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Sample records for dota-tetraamide complexes considerations

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of lanthanide ion DOTA-tetraamide complexes bearing peripheral hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Azhar; Lin, Mai; Tircsó, Gyula; Rostollan, Cynthia L; Woods, Mark; Kiefer, Garry E; Sherry, A Dean; Sun, Xiankai

    2009-03-01

    The use of lanthanide-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging has become an integral component of this important diagnostic modality. These inert chelates typically possess high thermodynamic stability constants that serve as a predictor for in vivo stability and low toxicity. Recently, a new class of contrast agents was reported having a significantly lower degree of thermodynamic stability while exhibiting biodistribution profiles indicative of high stability under biological conditions. These observations are suggestive that the nature of contrast agent stability is also dependent upon the kinetics of complex dissociation, a feature of potential importance when contemplating the design of new chelates for in vivo use. We present a study of the kinetics of acid-catalyzed dissociation, thermodynamic stability, serum stability, and biodistribution of a series of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-tetraamide complexes that have been substituted with peripheral hydroxyl groups. The data indicate that these nontraditional contrast agents exhibit in vivo stability comparable to that of agents with much higher log K (ML) values, demonstrating the important contribution of kinetic inertness.

  2. A Bridge to Coordination Isomer Selection in Lanthanide(III) DOTA-tetraamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vipond, Jeff; Woods, Mark; Zhao, Piyu; Tircso, Gyula; Ren, Jimin; Bott, Simon G.; Ogrin, Doug; Kiefer, Garry E.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A.Dean

    2008-01-01

    Interest in macrocyclic lanthanide complexes such as DOTA is driven largely through interest in their use as contrast agents for MRI. The lanthanide tetraamide derivatives of DOTA have shown considerable promise as PARACEST agents, taking advantage of the slow water exchange kinetics of this class of complex. We postulated that water exchange in these tetraamide complexes could be slowed even further by introducing a group to sterically encumber the space above the water coordination site, thereby hindering the departure and approach of water molecules to the complex. The ligand 8O2-bridged-DOTAM was synthesized in a 34% yield from cyclen. It was found that the lanthanide complexes of this ligand did not possess a water molecule in the inner coordination sphere of the bound lanthanide. The crystal structure of the ytterbium complex revealed that distortions to the coordination sphere were induced by the steric constraints imposed on the complex by the bridging unit. The extent of the distortion was found to increase with increasing ionic radius of the lanthanide ion, eventually resulting in a complete loss of symmetry in the complex. Because this ligand system is bicyclic, the conformation of each ring in the system is constrained by that of the other, in consequence inclusion of the bridging unit in the complexes means only a twisted square antiprismatic coordination geometry is observed for complexes of 8O2-bridged-DOTAM. PMID:17295475

  3. A bridge to coordination isomer selection in lanthanide(III) DOTA-tetraamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Vipond, Jeff; Woods, Mark; Zhao, Piyu; Tircsó, Gyula; Ren, Jimin; Bott, Simon G; Ogrin, Doug; Kiefer, Garry E; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A Dean

    2007-04-02

    Interest in macrocyclic lanthanide complexes such as DOTA is driven largely through interest in their use as contrast agents for MRI. The lanthanide tetraamide derivatives of DOTA have shown considerable promise as PARACEST agents, taking advantage of the slow water exchange kinetics of this class of complex. We postulated that water exchange in these tetraamide complexes could be slowed even further by introducing a group to sterically encumber the space above the water coordination site, thereby hindering the departure and approach of water molecules to the complex. The ligand 8O2-bridged DOTAM was synthesized in a 34% yield from cyclen. It was found that the lanthanide complexes of this ligand did not possess a water molecule in the inner coordination sphere of the bound lanthanide. The crystal structure of the ytterbium complex revealed that distortions to the coordination sphere were induced by the steric constraints imposed on the complex by the bridging unit. The extent of the distortion was found to increase with increasing ionic radius of the lanthanide ion, eventually resulting in a complete loss of symmetry in the complex. Because this ligand system is bicyclic, the conformation of each ring in the system is constrained by that of the other; in consequence, inclusion of the bridging unit in the complexes means only a twisted square, antiprismatic coordination geometry is observed for lanthanide complexes of 8O2-bridged DOTAM.

  4. The effect of regioisomerism on the coordination chemistry and CEST properties of lanthanide(III) NB-DOTA-tetraamide chelates

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Jacqueline R.; Woods, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) offers many advantages as a method of generating contrast in magnetic resonance images. However, many of the exogenous agents currently under investigation suffer from detection limits that are still somewhat short of what can be achieved with more traditional Gd3+ agents. To remedy this limitation we have undertaken an investigation of Ln3+ DOTA-tetraamide chelates (where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) that have unusually rigid ligand structures: the nitrobenzyl derivatives of DOTA-tetraamides with (2-phenylethyl)amide substituents. In this report we examine the effect of incorporating hydrophobic amide substituents on water exchange and CEST. The ligand systems chosen afforded a total of three CEST-active isomeric square antiprismatic chelates; each of these chelates was found to have different water exchange and CEST characteristics. The position of a nitrobenzyl substituent on the macrocyclic ring strongly influenced the way in which the chelate and Ln3+ coordination cage distorted. These differential distortions were found to affect the rate of water proton exchange in the chelates. But, by far the greatest effect arose from altering the position of the hydrophobic amide substituent, which, when forced upwards around the water binding site, caused a substantial reduction in the rate of water proton exchange. Such slow water proton exchange afforded a chelate that was 4.5 times more effective as a CEST agent than its isomeric counterparts in dry acetonitrile and at low temperatures and very low presaturation powers. PMID:24287873

  5. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Perioperative Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team. PMID:24940133

  6. Diagnostic considerations for the medically complex patient.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, J A; Raborn, G W

    1992-10-01

    As advances in medical diagnostic and treatment modalities continue to increase the life expectancy of the population, the likelihood of encountering patients in dental practice with concomitant medical problems will also rise. Thus it will become increasingly important for practicing dentists to take thorough medical histories, recognize signs of systemic disorders, and work closely with their medical colleagues to ensure that safe dental care is rendered to these medically complex patients. Although acutely ill or severely compromised individuals may be best treated in a hospital setting by those with special training, all dental practitioners should possess the diagnostic and communicative skills needed to manage those who are receiving out-patient medical care.

  7. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Respiratory Care Considerations for Children with Medical Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Jackie; Amin, Reshma

    2017-01-01

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) are a growing population of diagnostically heterogeneous children characterized by chronic conditions affecting multiple organ systems, the use of medical technology at home as well as intensive healthcare service utilization. Many of these children will experience either a respiratory-related complication and/or they will become established on respiratory technology at home during their care trajectory. Therefore, healthcare providers need to be familiar with the respiratory related complications commonly experienced by CMC as well as the indications, technical and safety considerations and potential complications that may arise when caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home. This review will outline the most common respiratory disease manifestations experienced by CMC, and discuss various respiratory-related treatment options that can be considered, including tracheostomy, invasive and non-invasive ventilation, as well as airway clearance techniques. The caregiver requirements associated with caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home will also be reviewed. PMID:28534851

  9. Considerations on the hyperbolic complex Klein-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrych, S.

    2010-06-15

    This article summarizes and consolidates investigations on hyperbolic complex numbers with respect to the Klein-Gordon equation for fermions and bosons. The hyperbolic complex numbers are applied in the sense that complex extensions of groups and algebras are performed not with the complex unit, but with the product of complex and hyperbolic unit. The modified complexification is the key ingredient for the theory. The Klein-Gordon equation is represented in this framework in the form of the first invariant of the Poincare group, the mass operator, in order to emphasize its geometric origin. The possibility of new interactions arising from hyperbolic complex gauge transformations is discussed.

  10. Systems thinking and complexity: considerations for health promoting schools.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Scott R

    2017-04-01

    The health promoting schools concept reflects a comprehensive and integrated philosophy to improving student and personnel health and well-being. Conceptualized as a configuration of interacting, interdependent parts connected through a web of relationships that form a whole greater than the sum of its parts, school health promotion initiatives often target several levels (e.g. individual, professional, procedural and policy) simultaneously. Health promoting initiatives, such as those operationalized under the whole school approach, include several interconnected components that are coordinated to improve health outcomes in complex settings. These complex systems interventions are embedded in intricate arrangements of physical, biological, ecological, social, political and organizational relationships. Systems thinking and characteristics of complex adaptive systems are introduced in this article to provide a perspective that emphasizes the patterns of inter-relationships associated with the nonlinear, dynamic and adaptive nature of complex hierarchical systems. Four systems thinking areas: knowledge, networks, models and organizing are explored as a means to further manage the complex nature of the development and sustainability of health promoting schools. Applying systems thinking and insights about complex adaptive systems can illuminate how to address challenges found in settings with both complicated (i.e. multi-level and multisite) and complex aspects (i.e. synergistic processes and emergent outcomes). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Investigation of design considerations for a complex demodulation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The digital design of an adaptive digital filter to be employed in the processing of microwave remote sensor data was developed. In particular, a complex demodulation approach was developed to provide narrow band power estimation for a proposed Doppler scatterometer system. This scatterometer was considered for application in the proposed National Oceanographic survey satellite, on an improvement of SEASAT features. A generalized analysis of complex diagrams for the digital architecture component of the proposed system.

  12. [A consideration of the name of the Ajase complex].

    PubMed

    Daiguji, Makoto; Moriguchi-Shinoda, Mai

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the "Ajase complex" was advocated by Heisaku Kosawa, one of the researchers who brought psychoanalysis into Japan. Kosawa's emphasis was originally on the feeling of guilt that is based on the apologetic feeling that comes from being forgiven, in contrast with the guilt that comes from the fear of punishment. However, Okonogi, a disciple of Kosawa, began to change this concept's emphasis to mother/child friction. The Ajase (Ajătaśatru) story which Kosawa and Okonogi based the origin of the name "Ajase complex" on is far different from that of the Buddhist scriptures. The most significant difference is as follows: in the Ajase legend, that comes mainly from two Buddhist scriptures, the Contemplation Sŭtra and the Mahăyăna-mahăparinirvăna-sŭtra, the murder of the father by the child Ajase is the main theme and resembles the Oedipus complex. The episode of Ajase trying to kill her mother, Vaidehi, comes from the mother Vaidehĭ trying to help the imprisoned king and does not come from mother/child friction. In the Ajase complex, the mother's planned pregnancy to ensure the connection of love with her husband, the king, the attempted murder of Ajase, who is the reincarnation of the hermit, by Vaidehĭ, and the story of how a mother's love saves Ajase from the hate that grew out of the mother/child friction, are not included in the above-mentioned Buddhist scriptures. The story to back up the Ajase complex comes from Kosawa and Okonogi's new interpretation and origination. In this article, the authors are not trying to deny the value of the specific pathological mother/child relationship suggested by the Ajase complex. It is not the definition that we doubt, but the naming.

  13. On the Complexity of the Metric TSP under Stability Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalák, Matúš; Schöngens, Marcel; Šrámek, Rastislav; Widmayer, Peter

    We consider the metric Traveling Salesman Problem (Δ-TSP for short) and study how stability (as defined by Bilu and Linial [3]) influences the complexity of the problem. On an intuitive level, an instance of Δ-TSP is γ-stable (γ> 1), if there is a unique optimum Hamiltonian tour and any perturbation of arbitrary edge weights by at most γ does not change the edge set of the optimal solution (i.e., there is a significant gap between the optimum tour and all other tours). We show that for γ ≥ 1.8 a simple greedy algorithm (resembling Prim's algorithm for constructing a minimum spanning tree) computes the optimum Hamiltonian tour for every γ-stable instance of the Δ-TSP, whereas a simple local search algorithm can fail to find the optimum even if γ is arbitrary. We further show that there are γ-stable instances of Δ-TSP for every 1 < γ< 2. These results provide a different view on the hardness of the Δ-TSP and give rise to a new class of problem instances which are substantially easier to solve than instances of the general Δ-TSP.

  14. Semantic Complexities in Defining Rurality: Towards a Definition Based on Human Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron-Jackson, Frances B.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses semantic complexities rampant in attempts to define rurality. Examines environmental and economic aspects of rurality and impacts on education. Proposes a definition of rurality based on five human considerations: approximate geographic divisions, level of access to community services, industry type, population makeup, and the…

  15. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Fan, Hannah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  16. Case-Only Exome Sequencing and Complex Disease Susceptibility Gene Discovery: Study Design Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Sicotte, Hugues; Wieben, Eric D.; Li, Hu; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify the potential etiologic role of rare functional variants in human complex diseases. Large-scale collaborations have generated germline WES data on patients with a number of diseases, especially cancer, but less often on healthy controls under the same sequencing procedures. These data can be a valuable resource for identifying new disease susceptibility loci, if study designs are appropriately applied. This review describes suggested strategies and technical considerations when focusing on case-only study designs that use WES data in complex disease scenarios. These include variant filtering based on frequency and functionality, gene prioritization, interrogation of different data types, and targeted sequencing validation. We propose that if case-only WES designs were applied in an appropriate manner, new susceptibility genes containing rare variants for human complex diseases can be detected. PMID:25371537

  17. Evolution of design considerations in complex craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants.

    PubMed

    Peel, Sean; Bhatia, Satyajeet; Eggbeer, Dominic; Morris, Daniel S; Hayhurst, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Previously published evidence has established major clinical benefits from using computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and additive manufacturing to produce patient-specific devices. These include cutting guides, drilling guides, positioning guides, and implants. However, custom devices produced using these methods are still not in routine use, particularly by the UK National Health Service. Oft-cited reasons for this slow uptake include the following: a higher up-front cost than conventionally fabricated devices, material-choice uncertainty, and a lack of long-term follow-up due to their relatively recent introduction. This article identifies a further gap in current knowledge - that of design rules, or key specification considerations for complex computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/additive manufacturing devices. This research begins to address the gap by combining a detailed review of the literature with first-hand experience of interdisciplinary collaboration on five craniofacial patient case studies. In each patient case, bony lesions in the orbito-temporal region were segmented, excised, and reconstructed in the virtual environment. Three cases translated these digital plans into theatre via polymer surgical guides. Four cases utilised additive manufacturing to fabricate titanium implants. One implant was machined from polyether ether ketone. From the literature, articles with relevant abstracts were analysed to extract design considerations. In all, 19 frequently recurring design considerations were extracted from previous publications. Nine new design considerations were extracted from the case studies - on the basis of subjective clinical evaluation. These were synthesised to produce a design considerations framework to assist clinicians with prescribing and design engineers with modelling. Promising avenues for further research are proposed.

  18. Headache in a Patient with Complex Congenital Heart Disease: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waheed; Miteff, Ferdi; Collins, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Headache in adult patients with congenital heart disease may be a manifestation of the underlying cardiac condition or more common alternative causes of headache. In patients with pre-existing congenital heart disease, consideration of potentially uncommon aetiologies of headache is important. We report an uncommon case of headache in a patient with complex congenital heart disease characterised by Ebstein's anomaly with previous surgical repair complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case illustrates the importance of understanding the implications of headache with reference to the underlying cardiac disease as well as specific issues related to a relatively young cohort of patients.

  19. Research of complex loading of polycrystals with consideration for internal structure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loevets, Dmitry A.; Volegov, Pavel S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses some questions related to the description of inelastic deformation of the representative volume of polycrystals with consideration for the evolution of its internal structure as well as to the study of the stress "dive" effect occurring at the complex deformation trajectories with a kink. For research, we use a two-level model of inelastic deformation of the representative volume of polycrystals and the analysis of the results performed using the approach of the Ilyushin theory to elastoplastic processes. According to the results of numerical experiments, it is established the relation between hardening parameters of the two-level model and the degree of manifestation of the stress "dive" effect.

  20. Global optimization algorithms to compute thermodynamic equilibria in large complex systems with performance considerations

    DOE PAGES

    Piro, M. H. A.; Simunovic, S.

    2016-03-17

    Several global optimization methods are reviewed that attempt to ensure that the integral Gibbs energy of a closed isothermal isobaric system is a global minimum to satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the integral Gibbs energy function of a multicomponent system containing non-ideal phases may be highly non-linear and non-convex, which makes finding a global minimum a challenge. Consequently, a poor numerical approach may lead one to the false belief of equilibrium. Furthermore, confirming that one reaches a global minimum and that this is achieved with satisfactory computational performance becomes increasingly more challenging in systemsmore » containing many chemical elements and a correspondingly large number of species and phases. Several numerical methods that have been used for this specific purpose are reviewed with a benchmark study of three of the more promising methods using five case studies of varying complexity. A modification of the conventional Branch and Bound method is presented that is well suited to a wide array of thermodynamic applications, including complex phases with many constituents and sublattices, and ionic phases that must adhere to charge neutrality constraints. Also, a novel method is presented that efficiently solves the system of linear equations that exploits the unique structure of the Hessian matrix, which reduces the calculation from a O(N3) operation to a O(N) operation. As a result, this combined approach demonstrates efficiency, reliability and capabilities that are favorable for integration of thermodynamic computations into multi-physics codes with inherent performance considerations.« less

  1. Global optimization algorithms to compute thermodynamic equilibria in large complex systems with performance considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, M. H. A.; Simunovic, S.

