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Sample records for dota-tetraamide complexes considerations

  1. A Bridge to Coordination Isomer Selection in Lanthanide(III) DOTA-tetraamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vipond, Jeff; Woods, Mark; Zhao, Piyu; Tircso, Gyula; Ren, Jimin; Bott, Simon G.; Ogrin, Doug; Kiefer, Garry E.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A.Dean

    2008-01-01

    Interest in macrocyclic lanthanide complexes such as DOTA is driven largely through interest in their use as contrast agents for MRI. The lanthanide tetraamide derivatives of DOTA have shown considerable promise as PARACEST agents, taking advantage of the slow water exchange kinetics of this class of complex. We postulated that water exchange in these tetraamide complexes could be slowed even further by introducing a group to sterically encumber the space above the water coordination site, thereby hindering the departure and approach of water molecules to the complex. The ligand 8O2-bridged-DOTAM was synthesized in a 34% yield from cyclen. It was found that the lanthanide complexes of this ligand did not possess a water molecule in the inner coordination sphere of the bound lanthanide. The crystal structure of the ytterbium complex revealed that distortions to the coordination sphere were induced by the steric constraints imposed on the complex by the bridging unit. The extent of the distortion was found to increase with increasing ionic radius of the lanthanide ion, eventually resulting in a complete loss of symmetry in the complex. Because this ligand system is bicyclic, the conformation of each ring in the system is constrained by that of the other, in consequence inclusion of the bridging unit in the complexes means only a twisted square antiprismatic coordination geometry is observed for complexes of 8O2-bridged-DOTAM. PMID:17295475

  2. A bridge to coordination isomer selection in lanthanide(III) DOTA-tetraamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Vipond, Jeff; Woods, Mark; Zhao, Piyu; Tircsó, Gyula; Ren, Jimin; Bott, Simon G; Ogrin, Doug; Kiefer, Garry E; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A Dean

    2007-04-02

    Interest in macrocyclic lanthanide complexes such as DOTA is driven largely through interest in their use as contrast agents for MRI. The lanthanide tetraamide derivatives of DOTA have shown considerable promise as PARACEST agents, taking advantage of the slow water exchange kinetics of this class of complex. We postulated that water exchange in these tetraamide complexes could be slowed even further by introducing a group to sterically encumber the space above the water coordination site, thereby hindering the departure and approach of water molecules to the complex. The ligand 8O2-bridged DOTAM was synthesized in a 34% yield from cyclen. It was found that the lanthanide complexes of this ligand did not possess a water molecule in the inner coordination sphere of the bound lanthanide. The crystal structure of the ytterbium complex revealed that distortions to the coordination sphere were induced by the steric constraints imposed on the complex by the bridging unit. The extent of the distortion was found to increase with increasing ionic radius of the lanthanide ion, eventually resulting in a complete loss of symmetry in the complex. Because this ligand system is bicyclic, the conformation of each ring in the system is constrained by that of the other; in consequence, inclusion of the bridging unit in the complexes means only a twisted square, antiprismatic coordination geometry is observed for lanthanide complexes of 8O2-bridged DOTAM.

  3. The effect of regioisomerism on the coordination chemistry and CEST properties of lanthanide(III) NB-DOTA-tetraamide chelates

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Jacqueline R.; Woods, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) offers many advantages as a method of generating contrast in magnetic resonance images. However, many of the exogenous agents currently under investigation suffer from detection limits that are still somewhat short of what can be achieved with more traditional Gd3+ agents. To remedy this limitation we have undertaken an investigation of Ln3+ DOTA-tetraamide chelates (where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) that have unusually rigid ligand structures: the nitrobenzyl derivatives of DOTA-tetraamides with (2-phenylethyl)amide substituents. In this report we examine the effect of incorporating hydrophobic amide substituents on water exchange and CEST. The ligand systems chosen afforded a total of three CEST-active isomeric square antiprismatic chelates; each of these chelates was found to have different water exchange and CEST characteristics. The position of a nitrobenzyl substituent on the macrocyclic ring strongly influenced the way in which the chelate and Ln3+ coordination cage distorted. These differential distortions were found to affect the rate of water proton exchange in the chelates. But, by far the greatest effect arose from altering the position of the hydrophobic amide substituent, which, when forced upwards around the water binding site, caused a substantial reduction in the rate of water proton exchange. Such slow water proton exchange afforded a chelate that was 4.5 times more effective as a CEST agent than its isomeric counterparts in dry acetonitrile and at low temperatures and very low presaturation powers. PMID:24287873

  4. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Perioperative Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team. PMID:24940133

  5. Considerations on the hyperbolic complex Klein-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrych, S.

    2010-06-15

    This article summarizes and consolidates investigations on hyperbolic complex numbers with respect to the Klein-Gordon equation for fermions and bosons. The hyperbolic complex numbers are applied in the sense that complex extensions of groups and algebras are performed not with the complex unit, but with the product of complex and hyperbolic unit. The modified complexification is the key ingredient for the theory. The Klein-Gordon equation is represented in this framework in the form of the first invariant of the Poincare group, the mass operator, in order to emphasize its geometric origin. The possibility of new interactions arising from hyperbolic complex gauge transformations is discussed.

  6. Systems thinking and complexity: considerations for health promoting schools.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Scott R

    2015-11-29

    The health promoting schools concept reflects a comprehensive and integrated philosophy to improving student and personnel health and well-being. Conceptualized as a configuration of interacting, interdependent parts connected through a web of relationships that form a whole greater than the sum of its parts, school health promotion initiatives often target several levels (e.g. individual, professional, procedural and policy) simultaneously. Health promoting initiatives, such as those operationalized under the whole school approach, include several interconnected components that are coordinated to improve health outcomes in complex settings. These complex systems interventions are embedded in intricate arrangements of physical, biological, ecological, social, political and organizational relationships. Systems thinking and characteristics of complex adaptive systems are introduced in this article to provide a perspective that emphasizes the patterns of inter-relationships associated with the nonlinear, dynamic and adaptive nature of complex hierarchical systems. Four systems thinking areas: knowledge, networks, models and organizing are explored as a means to further manage the complex nature of the development and sustainability of health promoting schools. Applying systems thinking and insights about complex adaptive systems can illuminate how to address challenges found in settings with both complicated (i.e. multi-level and multisite) and complex aspects (i.e. synergistic processes and emergent outcomes).

  7. Investigation of design considerations for a complex demodulation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The digital design of an adaptive digital filter to be employed in the processing of microwave remote sensor data was developed. In particular, a complex demodulation approach was developed to provide narrow band power estimation for a proposed Doppler scatterometer system. This scatterometer was considered for application in the proposed National Oceanographic survey satellite, on an improvement of SEASAT features. A generalized analysis of complex diagrams for the digital architecture component of the proposed system.

  8. [A consideration of the name of the Ajase complex].

    PubMed

    Daiguji, Makoto; Moriguchi-Shinoda, Mai

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the "Ajase complex" was advocated by Heisaku Kosawa, one of the researchers who brought psychoanalysis into Japan. Kosawa's emphasis was originally on the feeling of guilt that is based on the apologetic feeling that comes from being forgiven, in contrast with the guilt that comes from the fear of punishment. However, Okonogi, a disciple of Kosawa, began to change this concept's emphasis to mother/child friction. The Ajase (Ajătaśatru) story which Kosawa and Okonogi based the origin of the name "Ajase complex" on is far different from that of the Buddhist scriptures. The most significant difference is as follows: in the Ajase legend, that comes mainly from two Buddhist scriptures, the Contemplation Sŭtra and the Mahăyăna-mahăparinirvăna-sŭtra, the murder of the father by the child Ajase is the main theme and resembles the Oedipus complex. The episode of Ajase trying to kill her mother, Vaidehi, comes from the mother Vaidehĭ trying to help the imprisoned king and does not come from mother/child friction. In the Ajase complex, the mother's planned pregnancy to ensure the connection of love with her husband, the king, the attempted murder of Ajase, who is the reincarnation of the hermit, by Vaidehĭ, and the story of how a mother's love saves Ajase from the hate that grew out of the mother/child friction, are not included in the above-mentioned Buddhist scriptures. The story to back up the Ajase complex comes from Kosawa and Okonogi's new interpretation and origination. In this article, the authors are not trying to deny the value of the specific pathological mother/child relationship suggested by the Ajase complex. It is not the definition that we doubt, but the naming.

