to be the only legitimate context for sexual activity and, for Catholics, the only legitimate sexual activity was that oriented toward procreation. Promiscuity, pornography, and sexual liberties and abuses promote undesired pregnancies and abortions. In addition, premarital and extramarital sexual relations have become more frequent. Some 300,000 abortions occur annually in Spain, but abortion can never be a valued family planning method because of its associated morbidity and mortality, and high costs of hospitalization in cases of

  2. Fathers and HIV: considerations for families

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fathers are intricately bound up in all aspects of family life. This review examines fathers in the presence of HIV: from desire for a child, through conception issues, to a summary of the knowledge base on fathers within families affected by HIV. Methods A mixed-methods approach is used, given the scarcity of literature. A review is provided on paternal and male factors in relation to the desire for a child, HIV testing in pregnancy, fatherhood and conception, fatherhood and drug use, paternal support and disengagement, fatherhood and men who have sex with men (MSM), and paternal effects on child development in the presence of HIV. Literature-based reviews and systematic review techniques are used to access available data Primary data are reported on the issue of parenting for men who have sex with men. Results Men with HIV desire fatherhood. This is established in studies from numerous countries, although fatherhood desires may be lower for HIV-positive men than HIV-negative men. Couples do not always agree, and in some studies, male desires for a child are greater than those of their female partners. Despite reduced fertility, support and services, many proceed to parenting, whether in seroconcordant or serodiscordant relationships. There is growing knowledge about fertility options to reduce transmission risk to uninfected partners and to offspring. Within the HIV field, there is limited research on fathering and fatherhood desires in a number of difficult-to-reach groups. There are, however, specific considerations for men who have sex with men and those affected by drug use. Conception in the presence of HIV needs to be managed and informed to reduce the risk of infection to partners and children. Further, paternal support plays a role in maternal management. Conclusions Strategies to improve HIV testing of fathers are needed. Paternal death has a negative impact on child development and paternal survival is protective. It is important to

  3. First MARS Outpost: Development Considerations and Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. The central goal of this activity is to conceptualize a scenario of sequential, integrated private enterprise initiatives that can carry humankind forward to Mars. This presentation highlights planning considerations and design concepts for establishing a first settlement on Mars. The outpost would support surface missions lasting up to about 500 days and would serve as the initial stage of a larger and continuously operational development which would utilize Mars resources to be less reliant on materials from Earth. Key elements of this first stage mission development sequence include a new heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle; a plasma- drive Mars transit vehicle; habitat modules for crews in transit to and from Mars; "hard" and "inflatable" surface habitats and laboratories; a mobile power unit; a spacecraft to assist orbital assembly; and vehicles to lift crews off the Mars surface and land them safely back on Earth from LEO. SICSA's space development approach differs in fundamental ways from conventional NASA-sponsored initiatives. First, virtually all baseline planning assumptions are influenced by the private sector-driven nature of an approach that aims to avoid all possible reliance upon government financing, agendas and schedules. In this regard, any involvements with NASA or the space agencies of other countries would be premised upon mutual public-corporate partnership benefits rather than upon federal contract awards, management and control. Another potential difference relates to program philosophy. Unlike Apollo Program "sprint" missions which culminated with footprints and flagpoles on the Moon, the aim is to realize sustainable and continuing planetary exploration and development progress. This goal can be advanced through approaches that

  4. Critical Point in Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S.A.; Morfill, G.E.; Ivlev, A.V.; Thomas, H.M.; Beysens, D.A.; Zappoli, B.; Fortov, V.E.; Lipaev, A.M.; Molotkov, V.I.

    2006-01-13

    The occurrence of liquid-vapor phase transition and the possible existence of a critical point in complex plasmas--systems that consist of charged micrograins in a neutralizing plasma background--is investigated theoretically. An analysis based on the consideration of the intergrain interaction potential suggests that under certain conditions systems near and at the critical point should be observable. Measurements under microgravity conditions would appear to be required. The analysis aims at determining the plasma parameter regime most suitable for planned experimental investigations.

  5. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979

  6. A computing system for LBB considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonen, K.; Miettinen, J.; Raiko, H.; Keskinen, R.

    1997-04-01

    A computing system has been developed at VTT Energy for making efficient leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations of piping components. The system consists of fracture mechanics and leak rate analysis modules which are linked via an interactive user interface LBBCAL. The system enables quick tentative analysis of standard geometric and loading situations by means of fracture mechanics estimation schemes such as the R6, FAD, EPRI J, Battelle, plastic limit load and moments methods. Complex situations are handled with a separate in-house made finite-element code EPFM3D which uses 20-noded isoparametric solid elements, automatic mesh generators and advanced color graphics. Analytical formulas and numerical procedures are available for leak area evaluation. A novel contribution for leak rate analysis is the CRAFLO code which is based on a nonequilibrium two-phase flow model with phase slip. Its predictions are essentially comparable with those of the well known SQUIRT2 code; additionally it provides outputs for temperature, pressure and velocity distributions in the crack depth direction. An illustrative application to a circumferentially cracked elbow indicates expectedly that a small margin relative to the saturation temperature of the coolant reduces the leak rate and is likely to influence the LBB implementation to intermediate diameter (300 mm) primary circuit piping of BWR plants.