    2016-03-17

    Several global optimization methods are reviewed that attempt to ensure that the integral Gibbs energy of a closed isothermal isobaric system is a global minimum to satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the integral Gibbs energy function of a multicomponent system containing non-ideal phases may be highly non-linear and non-convex, which makes finding a global minimum a challenge. Consequently, a poor numerical approach may lead one to the false belief of equilibrium. Furthermore, confirming that one reaches a global minimum and that this is achieved with satisfactory computational performance becomes increasingly more challenging in systems containing many chemical elements and a correspondingly large number of species and phases. Several numerical methods that have been used for this specific purpose are reviewed with a benchmark study of three of the more promising methods using five case studies of varying complexity. A modification of the conventional Branch and Bound method is presented that is well suited to a wide array of thermodynamic applications, including complex phases with many constituents and sublattices, and ionic phases that must adhere to charge neutrality constraints. Also, a novel method is presented that efficiently solves the system of linear equations that exploits the unique structure of the Hessian matrix, which reduces the calculation from a O(N3) operation to a O(N) operation. As a result, this combined approach demonstrates efficiency, reliability and capabilities that are favorable for integration of thermodynamic computations into multi-physics codes with inherent performance considerations.

  2. Modeling and Performance Considerations for Automated Fault Isolation in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the modeling considerations and performance metrics that were examined in the development of a large-scale Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FDIR team members developed a set of operational requirements for the models that would be used for fault isolation and worked closely with the vendor of the software tools selected for fault isolation to ensure that the software was able to meet the requirements. Once the requirements were established, example models of sufficient complexity were used to test the performance of the software. The results of the performance testing demonstrated the need for enhancements to the software in order to meet the demands of the full-scale ground and vehicle FDIR system. The paper highlights the importance of the development of operational requirements and preliminary performance testing as a strategy for identifying deficiencies in highly scalable systems and rectifying those deficiencies before they imperil the success of the project

  3. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  4. Facility Design Criteria AN/GSC-39(V)1 Earth Terminal Complex Fixed Site Configuration. Addendum I. HEMP Considerations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Site , Configuration, Addendum 1: HEMP Considerations DTIC ELECT! JUN 2 6 1981 f1 by Samuel A. Clark, Jr. Ronald J. ChaseB James D. Penar U.S. Army...Terminal Complex IFixed Site Configuration, Addendum 1p HEMP Considerations. 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR{a . S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...eovrse ode If n.e.... ad Idenify by block n.-ber) HEMP Satellite facility High altitude electromagnetic pulse RFI/EMI ANIGSC-39 fixed site Cable trench

  5. Complexation of vanadium(V) oxyanions with hexopyranose- and mannopyranoseuronic acid-containing polysaccharides: stereochemical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Cesar A; Oliveira, Maria Benigna M; Reicher, Fany; Iacomini, Marcello; Petkowicz, Carmem L O; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Noseda, Miguel D; Gorin, Philip A J

    2004-03-15

    Carbohydrates containing galactopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl units with vicinal cis-diols were treated with NaVO(3) in D(2)O, and complexation was determined by (51)V NMR spectroscopy. Me alpha-Galp, Me beta-Galp (3,4-cis-diols), and Me alpha-Manp (2,3-cis-diol) complexed, but Me beta-Manp barely did so. This low degree of complexation also occurred with a beta-mannan containing alternate (1-->3)- and (1-->4)-linkages and an alginate having beta-ManpA blocks. In contrast, branched alpha-mannans complexed readily, although the (51)V resonances for one with side chains terminated with alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1--> differed from another with only alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-Manp-(1--> groups. The anomeric configuration of Me alpha-Galp and Me beta-Galp, each with 3,4-cis-diols remote from C-1, gave rise to three (51)V signals of complexes with similar shifts and proportions. The shifts of a galactomannan with terminal alpha-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-Manp- were the same as those with alpha-Galp-(1-->6)-beta-Manp- groups, but fewer complexes were formed with the former structure, probably due to greater steric crowding of the vanadate esters. Most of the complexes gave rise to a signal in the delta515 region, consistent with the dimeric trigonal-bipyramidal structure.

  6. A Consideration of Cognitive Complexity and Primacy - Recency Effects in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronko, Michael R.; Perin, Charles T.

    1970-01-01

    Classifies subjects as cognitively simple" or cognitively complex" and notes that the latter are much nore successful at reconciling inconsistent information than are the former, whose impressions are formed by the information which makes the greatest impact. (RW)

  7. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  8. A Consideration of Cognitive Complexity and Primacy - Recency Effects in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronko, Michael R.; Perin, Charles T.

    1970-01-01

    Classifies subjects as cognitively simple" or cognitively complex" and notes that the latter are much nore successful at reconciling inconsistent information than are the former, whose impressions are formed by the information which makes the greatest impact. (RW)

  9. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  10. Considerable fluorescence enhancement upon supramolecular complex formation between berberine and p-sulfonated calixarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megyesi, Mónika; Biczók, László

    2006-06-01

    Remarkably strong binding of berberine to 4-sulfonatocalix[8]arene was found in aqueous solution, which led to fluorescence quantum yield increase of a factor about 40 at pH 2. The hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence maximum implied that berberine sensed less polar microenvironment when confined to SCX8. The stability of the supramolecular complex significantly diminished when sulfocalixarenes of smaller ring size served as host compounds but the pH affected the association strength to a much lesser extent. All berberine complexes proved to be barely fluorescent at pH 12.2 because of excited state quenching by the hosts via electron transfer.

  11. Structured Programming Techniques: A Study of Relative Complexity--Some Programming Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Er, M.

    1993-01-01

    Examines a previous empirical study on the complexity of structured programing techniques and concludes that all of the Nassi-Schneiderman diagrams which employed structured programing techniques contained programing errors. A programing solution to the multilevel control break reporting logic problem is then presented. (LRW)

  12. Manned Versus Unmanned Risk and Complexity Considerations for Future Midsized X-Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lechniak, Jason A.; Melton, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and estimate complexity and risks associated with the development and testing of new low-cost medium-scale X-plane aircraft primarily focused on air transport operations. Piloting modes that were evaluated for this task were manned, remotely piloted, and unmanned flight research programs. This analysis was conducted early in the data collection period for X-plane concept vehicles before preliminary designs were complete. Over 50 different aircraft and system topics were used to evaluate the three piloting control modes. Expert group evaluations from a diverse set of pilots, engineers, and other experts at Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate centers within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provided qualitative reasoning on the many issues surrounding the decisions regarding piloting modes. The group evaluations were numerically rated to evaluate each topic quantitatively and were used to provide independent criteria for vehicle complexity and risk. An Edwards Air Force Base instruction document was identified that emerged as a source of the effects found in our qualitative and quantitative data. The study showed that a manned aircraft was the best choice to align with test activities for transport aircraft flight research from a low-complexity and low-risk perspective. The study concluded that a manned aircraft option would minimize the risk and complexity to improve flight-test efficiency and bound the cost of the flight-test portion of the program. Several key findings and discriminators between the three modes are discussed in detail.

  13. A paramagnetic CEST agent for imaging glucose by MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanrong; Trokowski, Robert; Sherry, A Dean

    2003-12-17

    The europium(III) complex of a DOTA-tetraamide ligand (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N' ',N' ''-tetraacetic acids) containing two phenyl boronate pendent arms binds glucose reversibly with an association constant of 383 M-1 at pH 7. Glucose binding results in slowing of water exchange between a single Eu(III)-bound water molecule and bulk water, and this can be imaged by MRI using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging sequence. This metabolite-responsive paramagnetic CEST agent responds to changes in glucose over the physiologically important range (0-20 mM), and thus it offers the possibility of high-sensitivity MR imaging glucose in tissues using bulk water protons as antenna.

  14. The Presence of Fast-Exchanging Proton Species in Aqueous Solutions of paraCEST Agents Can Impact Rate Constants Measured for Slower Exchanging Species When Fitting CEST Spectra to the Bloch Equations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    LnDOTA-tetraamide complexes typically exist in solution as a mixture of square-antiprismatic (SAP) and twisted square-antiprismatic (TSAP) coordination isomers. In most cases, the SAP isomer, which is preferred for CEST imaging, predominates, and the presence of the minor TSAP isomer is assumed to have little influence on quantitative measures of the water-exchange rate constant for the SAP isomer. Here, we sought to confirm the validity of this assumption by mixing two chelates with different SAP and TSAP isomer populations while measuring the water-exchange rate constant of the SAP isomer. The results show that an increase in the population of the TSAP isomer in solution results in as much as a 30% overestimation of the water-exchange rate constant for the SAP isomer when CEST spectra are fit to the Bloch equations. This effect was shown to be significant only when the TSAP isomer population exceeded 50%. PMID:25210979

  15. Template selection and refinement considerations for modelling aminergic GPCR-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Urmi, Kaniz F; Finch, Angela M; Griffith, Renate

    2017-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important targets for development of drugs for the treatment of many diseases. However, crystal structures are available for only a small fraction of these membrane bound proteins. Accurate homology models will provide opportunities for effective drug design targeting GPCRs. Recently, several serotonin receptor crystal structures were solved and needed to be evaluated as potential templates. In the first part of this work different measures of similarity in template selection were explored and methods for homology modelling, docking and refinement of aminergic GPCR-ligand complexes were developed and evaluated by comparing models of the D3-R/eticlopride complex with the crystal structure. Homology models of the three α1 adrenergic receptor subtypes and of a serotonin receptor subtype were then constructed using these methods These models were evaluated by docking a range of antagonists into them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Compound heterozygosity of two novel RHAG alleles leads to a considerable disruption of the Rh complex.

    PubMed

    Polin, Helene; Pelc-Klopotowska, Monika; Danzer, Martin; Suessner, Susanne; Gabriel, Christian; Wilflingseder, Julia; Żmudzin, Alicja; Orzińska, Agnieszka; Guz, Katarzyna; Michalewska, Bogumila; Brojer, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) complex consists of a core comprising the Rh proteins (RhD/RhCE) and the Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) with accessory chains (GPB, LW, CD47). Molecular defects of the RHAG gene may cause a regulator Rhnull phenotype without Rh antigen expression or a Rhmod phenotype with decreased Rh antigen expression. Blood samples of a donor with strongly diminished Rh antigens and five family members were analyzed by serological phenotyping, flow cytometry, molecular testing, and gene expression analysis of Rh complex candidate genes. RHAG sequencing identified a missense mutation, c.241G>C (p.Gly81Arg) and a splice site mutation, c.640 + 3del14, among the cohort. Compound heterozygosity of these novel alleles identified in the propositus and two siblings gave rise to a strongly diminished expression of RhAG, Rh, and CD47 antigens on the RBC surface. The Rhmod phenotype was caused by a novel RHAG splice site mutation in association with a non-functional allele. The primary depression of RhAG is most likely due to posttranslational events that affect the interaction and processing of the RhAG glycoprotein and gave rise to a secondary depression of RhD, RhCE, and CD47, the major members of the Rh complex. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: considerations for surgical or pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Wheless, James W; Klimo, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene that can result in the growth of hamartomas in multiple organ systems. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are slow-growing brain tumors associated primarily with tuberous sclerosis complex. They are usually located in the ventricles, often near the foramen of Monro, where they can cause an obstruction if they grow too large, leading to increased intracranial pressure. Surgery to remove a tumor has been the mainstay of treatment but can be associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Not all tumors and/or patients are suitable for surgery. The recent development of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors that target the pathway affected by TSC1/TSC2 mutations offers a novel pharmacotherapeutic option for these patients. We review the timing and use of surgery versus pharmacotherapy for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Measuring trauma: considerations for assessing complex and non-PTSD Criterion A childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Molly K; Borntrager, Cameo F; Rostad, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    The current definition of a traumatic event in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) may be too narrow to describe the myriad of difficult childhood experiences. Furthermore, youth may develop a distinct pattern of symptoms in relation to complex or multiple childhood trauma experiences, the proposed developmental trauma disorder (DTD; B. A. van der Kolk, 2005 ) We developed and utilized a new measure, the Potentially Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (PTEQ), to assess patterns in childhood trauma exposure. We used 2 item formats (open ended vs. closed ended) in order to explore potential differences in reporting. Furthermore, we assessed for symptoms associated with DTD following exposure to complex childhood trauma in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 186 adolescents ages 18 and 19 years old who were asked to report retrospectively on their difficult childhood experiences. The results showed that participants reported multiple events that would not be considered traumatic according to DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criterion A, and those who completed the PTEQ with closed-ended items reported more differentiated trauma types than participants who completed the open-ended questionnaire. Also, participants who reported multiple or chronic events were more likely to endorse symptoms associated with DTD. This study has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of complex trauma experiences in youth.

  19. Analysis of engineered nanomaterials in complex matrices (environment and biota): general considerations and conceptual case studies.

    PubMed

    von der Kammer, Frank; Ferguson, P Lee; Holden, Patricia A; Masion, Armand; Rogers, Kim R; Klaine, Stephen J; Koelmans, Albert A; Horne, Nina; Unrine, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media. Analysis of ENMs differs from traditional chemical analysis because both chemical and physical forms must be considered. Because ENMs are present as colloidal systems, their physicochemical properties are dependent on their surroundings. Therefore, the simple act of trying to isolate, observe, and quantify ENMs may change their physicochemical properties, making analysis extremely susceptible to artifacts. Many analytical techniques applied in materials science and other chemical/biological/physical disciplines may be applied to ENM analysis as well; however, environmental and biological studies may require that methods be adapted to work at low concentrations in complex matrices. The most pressing research needs are the development of techniques for extraction, cleanup, separation, and sample storage that introduce minimal artifacts to increase the speed, sensitivity, and specificity of analytical techniques, as well as the development of techniques that can differentiate between abundant, naturally occurring particles, and manufactured nanoparticles.

  20. Treatment considerations for clinicians in applying evidence-based practice to complex presentations in child trauma.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Derosa, Ruth R

    2007-08-01

    Professionals in the child trauma field, eager to bring best practices to children and their families who have suffered from traumatic life events, have developed a number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) and promising practices available for adoption and implementation into community practice. Clinicians and researchers alike have raised questions about "if, when, and how" these EBTs can be applied to some of the more complex trauma presentations seen in real world practice. The authors take an evidence-based practice approach, including critical appraisal of clients' unique needs and preferences, utilizing applicable trauma treatment core components and current EBTs, and emphasizing monitoring strategies of client progress, particularly when needing to adapt EBTs for select clients.

  1. The complexities of defining optimal sleep: empirical and theoretical considerations with a special emphasis on children.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Sarah; Galland, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The main aim of this paper is to consider relevant theoretical and empirical factors defining optimal sleep, and assess the relative importance of each in developing a working definition for, or guidelines about, optimal sleep, particularly in children. We consider whether optimal sleep is an issue of sleep quantity or of sleep quality. Sleep quantity is discussed in terms of duration, timing, variability and dose-response relationships. Sleep quality is explored in relation to continuity, sleepiness, sleep architecture and daytime behaviour. Potential limitations of sleep research in children are discussed, specifically the loss of research precision inherent in sleep deprivation protocols involving children. We discuss which outcomes are the most important to measure. We consider the notion that insufficient sleep may be a totally subjective finding, is impacted by the age of the reporter, driven by socio-cultural patterns and sleep-wake habits, and that, in some individuals, the driver for insufficient sleep can be viewed in terms of a cost-benefit relationship, curtailing sleep in order to perform better while awake. We conclude that defining optimal sleep is complex. The only method of capturing this elusive concept may be by somnotypology, taking into account duration, quality, age, gender, race, culture, the task at hand, and an individual's position in both sleep-alert and morningness-eveningness continuums. At the experimental level, a unified approach by researchers to establish standardized protocols to evaluate optimal sleep across paediatric age groups is required.

  2. Identifying and ranking influential spreaders in complex networks with consideration of spreading probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qian; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the influential spreaders in complex network has great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the spreading ability of the nodes, some centrality measures are usually computed, which include degree centrality (DC), betweenness centrality (BC), closeness centrality (CC), k-shell centrality (KS) and local centrality (LC). However, we observe that the performance of different centrality measures may change when these measures are used in a real network with different spreading probabilities. Specifically, DC performs well for small spreading probabilities and LC is more suitable for larger ones. To alleviate the sensitivity of these centrality measures to the spreading probability, we modify LC and then integrate it with DC by considering the spreading probability. We call the proposed measure hybrid degree centrality (HC). HC can take the advantages of DC or LC depending on the given spreading probability. We use SIR model to evaluate the performance of HC in both real networks and artificial networks. Experimental results show that HC performs robustly under different spreading probabilities. Compared with these known centrality measures such as DC, LC, BC, CC and KS, HC can evaluate the spreading ability of the nodes more accurately on most range of spreading probabilities. Furthermore, we show that our method can better distinguish the spreading ability of nodes.

  3. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  4. Initial experience of branched endovascular graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm with complex anatomy of proximal neck: planning and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Higashiura, Wataru; Nagata, Takeshi; Tabayashi, Nobuoki; Itoh, Hirofumi; Sakaguchi, Shoji; Taniguchi, Shigeki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Uchida, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate initial Japanese cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with complex anatomy of proximal neck treated using a Zenith fenestrated endograft with branched endovascular technique and to describe the device's design and technical considerations. Planning and sizing of endografts were performed using high-resolution computed tomography on a three-dimensional workstation. Branched endograft technique combined with reinforced fenestrated device and balloon-expandable stent graft was used in two patients because of challenging morphology for the fenestrated device with a bare stent. Successful exclusion of the aneurysm sac was achieved in both patients with antegrade perfusion in incorporated visceral vessels. Endovascular repair using a fenestrated device with graft material incorporating the visceral arteries is feasible. The combination of the reinforced fenestration and the balloon-expandable stent graft can provide an adequate sealing effect for the compromised anatomy. Initial and midterm results are reported with further follow-up and patient accrual.