  9. On the Complexity of the Metric TSP under Stability Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalák, Matúš; Schöngens, Marcel; Šrámek, Rastislav; Widmayer, Peter

    We consider the metric Traveling Salesman Problem (Δ-TSP for short) and study how stability (as defined by Bilu and Linial [3]) influences the complexity of the problem. On an intuitive level, an instance of Δ-TSP is γ-stable (γ> 1), if there is a unique optimum Hamiltonian tour and any perturbation of arbitrary edge weights by at most γ does not change the edge set of the optimal solution (i.e., there is a significant gap between the optimum tour and all other tours). We show that for γ ≥ 1.8 a simple greedy algorithm (resembling Prim's algorithm for constructing a minimum spanning tree) computes the optimum Hamiltonian tour for every γ-stable instance of the Δ-TSP, whereas a simple local search algorithm can fail to find the optimum even if γ is arbitrary. We further show that there are γ-stable instances of Δ-TSP for every 1 < γ< 2. These results provide a different view on the hardness of the Δ-TSP and give rise to a new class of problem instances which are substantially easier to solve than instances of the general Δ-TSP.

  10. Addressing the Needs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Considerations and Complexities for High School Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharczyk, Suzanne; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carter, Erik W.; Hedges, Susan; El Zein, Farah; Fan, Hannah; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are driving the field to address how secondary education might be optimally designed and delivered. We conducted 28 focus groups across four states to explore the contexts, considerations, and complexities associated with delivering and combining evidence-based interventions to meet the…

  11. Case-Only Exome Sequencing and Complex Disease Susceptibility Gene Discovery: Study Design Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Sicotte, Hugues; Wieben, Eric D.; Li, Hu; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify the potential etiologic role of rare functional variants in human complex diseases. Large-scale collaborations have generated germline WES data on patients with a number of diseases, especially cancer, but less often on healthy controls under the same sequencing procedures. These data can be a valuable resource for identifying new disease susceptibility loci, if study designs are appropriately applied. This review describes suggested strategies and technical considerations when focusing on case-only study designs that use WES data in complex disease scenarios. These include variant filtering based on frequency and functionality, gene prioritization, interrogation of different data types, and targeted sequencing validation. We propose that if case-only WES designs were applied in an appropriate manner, new susceptibility genes containing rare variants for human complex diseases can be detected. PMID:25371537

  12. Evolution of design considerations in complex craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants.

    PubMed

    Peel, Sean; Bhatia, Satyajeet; Eggbeer, Dominic; Morris, Daniel S; Hayhurst, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Previously published evidence has established major clinical benefits from using computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and additive manufacturing to produce patient-specific devices. These include cutting guides, drilling guides, positioning guides, and implants. However, custom devices produced using these methods are still not in routine use, particularly by the UK National Health Service. Oft-cited reasons for this slow uptake include the following: a higher up-front cost than conventionally fabricated devices, material-choice uncertainty, and a lack of long-term follow-up due to their relatively recent introduction. This article identifies a further gap in current knowledge - that of design rules, or key specification considerations for complex computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/additive manufacturing devices. This research begins to address the gap by combining a detailed review of the literature with first-hand experience of interdisciplinary collaboration on five craniofacial patient case studies. In each patient case, bony lesions in the orbito-temporal region were segmented, excised, and reconstructed in the virtual environment. Three cases translated these digital plans into theatre via polymer surgical guides. Four cases utilised additive manufacturing to fabricate titanium implants. One implant was machined from polyether ether ketone. From the literature, articles with relevant abstracts were analysed to extract design considerations. In all, 19 frequently recurring design considerations were extracted from previous publications. Nine new design considerations were extracted from the case studies - on the basis of subjective clinical evaluation. These were synthesised to produce a design considerations framework to assist clinicians with prescribing and design engineers with modelling. Promising avenues for further research are proposed.

  13. Headache in a Patient with Complex Congenital Heart Disease: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waheed; Miteff, Ferdi; Collins, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Headache in adult patients with congenital heart disease may be a manifestation of the underlying cardiac condition or more common alternative causes of headache. In patients with pre-existing congenital heart disease, consideration of potentially uncommon aetiologies of headache is important. We report an uncommon case of headache in a patient with complex congenital heart disease characterised by Ebstein's anomaly with previous surgical repair complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case illustrates the importance of understanding the implications of headache with reference to the underlying cardiac disease as well as specific issues related to a relatively young cohort of patients.

  14. Research of complex loading of polycrystals with consideration for internal structure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loevets, Dmitry A.; Volegov, Pavel S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses some questions related to the description of inelastic deformation of the representative volume of polycrystals with consideration for the evolution of its internal structure as well as to the study of the stress "dive" effect occurring at the complex deformation trajectories with a kink. For research, we use a two-level model of inelastic deformation of the representative volume of polycrystals and the analysis of the results performed using the approach of the Ilyushin theory to elastoplastic processes. According to the results of numerical experiments, it is established the relation between hardening parameters of the two-level model and the degree of manifestation of the stress "dive" effect.

  15. Global optimization algorithms to compute thermodynamic equilibria in large complex systems with performance considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, M. H. A.; Simunovic, S.

    2016-03-17

    Several global optimization methods are reviewed that attempt to ensure that the integral Gibbs energy of a closed isothermal isobaric system is a global minimum to satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the integral Gibbs energy function of a multicomponent system containing non-ideal phases may be highly non-linear and non-convex, which makes finding a global minimum a challenge. Consequently, a poor numerical approach may lead one to the false belief of equilibrium. Furthermore, confirming that one reaches a global minimum and that this is achieved with satisfactory computational performance becomes increasingly more challenging in systems containing many chemical elements and a correspondingly large number of species and phases. Several numerical methods that have been used for this specific purpose are reviewed with a benchmark study of three of the more promising methods using five case studies of varying complexity. A modification of the conventional Branch and Bound method is presented that is well suited to a wide array of thermodynamic applications, including complex phases with many constituents and sublattices, and ionic phases that must adhere to charge neutrality constraints. Also, a novel method is presented that efficiently solves the system of linear equations that exploits the unique structure of the Hessian matrix, which reduces the calculation from a O(N3) operation to a O(N) operation. As a result, this combined approach demonstrates efficiency, reliability and capabilities that are favorable for integration of thermodynamic computations into multi-physics codes with inherent performance considerations.

  16. Global optimization algorithms to compute thermodynamic equilibria in large complex systems with performance considerations

    DOE PAGES

    Piro, M. H. A.; Simunovic, S.

    2016-03-17

    Several global optimization methods are reviewed that attempt to ensure that the integral Gibbs energy of a closed isothermal isobaric system is a global minimum to satisfy the necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the integral Gibbs energy function of a multicomponent system containing non-ideal phases may be highly non-linear and non-convex, which makes finding a global minimum a challenge. Consequently, a poor numerical approach may lead one to the false belief of equilibrium. Furthermore, confirming that one reaches a global minimum and that this is achieved with satisfactory computational performance becomes increasingly more challenging in systemsmore » containing many chemical elements and a correspondingly large number of species and phases. Several numerical methods that have been used for this specific purpose are reviewed with a benchmark study of three of the more promising methods using five case studies of varying complexity. A modification of the conventional Branch and Bound method is presented that is well suited to a wide array of thermodynamic applications, including complex phases with many constituents and sublattices, and ionic phases that must adhere to charge neutrality constraints. Also, a novel method is presented that efficiently solves the system of linear equations that exploits the unique structure of the Hessian matrix, which reduces the calculation from a O(N3) operation to a O(N) operation. As a result, this combined approach demonstrates efficiency, reliability and capabilities that are favorable for integration of thermodynamic computations into multi-physics codes with inherent performance considerations.« less

  17. Modeling and Performance Considerations for Automated Fault Isolation in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the modeling considerations and performance metrics that were examined in the development of a large-scale Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FDIR team members developed a set of operational requirements for the models that would be used for fault isolation and worked closely with the vendor of the software tools selected for fault isolation to ensure that the software was able to meet the requirements. Once the requirements were established, example models of sufficient complexity were used to test the performance of the software. The results of the performance testing demonstrated the need for enhancements to the software in order to meet the demands of the full-scale ground and vehicle FDIR system. The paper highlights the importance of the development of operational requirements and preliminary performance testing as a strategy for identifying deficiencies in highly scalable systems and rectifying those deficiencies before they imperil the success of the project

  18. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  19. Complexation of vanadium(V) oxyanions with hexopyranose- and mannopyranoseuronic acid-containing polysaccharides: stereochemical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Cesar A; Oliveira, Maria Benigna M; Reicher, Fany; Iacomini, Marcello; Petkowicz, Carmem L O; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Noseda, Miguel D; Gorin, Philip A J