  7. Hemophilia A: Dental considerations and management

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Shilpa Padar; Kaul, Rachna; Baroudi, Kusai; Umar, Dilshad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To review hemophilia A with emphasis on its oral manifestations, investigations, and dental management. Materials and Methods: Search was conducted using internet-based search engines, scholarly bibliographic databases, PubMed, and Medline with key words such as “Hemophilia A,” “factor VIII,” “bleeding and clotting disorders,” and “dental management.” Results: Hemophilia comprises a group of hereditary disorders caused due to the deficiency of one or more clotting factors leading to prolonged clotting time and excessive bleeding tendencies. It is broadly divided into hemophilia A, B, and C, which occur due to deficiency of factor VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive hereditary disorder and is the most common of the three, accounting for 80–85% of the cases. Conclusion: Understanding this complex entity is very important for a dentist to provide appropriate dental treatment and avoid undesirable consequences. PMID:25625071

  8. Geometric considerations for diffusion in polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2007-03-01

    Mass transport in polycrystals is usually enhanced by short-circuit diffusion along various defect paths, e.g., grain boundaries, dislocation cores, and triple junctions. In the "kinetic-A" regime, diffusion fields associated with the various diffusion paths overlap each other, forming a macroscopically homogeneous diffusion profile that can be described by an effective diffusion coefficient. Here, we develop a composite diffusion model for polycrystals based on realistic arrangements between various microstructural elements, which usually exhibit complex network morphologies. Asymmetric effective medium equations and power-law scaling relationships are used to evaluate the effective diffusivity of a general isotropic polycrystal, and are compared to predictions of the simple arithmetic rule of mixtures used frequently in the literature. We also examine the grain size and temperature dependence of polycrystalline diffusion in terms of the apparent grain size exponent and activation energy, which in turn provide the basis by which we assess dominant diffusion processes and construct generalized diffusion mechanism maps. Implications of geometry on experimental diffusivity measurements are also discussed.

  9. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lehrner, Amy; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk for PTSD following trauma exposure, and predict or identify recovery. While there has been much interest in PTSD biomarkers, there has been less discussion of their potential clinical applications, and of the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers. Objective This article will discuss possible applications of PTSD biomarkers, including the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers, with an emphasis on military applications. Method Literature on applications of PTSD biomarkers and on potential ethical and legal implications will be reviewed. Results Biologically informed research findings hold promise for prevention, assessment, treatment planning, and the development of prophylactic and treatment interventions. As with any biological indicator of disorder, there are potentially positive and negative clinical, social, legal, and ethical consequences of using such biomarkers. Conclusions Potential clinical applications of PTSD biomarkers hold promise for clinicians, patients, and employers. The search for biomarkers of PTSD should occur in tandem with an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the potential implications of applying biological findings in clinical and employment settings. PMID:25206945

  10. Biosimilar safety considerations in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Choy, Edwin; Jacobs, Ira Allen

    2014-02-01

    Biologics are important treatments for a number of cancers. Patents for several biologics will expire over the next decade, removing a barrier to the development and commercialization of biosimilars. As biologics differ from small-molecule drugs due to their size and complexity, multifaceted manufacturing process, and their potential for immunogenicity, biosimilars cannot be considered "generic versions" of currently approved biologics. In highly regulated markets, biosimilars can be authorized only if they are demonstrated to be highly similar to the original drug from an analytical and clinical perspective. Any differences must be justified and shown to have no clinically meaningful effect on the safety and efficacy of the biosimilar. The European Medicines Agency has approved a number of biosimilars and the recent approval of the biosimilar infliximab monoclonal antibody is another regulatory milestone. This article will provide context regarding key safety issues addressed in biosimilar development, approval, and delivery, as well as inform oncologists on matters of safety to consider when prescribing biosimilars. Pertinent issues about safety from countries or regions where biosimilars are currently in use also will be reviewed. PMID:24560025

  11. [Practical considerations on detection of publication bias].

    PubMed

    Palma Pérez, Silvia; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    The present review aims to answer 3 questions: does publication bias need to be assessed in meta-analyses?; what procedures, not requiring complex statistical approaches, can be applied to detect it?; and should other factors be taken into account when interpreting the procedures? The first question is easy to answer. Publication bias is a potential threat to the validity of the conclusions of meta-analyses. Therefore, both the MOOSE and QUOROM statements include publication bias in their guidelines; nevertheless, many meta-analyses do not use these statements (e.g., meta-analyses conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration), perhaps because they use a comprehensive search strategy. There are many methods to assess publication bias. The most frequently used are funnel plots or , (which allow the effects of bias to be estimated), and methods based upon regression on plots, such as Egger's method and funnel plot regression. An advantage of these methods is that they can only be applied using published data. However, agreement between these methods in detecting bias is often poor. Therefore, application of more than one method to detect publication bias is recommended. To correctly interpret the results, the number of pooled studies should be more than 10 and the existence of heterogeneity in the pooled estimate must be taken into account.

  12. Cross-flow Ultrafiltration Scaling Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M

    2006-04-10

    One legacy of the nuclear age is radioactive waste and it must be stabilized to be stored in a safe manner. An important part of the stabilization process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. The performance of this technology with the wastes to be treated was unknown and, therefore, had to be obtained. However, before beginning a filter study the question of experimental scale had to be addressed. Of course, carrying out experiments using full-size equipment is always ideal, but rarely practical when dealing with plant size processes. Flow loops that will handle millions of liters of slurries, which are either highly caustic or acidic, with flow rates of 10,000 lpm make full-scale tests prohibitively expensive. Moreover, when the slurries happen to be radioactive such work is also very dangerous. All of these considerations lend themselves to investigations at smaller scales and in many situations can be treated with computational analyses. Unfortunately, as scale is reduced it becomes harder to provide prototypic results and the two and three phase multi-component mixtures challenge accurate computational results. To obtain accurate and representative filter results the use of two scales were chosen: (1) Small-scale--would allow the testing with actual radioactive waste samples and compare results with simulated wastes that were not radioactive. For this scale the feed tank held 6 liters of waste and it had a single cross-flow filter tube 0.61 m long. (2) Pilot-scale--would be restricted to use simulated non-radioactive wastes. At this larger scale the feed tank held 120 liters of waste and the filter unit was prototypic to the planned plant facility in pore size (0.1 micron), length (2.29 m), diameter (0.0127 m inside and 0.0159 m outside diameter), and being multi-tubed. The small-scale apparatus is convenient, easy to use, and can test both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes; therefore, there is a

  13. Intraoral features and considerations in face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wall, A; Bueno, E; Pomahac, B; Treister, N