  5. Complexity as AN Epistemic Revolution: Considerations on the New Science in the Context of Western Intellectual History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popolo, Damian

    The paper will seek to present a genesis of complexity in European philosophical thought. Following the works of Gleick and Hobsbawn it is possible to discern the emergence of complexity's ethos in the `age of revolutions'. Gleick, for example, has noted the influence of natural philosophy on the first precursors of chaos theory. Natural philosophy itself was deeply anchored in German romanticism. The paper will thus seek to present, following Foucault, an `Archaeology of Complexity' which considers Foucault's definition of epistemes as evolving modes of thought. In particular, the paper will seek to use Foucault's description of the modern episteme in order to detect the novelty inherent within the ethos of Complexity.

  6. Methodological Considerations in Using Complex Survey Data: An Applied Example with the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; McWayne, Christine M.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Complex survey data are collected by means other than simple random samples. This creates two analytical issues: nonindependence and unequal selection probability. Failing to address these issues results in underestimated standard errors and biased parameter estimates. Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child…

  7. Methodological Considerations in Using Complex Survey Data: An Applied Example with the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; McWayne, Christine M.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Complex survey data are collected by means other than simple random samples. This creates two analytical issues: nonindependence and unequal selection probability. Failing to address these issues results in underestimated standard errors and biased parameter estimates. Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child…

  8. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device replacement considerations: upgrade or downgrade? A complex decision in the current clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Nakou, Eleni S; Simantirakis, Emmanuel N; Kallergis, Eleftherios M; Nakos, Konstantinos S; Vardas, Panos E

    2016-12-23

    There are limited data about the management of patients presenting for elective generator replacements in the setting of previously implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices that are nearing end-of-life. The individual patient's clinical status and concomitant morbidities may evolve so that considerations may include not only replacement of the pulse generator, but also potentially changing the type of device [e.g. downgrading CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) to CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) or ICD or upgrading of CRT-P to CRT-D]. Moreover, the clinical evidence for CRT-D/CRT-P implantation may change over time, with ongoing research and availability of new trial data. In this review we discuss the ethical, clinical and financial implications related to CRT generator replacements and the need for additional clinical trials to better understand which patients should undergo CRT device downgrading or upgrading at the time of battery depletion.

  9. Investigation of drug-cyclodextrin complexes by a phase-distribution method: some theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Másson, Már; Sigurdardóttir, Birna Vigdís; Matthíasson, Kristján; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an octanol-water phase distribution method for investigation of drug/cyclodextrin (D/CD) complexes and to compare stability constant values obtained by this method to values obtained by the phase solubility method. A general equation for determination of 1 : 1 D/CD complex stability constant (K1 : 1) from the slope of a phase-distribution diagram (a diagram of the reciprocal of the apparent partition coefficient vs. the total CD concentration) was derived. The equation accounted for the possible inclusion of the organic solvent in the CD cavity and the gradual saturation of the CD binding with increasing concentration of the guest compound. This method was used to determine K1 : 1 for 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) complexes of hydrocortisone, prednisolone, diazepam, beta-estradiol and diethylstilbestrol. These values were comparable to K1 : 1 values determined by the phase-solubility method. The phase-distribution method could also be applied to determine stability constants for the neutral and ionic forms of the weakly acidic drugs, naproxen and triclosan and the weakly basic drug lidocaine. The phase-distribution method is a very versatile and fast method and has the advantage, compared to the phase-solubility method, that it only requires very small drug samples. Thus, this method would be suitable for screening of new drug candidates.

  10. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  11. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  12. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the oldest (2.34 Ma) Lokalalei archaeological site complex of the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, northern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Schuster, Mathieu; Roche, Hélène; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Thuo, Peter; Prat, Sandrine; Harmand, Sonia; Davtian, Gourguen; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Bohn, Marcel

    2010-09-01

    At the northwest end of the Lake Turkana Basin (northern Kenya Rift), intensive fieldwork conducted on the Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine Nachukui Formation by the National Museums of Kenya and the West Turkana Archaeological Project (WTAP), led to the discovery of more than 50 archaeological sites aged between 2.4 and 0.7 Ma. Among them is the Lokalalei archaeological site complex, which includes the two oldest archaeological sites (2.34 Ma) found in the Kenyan segment of the East African Rift System. The environmental background of the two sites was described as a succession of ephemeral streams with floodplain palaeosols in which the archaeological sites are situated, bordering the western bank of a large axial meandering river flowing southward. The Lokalalei 1 (LA1) and Lokalalei 2C (LA2C) archaeological sites are of extreme importance in terms of knowledge of hominins' knapping activities. The stratigraphic position of the LA1 and LA2C sites as well as implications on the technical differences between the two sites have been successively discussed by Roche et al. (1999), Brown and Gathogo (2002), and Delagnes and Roche (2005). In terms of stratigraphic position, Lokalalei 2C was estimated to be slightly higher in the section (i.e. younger) than Lokalalei 1. An alternative stratigraphic correlation was proposed by Brown and Gathogo (2002), who suggested that LA2C site should have been approximately 100,000 years younger than LA1. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the Lokalalei sites have been developed following controversy on the stratigraphic position and time interval between the LA1 and LA2C sites. High-resolution lithostratigraphic work based on bed-to-bed field correlations, facies sedimentology and tephra geochemistry confirms that the LA2C site is slightly higher in the section than the LA1 site by about 11.20 m. This represents a time interval of ˜74,000 years based on an assumed sedimentation rate of 152 mm

  13. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  14. Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-06

    I~D~·L Paper Number Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations ABSTRACT As research advances individual robot capabilities, a logical...progression is the use of multiple robots to complete a task more effectively. Mission performance can be improved by the ability to allocate robots with...diverse capabilities to perform different parts of a complex task. To paraphrase [[10], there are many advantages to enabling robotic collaborative

  15. Influence of extrinsic factors on electron transfer in a mixed-valence Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) complex: experimental results and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Achim, C; Bominaar, E L; Staples, R J; Münck, E; Holm, R H

    2001-08-13

    The crystal structure of the mixed-valence complex (NEt(4))[Fe(2)(salmp)(2)].xMeCN(crystal) (x = 2,3) [1].xMeCN(crystal) was determined at temperatures between 153 and 293 K. The complex shows distinct Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) sites over this temperature interval. Variable temperature Mössbauer spectra confirm the valence-localized character of the complex. In contrast, spectroscopic investigation of powder samples generated from [1].xMeCN(crystal) indicate the presence of a valence-averaged component at temperatures above 150 K. To elucidate this apparent contradiction we have conducted a variable-temperature Mössbauer investigation of different forms of 1, including [1].xMeCN(crystal), [1].2DMF(crystal), [1].yMeCN(powder), and solution samples of 1 in acetonitrile. The low-temperature Mössbauer spectra of all forms are virtually identical and confirm the valence-localized nature of the S = (9)/(2) ground state. The high-temperature spectra reveal a subtle control of electron hopping by the environment of the complexes. Thus, [1].xMeCN(crystal) has valence-localized spectra at all explored temperatures, [1].2DMF(crystal) exhibits a complete collapse into a valence-averaged spectrum over a narrow temperature range, the powder exhibits partial valence averaging over a broad temperature interval, and the solution sample shows at 210 K the presence of a valence-averaged component in a minor proportion. The spectral transformations are characterized by a coexistence of valence-localized and valence-averaged spectral components. This phenomenon cannot be explained by intramolecular electron hopping between the valence-localized states Fe(A)(2+)Fe(B)(3+) and Fe(A)(3+)Fe(B)(2+) in a homogeneous ensemble of complexes, but requires relaxation processes involving at least three distinguishable states of the molecular anion. Hopping rates for [1].2DMF(crystal) and [1].yMeCN(powder) have been determined from spectral simulations, based on stochastic line shape theory. Analysis of

  16. Determination of NRHP Eligibility for Buildings 28414, 32100, 33800, 36300, and 36302 at Fort Gordon, Georgia: Includes a Criteria Consideration G Evaluation of the 1988 Barracks Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Georgia, Quad Map (courtesy U.S. Geological Survey [USGS]). ERDC/CERL TR-17-3 121 Location of the 1988 barracks complex at Fort Gordon, GA (DPW...UTM 17S 3698240.20N 392679.02E USGS QUAD Grovetown Grovetown, Georgia Quad Map (courtesy U.S. Geological Survey [USGS]). ERDC/CERL TR-17-3 128...National Historic Preservation Act NPS National Park Service NRHP National Register of Historic Places USGS U.S. Geological Survey WWII World War II

  17. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Young, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight (MW) peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high MW peaks than did plastic bottles.

  18. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high molecular weight peaks than did plastic bottles. PMID:23416600

  19. Dolphin social intelligence: complex alliance relationships in bottlenose dolphins and a consideration of selective environments for extreme brain size evolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Connor, Richard C

    2007-04-29

    Bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, live in a large, unbounded society with a fission-fusion grouping pattern. Potential cognitive demands include the need to develop social strategies involving the recognition of a large number of individuals and their relationships with others. Patterns of alliance affiliation among males may be more complex than are currently known for any non-human, with individuals participating in 2-3 levels of shifting alliances. Males mediate alliance relationships with gentle contact behaviours such as petting, but synchrony also plays an important role in affiliative interactions. In general, selection for social intelligence in the context of shifting alliances will depend on the extent to which there are strategic options and risk. Extreme brain size evolution may have occurred more than once in the toothed whales, reaching peaks in the dolphin family and the sperm whale. All three 'peaks' of large brain size evolution in mammals (odontocetes, humans and elephants) shared a common selective environment: extreme mutual dependence based on external threats from predators or conspecific groups. In this context, social competition, and consequently selection for greater cognitive abilities and large brain size, was intense.

  20. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  1. Prion diseases: New considerations.

    PubMed

    Annus, Ádám; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László

    2016-11-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by the pathological accumulation of abnormal prion protein. The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is complex. The electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture and genetic testing findings can help in the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia. There has recently been considerable debate as to whether proteins involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases should be regarded as prions or only share prion-like mechanisms. Two recent reports described the detection of abnormal prion protein in the nasal mucosa and urine of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. These findings raise major health concerns regarding the transmissibility of human prion diseases. We set out to address this neurological hot topic and to draw conclusions on the basis of what is known in the literature thus far.

  2. Considerations for GPU SEE Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the considerations an engineer should take to perform Single Event Effects (SEE) testing on GPU devices. Notable topics will include setup complexity, architecture insight which permits cross platform normalization, acquiring a reasonable detail of information from the test suite, and a few lessons learned from preliminary testing.

  3. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  4. Regulatory Considerations for Biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or “biosimilars” in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved “similar” biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products. PMID:21829775

  5. Perioperative Considerations in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Kate; Vasdev, Nikhil; Ashead, Jim; Lane, Tim; Hanbury, Damian; Nathan, Paul; Gowrie-Mohan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma are complex, with the potential for significant complications, and require extensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative management. This article discusses, in depth, the necessary considerations in the treatment of these patients. PMID:27833463

  6. Complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  7. Green Power Procurement Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products are available from a variety of different vendors, including utilities, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, on-site system integrators, and non-profit organizations. This page lists considerations to evaluate during selection

  8. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  9. Educational Considerations, Spring 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortin, John A., Ed.; Teague, Fred A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Crucial, technologically oriented issues currently facing educators are addressed in the following 11 articles: (1) "The Definition of Educational Technology: An Emerging Stability," by Donald P. Ely; (2) "Media Applications to Instruction: Current Theoretical Considerations," by Gerald M. Torkelson; (3) "The Dilemma of…

  10. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  11. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  12. Considerations for Multiprocessor Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Choosing a multiprocessor interconnection topology may depend on high-level considerations, such as the intended application domain and the expected number of processors. It certainly depends on low-level implementation details, such as packaging and communications protocols. The authors first use rough measures of cost and performance to characterize several topologies. They then examine how implementation details can affect the realizable performance of a topology.

  13. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 7.401 Section 7.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... servicing capability, especially for highly complex equipment; e.g., can the equipment be serviced by the...

  14. Tracheostomy: pediatric considerations.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Ellen S

    2010-08-01

    Pediatric patients for whom tracheotomy is a consideration have different anatomy, medical conditions, and prognoses than adults; even the tracheotomy tubes are different. Indications for pediatric tracheotomy generally include bypassing airway obstruction, providing access for prolonged mechanical ventilation, and facilitating tracheobronchial toilet. Subglottic stenosis is an important indication for tracheotomy in children; its etiology, prevention, and alternative options for management are presented. Discussion includes the benefits, risks, impact on families, techniques for tracheotomy tube changes, and alternatives to tracheotomy, with illustrative photographs and diagrams.

  15. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  16. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-03-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  18. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  19. Considerations on bacterial nucleoids.

    PubMed

    Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Rama, José Luis R; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2017-07-01

    The classic genome organization of the bacterial chromosome is normally envisaged with all its genetic markers linked, thus forming a closed genetic circle of duplex stranded DNA (dsDNA) and several proteins in what it is called as "the bacterial nucleoid." This structure may be more or less corrugated depending on the physiological state of the bacterium (i.e., resting state or active growth) and is not surrounded by a double membrane as in eukayotic cells. The universality of the closed circle model in bacteria is however slowly changing, as new data emerge in different bacterial groups such as in Planctomycetes and related microorganisms, species of Borrelia, Streptomyces, Agrobacterium, or Phytoplasma. In these and possibly other microorganisms, the existence of complex formations of intracellular membranes or linear chromosomes is typical; all of these situations contributing to weakening the current cellular organization paradigm, i.e., prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells.

  20. Management of hypodontia: orthodontic considerations (II).

    PubMed

    Thind, Bikram S; Stirrups, David R; Forgie, Andrew H; Larmour, Colin J; Mossey, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia) present with complex problems. Meeting their treatment needs requires a joint effort between the disciplines of orthodontics and restorative dentistry. There are a number of options available to restore space generated by missing teeth. In the majority of patients orthodontic treatment will be required before this space can be restored satisfactorily. The second part of this series reviews the orthodontic considerations for various options.

  1. Contemporary Considerations in Cranial-Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Charles E.; Rogers, G. Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The development of new surgical and medical management techniques in skull-base surgery allows for improved patient care. The operative complexities encountered in these procedures necessitate a team-based approach to address total care of the surgical patient. A review of contemporary considerations in management of the patient undergoing skull-base surgery reveals the need for pre- and postoperative planning of surgical and medical management. PMID:19242578

  2. Methodological Consideration in Evaluating Year-Round Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Dennis E.

    The evaluation methodologies used in the 1960s to evaluate various ESEA programs were shown to be inappropriate and inadequate for the evaluation of year-round educational programs. Due to their complexity and the various levels of decision-making, YRE programs require consideration of contemporary evaluation methodology. Due consideration is the…

  3. Lipophilicity-antiproliferative activity relationship study leads to the preparation of a ruthenium(II) arene complex with considerable in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer cells and a lower in vivo toxicity in zebrafish embryos than clinically approved cis-platin.

    PubMed

    Haghdoost, MohammadMehdi; Golbaghi, Golara; Létourneau, Myriam; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Castonguay, Annie

    2017-05-26

    Ru(II)-arene complexes are attracting increasing attention due to their considerable antitumoral activity. However, it is difficult to clearly establish a direct relationship between their structure and antiproliferative activity, as substantial structural changes might not only affect their anticancer activity but also tightly control their activation site(s) and/or their biological target(s). Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of four ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing bidentate N,O-donor Schiff-base ligands ([Ru(η(6)-benzene)(N-O)Cl]) that display a significantly distinct antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, despite their close structural similarity. Furthermore, we suggest there is a link between their respective antiproliferative activity and their lipophilicity, as the latter affects their ability to accumulate into cancer cells. This lipophilicity-cytotoxicity relationship was exploited to design another structurally related ruthenium complex with a much higher antiproliferative activity (IC50 > 25.0 μM) against three different human cancer cell lines. Whereas this complex shows a slightly lower activity than that of clinically approved cis-platin against the same human cancer cell lines, it displays a lower toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at concentrations up to 20 μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Periodontal diseases: microbiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Liébana, José; Castillo, Ana María; Alvarez, Marta

    2004-01-01

    The location of plaque-associated gingivitis at the gingival portion of the tooth plays an essential role in its genesis. However, at times local and other host response modifying factors also have an influence. The pathogeny of periodontitis is more complex. The microorganisms that comprise subgingival plaque are capable of acting directly on periodontal tissues or of modifying the host response, whereas the participation of the plaque per se (normal, decreased, or increased) is as decisive as the action of the bacteria themselves in the emergence of the disease. Different types of periodontitis are associated with specific microorganisms. The most periodontopathogenic are A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythensis. Periodontitis as a whole, represent the source of complications such as root caries, endoperiodontal processes and periodontal abscesses. They are associated with various illnesses such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and respiratory infections, amongst others, as well as pathological oral halitosis. The different modalities of PCR are particularly important in the microbiological diagnosis of periodontitis, although on the negative side of things, it must be pointed out that in vitro sensitivity studies cannot be performed using this technique. First line antibiotic treatment of periodontitis includes amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, metronidazole (associated or not with amoxicillin) and clindamycin.

  5. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  6. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  7. Judging Dramatic Interpretation: Textual Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Bruce B.

    The recent growth in popularity among college students of dramatic interpretation in forensic competition justifies an examination of textual considerations and resultant criteria important to the evaluation of dramatic literature. The first considerations of the student contemplating the dramatic interpretation event are the selection of material…

  8. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  9. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  10. Utility considerations for tritium production

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.M.; Bockhold, G. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The Southern Nuclear Company has a long-standing commitment to nuclear power and is interested in pursuing the possible use of one of its existing commercial reactors as an alternative for reinitiating the production of tritium to support the nation`s defense program requirements. We understand that Congress and the administration agree on the need to replenish the nation`s supply of tritium and that a number of production options are under consideration. This paper discusses the financial considerations, legal and regulatory considerations for the production of tritium utilizing a commercial power reactor.