    2004-03-15

    Carbohydrates containing galactopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl units with vicinal cis-diols were treated with NaVO(3) in D(2)O, and complexation was determined by (51)V NMR spectroscopy. Me alpha-Galp, Me beta-Galp (3,4-cis-diols), and Me alpha-Manp (2,3-cis-diol) complexed, but Me beta-Manp barely did so. This low degree of complexation also occurred with a beta-mannan containing alternate (1-->3)- and (1-->4)-linkages and an alginate having beta-ManpA blocks. In contrast, branched alpha-mannans complexed readily, although the (51)V resonances for one with side chains terminated with alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1--> differed from another with only alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-Manp-(1--> groups. The anomeric configuration of Me alpha-Galp and Me beta-Galp, each with 3,4-cis-diols remote from C-1, gave rise to three (51)V signals of complexes with similar shifts and proportions. The shifts of a galactomannan with terminal alpha-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-Manp- were the same as those with alpha-Galp-(1-->6)-beta-Manp- groups, but fewer complexes were formed with the former structure, probably due to greater steric crowding of the vanadate esters. Most of the complexes gave rise to a signal in the delta515 region, consistent with the dimeric trigonal-bipyramidal structure.

  20. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  1. A paramagnetic CEST agent for imaging glucose by MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanrong; Trokowski, Robert; Sherry, A Dean

    2003-12-17

    The europium(III) complex of a DOTA-tetraamide ligand (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N' ',N' ''-tetraacetic acids) containing two phenyl boronate pendent arms binds glucose reversibly with an association constant of 383 M-1 at pH 7. Glucose binding results in slowing of water exchange between a single Eu(III)-bound water molecule and bulk water, and this can be imaged by MRI using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging sequence. This metabolite-responsive paramagnetic CEST agent responds to changes in glucose over the physiologically important range (0-20 mM), and thus it offers the possibility of high-sensitivity MR imaging glucose in tissues using bulk water protons as antenna.

  2. The Presence of Fast-Exchanging Proton Species in Aqueous Solutions of paraCEST Agents Can Impact Rate Constants Measured for Slower Exchanging Species When Fitting CEST Spectra to the Bloch Equations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    LnDOTA-tetraamide complexes typically exist in solution as a mixture of square-antiprismatic (SAP) and twisted square-antiprismatic (TSAP) coordination isomers. In most cases, the SAP isomer, which is preferred for CEST imaging, predominates, and the presence of the minor TSAP isomer is assumed to have little influence on quantitative measures of the water-exchange rate constant for the SAP isomer. Here, we sought to confirm the validity of this assumption by mixing two chelates with different SAP and TSAP isomer populations while measuring the water-exchange rate constant of the SAP isomer. The results show that an increase in the population of the TSAP isomer in solution results in as much as a 30% overestimation of the water-exchange rate constant for the SAP isomer when CEST spectra are fit to the Bloch equations. This effect was shown to be significant only when the TSAP isomer population exceeded 50%. PMID:25210979

  3. Considerable fluorescence enhancement upon supramolecular complex formation between berberine and p-sulfonated calixarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megyesi, Mónika; Biczók, László

    2006-06-01

    Remarkably strong binding of berberine to 4-sulfonatocalix[8]arene was found in aqueous solution, which led to fluorescence quantum yield increase of a factor about 40 at pH 2. The hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence maximum implied that berberine sensed less polar microenvironment when confined to SCX8. The stability of the supramolecular complex significantly diminished when sulfocalixarenes of smaller ring size served as host compounds but the pH affected the association strength to a much lesser extent. All berberine complexes proved to be barely fluorescent at pH 12.2 because of excited state quenching by the hosts via electron transfer.

  4. Analysis of engineered nanomaterials in complex matrices (environment and biota): general considerations and conceptual case studies.

    PubMed

    von der Kammer, Frank; Ferguson, P Lee; Holden, Patricia A; Masion, Armand; Rogers, Kim R; Klaine, Stephen J; Koelmans, Albert A; Horne, Nina; Unrine, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media. Analysis of ENMs differs from traditional chemical analysis because both chemical and physical forms must be considered. Because ENMs are present as colloidal systems, their physicochemical properties are dependent on their surroundings. Therefore, the simple act of trying to isolate, observe, and quantify ENMs may change their physicochemical properties, making analysis extremely susceptible to artifacts. Many analytical techniques applied in materials science and other chemical/biological/physical disciplines may be applied to ENM analysis as well; however, environmental and biological studies may require that methods be adapted to work at low concentrations in complex matrices. The most pressing research needs are the development of techniques for extraction, cleanup, separation, and sample storage that introduce minimal artifacts to increase the speed, sensitivity, and specificity of analytical techniques, as well as the development of techniques that can differentiate between abundant, naturally occurring particles, and manufactured nanoparticles.

  5. Identifying and ranking influential spreaders in complex networks with consideration of spreading probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qian; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the influential spreaders in complex network has great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the spreading ability of the nodes, some centrality measures are usually computed, which include degree centrality (DC), betweenness centrality (BC), closeness centrality (CC), k-shell centrality (KS) and local centrality (LC). However, we observe that the performance of different centrality measures may change when these measures are used in a real network with different spreading probabilities. Specifically, DC performs well for small spreading probabilities and LC is more suitable for larger ones. To alleviate the sensitivity of these centrality measures to the spreading probability, we modify LC and then integrate it with DC by considering the spreading probability. We call the proposed measure hybrid degree centrality (HC). HC can take the advantages of DC or LC depending on the given spreading probability. We use SIR model to evaluate the performance of HC in both real networks and artificial networks. Experimental results show that HC performs robustly under different spreading probabilities. Compared with these known centrality measures such as DC, LC, BC, CC and KS, HC can evaluate the spreading ability of the nodes more accurately on most range of spreading probabilities. Furthermore, we show that our method can better distinguish the spreading ability of nodes.

  6. The complexities of defining optimal sleep: empirical and theoretical considerations with a special emphasis on children.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Sarah; Galland, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The main aim of this paper is to consider relevant theoretical and empirical factors defining optimal sleep, and assess the relative importance of each in developing a working definition for, or guidelines about, optimal sleep, particularly in children. We consider whether optimal sleep is an issue of sleep quantity or of sleep quality. Sleep quantity is discussed in terms of duration, timing, variability and dose-response relationships. Sleep quality is explored in relation to continuity, sleepiness, sleep architecture and daytime behaviour. Potential limitations of sleep research in children are discussed, specifically the loss of research precision inherent in sleep deprivation protocols involving children. We discuss which outcomes are the most important to measure. We consider the notion that insufficient sleep may be a totally subjective finding, is impacted by the age of the reporter, driven by socio-cultural patterns and sleep-wake habits, and that, in some individuals, the driver for insufficient sleep can be viewed in terms of a cost-benefit relationship, curtailing sleep in order to perform better while awake. We conclude that defining optimal sleep is complex. The only method of capturing this elusive concept may be by somnotypology, taking into account duration, quality, age, gender, race, culture, the task at hand, and an individual's position in both sleep-alert and morningness-eveningness continuums. At the experimental level, a unified approach by researchers to establish standardized protocols to evaluate optimal sleep across paediatric age groups is required.

  7. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  8. Complexity as AN Epistemic Revolution: Considerations on the New Science in the Context of Western Intellectual History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popolo, Damian

    The paper will seek to present a genesis of complexity in European philosophical thought. Following the works of Gleick and Hobsbawn it is possible to discern the emergence of complexity's ethos in the `age of revolutions'. Gleick, for example, has noted the influence of natural philosophy on the first precursors of chaos theory. Natural philosophy itself was deeply anchored in German romanticism. The paper will thus seek to present, following Foucault, an `Archaeology of Complexity' which considers Foucault's definition of epistemes as evolving modes of thought. In particular, the paper will seek to use Foucault's description of the modern episteme in order to detect the novelty inherent within the ethos of Complexity.