    2016-03-01

    Face transplantation (FT) is a unique and novel addition to the field of reconstructive surgery, which offers new hope to facially disfigured individuals. This review provides an overview of FT, including clinical indications, immunological principles, and functional outcomes, as well as an in-depth characterization of the intraoral hard and soft tissue findings in the six patients transplanted to date at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, MA, USA. Six FT recipients underwent comprehensive clinical and radiographic evaluation to assess their intraoral status, function, and overall health. The extra- and intraoral soft tissue was assessed via quantitative sensory testing. The vitality of the transplanted dental hard tissue was evaluated with clinically available testing methods. Native teeth and prostheses were also assessed. Sensation of transplanted oral mucosa varied based on time elapsed from FT, ranging from minimal at 3 months post-FT, to nearly complete recovery by approximately 24 months. There was mixed success with the integration of donor teeth (Patients 1, 4 and 6), including associated occlusal discrepancies. Mucosal complications included constriction at the donor/recipient interface (Patients 2 and 5) and solitary episodes of mucosal rejection presenting as lichenoid inflammation (Patients 2 and 4). Face transplantation represents a pivotal moment in the history of reconstructive surgery and transplant medicine, providing new optimism to patients with gross facial deformities. This report highlights the successes of FT, but also the challenges of transplanting hard and soft tissues to restore complex stomatognathic function. Further attention directed toward comprehensive oral rehabilitation in FT will contribute to improved outcomes, with the ultimate goal of restoring and optimizing patient quality of life.

  14. Fundamental considerations for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    2005-10-01

    Presented herein are the results of an investigation of theoretical models of atomization, which can be used for a phenomenological theory for coal slurry atomization. This investigation was conducted in several phases. The primary phase involved an intensive analysis of the rheological properties of coal slurry fuels. Analysis was performed including viscosity as a function of shear rate, the extensional viscosity, and the viscoelastic properties. During the second phase, atomization was studied over a sufficiently wide range of rheological properties. During this phase, simulated fluids as well as coal slurries were studied. Three basic theoretical models were analyzed to determine the best approach to characterizing these complex fluids. The first model was a linearized Navier-Stokes equation for a cylindrical fluid stream breaking up into drops under the impact of a high-velocity air stream. The second model was a collisional model, by which the collision of the airstream and the fluid stream produced droplets. Energy and momentum conservation were used to derive relationships between the drop size and the relevant physical parameters. A third model studied was a statistical model using a Boltzmann-type transport equation for the propagation of drops under the interactions of a high-velocity airstream. The effects of drop coalescence and breakup are incorporated into this model. By comparing the various theoretical models with the atomization data and the rheological data, a phenomenological model was constructed that correctly predicted the trends of the Sauter mean diameter as a function of air/fuel ratio, rheological properties, and spray angle. An elective viscosity was defined that included the effects of viscous losses, extensional properties, and viscoelastic properties. In addition, the effects of yield point were incorporated and shown to be important in predicting atomization properties.

  15. Visualizing harm reduction: Methodological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Switzer, S; Guta, A; de Prinse, K; Chan Carusone, S; Strike, C

    2015-05-01

    The use of visual methods is becoming increasingly common and accepted in health research. This paper explores the opportunities and constraints of using photo-based methods in the context of a community-based participatory research study on how to engage people living with HIV in conversations about a hospital's recently introduced harm reduction policy. Using a blended approach of photovoice and photo-elicited interviews, we provided participants (n = 16) with cameras and asked them to take a series of photos that "show how you feel about or have experienced harm reduction as a Casey House client." We reflect on methodological insights from the study to think through the process of doing photo-based work on a stigmatized topic in a small hospital setting by foregrounding: 1) how the act of taking photos assisted participants in visualizing connections between space, harm reduction, and substance use; 2) expectations of participation and navigating daily health realities; and 3) issues of confidentiality, anonymity and stigma in clinical settings. These reflections provide a case study on the importance of critically examining the process of engaging with photo-based methods. We conclude the paper by re-thinking issues of context and photo-based methods. Rather than viewing context as a neutral backdrop to apply a method, context should be viewed as an active force in shaping what can or cannot be done or produced within the space. Photo-based methods may offer an effective community-engagement strategy but may require modification for use in a clinical setting when working on a stigmatized topic with individuals with complex health care needs. Given the potential of visual methods as a community engagement strategy, research teams are advised to understand the entire process as a data collection opportunity so that these methods can be further explored in a variety of contexts. PMID:25841098

  16. Engineering Considerations Applied to Starshade Repointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Starke, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  17. Engineering considerations applied to starshade repointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-07-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure (SRP) has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  18. Pharmacotherapy of obesity: clinical treatments and considerations.

    PubMed

    Holes-Lewis, Kelly Anne; Malcolm, Robert; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality which costs billions of dollars per year. The associated related conditions are many and include heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea and certain types of cancer. Given that it is a multifactorial problem, the treatments must also address the numerous causes associated with the development of obesity. The neurohormonal regulation of feeding and energy is a complex system often necessitating modification through more than 1 pathway to achieve weight loss. Therefore, in addition to lifestyle changes, attenuation of caloric intake and increase in caloric expenditure, pharmacotherapies, including combination medications, may prove beneficial in its treatment. Adding to the current available pharmacotherapies for obesity, the Food and Drug Administration has recently approved 2 new combination medications known as lorcaserin (Belviq) and phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia). As with these and other medications used for weight loss, clinical cautions, side effects, precise review of patients' medical history and selecting the appropriate medication are imperative. Additionally, close follow-up is necessary in patients undergoing treatment for weight loss. As weight loss progresses, patients who are currently undergoing concomitant treatment for comorbid diabetes and hypertension need to be monitored for appropriate changes in medications used to treat those conditions. Weight loss is often accompanied by improvement in blood pressure and glucose levels and therefore resting blood pressure and fasting and/or postprandial plasma glucose levels should be monitored at follow-up. Although unique to each individual, the benefits of weight loss are substantial and can improve well-being and physical health. PMID:23531960