  11. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  12. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  13. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  14. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  15. Design considerations for mechanical snubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed.

  16. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

  17. Some Basic Considerations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Hursh, Daniel E.

    This paper indicates underlying philosophic assumptions which are compatible with the behavior analysis approach to child development. Four issues taken into consideration are (a) biology and environment, (b) structure and function, (c) traits and situations, and (d) mechanistic and organismic approaches to development. The following ideas…

  18. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  19. Basic Considerations in Interviewing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Rick L.

    This manual summarizes and highlights basic considerations in interviewing children. The relationship between interviewing for data collection and interviewing within the counseling or psychotherapeutic context is discussed. The Interviewer's Functional Checklist is presented to provide a method for self-evaluating interviewer behavior, and for…

  20. General B factory design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences.

  1. Considerations when collecting coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Olechiw, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    There are several applications in the handling of coal in which capturing coal dust is important. They are in pulverizing operations at belt conveyor transfer points and pneumatic conveying receivers. In each case the processing and handling of coal generates considerable dust which is suspended in the air. Health and safety, environmental considerations and good housekeeping practices dictate that the suspended coal dust be captured, contained and transferred for re-use or disposal. It is no longer acceptable practice to expose operating personnel to breathing dust (OSSA regulations). In addition particulate emissions are being more closely regulated both in total mass and particle size (PM-10 legislation). In general dusty environments reduce the efficiency of operating equipment by fouling bearings and rollers, increasing friction, clogging air filters and increasing wear and tear on equipment and energy costs. Of paramount concern is the fact that spontaneous combustion can occur where coal dust accumulates on horizontal surfaces.

  2. Repetitive foreign body ingestion: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Sarah; Stagno, Susan J; Daly, Barb

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of persons who frequently present to the healthcare system following repetitive foreign body ingestion has been addressed in the psychiatric literature. However, there has been little exploration of the ethical considerations regarding the treatment of these patients. The complexity of their medical and psychiatric presentation raises fundamental ethical questions regarding the duty to treat, patient autonomy, justice, and futility. Careful ethical analysis is particularly important in this context, since the frustration that medical professionals may feel in response may lead to false assumptions that can negatively impact patient care. A careful exploration of these questions can increase awareness and understanding, which in turn can lead to improved treatment of patients who repetitively ingest foreign bodies. Care for patients who inflict self-harm, particularly by repetitive foreign body ingestion, is not futile. The patients have a right to treatment and are entitled to resources. Efforts should be made to provide a more comprehensive treatment approach to these patients.

  3. Some practical considerations in fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Nguyen, Dung A.; Barnes, John C.

    2010-02-01

    As technologies evolve, there have been high demands for the three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement techniques to posses the following combined technical features: high accuracy, fast speed, easy implementation, capability of measuring multiple objects as well as measuring complex shapes. Generally, the existing techniques can satisfy some of the requirements, but not all of them. This paper presents four practical considerations in fringe projection profilometry (FPP) based 3D shape measurements, along with simple but robust solutions, including gamma correction of digital projection, arbitrary setup of system components, phase unwrapping with multi-frequency fringes, and system calibration with a least-squares inverse approach. The validity and practicability of the FPP-based 3D shape measurement technique using the four corresponding technical approaches have been verified by experiments. The presented technique is capable of satisfying the various critical demands in enormous scientific and engineering applications.

  4. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  5. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration.

    PubMed

    Toma, Naoki

    2016-10-15

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures.

  6. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement.

  7. [The world of the epileptic: anthropo-phenomenological considerations].

    PubMed

    Simone, F; Felici, F

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that in literature studies concerning the anthropo-phenomenologic aspects of the existence of subjects suffering from epilepsy are very scanty, the Authors dwell upon the opportunity of deepening this study which may allow a better knowledge of the complex problems of the patient. These problems should be neglected if only the biologic side of the disease was taken into consideration.

  8. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  9. Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staas, Steven K.

    Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

  10. Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staas, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

  11. Age considerations when vaccinating against HPV.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Huh, Warner K; Monk, Bradley J; Smith, Jennifer S; Ault, Kevin; Herzog, Thomas J

    2008-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been shown to be both highly effective and safe, and there is now considerable enthusiasm among healthcare providers to use the vaccines to reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease in women. When considering who should be vaccinated, it is important that providers understand the complex relationships between age and HPV infections. HPV infections and cervical cancer have a widespread impact on society. Cervical cancer is the cause of a significant amount of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, making it crucial to implement prophylactic HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer. Nationally, the target group for vaccination is pre-adolescent females who have not been sexually active or who have recently become sexually active. In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends HPV vaccination for females aged 11 to 12 years. "Catch-up" vaccination of females aged 13 to 26 years who have not been previously vaccinated or who have missed a vaccination is also recommended, as females within this age group have the highest prevalence of HPV infection. Vaccination can still benefit females over the age of 26 years who have not been previously exposed to HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 and those who may have new sexual partners in the future. This review discusses the various considerations that should be addressed when making recommendations of who should be vaccinated against HPV.

  12. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  13. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  14. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  15. Design considerations for neural amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Holleman, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    The initial amplification stage is a critical element of a neural signal acquisition system, and the design of low-noise, low-power amplifiers has received a great deal of attention in recent publications. In this paper we discuss practical considerations for the design of amplifiers intended for neural interfaces. Noise is a major issue due to the low amplitude of neural signals. Practical system deployments also require adequate rejection of common-mode interference, such as that due to line power noise or muscle artifacts, and supply noise. This paper attempts to provide some guideance for system and circuit designers and point out opportunities for potential future exploration.

  16. [Hypertension In pregnancy: practical considerations].

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Jaafar; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2014-09-10

    Hypertension is the most frequent medical disorder of pregnancy. Whether in the form of a chronic hypertension or a pregnancy induced-hypertension, or preeclampsia, it is associated with major maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improvement of prenatal care allowed a reduction in the number of poor outcomes. However, our partial understanding of the origin of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia limits the establishment of robust prediction models and efficient preventive interventions. This review discusses actual considerations on the clinical approach to hypertension in pregnancy.

  17. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303... PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The degree... effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  18. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel....

  19. Perioperative Considerations of Herbal Medications.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Ryan M; Egan, Brian J

    2017-09-13

    A considerable portion of the US population uses herbal supplements on a daily basis for their various proposed beneficial effects. However, the over-the-counter nature of these medications and lack of knowledge of adverse effect profiles can have unexpected serious impact on the perioperative course. The growing list of supplements presents a pharmacologic conundrum to the anesthesiologist. To compile a comprehensive list of vitamins, herbals, and supplements used commonly by patients, describe the risks associated with them, and identify recommendations for perioperative management. The current literature on PubMed and Medline was reviewed for the years 2000 through 2016. The reference lists of each selected article were also reviewed for additional sources of information. The review identified 23 herbals and supplements that are commonly used and their perioperative considerations. The management of herbals and supplements is an issue for the anesthesiologist. Although it would be prudent to stop use of most substances a week or more preoperatively, the perioperative physician must be wary of the potential for withdrawal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  1. Design Considerations for Developing Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. The complexity arises from the fact that biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and micro structure, and its effect on cellular behavior can be a difficult and time intensive process. A systems design approach driven by thermodynamics has the power to provide significant contributions in developing the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations and hurdles for developing new magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials [1].

  2. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  3. Technical Considerations in Stoma Creation.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Alia; Cataldo, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Creating an intestinal stoma is commonly the final aspect of an often emergent and complicated operation under difficult circumstances. While creation of a protruding, tension-free, and well-vascularized stoma is often straightforward, one must be prepared for challenging situations such as a thick abdominal wall and short, thickened mesentery. A successful stoma starts with attentive preoperative planning including site marking, thoughtful consideration of alternatives, and attention to technical detail. The tips provided in this article should facilitate the process of selecting the appropriate intestinal segment, identifying the correct stoma site, and creating a functional stoma even in the most challenging situations. Constructing a high-quality stoma will decrease complications and improve the patient's quality of life. Stoma creation is frequently the only component of an operation that the patient will have to live with for the remainder of his/her life.

  4. Circumvertical reduction mastoplasty: new considerations.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2003-01-01

    The circumvertical technique is a mixture of the periareolar and the vertical techniques in which the skin resection is performed around the areola and is continued in an inverted cone that starts at the infraareolar area and ends 2-4 cm above the submammary crease. Some advantages of this technique are: The glands are removed from the inferior glandular quadrant and from the inferior borders of the lateral and medial quadrants. The areola is moved upward and attached to the gland, preserving the nursing function. There is a harmonious distribution of the pleats around the areola and at the vertical wound. The vertical suture never crosses the submammary crease. The postoperative result is acceptable. Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor is used minimizing bleeding. Bupivacaine is also included, prolonging the anesthetic effect hours after surgery. This paper describes this simple and rapid surgery and discusses some new, previously unpublished considerations and tricks.

  5. Surgical considerations about amyloid goiter.

    PubMed

    García Villanueva, Augusto; García Villanueva, María Jesús; García Villanueva, Mercedes; Rojo Blanco, Roberto; Collado Guirao, María Vicenta; Cabañas Montero, Jacobo; Beni Pérez, Rafael; Moreno Montes, Irene

    2013-05-01

    Amyloidosis is an uncommon syndrome consisting of a number of disorders having in common an extracellular deposit of fibrillary proteins. This results in functional and structural changes in the affected organs, depending on deposit location and severity. Amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland may occur in 50% and up to 80% of patients with primary and secondary amyloidosis respectively. Amyloid goiter (AG) is a true rarity, usually found associated to secondary amyloidosis. AG may require surgical excision, usually because of compressive symptoms. We report the case of a patient with a big AG occurring in the course of a secondary amyloidosis associated to polyarticular onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis who underwent total thyroidectomy. Current literature is reviewed, an attempt is made to provide action guidelines, and some surgical considerations on this rare condition are given.

  6. Improving oral health: current considerations.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, S

    2003-01-01

    The high incidence of periodontal disease among adults in the Western world indicates that in most cases, routine dental care could be considerably improved. The progressive effect of the disease suggests that improvements in oral cleanliness are mandatory if large numbers of adults are to retain their teeth into old age. Data show that periodontal disease can be minimized through effective plaque control, and that a combination of brushing, interdental cleaning, and chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. mouthwash) is beneficial to patients with plaque control problems. The vast majority of adults do not follow an adequate home-care routine. Average brushing times are low, and only a minority of patients regularly floss. In addition, in those patients who do regularly brush and floss, a deterioration of plaque control occurs over time, suggesting that compliance is a major issue. The principal challenge for dental professionals is to identify how best to elicit an improvement.

  7. Nutritional considerations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, R

    1988-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Multi-unit operations considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Walter E.; Bennett, Thomas C.; Brannon, Nathan Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Several nuclear weapons programs have or are pursuing the implementation of multi-unit operations for tasks such as disassembly and inspection, and rebuild. A multi-unit operation is interpreted to mean the execution of nuclear explosive operating procedures in a single facility by two separate teams of technicians. The institution of a multi-unit operations program requires careful consideration of the tools, resources, and environment provided to the technicians carrying out the work. Therefore, a systematic approach is necessary to produce safe, secure, and reliable processes. In order to facilitate development of a more comprehensive multi-unit operations program, the current work details categorized issues that should be addressed prior to the implementation of multi-unit operations in a given weapons program. The issues have been organized into the following categories: local organizational conditions, work process flow/material handling/workplace configuration, ambient environmental conditions, documented safety analysis, and training.

  9. Nuclear safe orbit basing considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Leifer, Stephanie D.; Shah, Shishir V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to one aspect of space nuclear power safety, namely, the radiation dose rate risk due to a reentered reactor. It is found that for nuclear-thermal propulsion NERVA vehicles, the minimum required altitude for initial basing and earth escape is 500 to 600 km; for final end-of-life storage, the required altitude is about 1000 km. For a 10-MWe nuclear-electric propulsion vehicle, the basing node is 800 km and the final end-of-life storage altitude is 1100 km. Radiation levels have been evaluated for both the SP-100 nuclear electric and the NERVA nuclear thermal reactors as a function of operating time, power level, and time after shutdown.

  10. Nutritional considerations after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.

  11. Anatomic and Technical Considerations: Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement.

    PubMed

    Doe, Christopher; Ryu, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters play an important role in preventing pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis. When preparing for IVC filter placement, there are several important anatomic and technical considerations. The IVC has complex embryologic origins, and normal variants are relatively common which may necessitate a change in technique or approach. When performing the procedure, the choice in imaging modality for deployment, location of deployment, and route of access must be considered. The pediatric and pregnant populations present unique situations that require special consideration and close examination of indications and contraindications.

  12. Anatomic and Technical Considerations: Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement

    PubMed Central

    Doe, Christopher; Ryu, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters play an important role in preventing pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis. When preparing for IVC filter placement, there are several important anatomic and technical considerations. The IVC has complex embryologic origins, and normal variants are relatively common which may necessitate a change in technique or approach. When performing the procedure, the choice in imaging modality for deployment, location of deployment, and route of access must be considered. The pediatric and pregnant populations present unique situations that require special consideration and close examination of indications and contraindications. PMID:27247476

  13. Clinical considerations for biosimilar antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mellstedt, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Biosimilar agents are approximate copies of branded biologic therapies. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in the European Union in 2006, fifteen additional agents have been approved by the European Medicines Agency, including two biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Biosimilar mAbs represent a distinct class given their large molecular size, complex protein structure, and post-translational modifications. While guidelines have been established for the development, approval, and use of biosimilars, further scrutiny and discussion is necessary to fully understand their potential impact on clinical outcomes. This review takes a critical look at the structural complexity of biosimilar mABs, the feasibility of indication extrapolation, the impact of product variability on immunogenicity, the importance of comprehensive pharmacovigilance, and the potential for ongoing pharmacoeconomic impact. PMID:26217160

  14. P value interpretations and considerations.

    PubMed

    Thiese, Matthew S; Ronna, Brenden; Ott, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification.

  15. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  16. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required... environmental laws and regulations....

  1. Ethical considerations in adherence research

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nupur U; Moore, Blake A; Craver, Rebekah F; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient’s adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient’s rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding), informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception), and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research. PMID:27980394

  2. Economic considerations of atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Major considerations of the acidic deposition issue which will impact an economic analysis can be divided into two categories: welfare analysis and impact analysis. Welfare analysis involves estimation of receptor-specific benefits of a change in levels of atmospheric deposition. Impact analysis involves the translation of receptor-specific benefits to estimates of regional changes in income, employment, and population due to various emissions control policies and, ultimately, to changes in consumer surplus and gross national product. Of the two, welfare analysis is the most problematic. There are basically two reasons for this. First, all of the benefits estimates for individual receptor systems (i.e., forests, crops, materials, etc.) do not take into account price adjustments in other sectors of the economy which may occur as an indirect result of emissions reduction policies. Secondly, the welfare measures used in the individual receptor systems are not always theoretically consistent with one another (even though they are all calculated in constant-dollar terms).

  3. Ethical considerations in adherence research.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nupur U; Moore, Blake A; Craver, Rebekah F; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient's adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient's rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding), informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception), and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research.

  4. Pharmacogenomic considerations in opioid analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Vuilleumier, Pascal H; Stamer, Ulrike M; Landau, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Translating pharmacogenetics to clinical practice has been particularly challenging in the context of pain, due to the complexity of this multifaceted phenotype and the overall subjective nature of pain perception and response to analgesia. Overall, numerous genes involved with the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of opioids response are candidate genes in the context of opioid analgesia. The clinical relevance of CYP2D6 genotyping to predict analgesic outcomes is still relatively unknown; the two extremes in CYP2D6 genotype (ultrarapid and poor metabolism) seem to predict pain response and/or adverse effects. Overall, the level of evidence linking genetic variability (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) to oxycodone response and phenotype (altered biotransformation of oxycodone into oxymorphone and overall clearance of oxycodone and oxymorphone) is strong; however, there has been no randomized clinical trial on the benefits of genetic testing prior to oxycodone therapy. On the other hand, predicting the analgesic response to morphine based on pharmacogenetic testing is more complex; though there was hope that simple genetic testing would allow tailoring morphine doses to provide optimal analgesia, this is unlikely to occur. A variety of polymorphisms clearly influence pain perception and behavior in response to pain. However, the response to analgesics also differs depending on the pain modality and the potential for repeated noxious stimuli, the opioid prescribed, and even its route of administration. PMID:23226064

  5. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such...

  6. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  7. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  8. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  9. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The contracting... policy? (10) Has adequate consideration been obtained for any proposed subcontract that will involve...

  10. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements...

  11. 48 CFR 19.809 - Preaward considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preaward considerations...) Program) 19.809 Preaward considerations. The contracting officer should request a preaward survey of the 8... contracting officer must refer the matter to SBA for Certificate of Competency consideration under subpart...

  12. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation...

  13. 10 CFR 72.90 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 72.90 Section 72.90 Energy NUCLEAR... § 72.90 General considerations. (a) Site characteristics that may directly affect the safety or... be evaluated with due consideration of the characteristics of the population, including...

  14. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804... considerations. (a) Purpose. The enforcement mechanisms set forth in this subpart have the following purposes: (1... considered. CMS bases its choice of sanction or sanctions on consideration of one or more factors...

  16. 5 CFR 2634.401 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 2634.401 Section... considerations. (a) Statutory standards governing qualified trusts—(1) Types of qualified trusts and their... instrument which detail this procedure. (b) Policy considerations and objectives underlying the...

  17. 7 CFR 1786.203 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special considerations. 1786.203 Section 1786.203... Special considerations. Generally all FFB borrowers with loans guaranteed by RUS whose FFB notes have not... prepayments are more complicated and thus will involve special considerations. These requests will have to...