  9. Methodological Considerations in Using Complex Survey Data: An Applied Example with the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; McWayne, Christine M.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Complex survey data are collected by means other than simple random samples. This creates two analytical issues: nonindependence and unequal selection probability. Failing to address these issues results in underestimated standard errors and biased parameter estimates. Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child…

  10. Investigation of drug-cyclodextrin complexes by a phase-distribution method: some theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Másson, Már; Sigurdardóttir, Birna Vigdís; Matthíasson, Kristján; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an octanol-water phase distribution method for investigation of drug/cyclodextrin (D/CD) complexes and to compare stability constant values obtained by this method to values obtained by the phase solubility method. A general equation for determination of 1 : 1 D/CD complex stability constant (K1 : 1) from the slope of a phase-distribution diagram (a diagram of the reciprocal of the apparent partition coefficient vs. the total CD concentration) was derived. The equation accounted for the possible inclusion of the organic solvent in the CD cavity and the gradual saturation of the CD binding with increasing concentration of the guest compound. This method was used to determine K1 : 1 for 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) complexes of hydrocortisone, prednisolone, diazepam, beta-estradiol and diethylstilbestrol. These values were comparable to K1 : 1 values determined by the phase-solubility method. The phase-distribution method could also be applied to determine stability constants for the neutral and ionic forms of the weakly acidic drugs, naproxen and triclosan and the weakly basic drug lidocaine. The phase-distribution method is a very versatile and fast method and has the advantage, compared to the phase-solubility method, that it only requires very small drug samples. Thus, this method would be suitable for screening of new drug candidates.

  11. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  12. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  13. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  14. Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-06

    I~D~·L Paper Number Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations ABSTRACT As research advances individual robot capabilities, a logical...progression is the use of multiple robots to complete a task more effectively. Mission performance can be improved by the ability to allocate robots with...diverse capabilities to perform different parts of a complex task. To paraphrase [[10], there are many advantages to enabling robotic collaborative

  15. Influence of extrinsic factors on electron transfer in a mixed-valence Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) complex: experimental results and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Achim, C; Bominaar, E L; Staples, R J; Münck, E; Holm, R H

    2001-08-13

    The crystal structure of the mixed-valence complex (NEt(4))[Fe(2)(salmp)(2)].xMeCN(crystal) (x = 2,3) [1].xMeCN(crystal) was determined at temperatures between 153 and 293 K. The complex shows distinct Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) sites over this temperature interval. Variable temperature Mössbauer spectra confirm the valence-localized character of the complex. In contrast, spectroscopic investigation of powder samples generated from [1].xMeCN(crystal) indicate the presence of a valence-averaged component at temperatures above 150 K. To elucidate this apparent contradiction we have conducted a variable-temperature Mössbauer investigation of different forms of 1, including [1].xMeCN(crystal), [1].2DMF(crystal), [1].yMeCN(powder), and solution samples of 1 in acetonitrile. The low-temperature Mössbauer spectra of all forms are virtually identical and confirm the valence-localized nature of the S = (9)/(2) ground state. The high-temperature spectra reveal a subtle control of electron hopping by the environment of the complexes. Thus, [1].xMeCN(crystal) has valence-localized spectra at all explored temperatures, [1].2DMF(crystal) exhibits a complete collapse into a valence-averaged spectrum over a narrow temperature range, the powder exhibits partial valence averaging over a broad temperature interval, and the solution sample shows at 210 K the presence of a valence-averaged component in a minor proportion. The spectral transformations are characterized by a coexistence of valence-localized and valence-averaged spectral components. This phenomenon cannot be explained by intramolecular electron hopping between the valence-localized states Fe(A)(2+)Fe(B)(3+) and Fe(A)(3+)Fe(B)(2+) in a homogeneous ensemble of complexes, but requires relaxation processes involving at least three distinguishable states of the molecular anion. Hopping rates for [1].2DMF(crystal) and [1].yMeCN(powder) have been determined from spectral simulations, based on stochastic line shape theory. Analysis of

  16. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high molecular weight peaks than did plastic bottles. PMID:23416600

  17. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Young, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight (MW) peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high MW peaks than did plastic bottles.

  18. Dolphin social intelligence: complex alliance relationships in bottlenose dolphins and a consideration of selective environments for extreme brain size evolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Connor, Richard C

    2007-04-29

    Bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, live in a large, unbounded society with a fission-fusion grouping pattern. Potential cognitive demands include the need to develop social strategies involving the recognition of a large number of individuals and their relationships with others. Patterns of alliance affiliation among males may be more complex than are currently known for any non-human, with individuals participating in 2-3 levels of shifting alliances. Males mediate alliance relationships with gentle contact behaviours such as petting, but synchrony also plays an important role in affiliative interactions. In general, selection for social intelligence in the context of shifting alliances will depend on the extent to which there are strategic options and risk. Extreme brain size evolution may have occurred more than once in the toothed whales, reaching peaks in the dolphin family and the sperm whale. All three 'peaks' of large brain size evolution in mammals (odontocetes, humans and elephants) shared a common selective environment: extreme mutual dependence based on external threats from predators or conspecific groups. In this context, social competition, and consequently selection for greater cognitive abilities and large brain size, was intense.

  19. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  20. Prion diseases: New considerations.

    PubMed

    Annus, Ádám; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László

    2016-11-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by the pathological accumulation of abnormal prion protein. The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is complex. The electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture and genetic testing findings can help in the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia. There has recently been considerable debate as to whether proteins involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases should be regarded as prions or only share prion-like mechanisms. Two recent reports described the detection of abnormal prion protein in the nasal mucosa and urine of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. These findings raise major health concerns regarding the transmissibility of human prion diseases. We set out to address this neurological hot topic and to draw conclusions on the basis of what is known in the literature thus far.

  1. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  2. Regulatory Considerations for Biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or “biosimilars” in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved “similar” biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products. PMID:21829775

  3. Perioperative Considerations in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Kate; Vasdev, Nikhil; Ashead, Jim; Lane, Tim; Hanbury, Damian; Nathan, Paul; Gowrie-Mohan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma are complex, with the potential for significant complications, and require extensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative management. This article discusses, in depth, the necessary considerations in the treatment of these patients. PMID:27833463

  4. Complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  5. Green Power Procurement Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products are available from a variety of different vendors, including utilities, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, on-site system integrators, and non-profit organizations. This page lists considerations to evaluate during selection

  6. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  7. Educational Considerations, Spring 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortin, John A., Ed.; Teague, Fred A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Crucial, technologically oriented issues currently facing educators are addressed in the following 11 articles: (1) "The Definition of Educational Technology: An Emerging Stability," by Donald P. Ely; (2) "Media Applications to Instruction: Current Theoretical Considerations," by Gerald M. Torkelson; (3) "The Dilemma of…

  8. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  9. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  10. Tracheostomy: pediatric considerations.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Ellen S

    2010-08-01

    Pediatric patients for whom tracheotomy is a consideration have different anatomy, medical conditions, and prognoses than adults; even the tracheotomy tubes are different. Indications for pediatric tracheotomy generally include bypassing airway obstruction, providing access for prolonged mechanical ventilation, and facilitating tracheobronchial toilet. Subglottic stenosis is an important indication for tracheotomy in children; its etiology, prevention, and alternative options for management are presented. Discussion includes the benefits, risks, impact on families, techniques for tracheotomy tube changes, and alternatives to tracheotomy, with illustrative photographs and diagrams.

  11. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  12. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-03-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials.

  13. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  14. Management of hypodontia: orthodontic considerations (II).

    PubMed

    Thind, Bikram S; Stirrups, David R; Forgie, Andrew H; Larmour, Colin J; Mossey, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia) present with complex problems. Meeting their treatment needs requires a joint effort between the disciplines of orthodontics and restorative dentistry. There are a number of options available to restore space generated by missing teeth. In the majority of patients orthodontic treatment will be required before this space can be restored satisfactorily. The second part of this series reviews the orthodontic considerations for various options.

  15. Methodological Consideration in Evaluating Year-Round Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Dennis E.

    The evaluation methodologies used in the 1960s to evaluate various ESEA programs were shown to be inappropriate and inadequate for the evaluation of year-round educational programs. Due to their complexity and the various levels of decision-making, YRE programs require consideration of contemporary evaluation methodology. Due consideration is the…

  16. Periodontal diseases: microbiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Liébana, José; Castillo, Ana María; Alvarez, Marta

    2004-01-01

    The location of plaque-associated gingivitis at the gingival portion of the tooth plays an essential role in its genesis. However, at times local and other host response modifying factors also have an influence. The pathogeny of periodontitis is more complex. The microorganisms that comprise subgingival plaque are capable of acting directly on periodontal tissues or of modifying the host response, whereas the participation of the plaque per se (normal, decreased, or increased) is as decisive as the action of the bacteria themselves in the emergence of the disease. Different types of periodontitis are associated with specific microorganisms. The most periodontopathogenic are A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythensis. Periodontitis as a whole, represent the source of complications such as root caries, endoperiodontal processes and periodontal abscesses. They are associated with various illnesses such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and respiratory infections, amongst others, as well as pathological oral halitosis. The different modalities of PCR are particularly important in the microbiological diagnosis of periodontitis, although on the negative side of things, it must be pointed out that in vitro sensitivity studies cannot be performed using this technique. First line antibiotic treatment of periodontitis includes amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, metronidazole (associated or not with amoxicillin) and clindamycin.