  19. Cause for concern: the absence of consideration of public and ethical interest in British public policy

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, S; Evans, H M

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, many fundamentally important policy decisions that are likely to affect the relationship between citizens and care services are now made at the sublegislative level and without adequate ethical consideration and scrutiny. This is well exemplified in the proposed guidance on the disclosure of information on children. A recent consultation paper by the UK government on the subject proposes an approach that seeks a simple technical solution to a complex problem, emphasising control and surveillance. This reflects pressure to be seen to act. The document fails with regard to ethical reflection appropriate to the complexity of the issue, an appreciation of complex relationships of trust, and a proper sense of the richness and complexity of the public interest. Such policies would, if implemented, fundamentally change the relationships between citizens and their carers, and among carers and the law and the state. This and similar proposals require far more ethical scrutiny and consideration of the public interest in the widest sense. PMID:17145911

  20. Text Complexity and Young Adult Literature: Establishing Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaus, Marci

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students for college and careers in the 21st century has shed light on text complexity as an important variable for consideration in English Language Arts. Authors of The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) define text complexity as broad, highlighting qualitative, rather than quantitative evaluations of narrative fiction as appropriate…

  1. Tunable impedance matching network fundamental limits and practical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wesley N.

    As wireless devices continue to increase in utility while decreasing in dimension, design of the RF front-end becomes more complex. It is common for a single handheld device to operate on a plethora of frequency bands, utilize multiple antennae, and be subjected to a variety of environments. One complexity in particular which arises from these factors is that of impedance mismatch. Recently, tunable impedance matching networks have begun to be implemented to address this problem. This dissertation presents the first in-depth study on the frequency tuning range of tunable impedance matching networks. Both the fundamental limitations of ideal networks as well as practical considerations for design and implementation are addressed. Specifically, distributed matching networks with a single tuning element are investigated for use with parallel resistor-capacitor and series resistor-inductor loads. Analytical formulas are developed to directly calculate the frequency tuning range TR of ideal topologies. The theoretical limit of TR for these topologies is presented and discussed. Additional formulas are developed which address limitations in transmission line characteristic impedance and varactor range. Equations to predict loss due to varactor quality factor are demonstrated and the ability of parasitics to both increase and decrease TR are shown. Measured results exemplify i) the potential to develop matching networks with a small impact from parasitics, ii) the need for accurate knowledge of parasitics when designing near transition points in optimal parameters, iii) the importance of using a transmission line with the right characteristic impedance, and iv) the ability to achieve extremely low loss at the design frequency with a lossy varactor under the right conditions (measured loss of -0.07 dB). In the area of application, tunable matching networks are designed and measured for mobile handset antennas, demonstrating up to a 3 dB improvement in power delivered to a

  2. Optimizing Reconstruction with Periorbital Transplantation: Clinical Indications and Anatomic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Christensen, Joani M.; Christy, Michael R.; Bojovic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complex periorbital subunit reconstruction is challenging because the goals of effective reconstruction vary from one individual to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the indications and anatomic feasibility of periorbital transplantation by reviewing our institutional repository of facial injury. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center for a retrospective chart review conducted on patients with periorbital defects. Patient history, facial defects, visual acuity, and periorbital function were critically reviewed to identify indications for periorbital or total face (incorporating the periorbital subunit) vascularized composite allotransplantation. Cadaveric allograft harvest was then designed and performed for specific patient defects to determine anatomic feasibility. Disease conditions not captured by our patient population warranting consideration were reviewed. Results: A total of 7 facial or periorbital transplant candidates representing 6 different etiologies were selected as suitable indications for periorbital transplantation. Etiologies included trauma, burn, animal attack, and tumor, whereas proposed transplants included isolated periorbital and total face transplants. Allograft recovery was successfully completed in 4 periorbital subunits and 1 full face. Dual vascular supply was achieved in 5 of 6 periorbital subunits (superficial temporal and facial vessels). Conclusions: Transplantation of isolated periorbital structures or full face transplantation including periorbital structures is technically feasible. The goal of periorbital transplantation is to re-establish protective mechanisms of the eye, to prevent deterioration of visual acuity, and to optimize aesthetic outcomes. Criteria necessary for candidate selection and allograft design are identified by periorbital defect, periorbital function, ophthalmologic evaluation, and defect etiology. PMID:27014557

  3. Considerations in the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Chris; Spigarelli, Michael G; Campbell, Sarah C; Constance, Jonathan E; Courter, Joshua D; Thorell, Emily A; Olson, Jared; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2014-02-01

    The management of neonatal sepsis is challenging owing to complex developmental and environmental factors that contribute to inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many antimicrobial agents. In this review, we describe (i) the changing epidemiology of early- and late-onset neonatal sepsis; (ii) the pharmacologic considerations that influence the safety and efficacy of antibacterials, antifungals, and immunomodulatory adjuvants; and (iii) the recommended dosing regimens for pharmacologic agents commonly used in the treatment and prevention of neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is marked by high morbidity and mortality, such that prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is essential following culture collection. Before culture results are available, combination therapy with ampicillin and an aminoglycoside is recommended. When meningitis is suspected, ampicillin and cefotaxime may be considered. Following identification of the causative organism and in vitro susceptibility testing, antimicrobial therapy may be narrowed to provide targeted coverage. Therapeutic drug monitoring should be considered for neonates receiving vancomycin or aminoglycoside therapies. For neonates with invasive fungal infections, the development of new antifungal agents has significantly improved therapeutic outcomes in recent years. Liposomal amphotericin B has been found to be safe and efficacious in patients with renal impairment or toxicity caused by conventional amphotericin B. Antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole has also been reported to dramatically reduce rates of neonatal invasive fungal infections and to improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes among treated children. Additionally, several large multicenter studies are currently investigating the safety and efficacy of oral lactoferrin as an immunoprophylactic agent for the prevention of neonatal sepsis. PMID:24218112