  18. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.83 Section 643.83 National... Easements § 643.83 Consideration. Although the statutes authorizing grants of rights of way or easements do... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices....

  19. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following...

  20. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value....

  1. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of...

  2. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 331.4... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.4 Special consideration. When an entire industry that... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the...

  3. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area...

  4. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  5. Considerations on causality in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Causality has been a topic of debate by philosophers, scientists, lawyers and for centuries. It is essential to define as precisely as possible all steps in the logical chain of events, since each may strengthen or confound an argument. Almost always there are issues of missing and conflicting data that need to be addressed specifically. In pharmacovigilance, as in many other situations, there is not just one possible causation for an effect but several. Each must be evaluated in the given context for probability. There is also likely to be a causal chain of events to the adverse effect under consideration, and each must be considered. In an individual patient diagnosis the components of patient history, clinical findings and various laboratory test findings are combined to point to the probability of the patho-physiological diagnosis, which in turn is related to possible causes with a strength determined by the constellation of findings. The established Bradford-Hill criteria are valuable in considering all the possible causal factors. Pharmacoepidemiology allows for population incidences of causes for particular effects and therefore provides an a priori probability listing for competing possible causes, or at least of one possible cause against the background of all others in a control group. Since adverse effects of medicines are generally rare, it is not possible to exclude drug causation in an individual by reliance on epidemiological evidence alone, only to argue that the incidence is below a level determined by statistical power, of the study or studies combined. Other areas of society are concerned with the process of causal inference, and this is especially true in legal cases in which judgements are made on possible personal injury by drugs.

  6. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets.

  7. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-09-15

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  8. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.

    1995-09-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  9. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  10. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future.

  11. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    PubMed

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  12. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example.

  13. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuot, P. J.; Harbaugh, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented.

  14. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  15. Aerobiology: Experimental Considerations, Observations, and Future Tools

    PubMed Central

    Haddrell, Allen E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding airborne survival and decay of microorganisms is important for a range of public health and biodefense applications, including epidemiological and risk analysis modeling. Techniques for experimental aerosol generation, retention in the aerosol phase, and sampling require careful consideration and understanding so that they are representative of the conditions the bioaerosol would experience in the environment. This review explores the current understanding of atmospheric transport in relation to advances and limitations of aerosol generation, maintenance in the aerosol phase, and sampling techniques. Potential tools for the future are examined at the interface between atmospheric chemistry, aerosol physics, and molecular microbiology where the heterogeneity and variability of aerosols can be explored at the single-droplet and single-microorganism levels within a bioaerosol. The review highlights the importance of method comparison and validation in bioaerosol research and the benefits that the application of novel techniques could bring to increasing the understanding of aerobiological phenomena in diverse research fields, particularly during the progression of atmospheric transport, where complex interdependent physicochemical and biological processes occur within bioaerosol particles. PMID:28667111

  16. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  17. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration.

    PubMed

    Thuot, P J; Harbaugh, G J

    1995-07-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented.

  18. 10 management considerations for implementing an endovascular hybrid OR.

    PubMed

    Eder, Sheryl P; Register, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    A hybrid procedure is the use of procedural techniques from different specialties to accomplish a shared procedural goal. Hybrid interventional suites combine the capabilities of an OR with the technologies of interventional radiology, thereby offering a modern solution to the care of patients with complex vascular pathology by using the least-invasive procedure possible. Management considerations for successful implementation of an endovascular hybrid OR suite include environment of care, design, retrofitting, equipment, personnel, anesthesia, procedural care, radiation protection, and financial planning.

  19. Perioperative Considerations in Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, T. Paul; Merchea, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is medically and surgically complex. Numerous patient- and disease-oriented factors must be considered in treating patients with IBD, including nutritional replenishment/support, effect of immunosuppressive medications, extent of resection, and use of proximal diversion. Perioperative planning and optimization of the patient is imperative to ensuring favorable outcomes and limiting morbidity. These perioperative considerations in Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis are reviewed here. PMID:27247531

  20. Biosimilars: policy, clinical, and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Scott

    2008-07-15

    The regulatory background surrounding biosimilars (biopharmaceuticals that are considered similar in composition to an innovator product, but not necessarily clinically interchangeable); equivalence, interchangeability, and unique considerations associated with biopharmaceuticals; the biopharmaceutical protein production process; scientific facts for use in the policy discussion about biosimilars; the European Union system for biosimilars; and the current status of biosimilars legislation in the United States are described. An abbreviated regulatory pathway for the approval of biosimilars, and a process for safely demonstrating the therapeutic interchangeability of these proteins, has the potential to provide meaningful cost savings. This economic advantage to patients can translate into important public health benefits. But to date, no formal regulatory process exists in the United States for bringing these drugs to market. In addition, the current tools for fully characterizing biopharmaceuticals are not--in certain cases--well developed, especially for proteins that have complex structures or are heavily glycosylated. In addition, using "similar" but not completely "identical" proteins interchangeably raises concerns about potentiating immunogenicity. The bottom line is that demonstrating therapeutic equivalence and interchangeability for biosimilars is not a straightforward matter--it cannot be based on the same criteria as for conventional small-molecule drugs. The science, while obtainable, is more complex. For example, it is assumed that showing that a biosimilar protein can be safely used interchangeably with an innovator protein would require, at the least, some limited clinical data and interchangeability studies. Notwithstanding the more complex scientific and clinical issues particular to protein products, most believe that a process for enabling the approval of safe and effective biosimilar proteins is not only possible, but an important public health

  1. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  2. Geomorphic considerations for erosion prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Current soil-erosion prediction technology addresses processes of rainsplash, overland-flow sediment transport, and rill erosion in small watersheds. The effects of factors determining sediment yield from larger-scale drainage basins, in which sediment movement is controlled by the combined small-scale processes and a complex set of channel and other basin-scale sediment-delivery processes, such as soil creep, bioturbation, and accelerated erosion due to denudation of vegetation, have been poorly evaluated. General suggestions are provided for the development of erosion-prediction technology at the geomorphic or drainage-basin scale based on the separation of sediment-yield data for channel and geomorphic processes from those of field-scale soil loss. An emerging technology must consider: (1) the effects on sediment yield of climate, geology and soils, topography, biotic interactions with other soil processes, and land-use practices; (2) all processes of sediment delivery to a channel system; and (3) the general tendency in most drainage basins for progressively greater sediment storage in the downstream direction.

  3. Underwriting considerations for dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, P M; Neubauer, P J

    2000-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been diagnosed more frequently and is under greater scrutiny. Because of the number of comorbid conditions, the underwriting risks must be evaluated to determine morbidity and mortality implications. The number of diagnosed cases of DID has increased in recent years. The diagnosis often coexists with other diagnoses such as bipolar disorder, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder, somatization, personality disorders, and psychotic disorder. A high incidence of substance abuse and eating disorders is found in the population diagnosed with DID. A query of disability claim experience with DID indicated that these claims tended to reach the maximum duration for mental/nervous benefits despite case management and return to work activities. The DID psychiatric population is a complex group with mental disorders that place them in a group likely to use maximum disability benefits and who would pose increased life underwriting risk. In addition, the literature indicates a high excess risk for early mortality and excess health care expenses compared to the normal population.

  4. Ethical considerations in dermatologic photography.

    PubMed

    Lakdawala, Nikita; Fontanella, Demian; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    In dermatology, clinical photographs are an essential component of patient care, enabling clinicians to document changes in skin pathology over time. Recent advances in digital technology and the electronic medical record have revolutionized clinical photography; however, these advances bring with them new ethical, legal, and social concerns. Photographs, more than other forms of documentation, have the potential to make patients uncomfortable. The act of photography, especially for those images requiring exposure of the genital area or the entire body, can be an uncomfortable experience for patients, necessitating the clinician and photographer to take an empathic stance in this setting. The Internet has elicited an increasing, and a very real, concern for patients about possible distribution and use of images outside of their individual care. The clinician and staff can allay these fears by professionally and empathetically addressing their concerns. In addition, it is important that patients receive appropriate informed consent about clinical photographs and the potential use of the images in their care, education, and research. Given the multitude of methods for recording clinical photographs, combined with the increasing complexity of image storage, standardization becomes a critical tool in providing consistency among images and achieving more equitable and efficacious care. To achieve this goal and improve the baseline standard of continuity of care for dermatological practices, we review the role of photographs, develop a model for patient consent, and establish standards for photography so as to provide the most ethical care for the patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  6. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations...

  7. Data Model Considerations for Clinical Effectiveness Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Michael G.; Batson, Deborah; Schilling, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Growing adoption of electronic health records and increased emphasis on the reuse and integration of clinical care and administration data require a robust informatics infrastructure to inform health care effectiveness in real-world settings. The Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTI Net) was one of 3 projects receiving Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research funds to create a scalable, distributed network to support Comparative Effectiveness Research. SAFTINet’s method of extracting and compiling data from disparate entities requires the use of a shared common data model. Data Models Focusing on the needs of CER investigators, in addition to other project considerations, we examined the suitability of several data models. Data modeling is the process of determining which data elements will be stored and how they will be stored, including their relationships and constraints. Addressing compromises between complexity and usability is critical to modeling decisions. Case Study The SAFTINet project provides the case study for describing data model evaluation. A sample use case defines a cohort of asthma subjects that illustrates the need to identify patients by age, diagnoses, and medication use while excluding those with diagnoses that may often be misdiagnosed as asthma. Discussion The SAFTINet team explored several data models against a set of technical and investigator requirements to select a data model that best fit its needs and was conducive to expansion with new research requirements. Although SAFTINet ultimately chose the Observation Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model, other valid options exist and prioritization of requirements is dependent upon many factors. PMID:22692260

  8. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-24

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient.

  9. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations. (a...

  10. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations. (a...

  11. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations. (a...

  12. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations. (a...

  13. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations. (a...

  14. 40 CFR 133.103 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special considerations. 133.103 Section 133.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.103 Special considerations. (a) Combined sewers. Treatment works...

  15. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted Accounting...

  16. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  17. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  18. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations. (a...

  19. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations. (a...

  20. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations. (a...

  1. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations. (a...

  2. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An...

  3. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  4. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  5. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a...

  6. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a...

  7. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a...

  8. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a...

  9. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a...

  10. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  11. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  12. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations. (a...

  14. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set... equipped, safest and most suitable types of vessels, constructed and documented in the United States...

  15. Key Considerations for Serving Disconnected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Youth Policy Forum, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the youth population that is disconnected from education and the workforce and describes a set of key considerations for improving outcomes for this population. Programmatic examples that demonstrate how effective supports for youth look in practice are discussed. Three key considerations are examined: (1)…

  16. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) directs that a five point...

  17. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  18. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  19. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  20. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  1. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC... considerations. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of § 60.21(c)(2)(i), an application for construction...

  2. 48 CFR 207.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 207.401 Section 207.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Acquisition considerations. If the equipment will be leased for more than 60 days, the requiring activity...

  3. 48 CFR 244.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 244.202-2 Section 244.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....202-2 Considerations. (a) Where other than lowest price is the basis for subcontractor selection,...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.207 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.207 Section 3430.207 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Other considerations. The term of a grant under this subpart shall not exceed 10 years....

  5. 48 CFR 2944.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 2944.202-2 Section 2944.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent To Subcontract 2944.202-2 Considerations. The review required...

  6. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  7. 12 CFR 747.311 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 747.311 Section 747.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... considerations. In deciding the question of suspension, prohibition, or removal under this subpart, the...

  8. 7 CFR 1781.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 1781.11 Section 1781.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... ADVANCES § 1781.11 Other considerations. (a) Technical assistance. When pipelines from reservoirs...

  9. 24 CFR 585.304 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.304 Section 585.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Locational considerations. Each application for an implementation grant may only include activities to...

  10. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equitable considerations. 391.2 Section 391.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., AND PENALTIES § 391.2 Equitable considerations. For reasons of equity and good conscience,...

  11. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army...

  12. 32 CFR 806b.41 - Disclosure considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure considerations. 806b.41 Section 806b.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.41 Disclosure considerations. The...

  13. 12 CFR 308.157 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 308.157 Section 308.157 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... FDIA § 308.157 Relevant considerations. (a) In proceedings under § 308.156 on an application to...

  14. 16 CFR 255.1 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 255.1 Section 255.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES CONCERNING USE OF ENDORSEMENTS AND TESTIMONIALS IN ADVERTISING § 255.1 General considerations. (a) Endorsements must reflect...

  15. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section 644.316 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National...

  16. 7 CFR 3570.70 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3570.70 Section 3570.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.70 Other considerations....

  17. 11 CFR 200.5 - Agency considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency considerations. 200.5 Section 200.5... Agency considerations. The Commission's decision on the petition for rulemaking may include, but will not be limited to, the following considerations— (a) The Commission's statutory authority; (b)...

  18. 7 CFR 4284.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 4284.16 Section 4284.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Grant Programs § 4284.16 Other considerations. (a) Environmental review. All grants made under...

  19. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Supplementary Information § 3403.16 Other considerations. The Department may, with respect to any...

  20. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  1. 12 CFR 308.162 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 308.162 Section 308.162 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... Prohibition Where a Felony ls Charged § 308.162 Relevant considerations. (a)(1) In proceedings under §...

  2. 7 CFR 1778.14 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 1778.14 Section 1778.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... considerations. (a) Civil rights compliance requirements. All grants made under this part are subject to Title...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.609 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.609 Section 3430.609 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.609 Other considerations. (a) Set aside. Each fiscal year, CSREES shall set aside at least...

  4. 10 CFR 72.120 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 72.120 Section 72.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT... Criteria § 72.120 General considerations. (a) As required by § 72.24, an application to store spent fuel...

  5. 7 CFR 4284.630 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 4284.630 Section 4284.630 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Other considerations. (a) Civil rights compliance requirements. All grants made under this subpart...

  6. 16 CFR 1061.3 - Statutory considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory considerations. 1061.3 Section 1061.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.3 Statutory considerations. (a) The Commission's statutory preemption provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment...

  8. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects...

  9. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) directs that a five point Environmental...

  10. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects...

  11. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  13. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  14. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  15. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  16. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  17. Airship Renaissance: Considerations for Operational Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare 5a. CONTRACT...Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare by Daniel W. Smith III Major, United States Air Force A paper submitted...resources needed now on the battlefield…to get more intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre .” 5 Recognizing budget

  18. 49 CFR 209.329 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.329 Section 209.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Assessment considerations. (a) Proof of a respondent's willful violation of one of the requirements of parts...

  19. 49 CFR 107.331 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 107.331 Section 107.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.331 Assessment considerations...

  20. 49 CFR 209.119 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.119 Section 209.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Penalties § 209.119 Assessment considerations. The assessment of a civil penalty under § 209.117 is made...

  1. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  2. Consideration of VT5 etch-based OPC modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChinTeong; Temchenko, Vlad; Kaiser, Dieter; Meusel, Ingo; Schmidt, Sebastian; Schneider, Jens; Niehoff, Martin

    2008-03-01

    Including etch-based empirical data during OPC model calibration is a desired yet controversial decision for OPC modeling, especially for process with a large litho to etch biasing. While many OPC software tools are capable of providing this functionality nowadays; yet few were implemented in manufacturing due to various risks considerations such as compromises in resist and optical effects prediction, etch model accuracy or even runtime concern. Conventional method of applying rule-based alongside resist model is popular but requires a lot of lengthy code generation to provide a leaner OPC input. This work discusses risk factors and their considerations, together with introduction of techniques used within Mentor Calibre VT5 etch-based modeling at sub 90nm technology node. Various strategies are discussed with the aim of better handling of large etch bias offset without adding complexity into final OPC package. Finally, results were presented to assess the advantages and limitations of the final method chosen.

  3. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  4. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  5. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  6. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  7. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General..., Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when special circumstances or arrangements warrant such departures and an equivalent level of safety...

  8. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  9. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  10. Four Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches: Additional Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galassi, John P.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to previous articles discussing counseling techniques of systematic desensitization, anxiety management training, stress inoculation training, and rational restructuring. Raises additional considerations with respect to assessment, technique selection, and technique implementation. (NB)

  11. Cultural considerations in advanced wound care.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Donna

    2013-03-01

    There are many advanced wound care products composed of elements that may conflict with our patients' religious ideology or ethical mores. This article discusses religious and cultural considerations that clinicians should be aware of when selecting advanced wound care products.

  12. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND PENALTIES § 391.2 Equitable considerations. For reasons of equity and good conscience, late charges may be waived under the circumstances identified in this section. (a) Where, without fault or bad...

  13. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  14. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  15. Geospatial considerations for a multiorganizational, landscape-scale program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial data play an increasingly important role in natural resources management, conservation, and science-based projects. The management and effective use of spatial data becomes significantly more complex when the efforts involve a myriad of landscape-scale projects combined with a multiorganizational collaboration. There is sparse literature to guide users on this daunting subject; therefore, we present a framework of considerations for working with geospatial data that will provide direction to data stewards, scientists, collaborators, and managers for developing geospatial management plans. The concepts we present apply to a variety of geospatial programs or projects, which we describe as a “scalable framework” of processes for integrating geospatial efforts with management, science, and conservation initiatives. Our framework includes five tenets of geospatial data management: (1) the importance of investing in data management and standardization, (2) the scalability of content/efforts addressed in geospatial management plans, (3) the lifecycle of a geospatial effort, (4) a framework for the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) in a landscape-scale conservation or management program, and (5) the major geospatial considerations prior to data acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of future considerations and challenges.