  17. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  18. Judging Dramatic Interpretation: Textual Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Bruce B.

    The recent growth in popularity among college students of dramatic interpretation in forensic competition justifies an examination of textual considerations and resultant criteria important to the evaluation of dramatic literature. The first considerations of the student contemplating the dramatic interpretation event are the selection of material…

  19. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  20. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  1. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  2. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  3. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  4. Design considerations for mechanical snubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed.

  5. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration.

  6. General B factory design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences.

  7. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  8. [The world of the epileptic: anthropo-phenomenological considerations].

    PubMed

    Simone, F; Felici, F

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that in literature studies concerning the anthropo-phenomenologic aspects of the existence of subjects suffering from epilepsy are very scanty, the Authors dwell upon the opportunity of deepening this study which may allow a better knowledge of the complex problems of the patient. These problems should be neglected if only the biologic side of the disease was taken into consideration.

  9. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement.

  10. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  11. Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staas, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

  12. Age considerations when vaccinating against HPV.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Huh, Warner K; Monk, Bradley J; Smith, Jennifer S; Ault, Kevin; Herzog, Thomas J

    2008-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been shown to be both highly effective and safe, and there is now considerable enthusiasm among healthcare providers to use the vaccines to reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease in women. When considering who should be vaccinated, it is important that providers understand the complex relationships between age and HPV infections. HPV infections and cervical cancer have a widespread impact on society. Cervical cancer is the cause of a significant amount of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, making it crucial to implement prophylactic HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer. Nationally, the target group for vaccination is pre-adolescent females who have not been sexually active or who have recently become sexually active. In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends HPV vaccination for females aged 11 to 12 years. "Catch-up" vaccination of females aged 13 to 26 years who have not been previously vaccinated or who have missed a vaccination is also recommended, as females within this age group have the highest prevalence of HPV infection. Vaccination can still benefit females over the age of 26 years who have not been previously exposed to HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 and those who may have new sexual partners in the future. This review discusses the various considerations that should be addressed when making recommendations of who should be vaccinated against HPV.

  13. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  14. [Hypertension In pregnancy: practical considerations].

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Jaafar; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2014-09-10

    Hypertension is the most frequent medical disorder of pregnancy. Whether in the form of a chronic hypertension or a pregnancy induced-hypertension, or preeclampsia, it is associated with major maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improvement of prenatal care allowed a reduction in the number of poor outcomes. However, our partial understanding of the origin of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia limits the establishment of robust prediction models and efficient preventive interventions. This review discusses actual considerations on the clinical approach to hypertension in pregnancy.

  15. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  16. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303... PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The degree... effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  17. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel....

  18. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  19. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  20. Improving oral health: current considerations.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, S

    2003-01-01

    The high incidence of periodontal disease among adults in the Western world indicates that in most cases, routine dental care could be considerably improved. The progressive effect of the disease suggests that improvements in oral cleanliness are mandatory if large numbers of adults are to retain their teeth into old age. Data show that periodontal disease can be minimized through effective plaque control, and that a combination of brushing, interdental cleaning, and chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. mouthwash) is beneficial to patients with plaque control problems. The vast majority of adults do not follow an adequate home-care routine. Average brushing times are low, and only a minority of patients regularly floss. In addition, in those patients who do regularly brush and floss, a deterioration of plaque control occurs over time, suggesting that compliance is a major issue. The principal challenge for dental professionals is to identify how best to elicit an improvement.

  1. Surgical considerations about amyloid goiter.

    PubMed

    García Villanueva, Augusto; García Villanueva, María Jesús; García Villanueva, Mercedes; Rojo Blanco, Roberto; Collado Guirao, María Vicenta; Cabañas Montero, Jacobo; Beni Pérez, Rafael; Moreno Montes, Irene

    2013-05-01

    Amyloidosis is an uncommon syndrome consisting of a number of disorders having in common an extracellular deposit of fibrillary proteins. This results in functional and structural changes in the affected organs, depending on deposit location and severity. Amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland may occur in 50% and up to 80% of patients with primary and secondary amyloidosis respectively. Amyloid goiter (AG) is a true rarity, usually found associated to secondary amyloidosis. AG may require surgical excision, usually because of compressive symptoms. We report the case of a patient with a big AG occurring in the course of a secondary amyloidosis associated to polyarticular onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis who underwent total thyroidectomy. Current literature is reviewed, an attempt is made to provide action guidelines, and some surgical considerations on this rare condition are given.

  2. Multi-unit operations considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Walter E.; Bennett, Thomas C.; Brannon, Nathan Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Several nuclear weapons programs have or are pursuing the implementation of multi-unit operations for tasks such as disassembly and inspection, and rebuild. A multi-unit operation is interpreted to mean the execution of nuclear explosive operating procedures in a single facility by two separate teams of technicians. The institution of a multi-unit operations program requires careful consideration of the tools, resources, and environment provided to the technicians carrying out the work. Therefore, a systematic approach is necessary to produce safe, secure, and reliable processes. In order to facilitate development of a more comprehensive multi-unit operations program, the current work details categorized issues that should be addressed prior to the implementation of multi-unit operations in a given weapons program. The issues have been organized into the following categories: local organizational conditions, work process flow/material handling/workplace configuration, ambient environmental conditions, documented safety analysis, and training.

  3. Circumvertical reduction mastoplasty: new considerations.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2003-01-01

    The circumvertical technique is a mixture of the periareolar and the vertical techniques in which the skin resection is performed around the areola and is continued in an inverted cone that starts at the infraareolar area and ends 2-4 cm above the submammary crease. Some advantages of this technique are: The glands are removed from the inferior glandular quadrant and from the inferior borders of the lateral and medial quadrants. The areola is moved upward and attached to the gland, preserving the nursing function. There is a harmonious distribution of the pleats around the areola and at the vertical wound. The vertical suture never crosses the submammary crease. The postoperative result is acceptable. Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor is used minimizing bleeding. Bupivacaine is also included, prolonging the anesthetic effect hours after surgery. This paper describes this simple and rapid surgery and discusses some new, previously unpublished considerations and tricks.

  4. Nutritional considerations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, R

    1988-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Clinical considerations for biosimilar antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mellstedt, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Biosimilar agents are approximate copies of branded biologic therapies. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in the European Union in 2006, fifteen additional agents have been approved by the European Medicines Agency, including two biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Biosimilar mAbs represent a distinct class given their large molecular size, complex protein structure, and post-translational modifications. While guidelines have been established for the development, approval, and use of biosimilars, further scrutiny and discussion is necessary to fully understand their potential impact on clinical outcomes. This review takes a critical look at the structural complexity of biosimilar mABs, the feasibility of indication extrapolation, the impact of product variability on immunogenicity, the importance of comprehensive pharmacovigilance, and the potential for ongoing pharmacoeconomic impact. PMID:26217160

  6. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  7. Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Patient ... for evaluation and possible surgical management. Sources For Aging Patients: Administration on Aging (AoA), U.S. Department of ...

  8. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  9. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required... environmental laws and regulations....

  13. Ethical considerations in adherence research

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nupur U; Moore, Blake A; Craver, Rebekah F; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient’s adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient’s rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding), informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception), and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research. PMID:27980394

  14. Ethical considerations in adherence research.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nupur U; Moore, Blake A; Craver, Rebekah F; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient's adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient's rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding), informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception), and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research.

  15. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special considerations. 650.709 Section 650.709 Highways..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a... consideration will be given to bridges that are closed to all traffic or that have a load restriction of...

  16. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 44.202-2... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The contracting... policy? (10) Has adequate consideration been obtained for any proposed subcontract that will involve...

  17. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements...

  18. 48 CFR 19.809 - Preaward considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preaward considerations...) Program) 19.809 Preaward considerations. The contracting officer should request a preaward survey of the 8... contracting officer must refer the matter to SBA for Certificate of Competency consideration under subpart...

  19. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation...