  4. Influencing the Future: Special Considerations for IPY Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitler, J.

    2004-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-1958 created a valuable legacy, by not only advancing the sciences involved, but by also stimulating interest in and support for science, and by inspiring many to enter science careers. Successful education and outreach efforts in conjunction with IGY transmitted this energy to the public and helped researchers to create this legacy. The International Polar Year (IPY) for 2007-2008 again holds promise to generate new scientific insights and leave a similar legacy -- if the sciences are once again successful in connecting with the public. Despite the fine example of the IGY of 1958 -1959, the way forward for meaningful education and outreach for IPY isn't entirely clear. Every element affecting science education and outreach today is considerably more complex, and the distinct challenges and opportunities of today may not always be addressed by simply extending what has been helpful in the past. Whether a large research group or an individual researcher, whether working with a dedicated outreach staff or conducting outreach more informally, whether already operating successful outreach programs or starting from scratch, any project intending an education and outreach effort will significantly increase its relevance and effectiveness by taking pause to formulate specific goals and objectives for IPY. Such thinking shouldn't be entirely delegated to non-researchers. The engagement of the scientists themselves in setting objectives for education and outreach will provide the strongest outcome. This discussion analyzes the communication setting for IPY as it affects outreach and education efforts, and proposes a model for discussing and formulating outreach and education objectives. It poses the key questions that should be asked and answered in order to ensure that researchers take full advantage of education and outreach opportunities with IPY, whatever the scope of their efforts. Education and outreach programs that

  5. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  6. 45 CFR 400.102 - Consideration of income and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... eligibility in 42 CFR 435.831, and as reflected in the State's approved title XIX State Medicaid plan. (2) In... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consideration of income and resources. 400.102... Consideration of income and resources. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this...

  7. 45 CFR 400.102 - Consideration of income and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eligibility in 42 CFR 435.831, and as reflected in the State's approved title XIX State Medicaid plan. (2) In... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Consideration of income and resources. 400.102... Consideration of income and resources. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 222 - Diagnostic Team Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic Team Considerations F Appendix F to.... 222, App. F Appendix F to Part 222—Diagnostic Team Considerations For purposes of this part, a diagnostic team is a group of knowledgeable representatives of parties of interest in a highway-rail...

  9. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 356 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued...) Pt. 356, App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities...

  10. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 359 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... BONDS, SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some...

  11. 5 CFR 332.405 - Three considerations for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three considerations for appointment. 332... RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION THROUGH COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Consideration for Appointment § 332.405 Three... considered by him for three separate appointments from the same or different certificates for the...

  12. Psychological and Pedagogical Considerations in Digital Textbook Use and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railean, Elena

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of digital tools into mainstream society, new applications for cutting-edge technologies enable innovations in the dissemination of information. Careful consideration of the impact of these tools is important to maximize benefits while avoiding misuse. "Psychological and Pedagogical Considerations in Digital Textbook Use…

  13. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some index..., as long as that CPI-U continues to be published. (c) If, while an inflation-indexed savings bonds...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C..., App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities A. Principal... may be enhanced over time as we issue additional amounts or more entities participate in the market....

  15. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 359 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... BONDS, SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some...

  16. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected...

  17. 32 CFR 147.8 - Guideline F-Financial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obligations; (2) Deceptive or illegal financial practices such as embezzlement, employee theft, check fraud... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline F-Financial considerations. 147.8... INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.8 Guideline F—Financial considerations. (a) The concern. An individual who...

  18. 20 CFR 366.5 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 366.5 Section 366... COLLECTION OF DEBTS BY FEDERAL TAX REFUND OFFSET § 366.5 Consideration of evidence. Evidence submitted by the... of such debt is past-due and legally enforceable will be made only by such officials or employees....

  19. 48 CFR 6101.28 - Full Board consideration [Rule 28].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.28 Full Board consideration . (a) Requests by... matter to be referred is one of exceptional importance. (2) A request for full Board consideration may be... Board, no later than the last date on which any party may file a motion for reconsideration or...

  20. Ethical Dimensions of Diagnosing: Considerations for Clinical Mental Health Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hoffman, Rachel M.; Eriksen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous ethical considerations inherent within the process of assigning a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis. In this article, general ethics considerations such as informed consent and confidentiality, accuracy of diagnosis, and…

  1. An Analysis of Ethical Considerations in Programme Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations are inherent to programme design decision-making, but not normally explicit. Nonetheless, they influence whose interests are served in a programme and who benefits from it. This paper presents an analysis of ethical considerations made by programme design practitioners in the context of a polytechnic in Aotearoa/New Zealand.…

  2. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's certification that he or...

  3. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's certification that he or...

  4. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's...

  5. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's...

  6. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's...

  7. 32 CFR 1633.6 - Consideration of classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of classes. 1633.6 Section 1633.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF CLASSIFICATION § 1633.6 Consideration of classes. Claims of a registrant will be considered in inverse order of the listing of the...

  8. 43 CFR 10010.4 - Consideration of environmental values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consideration of environmental values... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.4 Consideration of environmental values. (a) In Commission management. (1) In the management of the natural, cultural, and...

  9. 32 CFR 147.8 - Guideline F-Financial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... obligations; (2) Deceptive or illegal financial practices such as embezzlement, employee theft, check fraud... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline F-Financial considerations. 147.8... INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.8 Guideline F—Financial considerations. (a) The concern. An individual who...

  10. 32 CFR 147.8 - Guideline F-Financial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... obligations; (2) Deceptive or illegal financial practices such as embezzlement, employee theft, check fraud... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline F-Financial considerations. 147.8... INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.8 Guideline F—Financial considerations. (a) The concern. An individual who...

  11. Effective Assistive Technology Consideration and Implications for Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vita L.; Hinesmon-Matthews, Lezlee J.

    2014-01-01

    Often the consideration of assistive technology devices and services during the individualized education program (IEP) process is overlooked. Because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorized this consideration, IEP team members must be keenly aware of the importance they hold in providing this valuable input. Thus, IEP…

  12. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question…

  13. 48 CFR 970.1100-2 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional considerations. 970.1100-2 Section 970.1100-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... considerations. (a) While it is not feasible to set forth standard language which would apply to every...