  16. Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation and Ethical Considerations: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Petropanagos, Angel

    2017-03-28

    Testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology. At present, no such scoping review of ethical concerns exists in the TTCP literature. The forty-three full-text articles included in this study yielded twenty-two different ethical considerations discussed in relation to TTCP. It was observed that these ethical considerations fit within a mainstream Principlism approach to bioethics. Accordingly, there are ethical gaps in the TTCP literature that can be identified with alternative moral lenses. In particular, it was found that ethical concerns related to context and relational aspects of identity were absent in nearly all ethical examinations of TTCP. Furthermore, only 9 per cent of articles reviewed in this study focused primarily on the ethics of TTCP, thus demonstrating a need for further in depth ethical analyses of this technology. The results of this study are important for supporting the ethical provision of TTCP and can contribute to policy and guideline development. The findings of this study demonstrate the need for greater depth and diversity in analyses of ethical considerations related to this technology.

  17. Endodontic and Clinical Considerations in the Management of Variable Anatomy in Mandibular Premolars: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hammo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular premolars are known to have numerous anatomic variations of their roots and root canals, which are a challenge to treat endodontically. The paper reviews literature to detail the various clinically relevant anatomic considerations with detailed techniques and methods to successfully manage these anomalies. An emphasis and detailed description of every step of treatment including preoperative diagnosis, intraoperative identification and management, and surgical endodontic considerations for the successful management of these complex cases have been included. PMID:24895584

  18. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  19. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  20. Ethical Considerations in Tissue Engineering Research: Case Studies in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Hannah B.; McQuilling, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of “modest translational distance” and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  1. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    PubMed

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  3. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  4. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  5. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  6. Anesthetic considerations in surgery for gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, M K; Ahlgren, E W

    1979-10-01

    We have attempted to present a brief overview of current considerations in anesthesia for surgery of gastrointestinal disease as practiced at our institution. Many considerations remain unexplored owing to limitations of space. We have deliberately concentrated upon antecedent and concurrent therapy encountered in the treatment of the surgical patient. The potent drugs introduced in the past decade have produced infinite potential for drug interactions--some serious, some not so serious, and some which are desirable. We hope we have generated further reader interest in this mushrooming problem of modern medicine confronting the anesthesiologist and surgeon in the perioperative period.

  7. Considerations for Future Climate Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P. T.; Chapman, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, we will describe the lessons learned based on processing and generating a decade of gridded AIRS and MODIS IR sounding data. We describe the challenges faced in accessing and sharing very large data sets, maintaining data provenance under evolving technologies, obtaining access to legacy calibration data and the permanent preservation of Earth science data records for on demand services. These lessons suggest a new approach to data stewardship will be required for the next decade of hyper spectral instruments combined with cloud resolving models. It will not be sufficient for stewards of future data centers to just provide the public with access to archived data but our experience indicates that data needs to reside close to computers with ultra large disc farms and tens of thousands of processors to deliver complex services on demand over very high speed networks much like the offerings of search engines today. Over the first decade of the 21st century, petabyte data records were acquired from the AIRS instrument on Aqua and the MODIS instrument on Aqua and Terra. NOAA data centers also maintain petabytes of operational IR sounders collected over the past four decades. The UMBC Multicore Computational Center (MC2) developed a Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance gridding system (SOAR) to allow users to select IR sounding instruments from multiple archives and choose space-time- spectral periods of Level 1B data to download, grid, visualize and analyze on demand. Providing this service requires high data rate bandwidth access to the on line disks at Goddard. After 10 years, cost effective disk storage technology finally caught up with the MODIS data volume making it possible for Level 1B MODIS data to be available on line. However, 10Ge fiber optic networks to access large volumes of data are still not available from CSFC to serve the broader community. Data transfer rates are well below 10MB/s limiting their usefulness for climate studies. During

  8. Design Considerations for a UCAV Wing for Subsonic and Transonic Aeroelastic and Flight Mechanic Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    actuation device in the wing will increase the model complexity considerably and very probably stiffen the wing considerably. Figure 6: Desing ...7] http://www.denel.co.za/Aerospace/UAV.asp [8] http://www.aoe.vt.edu/ research /groups/ucav/ [9] Kudva, J.N.: Overview of the DARPA Smart Wing

  9. Networked Learning: Design Considerations for Online Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2016-01-01

    The considerable increase in web-based knowledge networks in the past two decades is strongly influencing learning environments. Learning entails information retrieval, use, communication, and production, and is strongly enriched by socially mediated discussions, debates, and collaborative activities. It is becoming critical for educators to…

  10. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Strategic...

  11. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  12. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  13. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Strategic...

  14. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  15. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  16. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Strategic...

  17. Yearling Bull Breeding Soundness Examination: Special Considerations.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Nora; Larson, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessment of yearling bulls is important for the bottom line of all interested parties: the buyer, the seller, and the veterinarian performing the BSE. Special considerations and current research are highlighted and their application to the evaluation of yearling bulls is discussed.

  18. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The DRB review will include, but is not limited to, consideration of the following factors: (a) The quality of the applicant's service. In determining the quality of the applicant's service, the DRB may... applicant's capability to serve, the DRB considers such factors as the applicant's age and education...

  19. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site...

  20. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site...

  1. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site...

  2. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site...

  3. 32 CFR 169a.15 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.15 Special considerations. (a) Signals Intelligence... containing data on the acceptable and/or unacceptable risk will be maintained within the requesting DoD... counter-intelligence scope polygraph examination. The following clause should be included in every...

  4. 32 CFR 169a.15 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.15 Special considerations. (a) Signals Intelligence... containing data on the acceptable and/or unacceptable risk will be maintained within the requesting DoD... counter-intelligence scope polygraph examination. The following clause should be included in every...

  5. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  6. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  7. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equitable considerations. 391.2 Section 391.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... from home on an extended vacation or hospitalized. (b) Where an installment plan is contemplated...

  8. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  9. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a) Consider and document environmental effects of proposed Air Force actions through AF Forms 813, EAs, FONSIs...

  10. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a) Consider and document environmental effects of proposed Air Force actions through AF Forms 813, EAs, FONSIs...

  11. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a) Consider and document environmental effects of proposed Air Force actions through AF Forms 813, EAs, FONSIs...

  12. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a) Consider and document environmental effects of proposed Air Force actions through AF Forms 813, EAs, FONSIs...

  13. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a) Consider and document environmental effects of proposed Air Force actions through AF Forms 813, EAs, FONSIs...

  14. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating factor...

  15. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating factor...

  16. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating factor...

  17. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other Pullman-car... solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of...

  18. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other Pullman-car... solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of...

  19. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other Pullman-car... solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of...

  20. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other Pullman-car... solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of...

  1. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other Pullman-car... solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of...

  2. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  3. 12 CFR 747.311 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 747.311 Section 747.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... cause to believe that there may be an erosion of public confidence in the integrity, safety,...

  4. Managing a culturally diverse staff. Legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Blouin, A S; Brent, N J

    1994-11-01

    Effective human resource management practices with an increasingly diverse work force must include consideration of relevant employment law. But leading organizations will venture beyond simply avoiding discriminatory practices. Managing staff differences that emerge from cultural diversity begins with awareness, moves toward sensitivity, evolves into understanding, and concludes with respect.

  5. Surviving the Downsizing: Ethical and Economic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Gerri

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the psychological and economic costs of downsizing, school administrators need planning and procedural guidelines. Administrators should have clear reduction-in-force policies, performance standards, employee development guidelines, and alternatives to layoffs. In the layoff mode, administrators should give careful consideration to those…

  6. Spectral considerations for modeling yield of canola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  7. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    PubMed

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  8. Adult Learners: Considerations for Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistler, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…

  9. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating factor...

  10. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating factor...

  11. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  12. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.204... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION...

  14. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  15. Some Ethical Considerations Regarding Scholarly Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Gordon; Mallory, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Discusses ethical considerations and possible censorship that can accompany technological advances in the transmission of information among scholars. Topics addressed include academic ethics and academic library ethics; peer review and scholarly communication; controversies and the selection of library materials; academic whistle blowers; and…

  16. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  17. Perioperative considerations in Walker–Warburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valk, Madelous JA; Loer, Stephan A; Schober, Patrick; Dettwiler, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Walker–Warburg syndrome is a rare congenital disorder. Several features, including muscular dystrophy, hydrocephalus, and oropharyngeal abnormalities, have important implications in the perioperative setting. We present a case of general anesthesia in an infant and discuss perioperative considerations to guide clinicians faced with the management of patients with this syndrome. PMID:26401279

  18. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  19. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  20. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... departures and an equivalent level of safety is provided. The OCMI of each marine inspection zone in which a vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN...

  1. Human factors considerations for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Even with traditional system design and development programs military systems are developed that end up being difficult for the target audience to use. Over the years the military has learned to incorporate human factors considerations and requirements in system requirements documents in order to minimize this problem. However in today's environment of procuring GOTS/COTS equipment to quickly field a needed capability, the human factors aspects are not always considered or they may have to be traded for other considerations. This occurs for a variety of reasons with the driving reason being the willingness of commanders and agencies to trade capabilities for speed of fielding. This paper addresses human factors considerations that should be observed in the design of unattended ground sensors (UGS) at the component, equipment and system levels. This is not an abstract paper on human factors engineering but an examination of current trends and applications. Lessons learned from recent fieldings and example designs from the Harris Falcon Watch system are provided. What Harris has found is that design considerations, development schedules, understanding of the target audience and the mission scenarios, and training are all key factors in determining whether a system will be found to have utility by a broad spectrum of users.

  2. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  3. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16 Other...

  4. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16 Other...

  5. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16 Other...

  6. A Careful Consideration of the Calibration Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    106, 371–379 (2001)] A Careful Consideration of the Calibration Concept Volume 106 Number 2 March–April 2001 S. D. Phillips, W. T. Estler, T. Doiron ...variation evaluated in the (Type A) reproducibility study. About the authors: Steve Phillips, Tyler Estler, and Ted Doiron are physicists in the Precision

  7. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  8. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations. (a) Agencies should consider whether to lease or purchase equipment based on a case-by-case evaluation of...) Estimated length of the period the equipment is to be used and the extent of use within that period. (2...

  9. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations. (a) Agencies should consider whether to lease or purchase equipment based on a case-by-case evaluation of...) Estimated length of the period the equipment is to be used and the extent of use within that period. (2...

  10. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  11. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2 Section 44.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... officer responsible for consent must, at a minimum, review the request and supporting data and consider...

  12. 48 CFR 207.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prepare and provide the contracting officer with the justification supporting the decision to lease or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 207.401 Section 207.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM...

  13. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law, contracting officers shall consider including, as a factor in source selection, the extent to which offerors...

  14. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    PubMed

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  15. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  16. Conversion Therapy: Ethical Considerations in Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…

  17. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  18. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  19. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  20. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  1. Fourteenth Amendment Considerations and Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Joyce

    The implementation of any competency testing program must take into consideration the due process clause and the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Examples of the violation of the due process clause would be to implement a testing program without adequate notice or to cover material not taught. Instructional validity must be…

  2. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions, fee...

  3. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions, fee...

  4. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions, fee...

  5. 7 CFR 1781.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADVANCES § 1781.11 Other considerations. (a) Technical assistance. When pipelines from reservoirs to... design or installation. When such pipelines are to be financed by WS or RCD loans, RUS will supervise the... including design of facilities, preparation of cost and income estimates, development of proposals for...

  6. Networked Learning: Design Considerations for Online Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2016-01-01

    The considerable increase in web-based knowledge networks in the past two decades is strongly influencing learning environments. Learning entails information retrieval, use, communication, and production, and is strongly enriched by socially mediated discussions, debates, and collaborative activities. It is becoming critical for educators to…

  7. Existential Considerations for Contemporary Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This article was written to remind career counselors of the potential depth and subjective impact of both unemployment and employment transitions. An existential framework is used in discussing today's world of work, previous and contemporary career counseling models, existential theory in career counseling, and existential considerations for…

  8. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  9. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other considerations. 226.7104 Section 226.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law...

  10. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  11. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  12. Our Television--Conceptions and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hase, Karl-Gunther

    1978-01-01

    In response to public criticism of television broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany, audience dependency, network research findings, and broadcasting's role in society are discussed. A policy of unbiased programing in consideration of party-political pressure is reaffirmed, and some orientation points for future television work are…

  13. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate State and Federal agencies. (b) Federal-aid funds shall not participate in the replacement of wetlands...

  14. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate State and Federal agencies. (b) Federal-aid funds shall not participate in the replacement of wetlands...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  16. Strategic eclecticism in hypnotherapy: effectiveness research considerations.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Jon K; Nuttgens, Simon A

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is attempting to come to grips with the EST (Empirically Supported Therapy) revolution in mental health practice. However, there are ways to account for outcome outside of simple empirical validation of treatment models. In this light, strategic eclecticism as a broader research-based consideration is used to illustrate empirical principles within Eriksonian hypnotherapeutic approaches.

  17. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC... for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a geologic repository operations area, and an...

  18. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC... for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a geologic repository operations area, and an...

  19. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC... for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a geologic repository operations area, and an...

  20. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC... for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a geologic repository operations area, and an...

  1. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the...

  2. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 3403.16 Other...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  4. Saturn V - Design Considerations and Launch Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Understand some of the design considerations that went into creating the Saturn V launch vehicle; b) Gain an appreciation for some of the manufacturing issues concerning the Saturn V; and c) Review three major problems that affected Saturn V launches.

  5. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  6. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The contracting officer responsible for consent must, at a minimum, review the request and supporting data and consider the following: (1) Is the decision to subcontract consistent with the contractor's approved...

  7. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate price competition obtained or its absence properly justified? (6) Did the contractor adequately... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The contracting officer responsible for consent must, at a minimum, review the request and supporting data and...

  8. 42 CFR 417.532 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General considerations. 417.532 Section 417.532 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE...

  9. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  10. Considerations for the Evaluation of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the decision process in the determination of software purchase for the professional's use of the microcomputer. Consideration to ensure that the software purchased will be a success, which software will be needed, and options that will facilitate the location and evaluation of software are discussed. (Author/CL)

  11. Testing the Receptive Skills: Some Basic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L.

    1984-01-01

    Reacts to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," concentrating on three areas: (1) the nature of the receptive skills and the requirements of a valid instrument to measure them, (2) the design features that are consistent with his test design principles, and (3) adaptive testing…

  12. Practical Considerations in Receptive Skills Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," focusing on the third section, "Suggestions for improvements in receptive language testing." Considers such areas as: (1) level descriptions for academic use, (2) item and item types, and (3) validation. (SED)

  13. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  14. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs.

  15. [Contemporaneous history: complex techniques of assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2007-05-01

    The work begins with historical considerations about the development of embryology at the beginning of the twentieth century and the vast advance obtained to the arriving of complex assisted reproductive techniques. Afterwards it is reviewed the development of variants and possibilities of the techniques. Finally, it is proposed four historic periods regarding the development of complex assisted reproductive technologies.

  16. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity.

  17. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  18. Softball Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  19. Plantar fasciitis: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Roxas, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition can have a dramatic impact on physical mobility. The etiology of this condition is not clearly understood and is probably multi-factorial in nature. Weight gain, occupation-related activity, anatomical variations, poor biomechanics, overexertion, and inadequate footwear are contributing factors. Although plantar fasciitis is generally regarded as a self-limited condition, it can take months to years to resolve, presenting a challenge for clinicians. Many treatment options are available that demonstrate variable levels of efficacy. Conservative therapies include rest and avoidance of potentially aggravating activities, stretching and strengthening exercises, orthotics, arch supports, and night splinting. Other considerations include use of anti-inflammatory agents, ultrasonic shockwave therapy, and, in the most extreme cases, surgery. This article reviews plantar fasciitis, presents the most effective treatment options currently available, and proposes nutritional considerations that may be beneficial in the management of this condition.

  20. Nontraditional Considerations With Insulin Needle Length Selection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremy; Swar, Sajidah

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring the correct delivery of insulin is essential in the treatment of diabetes. Both proper injection technique and needle length are important considerations for adequate insulin delivery. There have been several studies demonstrating that BMI does not affect efficacy or insulin leakage with shorter pen needles (e.g., 4 or 5 mm vs. 12.7 mm). Additionally, the International Scientific Advisory Board for the Third Injection Technique Workshop released recommendations in 2010 on best practices for injection technique for patients with diabetes, which, with regard to needle length, concluded that 4-mm pen needles were efficacious in all patients regardless of BMI. However, regardless of patients’ BMI, insulin injection technique should always be assessed and physically disabling comorbid conditions taken into consideration when choosing a needle length that will be manageable for patients. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of unique patient circumstances that may warrant the use of the longer 12.7-mm needle. PMID:26600728

  1. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  2. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment.

  3. Design considerations for a PVDF acoustic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Wang, Qingfeng; Jiao, Jingpin; He, Cunfu

    2006-11-01

    Much work has been published on the design of transducers using piezoelectric polymers, but a great of this work is theoretical modeling and derivations, and the proposed design methods can't be available easily. The purpose of the paper is review and applies several important considerations for the design of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic emission transducer: transducer construction, active element selection, backing material design, matching layer design, and preamplifier design. Besides reviewing these design considerations, this paper also present that a PVDF acoustic emission transducer has been fabricated. To achieve the transducer's characteristic parameter, the transducer has been calibrated using a precise impedance analyzer; by which the admittance conductance parameters of the acoustic transducer have been obtained. Pencil lead break tests also have been conducted on the transducer, and the test results certified that the transducer can detect acoustic emission events.