  20. 10 CFR 72.90 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 72.90 Section 72.90 Energy NUCLEAR... § 72.90 General considerations. (a) Site characteristics that may directly affect the safety or... be evaluated with due consideration of the characteristics of the population, including...

  1. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements...

  2. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant considerations. 51.8... GUARD DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD § 51.8 Relevant considerations. In determining the equity and propriety of.... The DRB review will include, but is not limited to, consideration of the following factors: (a)...

  3. 32 CFR 169a.17 - Solicitation considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solicitation considerations. 169a.17 Section... COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.17 Solicitation considerations. (a) Every effort... other national security considerations. However, if an “all or none” solicitation is issued,...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1804 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General considerations. 493.1804 Section 493.1804... considerations. (a) Purpose. The enforcement mechanisms set forth in this subpart have the following purposes: (1... considered. CMS bases its choice of sanction or sanctions on consideration of one or more factors...

  5. 5 CFR 2634.401 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 2634.401 Section... considerations. (a) Statutory standards governing qualified trusts—(1) Types of qualified trusts and their... instrument which detail this procedure. (b) Policy considerations and objectives underlying the...

  6. 7 CFR 1786.203 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special considerations. 1786.203 Section 1786.203... Special considerations. Generally all FFB borrowers with loans guaranteed by RUS whose FFB notes have not... prepayments are more complicated and thus will involve special considerations. These requests will have to...

  7. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.83 Section 643.83 National... Easements § 643.83 Consideration. Although the statutes authorizing grants of rights of way or easements do... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices....

  8. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following...

  9. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value....

  10. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of...

  11. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 331.4... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.4 Special consideration. When an entire industry that... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the...

  12. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  14. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  15. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  16. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such...

  17. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  18. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  19. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets.

  20. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-09-15

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  1. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.

    1995-09-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  2. 10 management considerations for implementing an endovascular hybrid OR.

    PubMed

    Eder, Sheryl P; Register, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    A hybrid procedure is the use of procedural techniques from different specialties to accomplish a shared procedural goal. Hybrid interventional suites combine the capabilities of an OR with the technologies of interventional radiology, thereby offering a modern solution to the care of patients with complex vascular pathology by using the least-invasive procedure possible. Management considerations for successful implementation of an endovascular hybrid OR suite include environment of care, design, retrofitting, equipment, personnel, anesthesia, procedural care, radiation protection, and financial planning.

  3. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  4. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  5. Geomorphic considerations for erosion prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Current soil-erosion prediction technology addresses processes of rainsplash, overland-flow sediment transport, and rill erosion in small watersheds. The effects of factors determining sediment yield from larger-scale drainage basins, in which sediment movement is controlled by the combined small-scale processes and a complex set of channel and other basin-scale sediment-delivery processes, such as soil creep, bioturbation, and accelerated erosion due to denudation of vegetation, have been poorly evaluated. General suggestions are provided for the development of erosion-prediction technology at the geomorphic or drainage-basin scale based on the separation of sediment-yield data for channel and geomorphic processes from those of field-scale soil loss. An emerging technology must consider: (1) the effects on sediment yield of climate, geology and soils, topography, biotic interactions with other soil processes, and land-use practices; (2) all processes of sediment delivery to a channel system; and (3) the general tendency in most drainage basins for progressively greater sediment storage in the downstream direction.

  6. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  7. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  8. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations. (a...) Financial and operating advantages of alternative types and makes of equipment. (3) Cumulative...

  9. Data Model Considerations for Clinical Effectiveness Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Michael G.; Batson, Deborah; Schilling, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Growing adoption of electronic health records and increased emphasis on the reuse and integration of clinical care and administration data require a robust informatics infrastructure to inform health care effectiveness in real-world settings. The Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTI Net) was one of 3 projects receiving Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research funds to create a scalable, distributed network to support Comparative Effectiveness Research. SAFTINet’s method of extracting and compiling data from disparate entities requires the use of a shared common data model. Data Models Focusing on the needs of CER investigators, in addition to other project considerations, we examined the suitability of several data models. Data modeling is the process of determining which data elements will be stored and how they will be stored, including their relationships and constraints. Addressing compromises between complexity and usability is critical to modeling decisions. Case Study The SAFTINet project provides the case study for describing data model evaluation. A sample use case defines a cohort of asthma subjects that illustrates the need to identify patients by age, diagnoses, and medication use while excluding those with diagnoses that may often be misdiagnosed as asthma. Discussion The SAFTINet team explored several data models against a set of technical and investigator requirements to select a data model that best fit its needs and was conducive to expansion with new research requirements. Although SAFTINet ultimately chose the Observation Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model, other valid options exist and prioritization of requirements is dependent upon many factors. PMID:22692260

  10. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-24

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient.

  11. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC... considerations. (a) Pursuant to the provisions of § 60.21(c)(2)(i), an application for construction...

  12. 7 CFR 25.622 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 25.622 Section 25.622 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Round II and Round IIS Grants § 25.622 Other considerations. (a) Civil rights compliance requirements....

  13. 49 CFR 209.329 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.329 Section 209.329 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Assessment considerations. (a) Proof of a respondent's willful violation of one of the requirements of...

  14. 32 CFR 310.15 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General considerations. 310.15 Section 310.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 310.15 General considerations. (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 207.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 207.401 Section 207.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Acquisition considerations. If the equipment will be leased for more than 60 days, the requiring activity...

  16. 48 CFR 244.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 244.202-2 Section 244.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....202-2 Considerations. (a) Where other than lowest price is the basis for subcontractor selection,...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is...

  18. 42 CFR 417.532 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General considerations. 417.532 Section 417.532 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.532 General considerations. (a) Conditions and...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.207 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.207 Section 3430.207 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Other considerations. The term of a grant under this subpart shall not exceed 10 years....

  20. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... Partnership Initiative § 1160.24 Antitrust considerations. (a) The Department of Commerce will offer...

  1. 48 CFR 2944.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 2944.202-2 Section 2944.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent To Subcontract 2944.202-2 Considerations. The review required...

  2. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 7.401 Section 7.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations....

  3. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  4. 49 CFR 190.225 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 190.225 Section 190.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Enforcement Civil Penalties § 190.225 Assessment considerations. In determining the amount of...

  5. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  6. 24 CFR 585.204 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.204 Section 585.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Locational considerations. HUD will not approve multiple applications for planning grants in the...

  7. 12 CFR 747.311 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 747.311 Section 747.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... considerations. In deciding the question of suspension, prohibition, or removal under this subpart, the...

  8. 7 CFR 1781.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 1781.11 Section 1781.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... ADVANCES § 1781.11 Other considerations. (a) Technical assistance. When pipelines from reservoirs...

  9. 24 CFR 585.304 - Locational considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locational considerations. 585.304 Section 585.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Locational considerations. Each application for an implementation grant may only include activities to...

  10. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equitable considerations. 391.2 Section 391.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., AND PENALTIES § 391.2 Equitable considerations. For reasons of equity and good conscience,...

  11. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army...

  12. 40 CFR 133.103 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special considerations. 133.103 Section 133.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.103 Special considerations. (a) Combined sewers. Treatment...

  13. 32 CFR 806b.41 - Disclosure considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure considerations. 806b.41 Section 806b.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.41 Disclosure considerations. The...

  14. 12 CFR 308.157 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 308.157 Section 308.157 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... FDIA § 308.157 Relevant considerations. (a) In proceedings under § 308.156 on an application to...

  15. 16 CFR 255.1 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 255.1 Section 255.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES CONCERNING USE OF ENDORSEMENTS AND TESTIMONIALS IN ADVERTISING § 255.1 General considerations. (a) Endorsements must reflect...

  16. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section 644.316 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National...

  17. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  18. 7 CFR 3570.70 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3570.70 Section 3570.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.70 Other considerations....

  19. 11 CFR 200.5 - Agency considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency considerations. 200.5 Section 200.5... Agency considerations. The Commission's decision on the petition for rulemaking may include, but will not be limited to, the following considerations— (a) The Commission's statutory authority; (b)...

  20. 49 CFR 209.119 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 209.119 Section 209.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Penalties § 209.119 Assessment considerations. The assessment of a civil penalty under § 209.117 is...

  1. 7 CFR 4284.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 4284.16 Section 4284.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Grant Programs § 4284.16 Other considerations. (a) Environmental review. All grants made under...

  2. 7 CFR 3403.16 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3403.16 Section 3403.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Supplementary Information § 3403.16 Other considerations. The Department may, with respect to any...