  14. 48 CFR 970.1100-2 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional considerations. 970.1100-2 Section 970.1100-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... considerations. (a) While it is not feasible to set forth standard language which would apply to every...

  15. INCORPORATING WETLANDS IN WATER QUALITY TRADING: ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating the use of wetlands as a technology to enhance water quality trading programs requires consideration of ecological, legal, and economic issues. We explore the case of encouraging the use of wetlands with a focus on the economic considerations. Interestingly, it is...

  16. 16 CFR 1011.1 - General policy considerations; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy considerations; scope. 1011.1... § 1011.1 General policy considerations; scope. (a) In order for the Consumer Product Safety Commission to properly carry out its mandate to protect the public from unreasonable risks of injury associated...

  17. 77 FR 11385 - Security Considerations for Lavatory Oxygen Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... (Amendment Nos. 21-94, 25-133, 121-354, 129-50; SFAR 111) on security considerations for lavatory oxygen systems (77 FR 12550). The interim final rule addresses a security vulnerability and is needed so the...-94, 25-133, 121-354, 129-50; SFAR 111] RIN 2120-AJ92 Security Considerations for Lavatory...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 359 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 359 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some...

  20. Adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization of uncertain real and complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-bing; Wang, Xing-yuan; Wang, Xiu-you; Zhou, Yu-fei

    2016-04-01

    With comprehensive consideration of generalized synchronization, combination synchronization and adaptive control, this paper investigates a novel adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization (AGCCS) scheme for different real and complex nonlinear systems with unknown parameters. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory and adaptive control, an AGCCS controller and parameter update laws are derived to achieve synchronization and parameter identification of two real drive systems and a complex response system, as well as two complex drive systems and a real response system. Two simulation examples, namely, ACGCS for chaotic real Lorenz and Chen systems driving a hyperchaotic complex Lü system, and hyperchaotic complex Lorenz and Chen systems driving a real chaotic Lü system, are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  1. Vectorization, threading, and cache-blocking considerations for hydrocodes on emerging architectures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fung, J.; Aulwes, R. T.; Bement, M. T.; Campbell, J. M.; Ferenbaugh, C. R.; Jean, B. A.; Kelley, T. M.; Kenamond, M. A.; Lally, B. R.; Lovegrove, E. G.; et al

    2015-07-14

    This work reports on considerations for improving computational performance in preparation for current and expected changes to computer architecture. The algorithms studied will include increasingly complex prototypes for radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as gradient routines and diffusion matrix assembly (e.g., in [1-6]). The meshes considered for the algorithms are structured or unstructured meshes. The considerations applied for performance improvements are meant to be general in terms of architecture (not specifically graphical processing unit (GPUs) or multi-core machines, for example) and include techniques for vectorization, threading, tiling, and cache blocking. Out of a survey of optimization techniques on applications such asmore » diffusion and hydrodynamics, we make general recommendations with a view toward making these techniques conceptually accessible to the applications code developer. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.« less

  2. Legal and institutional considerations in the application of ecological risk assessment at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, G.R. ); Bascietto, J.; Beckert, H. )

    1992-10-01

    As defined in EPA's Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment, ecological risk assessment is a promising tool that DOE can use to help meet its legal and institutional obligations during remediation and restoration activities. The adoption of ecological risk assessment as a tool for meeting legal and societal obligations, and as a means of providing information for resource management decisions has several implications for DOE, including the need to define a process for using ecological risk assessment to support regulatory compliance and institutionally mandated activities. This paper first identifies regulatory requirements and institutional considerations that could be important to DOE, and that could be supported by ecological risk assessments. Considering this set of regulatory requirements and institutional considerations, the often complex characteristics of DOE sites, and the elements of EPA's ecological risk assessment framework, a process for using ecological risk assessment at DOE sites is then proposed.

  3. Legal and institutional considerations in the application of ecological risk assessment at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, G.R.; Bascietto, J.; Beckert, H.

    1992-10-01

    As defined in EPA`s Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment, ecological risk assessment is a promising tool that DOE can use to help meet its legal and institutional obligations during remediation and restoration activities. The adoption of ecological risk assessment as a tool for meeting legal and societal obligations, and as a means of providing information for resource management decisions has several implications for DOE, including the need to define a process for using ecological risk assessment to support regulatory compliance and institutionally mandated activities. This paper first identifies regulatory requirements and institutional considerations that could be important to DOE, and that could be supported by ecological risk assessments. Considering this set of regulatory requirements and institutional considerations, the often complex characteristics of DOE sites, and the elements of EPA`s ecological risk assessment framework, a process for using ecological risk assessment at DOE sites is then proposed.

  4. Vectorization, threading, and cache-blocking considerations for hydrocodes on emerging architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, J.; Aulwes, R. T.; Bement, M. T.; Campbell, J. M.; Ferenbaugh, C. R.; Jean, B. A.; Kelley, T. M.; Kenamond, M. A.; Lally, B. R.; Lovegrove, E. G.; Nelson, E. M.; Powell, D. M.

    2015-07-14

    This work reports on considerations for improving computational performance in preparation for current and expected changes to computer architecture. The algorithms studied will include increasingly complex prototypes for radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as gradient routines and diffusion matrix assembly (e.g., in [1-6]). The meshes considered for the algorithms are structured or unstructured meshes. The considerations applied for performance improvements are meant to be general in terms of architecture (not specifically graphical processing unit (GPUs) or multi-core machines, for example) and include techniques for vectorization, threading, tiling, and cache blocking. Out of a survey of optimization techniques on applications such as diffusion and hydrodynamics, we make general recommendations with a view toward making these techniques conceptually accessible to the applications code developer. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Benefits of Operational Consideration into the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Design of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Mark C.; Holt, Greg N.