  4. Statistical considerations when analyzing biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Biomarkers have become, and will continue to become, increasingly important to clinical immunology research. Yet, biomarkers often present new problems and raise new statistical and study design issues to scientists working in clinical immunology. In this paper I discuss statistical considerations related to the important biomarker problems of: 1) The design and analysis of clinical studies which seek to determine whether changes from baseline in a biomarker are associated with changes in a metabolic outcome; 2) The conditions that are required for a biomarker to be considered a "surrogate"; 3) Considerations that arise when analyzing whether or not a predictive biomarker could act as a surrogate endpoint; 4) Biomarker timing relative to the clinical endpoint; 5) The problem of analyzing studies that measure many biomarkers from few subjects; and, 6) The use of statistical models when analyzing biomarker data arising from count data.

  5. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

  6. Ethical considerations in conducting pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Roth-Cline, Michelle; Gerson, Jason; Bright, Patricia; Lee, Catherine S; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    The critical need for pediatric research on drugs and biological products underscores the responsibility to ensure that children are enrolled in clinical research that is both scientifically necessary and ethically sound. In this chapter, we review key ethical considerations concerning the participation of children in clinical research. We propose a basic ethical framework to guide pediatric research, and suggest how this framework might be operationalized in linking science and ethics. Topics examined include: the status of children as a vulnerable population; the appropriate balance of risk and potential benefit in research; ethical considerations underlying study design, including clinical equipoise, placebo controls, and non-inferiority designs; the use of data monitoring committees; compensation; and parental permission and child assent to participate in research. We incorporate selected national (USA) and international guidelines, as well as regulatory approaches to pediatric studies that have been adopted in the USA, Canada, and Europe.

  7. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  8. Considerations on automation of coating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; O'Donnell, Michael S.

    2015-04-01

    Most deposition chambers sold into the optical coating market today are outfitted with an automated control system. We surveyed several of the larger equipment providers, and nine of them responded with information about their hardware architecture, data logging, level of automation, error handling, user interface, and interfacing options. In this paper, we present a summary of the results of the survey and describe commonalities and differences together with some considerations of tradeoffs, such as between capability for high customization and simplicity of operation.

  9. Prosthodontic Considerations in Post-cancer Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Boonsiriphant, Piriya; Hirsch, Joel A; Greenberg, Alex M; Genden, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    The restoration of function after oncologic surgery of the oral cavity constitutes one of the major challenges facing head and neck oncology. Within the general objective of securing esthetic as well as functional reconstructions, dental rehabilitation is crucial for achieving a good outcome. Adequate dental rehabilitation allows the patient to chew food and considerably improves speech and swallowing. These reconstructions will be driven biologically or prosthetically following surgical design and outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Power Considerations in Metamaterial Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-08

    NIM design with SRRs. • At ZIM band (n=0), MFEF reduces from 11.5 to 7.0. Maximum Field Enhancement Factor Zero- or Low-Index Metamaterial for High...power RF Applications Quadbeam Lens with ZIM /LIM Metamaterial The impedance and pattern bandwidths of the feed dipole were increased by...High-Power Considerations in Metamaterial Antennas July 8, 2014 Jeremy A. Bossard, Clinton P. Scarborough*, Qi Wu, Douglas H. Werner, and Ping

  11. Design considerations for on-orbit servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the general design of space vehicles serviced in orbit is presented. The basic space vehicle systems, subsystems, modules components, and associated appendages comprise the elements to be considered. Primary emphasis is given to the multi-disciplinary considerations in the development of requirements, and in particular, design of the space vehicle to facilitate orbital sevice by the extra-vehicular crew person(s).

  12. Nutritional considerations in small animal dermatology.

    PubMed

    Miller, W H

    1989-05-01

    Aside from food hypersensitivities, nutritional skin diseases in pets fed commercial foods appear to be very uncommon. Nutritional deficiencies all cause seborrheic skin signs and most of the clinical presentations are not pathognomonic for a specific nutrient deficiency. Careful consideration of the history and the results of skin biopsies usually suggest which nutrient is deficient. Because nutritional supplements can unbalance an animal's diet, they should not be used indiscriminately but only when indicated. Balanced nutrition should minimize the need for supplements.

  13. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  14. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  15. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  16. Statistical considerations on prognostic models for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Annette M.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.

    2016-01-01

    Given the lack of beneficial treatments in glioma, there is a need for prognostic models for therapeutic decision making and life planning. Recently several studies defining subtypes of glioma have been published. Here, we review the statistical considerations of how to build and validate prognostic models, explain the models presented in the current glioma literature, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each model. The 3 statistical considerations to establishing clinically useful prognostic models are: study design, model building, and validation. Careful study design helps to ensure that the model is unbiased and generalizable to the population of interest. During model building, a discovery cohort of patients can be used to choose variables, construct models, and estimate prediction performance via internal validation. Via external validation, an independent dataset can assess how well the model performs. It is imperative that published models properly detail the study design and methods for both model building and validation. This provides readers the information necessary to assess the bias in a study, compare other published models, and determine the model's clinical usefulness. As editors, reviewers, and readers of the relevant literature, we should be cognizant of the needed statistical considerations and insist on their use. PMID:26657835

  17. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28184202

  19. Considerations for SOF in Domestic Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    often those 52 William P. Hamblet and Jerry G. Kline, “Interagency Cooperation: PDD 56...Monterey, Calif: Naval Postgraduate School, 2006. Hamblet , William P., and Jerry G. Kline. Interagency Cooperation: PDD 56 and Complex Contingency

  20. Design considerations for developing biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    2011-04-01

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. Candidate biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and microstructure, and effects as a cellular behavior can be a difficult and time-intensive process. A systems design approach has the power to provide significant contributions in the development of the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations, and hurdles for developing new cast magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials.

  1. [Special considerations in dental surgery procedures on organ transplantation patients].

    PubMed

    Schmelzeisen, R; Eckardt, A; Knoll, M; Girod, S

    1991-01-01

    In 150 patients 366 (95%) of 385 dental surgery procedures performed prior to organ transplantations were free of complications. In 6 patients circumscribed wound infections occurred, and 5 post-operative hemorrhages as well as 2 injection hematomas were observed. In the group of patients where dental surgery was performed after organ transplantation, all 123 procedures were free of complications. Treatment of transplantation patients in the dental office requires a profound understanding of the complex clinical problems these patients might present, a good coordination of the required measures and close cooperation between the transplantation center and the attending dentist. Special considerations of the treatment of organ transplantation patients and the indications for dental surgery are discussed.

  2. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G. S.; Liu, Y. K.; Gao, X.; Yang, Y. Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.

    2016-11-15

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  3. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Liu, Y. K.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.; Gao, X.

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  4. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Iwry, Jonathan; Yaden, David B.; Newberg, Andrew B.

    2017-01-01

    As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive “enhancement.” We suggest that efforts to encourage careful consideration through the informed consent process would contribute usefully to studies and treatments that use NIBS. PMID:28638327

  5. Clinical Research Ethics: Considerations for the Radiation Oncologist.

    PubMed

    Koyfman, Shlomo A; Yom, Sue S

    2017-10-01

    Consideration of clinical research ethics in radiation oncology is underexplored relative to other areas of oncology. A number of ethical challenges related to informed consent, randomization, conflicts of interest, and scientific validity and social value are shared with other areas of medicine, although their exact inflections are specific to radiation oncology. In addition, there are unique concerns in radiation oncology arising from the rapid evolution and uneven distribution of radiation technologies; the greater unfamiliarity of the general public and research oversight committees in regard to radiation oncology clinical practice; and the high complexity of managing most radiation oncology research, much of which is carried out in high-acuity multidisciplinary oncologic settings. To produce the best research, adherence to the highest ethical standards should be pursued as an integral component of all radiation oncology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  7. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, G S; Yang, Y; Wang, Y M; Ming, T F; Han, X; Liu, S C; Wang, E H; Liu, Y K; Yang, W J; Li, G Q; Hu, Q S; Gao, X

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  8. Cochlear implant considerations in children with additional disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, C. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Early identification and management of disabilities in children are essential to reduce long-term developmental sequelae. Many of the causes of hearing loss also produce cognitive delays resulting in a large number of children with both deafness and developmental disabilities. Children who have hearing loss and additional disabilities require complex, individualized therapy to maximize their long-term quality of life. Hearing loss is often detected early because of widespread newborn hearing screening programs and the decision for cochlear implantation in children presenting with multiple medical and developmental disorders is still evolving. This article will review the literature regarding cochlear implant considerations in children with additional developmental disabilities in areas of family perception, speech and language development, cognitive development including adaptive behavior and intelligence, communication and functional skills, auditory outcomes, quality of life outcomes, predictors of outcomes and realistic expectations after cochlear implantation. PMID:23772353

  9. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Iwry, Jonathan; Yaden, David B; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive "enhancement." We suggest that efforts to encourage careful consideration through the informed consent process would contribute usefully to studies and treatments that use NIBS.

  10. Clinical hypnosis for labour and birth: a consideration.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Labour pain is one of the most important factors in shaping women's experiences of birth. Choice around pharmacological relief can be complex. Clinical hypnosis is a non-pharmacological option which a number of women have chosen to use, often paying privately to do so. Self hypnosis allows women the opportunity to take control of this technique. Research findings relating to the therapy vary; some trials have found positive effects by way of a reduction in use of pharmacological pain relief, oxytocin use and shortened first stage of labour. Inclusion of the therapy as a means to invoke relaxation and counter the effects of stress and anxiety alone may be valid reasons for consideration of its use. This article outlines the framework used in clinical hypnosis and discusses some of the issues relating to the evidence base for it.

  11. Statistical considerations for confirmatory clinical trials for similar biotherapeutic products.

    PubMed

    Njue, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    For the purpose of comparing the efficacy and safety of a Similar Biotherapeutic Product (SBP) to a Reference Biotherapeutic Product (RBP), the "Guidelines on Evaluation of Similar Biotherapeutic Products (SBPs)" issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO), states that equivalence or non-inferiority studies may be acceptable. While in principle, equivalence trials are preferred, non-inferiority trials may be considered if appropriately justified, such as for a medicinal product with a wide safety margin. However, the statistical issues involved in the design, conduct, analysis and interpretation of equivalence and non-inferiority trials are complex and subtle, and require that all aspects of these trials be given careful consideration. These issues are important in order to ensure that equivalence and non-inferiority trials provide valid data that are necessary to draw reliable conclusions regarding the clinical similarity of an SBP to an RBP. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Next Generation Science Standards: Considerations for Curricula, Assessments, Preparation, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief provides an overview of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), discusses policy considerations for adopting or adapting the new standards, and presents examples from states considering or implementing the NGSS. Changing academic standards is a complex process that requires significant investments of time, money, and human…

  13. Numerical considerations for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models: Eliminating rogue trajectories, and the importance of numerical accuracy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...

  14. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  15. Technology Considerations for Inclusion of Survivability in MDAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.

    2017-01-01

    Rising traffic density, along with autonomy and diversity of vehicles in the air, will fundamentally change the safety environment of the future air transportation system. The change in risk is two-fold: increasing chances of mid-air collisions with non-cooperative objects and increasing chances of crashes over highly populated areas. The changing nature of the vehicles populating the airspace means that civilian aircraft design must now explicitly include considerations of survivability in the event of collision with other vehicles, as well as prevention of damage to people, animals and property on the ground, to a much greater extent than today. This paper offers a preliminary perspective on how MDAO could contribute toward these goals. One of the conclusions is that, in contrast to traditional vehicle design, to accommodate the complexity of the future airspace safely and efficiently, vehicle design requirements, modeling, and design optimization must be closely connected to the properties of the airspace, including those of other vehicles in the air. Thus, the total measure of a vehicle's survivability should include the traditional survivability in malfunction scenarios, combined with new considerations of survivability in collisions and survivability of the public on the ground.

  16. Considerations for Reporting Finite Element Analysis Studies in Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent M.; Halloran, Jason; Tadepalli, Srinivas C.; Morrison, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based medicine and the development of complex computer models of biological structures is becoming ubiquitous for advancing biomedical engineering and clinical research. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been widely used in the last few decades to understand and predict biomechanical phenomena. Modeling and simulation approaches in biomechanics are highly interdisciplinary, involving novice and skilled developers in all areas of biomedical engineering and biology. While recent advances in model development and simulation platforms offer a wide range of tools to investigators, the decision making process during modeling and simulation has become more opaque. Hence, reliability of such models used for medical decision making and for driving multiscale analysis comes into question. Establishing guidelines for model development and dissemination is a daunting task, particularly with the complex and convoluted models used in FEA. Nonetheless, if better reporting can be established, researchers will have a better understanding of a model’s value and the potential for reusability through sharing will be bolstered. Thus, the goal of this document is to identify resources and considerate reporting parameters for FEA studies in biomechanics. These entail various levels of reporting parameters for model identification, model structure, simulation structure, verification, validation, and availability. While we recognize that it may not be possible to provide and detail all of the reporting considerations presented, it is possible to establish a level of confidence with selective use of these parameters. More detailed reporting, however, can establish an explicit outline of the decision-making process in simulation-based analysis for enhanced reproducibility, reusability, and sharing. PMID:22236526

  17. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  18. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  19. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  20. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  1. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  2. Considerations for the Next Revision of STRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of NASAs Software Defined Radio architecture, the Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS), was initiated in 2004 with a goal of reducing the cost, risk and schedule when implementing Software Defined Radios (SDR) for NASA space missions. Since STRS was first flown in 2012 on three Software Defined Radios on the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, only minor changes have been made to the architecture. Multiple entities have since implemented the architecture and have provided significant feedback for consideration for the next revision of the standard. The focus for the first set of updates to the architecture is items that enhance application portability. Items that require modifications to existing applications before migrating to the updated architecture will only be considered if there is compelling reasons to make the change. The significant suggestions that were further evaluated for consideration include expanding and clarifying the timing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), improving handle name and identification (ID) definitions and use, and multiple items related to implementation of STRS Devices. In addition to ideas suggested while implementing STRS, SDR technology has evolved significantly and this impact to the architecture needs to be considered. These include incorporating cognitive concepts - learning from past decisions and making new decisions that the radio can act upon. SDRs are also being developed that do not contain a General Purpose Module which is currently required for the platform to be STRS compliant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the comments received, provide a summary of the evaluation considerations, and examine planned dispositions

  3. The future of complexity engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

  4. Considerations for proper selection of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Simon, James F; Darnell, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper cement for sufficient bond strength has become progressively complicated as the number of different materials for indirect restorations has increased. The success of any restoration is highly dependent on the proper cement being chosen and used. The function of the cement is not only to seal the restoration on the tooth but also, in some cases, to support the retention of the restoration. This ability to strengthen retention varies by the cement chosen by the clinician; therefore, careful consideration must precede cement selection.

  5. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process.

  6. Breast Molecular Profiling and Radiotherapy Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Omar; Haffty, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen major changes in the management of breast cancer. Heterogeneity regarding histology, therapeutic response, dissemination patterns, and patient outcome is evident. Molecular profiling provides an accurate tool to predict treatment outcome compared with classical clinicopathologic features. The genomic profiling unveiled the heterogeneity of breast cancer and identified distinct biologic subtypes. These advanced techniques were integrated into the clinical management; predicting systemic therapy benefit and overall survival. Utilizing genotyping to guide locoregional management decisions needs further characterization. In this chapter we will review available data on molecular classification of breast cancer, their association with locoregional outcome, their radiobiological properties and radiotherapy considerations.

  7. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  8. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  9. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  10. Dental considerations in hereditary epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S Mahesh; Mohan, Muralee; Baptist, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is an inherited mucocutaneous disorder characterized by blister formation due to a defect in collagen metabolism. Each of the three major subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa has distinct clinical and oral manifestations. A case report of the most classic form of epidermolysis bullosa, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, is presented here, along with a review of the literature on the clinical features and management of the condition. An attempt has been made to highlight the anesthetic and oral surgical considerations when treating a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

  11. Conventional fire protection considerations in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    1985-01-01

    In Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) the presence of liquid alkali metals such as sodium or NaK precludes the utilization of conventional fire fighting agents in areas containing liquid metals. Also because of fundamental differences between an LMFBR plant layout and that of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant, special LMFBR fire protection guidelines were established. This report describes the design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) fire protection system. The report concludes with a description of the CRBRP fire protection design features major differences from LWRs.

  12. Team building: conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Mark R; McEwan, Desmond; Waldhauser, Katrina J

    2017-08-01

    Team building has been identified as an important method of improving the psychological climate in which teams operate, as well as overall team functioning. Within the context of sports, team building interventions have consistently been found to result in improvements in team effectiveness. In this paper we review the extant literature on team building in sport, and address a range of conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations that have the potential to advance theory, research, and applied intervention initiatives within the field. This involves expanding the scope of team building strategies that have, to date, primarily focused on developing group cohesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

  14. Considerations When Using Videos in Lamaze Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner’s attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators. PMID:23730131

  15. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  16. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  19. Bioreactor design considerations for hollow organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jeff; Halberstadt, Craig; McCoy, Darell W; Robbins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    There are many important considerations in the design, construction, and use of a bioreactor for growing hollow organs such as vessels, gastrointestinal tissue, esophagus, and others. The growth of new organs requires a specialized container that provides sterility and an environment conducive to cell-seeding and attachment onto a three-dimensional bioabsorbable porous scaffold, incubation, maturation, and shipping for implantation. The materials' selection, dimensions, manufacturing, testing, and use of the bioreactor are all factors that should be considered in designing a bioreactor for the development of hollow organs.