  3. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  4. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  5. 12 CFR 308.162 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 308.162 Section 308.162 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... Prohibition Where a Felony ls Charged § 308.162 Relevant considerations. (a)(1) In proceedings under §...

  6. 7 CFR 1778.14 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 1778.14 Section 1778.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... considerations. (a) Civil rights compliance requirements. All grants made under this part are subject to Title...

  7. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial considerations. 989.4 Section 989.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will:...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.609 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.609 Section 3430.609 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.609 Other considerations. (a) Set aside. Each fiscal year, CSREES shall set aside at least...

  9. 10 CFR 72.120 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 72.120 Section 72.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT... Criteria § 72.120 General considerations. (a) As required by § 72.24, an application to store spent fuel...

  10. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other considerations. 777.11 Section 777.11 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of...

  11. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations....

  12. 7 CFR 1942.310 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other considerations. 1942.310 Section 1942.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Grants § 1942.310 Other considerations. (a) Civil rights compliance requirements. All grants made...

  13. 7 CFR 4284.630 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 4284.630 Section 4284.630 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Other considerations. (a) Civil rights compliance requirements. All grants made under this subpart...

  14. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226.7104 Section 226.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base...

  15. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4 Section 1160.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department...

  16. 16 CFR 1061.3 - Statutory considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory considerations. 1061.3 Section 1061.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.3 Statutory considerations. (a) The Commission's statutory preemption provisions...

  17. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment...

  18. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1)...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  20. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  1. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  2. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.909 Other considerations....

  3. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  4. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  5. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  6. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  7. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  10. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  12. 32 CFR 644.316 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental considerations. 644.316 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.316 Environmental considerations. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) directs that a five point...

  13. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed...

  14. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  15. 40 CFR 133.103 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special considerations. 133.103 Section 133.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.103 Special considerations. (a) Combined sewers. Treatment...

  16. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set... equipped, safest and most suitable types of vessels, constructed and documented in the United States...

  17. 12 CFR 108.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 108.11 Section 108.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  18. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  19. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  20. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  1. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  2. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  3. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  4. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  5. 12 CFR 508.11 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 508.11 Section 508.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.11 Relevant considerations. (a) In determining...

  6. Airship Renaissance: Considerations for Operational Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare 5a. CONTRACT...Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare by Daniel W. Smith III Major, United States Air Force A paper submitted...resources needed now on the battlefield…to get more intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre .” 5 Recognizing budget

  7. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  8. Consideration of VT5 etch-based OPC modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChinTeong; Temchenko, Vlad; Kaiser, Dieter; Meusel, Ingo; Schmidt, Sebastian; Schneider, Jens; Niehoff, Martin

    2008-03-01

    Including etch-based empirical data during OPC model calibration is a desired yet controversial decision for OPC modeling, especially for process with a large litho to etch biasing. While many OPC software tools are capable of providing this functionality nowadays; yet few were implemented in manufacturing due to various risks considerations such as compromises in resist and optical effects prediction, etch model accuracy or even runtime concern. Conventional method of applying rule-based alongside resist model is popular but requires a lot of lengthy code generation to provide a leaner OPC input. This work discusses risk factors and their considerations, together with introduction of techniques used within Mentor Calibre VT5 etch-based modeling at sub 90nm technology node. Various strategies are discussed with the aim of better handling of large etch bias offset without adding complexity into final OPC package. Finally, results were presented to assess the advantages and limitations of the final method chosen.

  9. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  10. CSM RCS Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Define major Command and Service Module (CSM) design considerations; b) List Command Module (CM) RCS failures and lessons learned; and c) List Service Module (SM) RCS failures and lessons learned.

  11. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  12. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  13. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  14. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  15. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  16. 23 CFR 650.709 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.709 Special considerations. (a) The selection process for new discretionary bridge projects will be based upon the rating...

  17. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any industrial...

  18. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any industrial...

  19. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any industrial...

  20. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General..., Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when special circumstances or arrangements warrant such departures and an equivalent level of safety...

  1. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  2. Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation and Ethical Considerations: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Petropanagos, Angel

    2017-03-28

    Testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology. At present, no such scoping review of ethical concerns exists in the TTCP literature. The forty-three full-text articles included in this study yielded twenty-two different ethical considerations discussed in relation to TTCP. It was observed that these ethical considerations fit within a mainstream Principlism approach to bioethics. Accordingly, there are ethical gaps in the TTCP literature that can be identified with alternative moral lenses. In particular, it was found that ethical concerns related to context and relational aspects of identity were absent in nearly all ethical examinations of TTCP. Furthermore, only 9 per cent of articles reviewed in this study focused primarily on the ethics of TTCP, thus demonstrating a need for further in depth ethical analyses of this technology. The results of this study are important for supporting the ethical provision of TTCP and can contribute to policy and guideline development. The findings of this study demonstrate the need for greater depth and diversity in analyses of ethical considerations related to this technology.

  3. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  4. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology.

  5. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  6. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    PubMed

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  7. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  8. Design Considerations for a UCAV Wing for Subsonic and Transonic Aeroelastic and Flight Mechanic Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    actuation device in the wing will increase the model complexity considerably and very probably stiffen the wing considerably. Figure 6: Desing ...7] http://www.denel.co.za/Aerospace/UAV.asp [8] http://www.aoe.vt.edu/ research /groups/ucav/ [9] Kudva, J.N.: Overview of the DARPA Smart Wing

  9. Considerations for Future Climate Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P. T.; Chapman, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, we will describe the lessons learned based on processing and generating a decade of gridded AIRS and MODIS IR sounding data. We describe the challenges faced in accessing and sharing very large data sets, maintaining data provenance under evolving technologies, obtaining access to legacy calibration data and the permanent preservation of Earth science data records for on demand services. These lessons suggest a new approach to data stewardship will be required for the next decade of hyper spectral instruments combined with cloud resolving models. It will not be sufficient for stewards of future data centers to just provide the public with access to archived data but our experience indicates that data needs to reside close to computers with ultra large disc farms and tens of thousands of processors to deliver complex services on demand over very high speed networks much like the offerings of search engines today. Over the first decade of the 21st century, petabyte data records were acquired from the AIRS instrument on Aqua and the MODIS instrument on Aqua and Terra. NOAA data centers also maintain petabytes of operational IR sounders collected over the past four decades. The UMBC Multicore Computational Center (MC2) developed a Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance gridding system (SOAR) to allow users to select IR sounding instruments from multiple archives and choose space-time- spectral periods of Level 1B data to download, grid, visualize and analyze on demand. Providing this service requires high data rate bandwidth access to the on line disks at Goddard. After 10 years, cost effective disk storage technology finally caught up with the MODIS data volume making it possible for Level 1B MODIS data to be available on line. However, 10Ge fiber optic networks to access large volumes of data are still not available from CSFC to serve the broader community. Data transfer rates are well below 10MB/s limiting their usefulness for climate studies. During

  10. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  11. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  12. Testing the Receptive Skills: Some Basic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L.

    1984-01-01

    Reacts to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," concentrating on three areas: (1) the nature of the receptive skills and the requirements of a valid instrument to measure them, (2) the design features that are consistent with his test design principles, and (3) adaptive testing…

  13. Practical Considerations in Receptive Skills Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," focusing on the third section, "Suggestions for improvements in receptive language testing." Considers such areas as: (1) level descriptions for academic use, (2) item and item types, and (3) validation. (SED)

  14. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional...

  15. 49 CFR 107.331 - Assessment considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment considerations. 107.331 Section 107.331 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.331 Assessment...

  16. 32 CFR 215.4 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal considerations. 215.4 Section 215.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES § 215.4 Legal...

  17. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  18. Our Television--Conceptions and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hase, Karl-Gunther

    1978-01-01

    In response to public criticism of television broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany, audience dependency, network research findings, and broadcasting's role in society are discussed. A policy of unbiased programing in consideration of party-political pressure is reaffirmed, and some orientation points for future television work are…

  19. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  20. 32 CFR 989.4 - Initial considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.4 Initial considerations. Air Force personnel will: (a... CATEX from environmental impact analysis (appendix B). (c) Make environmental documents, comments, and... national security interests while at the same time considering important environmental factors....

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  2. Saturn V - Design Considerations and Launch Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Understand some of the design considerations that went into creating the Saturn V launch vehicle; b) Gain an appreciation for some of the manufacturing issues concerning the Saturn V; and c) Review three major problems that affected Saturn V launches.