    2011-01-01

    The following paper points out historical examples where operational consideration into the GN&C design could have helped avoid operational complexity, reduce costs, ensure the ability for a GN&C system to be able to adapt to failures, and in some cases might have helped save mission objectives. A costly repeat of mistakes could befall a program if previous operational lessons, especially from operators of vehicles with similar GN&C systems, are not considered during the GN&C design phase of spacecraft. The information gained from operational consideration during the design can lead to improvements of the design, allow less ground support during operations, and prevent repetition of previous mistakes. However, this benefit can only occur if spacecraft operators adequately capture lessons learned that would improve future designs for operations and those who are designing spacecraft incorporate inputs from those that have previously operated similar GN&C systems.

  6. In vitro methods for detection of circulating immune complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Blackstock, R.

    1981-01-01

    The possible pathologic consequences of the presence of circulating immune complexes in certain disease states has caused considerable attention to be given to the development of laboratory procedures capable of quantitatively measuring the presence of immune complexes in serum. Many assays are available which utilize differing properties of immune complexes for their detection. Examples of assays which depend on different biologic properties of circulating immune complexes are presented and discussed. Included are the Raji cell assay, Clq binding assay, inhibition of rheumatoid agglutination, and nephelometric assays for determination of circulating immune complexes.

  7. Applying complexity theory: a review to inform evaluation design.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mat

    2014-08-01

    Complexity theory has increasingly been discussed and applied within evaluation literature over the past decade. This article reviews the discussion and use of complexity theory within academic journal literature. The aim is to identify the issues to be considered when applying complexity theory to evaluation. Reviewing 46 articles, two groups of themes are identified. The first group considers implications of applying complexity theory concepts for defining evaluation purpose, scope and units of analysis. The second group of themes consider methodology and method. Results provide a starting point for a configuration of an evaluation approach consistent with complexity theory, whilst also identifying a number of design considerations to be resolved within evaluation planning.

  8. The Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Inderlied, C B; Kemper, C A; Bermudez, L E

    1993-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease emerged early in the epidemic of AIDS as one of the common opportunistic infections afflicting human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. However, only over the past few years has a consensus developed about its significance to the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. M. avium was well known to mycobacteriologists decades before AIDS, and the MAC was known to cause disease, albeit uncommon, in humans and animals. The early interest in the MAC provided a basis for an explosion of studies over the past 10 years largely in response to the role of the MAC in AIDS opportunistic infection. Molecular techniques have been applied to the epidemiology of MAC disease as well as to a better understanding of the genetics of antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of the MAC with the immune system is complex, and putative MAC virulence factors appear to have a direct effect on the components of cellular immunity, including the regulation of cytokine expression and function. There now is compelling evidence that disseminated MAC disease in humans contributes to both a decrease in the quality of life and survival. Disseminated disease most commonly develops late in the course of AIDS as the CD4 cells are depleted below a critical threshold, but new therapies for prophylaxis and treatment offer considerable promise. These new therapeutic modalities are likely to be useful in the treatment of other forms of MAC disease in patients without AIDS. The laboratory diagnosis of MAC disease has focused on the detection of mycobacteria in the blood and tissues, and although the existing methods are largely adequate, there is need for improvement. Indeed, the successful treatment of MAC disease clearly will require an early and rapid detection of the MAC in clinical specimens long before the establishment of the characteristic overwhelming infection of bone marrow, liver, spleen, and other tissue. Also, a standard method of susceptibility testing

  9. Ethical considerations in the prevention and management of genetic disorders with special emphasis on religious considerations.

    PubMed

    Albar, Mohammed A

    2002-06-01

    Genetic diseases include not only single gene disorders, but multifactorial, somatic cell genetic disorders, mitochondrial and even chromosomal. One in 4 adults will suffer from a multifactorial or a somatic cell genetic disease. The common diseases in the community have a hereditary component namely diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart diseases and many types of cancer. Even monogenic diseases which affect a small number of the newborns (2%-3%), have a greater impact on childhood diseases up to age 15 years. Therefore, it is imperative to scrutinize the available methods of prevention and management of genetic disorders, their ethical implications, and since east Mediterranean region is mainly occupied by Arabs and muslims, religious considerations become of paramount importance. Islam differs from many other religions in providing a complete code of life, which encompasses the secular with spiritual, the mundane with the celestial and hence forms the basis of the ethical, moral and even juridical attitudes and laws towards any problem or situation. Islamic teachings carry a great deal of instructions for health promotion and disease prevention including hereditary and genetic disorders. This review discusses how the Islamic teachings play an important role in the prevention and management of genetic disorders and the type of ethical implications involved in such management namely premarital medical examination, the question of consanguinity, the genetic counseling, the question of preimplantation diagnosis, the question of abortion and the offering of alternative ways of reproduction.

  10. Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Considerations when Disclosing a High-Risk Syndrome for Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vijay A; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Jyoti; Saks, Elyn R

    2015-10-01

    There are complex considerations when planning to disclose an attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) diagnosis. In this review, we evaluate ethical, legal, and clinical perspectives as well as caveats related to full, non- and partial disclosure strategies, discuss societal implications, and provide clinical suggestions. Each of the disclosure strategies is associated with benefits as well as costs/considerations. Full disclosure promotes autonomy, allows for the clearest psychoeducation about additional risk factors, helps to clarify and/or correct previous diagnoses/treatments, facilitates early intervention and bolsters communication between providers but there are important considerations involving heritability, comorbidity, culture, and stigma. Non-disclosure advances nonmaleficence by limiting stigma and stress (which may inadvertently exacerbate the condition), and confusion (related to the rapidly evolving diagnosis) in a sensitive developmental period but is complicated by varying patient preferences and the possibility that, as new treatments without adverse effects become available, the risk with false positives no longer justifies the accompanying loss of autonomy. Partial disclosure balances ethical considerations by focusing on symptoms instead of labels, but evidence that laypersons may interpret this information as a pseudo-diagnosis and that symptoms alone also contribute to stigma limits the efficacy of this approach. In addition, there are notable societal considerations relating to disclosure involving conservatorship, the reach of insurance companies, and discrimination. We advocate a hybrid approach to disclosure and recommend future research aimed at understanding the effects of stigma on clinical course and a renewed focus on those help-seeking cases that do not transition but remain clinically relevant.