  20. Hematology analyzers: special considerations for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward C C

    2015-03-01

    Development of hematology analyzers has been predicated on the use of adult blood specimens without consideration for the unique morphologic and cellular content seen in pediatric patient populations. Because both dramatic qualitative and quantitative cellular changes occur in red and white blood cells and platelets from birth to early adulthood, development of pediatric reference intervals is necessary. Because testing is often performed on a small volume of blood, laboratories are required to develop unique approaches in specimen handling and analysis. Many newer instruments offer alternative cellular analysis allowing for unique insights into the hematopoietic response in disease and nondisease states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Considerations in producibility engineering of MMIC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arvind K.

    1990-09-01

    The topics covered are monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip design methodologies, chip design tools, module design methodologies, and module development tools. Various aspects of producibility engineering at both the chip and the module level are addressed in terms of developing prudent design methodologies and design tools to enhance the accuracy of simulation tools at the circuit and module levels. Producibility engineering considerations are presented for MMIC chips and modules. In each category, relevant approaches and some of the innovative design tools are highlighted.

  2. Epidemiology of the leishmaniases: general considerations

    PubMed Central

    Moškovskij, Š. D.; Duhanina, N. N.

    1971-01-01

    Recent information from various countries shows that the distribution of the leishmaniases is rapidly changing, as are our concepts of the diverse noso-geographical forms of infection. Concerted efforts should be made to improve our knowledge in these fields to enable the preparation of charts forecasting the spread of the disease. The basic considerations, objectives, and methods of epidemiological investigations carried out in the USSR in natural foci, as well as the classifications used for typing foci, are discussed. The need to use clear-cut epidemiological concepts is particularly stressed. PMID:5316254

  3. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media.

  4. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  5. Science policy considerations for responsible nanotechnology decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeff; Willis, Jim; de Martinis, Domenico; Hansen, Bjorn; Laursen, Henrik; Sintes, Juan Riego; Kearns, Peter; Gonzalez, Mar

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing literature on the use of science to inform decisions on the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but little has been published by those who make such decisions. Here, as officials of the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, we discuss the types of decision facing government regulators, the new considerations nanotechnology brings to decision-making, the role of science in informing decisions, how regulators cooperate internationally on policy issues, and the challenges that lie ahead.

  6. Wing design with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Shrout, B. L.; Darden, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A CAD process that includes leading-edge thrust considerations for wings with high aerodynamic efficiencies is outlined. Rectangular grids are used for evaluation of both subsonic and supersonic pressure loadings. Account is taken of the Mach number, Re, the wing planform, the presence of camber, the airfoil geometry and the locations and forces induced by shed vortices. Optimization techniques are applied to the candidate surfaces in order to consider the attainable thrust. Inclusion of the optimization techniques permits analyses of mission-adaptive wings and various flap systems and the elimination of singularities in the flight envelope.

  7. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  8. Aesthetic considerations in algorithmic and generative composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Kerry L.

    Models of chance operations, random equations, stochastic processes, and chaos systems have inspired composers as historical as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. As these models advance and new processes are discovered or defined, composers continue to find new inspirations for musical composition. Yet, the relative artistic merits of some of these works are limited. This paper explores the application of extra-musical processes to the sonic arts and proposes aesthetic considerations from the point of view of the artist. Musical examples demonstrate possibilities for working successfully with algorithmic and generative processes in sound, from formal decisions to synthesis.

  9. Safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty.

    PubMed

    Giese, S Y

    2001-11-01

    Proper patient selection, diligent fluid management, and attention to body temperature are important safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty (LVL). Complications related to fluid overload, lidocaine toxicity, coagulopathies, and lengthy combined surgical procedures are preventable and not directly linked to LVL technique. Benefits as well as morbidity and mortality from LVL can be weighed against risk factors such as obesity, a prediabetic condition, and/or adverse effects of weight-loss medications. The author describes how she incorporates safeguards into her LVL procedures. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:545-548.).

  10. Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnally, Nelson R.; Shields, F. Douglas; Hynson, James

    1987-03-01

    Levees and floodwalls are used extensively throughout the United States for flood control. Levee projects often lack ecological, recreational, and aesthetic values, except for incidental fish and wildlife benefits derived from borrow pits and recreational facilities found in some urban settings. In recent years increased environmental concern within construction agencies and greater responsiveness to public opinion have resulted in increasing numbers of levee projects designed, built, and maintained with environmental objectives in mind. This paper reviews environmental concepts successfully employed on levee projects constructed in recent years by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Some of the most innovative concepts are described and illustrated and design considerations are discussed.

  11. Odour sampling 1: Physical chemistry considerations.

    PubMed

    Hudson, N; Ayoko, G A

    2008-07-01

    The selection of an odour sampling device may influence the composition of the resulting odour sample. Limited comparison of emission rates derived from turbulent and essentially quiescent sampling devices confirms that the emission rates derived from these devices are quite different. There is therefore compelling evidence that current odour sampling practice should have greater regard for fundamental physical and chemical principles, the nature of the odour source and the conditions created by the sampling device. Such consideration may identify the most appropriate situations under which the use of these devices may or may not be correct.

  12. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the ‘Facebook effect’ (the relative permanence of postings) and the ‘online disinhibition effect’. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media. PMID:23633902

  13. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  14. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  15. Coherence, Complexity and Creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, Fortunato Tito

    We review the ideas and experiments that established the onset of laser coherence beyond a suitable threshold. That threshold is the first of a chain of bifurcations in a non linear dynamics, leading eventually to deterministic chaos in lasers. In particular, the so called HC behavior has striking analogies with the electrical activity of neurons. Based on these considerations, we develop a dynamical model of neuron synchronization leading to coherent global perceptions. Synchronization implies a transitory control of neuron chaos. Depending on the time duration of this control, a cognitive agent has different amounts of awareness. Combining this with a stream of external inputs, one can point at an optimal use of internal resources, that is called cognitive creativity. While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. What is the relation among the three concepts in the title? While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. Creativity corresponds to a free selection of a coherence path within a complex nest. As sketched above, it seems dynamically related to chaos control.

  16. Special Issue on Ruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Demonceau, Albert

    2017-02-08

    The organic chemistry of ruthenium has been one of the most vigorously growing research areas over the past decades. Considerable effort has been extended towards the design and application of a broad series of ruthenium complexes, which culminated with the development by Ryoji Noyori (2001 Nobel Prize for Chemistry) of chiral ruthenium catalysts for stereoselective hydrogenation reactions [1], and the discovery by Robert H. Grubbs (2005 Nobel Prize for Chemistry) of well-defined ruthenium- benzylidene catalysts for olefin metathesis [2] [...].

  17. 12 CFR 907.13 - Consideration and Final Decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consideration and Final Decisions. 907.13... § 907.13 Consideration and Final Decisions. (a) Consideration by Board of Directors. The Board of... considering the Petition. Consideration of a Petition at a meeting shall be governed by the...

  18. Principles and Biomechanical Considerations of Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Walton, Laura; Villani, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    Whether performed as a primary procedure or used to augment and support osseous reconstruction, tendon transfers are a key skill for the foot and ankle surgeon. Understanding the biomechanics preoperative and postoperatively is essential in performing appropriate procedures and in supporting patients through the rehabilitation process. Often the complexity of tendon transfer surgery is lost because it is deemed a soft tissue procedure and in theory should be less complex than osseous procedures. However, the dynamic nature of musculature and tendons require a deeper understanding of surgical and biomechanical concepts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Considerations on non equilibrium thermodynamics of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Nature can be considered the "first" engineer! For scientists and engineers, dynamics and evolution of complex systems are not easy to predict. A fundamental approach to study complex system is thermodynamics. But, the result is the origin of too many schools of thermodynamics with a consequent difficulty in communication between thermodynamicists and other scientists and, also, among themselves. The solution is to obtain a unified approach based on the fundamentals of physics. Here we suggest a possible unification of the schools of thermodynamics starting from two fundamental concepts of physics, interaction and flows.

  20. Deadly force: some human and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Wilber, C G

    1982-06-01

    The legal aspects surrounding the use of deadly force in the United States are changing in a significant way. Police may use deadly force only to protect themselves or other innocent persons from serious bodily injury or death. Appropriate force may be used to arrest a malefactor or a fugitive from jail or prison. The documented, excessive percentage of deaths to blacks and hispanics from "police intervention" is a festering sore in American society. Numerous groups are aroused by the situation and will force some sort of controls nationwide on the use of deadly force by police. The changing climate surrounding civilian use of deadly force is dramatic and worrisome. At present, retreat carried to the extreme is the prudent legal course for the civilian victim of attack to take. Deadly force may be prudently used only when faced with immediate, fatal attack. Ethical considerations do not, in this instance, mesh with the law as it seems to be diverging from the traditional common law concepts of self-defense and sanctuary in the home. The defence of dependents is an ethical imperative that may run counter to man-made laws. Ethical considerations must be given precedence especially since the history of the United States Supreme Court decisions clearly demonstrate that law and morality are not necessarily related.

  1. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  2. Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

  3. Design considerations for a space database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Lance M.

    1989-01-01

    Part of the information used in a real-time simulator is stored in the visual database. This information is processed by an image generator and displayed as a real-time visual image. The database must be constructed in a specific format, and it should efficiently utilize the capacities of the image generator that is was created for. A visual simulation is crucially dependent upon the success with which the database provides visual cues and recognizable scenes. For this reason, more and more attention is being paid to the art and science of creating effective real-time visual databases. Investigated here are the database design considerations required for a space-oriented real-time simulator. Space applications often require unique designs that correspond closely to the particular image-generator hardware and visual-database-management software. Specific examples from the databases constructed for NASA and its Evans and Sutherland CT6 image generator illustrate the various design strategies used in a space-simulation environment. These database design considerations are essential for all who would create a space database.

  4. Physics Considerations for Double-Shell Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, W.; Montgomery, D. S.; Wilson, D.; Simakov, A.; Dodd, E.; Merritt, L.; Cardenas, T.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shell capsules offer an alternative approach for achieving burn on the National Ignition Facility. These capsules consist of a low-Z ablatively driven outer shell that converges a factor of 3 before colliding with a high-Z inner shell filled with liquid DT. Such targets permit short simple laser pulses using near vacuum hohlraum conditions, which have been shown to eliminate laser plasma instabilities, resulting in good coupling efficiency. The adiabat of the fuel is set predominantly by a single strong shock, followed by the nearly adiabatic compression of the fuel volume by a convergence ratio of 9 . In this talk, we present some key physics consideration for double-shell targets, including design constraints for optimizing the kinetic energy transfer to the inner shell. These basics considerations are confirmed by a series of 1D simulations, resulting in several optimized point designs. Two-dimensional simulations are employed to evaluate the influence of low-mode asymmetries, as well as the stability of both the outer and inner shells as the implosion proceeds.

  5. Considerations for personal health record procurement.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses require tools and resources to facilitate self-management. Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a promising option for delivering these tools and resources to patients with chronic illnesses. As such, many organizations are becoming interested in PHR procurement. However, traditional procurement methods may not ensure the system success and adoption. In this study a group of subject matter experts discussed the possibility of converting a paper-based PHR into an electronic tool. These discussions resulted in generation of several important criteria for assessing commercially available PHR solutions and other considerations related to PHR procurement. These considerations should be contemplated and discussed with stakeholders prior to PHR procurement. In order to realize the benefits PHRs, it is imperative that the appropriate selection is made. Prior to purchase commitment, a trial period can prove extremely useful for performing usability analyses and ensuring interoperability. Supplementing traditional procurement methods with these preliminary user evaluations will increase the likelihood that the selected system best matches the needs of users and purchasers. Moreover, the risk of system failure and the risk of limited adoption of the PHR by the public will be reduced as a result of adopting these methods.

  6. Considerations for blending data from various sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Brian P.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    A project is being proposed at the EROS Data Center to blend the information from sensors aboard various satellites. The problems of, and considerations for, blending data from several satellite-borne sensors are discussed. System descriptions of the sensors aboard the HCMM, TIROS-N, GOES-D, Landsat 3, Landsat D, Seasat, SPOT, Stereosat, and NOSS satellites, and the quantity, quality, image dimensions, and availability of these data are summaries to define attributes of a multi-sensor satellite data base. Unique configurations of equipment, storage, media, and specialized hardware to meet the data system requirement are described as well as archival media and improved sensors that will be on-line within the next 5 years. Definitions and rigor required for blending various sensor data are given. Problems of merging data from the same sensor (intrasensor comparison) and from different sensors (intersensor comparison), the characteristics and advantages of cross-calibration of data, and integration of data into a product matrix field are addressed. Data processing considerations as affected by formation, resolution, and problems of merging large data sets, and organization of data bases for blending data are presented. Examples utilizing GOES and Landsat data are presented to demonstrate techniques of data blending, and recommendations for future implementation of a set of standard scenes and their characteristics necessary for optimal data blending are discussed.

  7. Sentinel node biopsy: ALARA and other considerations.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, I; Finlayson, C

    2004-02-01

    For a majority of solid tumors, the most powerful and predictive prognostic factor is the status of the regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node sampling continues to gain in popularity as patients and their physicians seek to avoid the potential morbidity associated with standard axillary node dissection. Lymphoscintigraphy, one of the recently explored techniques of lymphatic mapping, involves pre-operative intradermal or subcutaneous administration of a radiopharmaceutical. While this approach is gaining widely spread acceptance, there is still a lack of consensus on which radiopharmaceutical agent has the most ideal properties. By far, the most commonly used agents are 99mTc labeled colloids, but other agents are also used clinically and are under investigation or development worldwide. A number of other clinical, technical, dosimetric, and logistical considerations regarding this procedure remain. They include questions such as who should be performing the procedure, what precautions to take during surgery, how to better isolate "hot" nodes and thus improve the efficacy of determining metastases to the draining lymph node, what precautions to take when handling surgical specimens, etc. There is clearly a need to review as low as reasonably achievable considerations and other issues that arise as this technique evolves and finds its role in the evaluation of various types of cancers. This paper, based on our own experiences and those of others, fills this gap.

  8. Neuroinflammation and Microglia: Considerations and approaches for neurotoxicity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Harry, G. Jean; Kraft, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The impact of an inflammatory response, as well as interactions between the immune and nervous systems, are rapidly assuming major roles in neurodegenerative disease and injury. However, it is now appreciated that the exact nature of such responses can differ with each type of insult and interaction. More recently, neuroinflammation and the associated cellular response of microglia are being considered for their contribution to neurotoxicity of environmental agents; yet, to date, the inclusion of inflammatory endpoints into neurotoxicity assessment have relied primarily on relatively limited measures or driven by in vitro models of neurotoxicity. Objective To present background information on relevant biological considerations of neuroinflammation and the microglia response demonstrating the complex integrative nature of these biological processes and raising concern with regards to translation of effects demonstrated in vitro to the in vivo situation. Specific points are addressed that would influence the design and interpretation of neuroinflammation with regards to neurotoxicology assessment. Conclusion There is a complex and dynamic response in the brain to regulate inflammatory processes and maintain a normal homeostatic level. The classification of such responses as beneficial or detrimental is an oversimplification. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes where subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. The tendency to over-interpret data obtained in an isolated culture system should be discouraged. Rather, the use of cross-disciplinary approaches to evaluate multiple endpoints should be incorporated into the assessment of inflammatory contributions to the neurotoxicity of environmental exposures. PMID:18798697

  9. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  10. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  11. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  12. Considerations in Change Management Related to Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, John S.; Hilty, Donald M.; Worley, Linda L.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances.…

  13. Price and Value: Considerations for College Shoppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broh, C. Anthony; Ansel, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Parents and students recognize the value of a college degree. Increasingly, they are borrowing large sums of money to invest in the future. Their choices about how to save for college, where to attend college, how much and from where to borrow for college, and how to repay their loans, have grown more complex. Yet families work with incomplete…

  14. Homosexuality: some diagnostic perspectives and dynamic considerations.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, F M

    1975-04-01

    Homosexuality as a diagnostic category has been of limited value since the sexual functioning, ego development, and object relations of patients are not always correlated. Considering homosexuality as a complex configuration resulting from the interplay of unconscious drives with defensive processes and adaptive implications offers a comprehensive dynamic approach. Illustrative case material is presented.

  15. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  16. Planning Considerations for Mars Sample Return Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret S.; Allton, Judith H.; Allen, Carlton C.; Richmond, Jonathan Y.

    1999-01-01

    With a Mars sample return mission planned for launch as early as 2005, serious discussions have begun to identify practical, effective approaches for containing extraterrestrial rocks, soil, and atmospheric samples for return to Earth. In addition to satisfying planetary protection and biological safety requirements, containment designs must also meet planetary science and spaceflight engineering needs. To be effective, an integrated containment system must consider both outbound and inbound spaceflights, mobile and stationary containment, and operations on Earth. Important planning considerations include pre-launch preparations, the configuration and sealing of the sample return canister, Earth-return and recovery procedures, contingency planning, laboratory design, biosafety cabinets, sterilization methods, and alternative operational and facilities approaches. Solving the challenges of containment for extraterrestrial samples will be critical to mission success, not only for samples from Mars, but ultimately for sample returns from other bodies of biological interest within the solar system as well.

  17. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  18. Technical and business considerations of cobalt hydrometallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Edgar; Åkre, Torjus; Asselin, Edouard

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 55,000 tonnes of cobalt are produced annually worldwide, which represents an estimated 1-3 billion in annual sales depending on cobalt price changes. Cobalt is a common impurity in both non-ferrous mineral sulfide and oxide processing. In this paper some business and technical considerations are presented to facilitate the decision-making process required to produce either an intermediate or a finished cobalt product via a hydrometallurgical route. Methods currently available and practiced for the recovery of cobalt are considered, and process requirements up- and down-stream associated with each chosen method are discussed. In particular, some environmental, energy, or other sustainable development implications of each process are mentioned. An outlook on the future of the cobalt industry and anticipated future trends is included.

  19. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  20. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.