  11. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region.

    PubMed

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  12. Discovery of rare variants for complex phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kosmicki, Jack A; Churchhouse, Claire L; Rivas, Manuel A; Neale, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    With the rise of sequencing technologies, it is now feasible to assess the role rare variants play in the genetic contribution to complex trait variation. While some of the earlier targeted sequencing studies successfully identified rare variants of large effect, unbiased gene discovery using exome sequencing has experienced limited success for complex traits. Nevertheless, rare variant association studies have demonstrated that rare variants do contribute to phenotypic variability, but sample sizes will likely have to be even larger than those of common variant association studies to be powered for the detection of genes and loci. Large-scale sequencing efforts of tens of thousands of individuals, such as the UK10K Project and aggregation efforts such as the Exome Aggregation Consortium, have made great strides in advancing our knowledge of the landscape of rare variation, but there remain many considerations when studying rare variation in the context of complex traits. We discuss these considerations in this review, presenting a broad range of topics at a high level as an introduction to rare variant analysis in complex traits including the issues of power, study design, sample ascertainment, de novo variation, and statistical testing approaches. Ultimately, as sequencing costs continue to decline, larger sequencing studies will yield clearer insights into the biological consequence of rare mutations and may reveal which genes play a role in the etiology of complex traits. PMID:27221085

  13. [Compliance in schizophrenia: predictive factors, therapeutical considerations and research implications].

    PubMed

    Misdrahi, D; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Bayle, F J

    2002-01-01

    a bad compliance. Neurologic, endocrine and anticholinergic side-effects are the first fact of treatment stop. Medication prescription complexity is although important to take under consideration. Some psychotic's symptoms, comorbid addictive behavior, poor insight are mentioned in the case of noncompliance. Some effective actions to improve compliance are described. Information and communication with the patient, simplification of therapeutic plan, consultation planning and account of side effect are simple and effective actions. Social support is very important for improvement of compliance. The communication attitude of the clinician, therapeutic relation and prescription use are main points of compliance. Compared to a conventional care, psychoeducational programmes of compliance show their superiority. More research on compliance evaluation is needed. Information and tools must be proposed to practitioners.

  14. Neobladders: clinical management and considerations for patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Stone, A R; deVere White, R

    1990-10-01

    Continent catheterizable urinary reservoirs and orthotopic bladder substitutes are complex surgical endeavors. The goal is preservation of renal function, reliable continence, and storage intervals acceptable to the patient. The construction requires familiarity with bowel segments and may increase operative time for radical cystoprostatectomy by 30% to 50%. Patients with continent reservoirs have improved body image, work habits, and sexual and interpersonal relationships. Experience with patients with dysfunctional neurogenic bladders previously converted to Bricker urostomies now undiverted to continent reservoirs indicates an overall increase in physical activity and self-satisfaction. These patients are tolerant of reoperations to maintain independence from wet urostomies. Undoubtedly, the expectations of bladder cancer patients will differ from those of young adults with neurogenic bladder, but we have found that when all options are presented patients will seek out therapy that least alters their body image. Therefore, patient selection becomes an important factor in determining the success of continent reservoirs. Patients must have the dexterity and motivation to catheterize the urinary reservoir, irrigate for mucus and, in cases of orthotopic bladder replacement to urethra, accept the need for artificial sphincter placement in 30% to 40% of cases. Management of the neo-bladders requires additional consideration of several practical and theoretic points for both the surgeon and medical oncologist: 1. Patients with diffuse carcinoma in situ or transitional cell carcinoma at the bladder neck or prostatic urethra should undergo simultaneous urethrectomy excluding orthotopic bladder replacement. 2. Ten percent to 40% of patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for transitional cell cancer will have concomitant underdiagnosed adenocarcinoma of the prostate; patient prognosis will remain defined by the stage and grade of the bladder cancer. 3. Patients may

  15. [Determination and causality in public health: some considerations on its epistemological foundations].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Mendoza; Soto, Edgar Carlos Jarillo

    2011-01-01

    The discussion on the determinants is extremely prolific in the area of health. However, we still have to think about the way in which the determination is defined and understood as a category that allows to question reality, from an overall and complex view, and the extent that they can have their application in public health. This article discusses the concepts of causality, which is dominant in the positivist vision as well as determination and historicity, used by some alternative views on health. Some arguments are exposed on the ontological and epistemological approach to address the study of health-disease process, from considerations of phenomenology. PMID:21503432

  16. The reverse shoulder prosthesis (Delta III) in acute shoulder fractures: technical considerations with respect to stability.

    PubMed

    Van Seymortier, Peter; Stoffelen, Daniel; Fortems, Yves; Reynders, Piet

    2006-08-01

    The reverse shoulder prosthesis reverses the relationship between the scapular and humeral component, resulting in a mechanical advantage as the deltoid muscle is able to compensate for the rotator cuff deficiency. Based on this mechanical advantage, the reverse shoulder prosthesis has become an accepted alternative for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures. The purpose of this article is to discuss technical considerations related to stability in the use of the reverse shoulder prosthesis in acute shoulder fractures, based on clinical experience. PMID:17009830

  17. BRONXWHITESTONE OVER THE EAST RIVER, NOTE CONSIDERABLE AIR POLLUTION OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRONX-WHITESTONE OVER THE EAST RIVER, NOTE CONSIDERABLE AIR POLLUTION OVER CITY IN BACKGROUND - Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, Spanning East River between Whitestone, Queens & the Bronx, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  18. 48 CFR 32.005 - Consideration for contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... consideration by monetary or nonmonetary means, provided the value is adequate. The fair and reasonable... financing at the imputed financial costs of the equivalent working capital. (2) The estimated profit rate...

  19. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that prevent... acquisitions involving such technologies, the requiring activity should ascertain through discussions with...

  20. 40 CFR 142.42 - Consideration of a variance request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminant level required by the national primary drinking water regulations because of the nature of the raw... economic considerations such as implementing treatment, improving the quality of the source water or...