  3. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  4. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  5. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  6. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  7. Perioperative considerations in Walker–Warburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valk, Madelous JA; Loer, Stephan A; Schober, Patrick; Dettwiler, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Walker–Warburg syndrome is a rare congenital disorder. Several features, including muscular dystrophy, hydrocephalus, and oropharyngeal abnormalities, have important implications in the perioperative setting. We present a case of general anesthesia in an infant and discuss perioperative considerations to guide clinicians faced with the management of patients with this syndrome. PMID:26401279

  8. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The contracting officer responsible for consent must, at a minimum, review the request and supporting data and consider the following: (1) Is the decision to subcontract consistent with the contractor's approved...

  9. 48 CFR 44.202-2 - Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate price competition obtained or its absence properly justified? (6) Did the contractor adequately... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-2 Considerations. (a) The contracting officer responsible for consent must, at a minimum, review the request and supporting data and...

  10. A Careful Consideration of the Calibration Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    106, 371–379 (2001)] A Careful Consideration of the Calibration Concept Volume 106 Number 2 March–April 2001 S. D. Phillips, W. T. Estler, T. Doiron ...variation evaluated in the (Type A) reproducibility study. About the authors: Steve Phillips, Tyler Estler, and Ted Doiron are physicists in the Precision

  11. Networked Learning: Design Considerations for Online Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2016-01-01

    The considerable increase in web-based knowledge networks in the past two decades is strongly influencing learning environments. Learning entails information retrieval, use, communication, and production, and is strongly enriched by socially mediated discussions, debates, and collaborative activities. It is becoming critical for educators to…

  12. Some Ethical Considerations Regarding Scholarly Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Gordon; Mallory, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Discusses ethical considerations and possible censorship that can accompany technological advances in the transmission of information among scholars. Topics addressed include academic ethics and academic library ethics; peer review and scholarly communication; controversies and the selection of library materials; academic whistle blowers; and…

  13. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  14. Adult Learners: Considerations for Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistler, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…

  15. 31 CFR 391.2 - Equitable considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equitable considerations. 391.2 Section 391.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... from home on an extended vacation or hospitalized. (b) Where an installment plan is contemplated...

  16. 15 CFR 1160.24 - Antitrust considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.24 Section 1160.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION...

  17. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the...

  18. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  19. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  20. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  1. 23 CFR 777.11 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.11 Other considerations. (a) The development of measures proposed to mitigate impacts to wetlands or natural habitats shall include consultation with appropriate... or natural habitats absent sufficient assurances, such as, but not limited to, deed restrictions,...

  2. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  3. 7 CFR 3430.909 - Other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 3430.909 Section 3430.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive...

  4. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    PubMed

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  5. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  6. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  7. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  8. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT...

  9. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    PubMed

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  10. Existential Considerations for Contemporary Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This article was written to remind career counselors of the potential depth and subjective impact of both unemployment and employment transitions. An existential framework is used in discussing today's world of work, previous and contemporary career counseling models, existential theory in career counseling, and existential considerations for…

  11. Fourteenth Amendment Considerations and Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Joyce

    The implementation of any competency testing program must take into consideration the due process clause and the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Examples of the violation of the due process clause would be to implement a testing program without adequate notice or to cover material not taught. Instructional validity must be…

  12. 10 CFR 60.130 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General considerations. 60.130 Section 60.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC..., maintenance, and performance requirements for structures, systems, and components important to safety...

  13. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  14. Yearling Bull Breeding Soundness Examination: Special Considerations.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Nora; Larson, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessment of yearling bulls is important for the bottom line of all interested parties: the buyer, the seller, and the veterinarian performing the BSE. Special considerations and current research are highlighted and their application to the evaluation of yearling bulls is discussed.

  15. Conversion Therapy: Ethical Considerations in Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…

  16. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... departures and an equivalent level of safety is provided. The OCMI of each marine inspection zone in which a vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN...

  17. Human factors considerations for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Even with traditional system design and development programs military systems are developed that end up being difficult for the target audience to use. Over the years the military has learned to incorporate human factors considerations and requirements in system requirements documents in order to minimize this problem. However in today's environment of procuring GOTS/COTS equipment to quickly field a needed capability, the human factors aspects are not always considered or they may have to be traded for other considerations. This occurs for a variety of reasons with the driving reason being the willingness of commanders and agencies to trade capabilities for speed of fielding. This paper addresses human factors considerations that should be observed in the design of unattended ground sensors (UGS) at the component, equipment and system levels. This is not an abstract paper on human factors engineering but an examination of current trends and applications. Lessons learned from recent fieldings and example designs from the Harris Falcon Watch system are provided. What Harris has found is that design considerations, development schedules, understanding of the target audience and the mission scenarios, and training are all key factors in determining whether a system will be found to have utility by a broad spectrum of users.

  18. Surviving the Downsizing: Ethical and Economic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Gerri

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the psychological and economic costs of downsizing, school administrators need planning and procedural guidelines. Administrators should have clear reduction-in-force policies, performance standards, employee development guidelines, and alternatives to layoffs. In the layoff mode, administrators should give careful consideration to those…

  19. 12 CFR 747.311 - Relevant considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relevant considerations. 747.311 Section 747.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... cause to believe that there may be an erosion of public confidence in the integrity, safety,...

  20. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... to an employee solely because of the application to him of a mileage or work restriction exist in train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other...

  1. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... to an employee solely because of the application to him of a mileage or work restriction exist in train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other...

  2. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.2 General considerations. (a) Classes of... to an employee solely because of the application to him of a mileage or work restriction exist in train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other...

  3. SEU and Test Considerations for FPGA Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Malanie

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), what they are, implementations in space missions, and current available technologies. Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and Single Event Transients (SETs) are discussed in relation to their effects on FPGAs. Testing goals, considerations, and data analysis are reviewed.

  4. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs.

  5. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs. PMID:26292154

  6. [Contemporaneous history: complex techniques of assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2007-05-01

    The work begins with historical considerations about the development of embryology at the beginning of the twentieth century and the vast advance obtained to the arriving of complex assisted reproductive techniques. Afterwards it is reviewed the development of variants and possibilities of the techniques. Finally, it is proposed four historic periods regarding the development of complex assisted reproductive technologies.

  7. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity.

  8. Statistical considerations when analyzing biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Biomarkers have become, and will continue to become, increasingly important to clinical immunology research. Yet, biomarkers often present new problems and raise new statistical and study design issues to scientists working in clinical immunology. In this paper I discuss statistical considerations related to the important biomarker problems of: 1) The design and analysis of clinical studies which seek to determine whether changes from baseline in a biomarker are associated with changes in a metabolic outcome; 2) The conditions that are required for a biomarker to be considered a "surrogate"; 3) Considerations that arise when analyzing whether or not a predictive biomarker could act as a surrogate endpoint; 4) Biomarker timing relative to the clinical endpoint; 5) The problem of analyzing studies that measure many biomarkers from few subjects; and, 6) The use of statistical models when analyzing biomarker data arising from count data.

  9. Plantar fasciitis: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Roxas, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition can have a dramatic impact on physical mobility. The etiology of this condition is not clearly understood and is probably multi-factorial in nature. Weight gain, occupation-related activity, anatomical variations, poor biomechanics, overexertion, and inadequate footwear are contributing factors. Although plantar fasciitis is generally regarded as a self-limited condition, it can take months to years to resolve, presenting a challenge for clinicians. Many treatment options are available that demonstrate variable levels of efficacy. Conservative therapies include rest and avoidance of potentially aggravating activities, stretching and strengthening exercises, orthotics, arch supports, and night splinting. Other considerations include use of anti-inflammatory agents, ultrasonic shockwave therapy, and, in the most extreme cases, surgery. This article reviews plantar fasciitis, presents the most effective treatment options currently available, and proposes nutritional considerations that may be beneficial in the management of this condition.

  10. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment.

  11. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  12. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  13. Prosthodontic Considerations in Post-cancer Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Boonsiriphant, Piriya; Hirsch, Joel A; Greenberg, Alex M; Genden, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    The restoration of function after oncologic surgery of the oral cavity constitutes one of the major challenges facing head and neck oncology. Within the general objective of securing esthetic as well as functional reconstructions, dental rehabilitation is crucial for achieving a good outcome. Adequate dental rehabilitation allows the patient to chew food and considerably improves speech and swallowing. These reconstructions will be driven biologically or prosthetically following surgical design and outcome.

  14. United States Chemical Policy: Response Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    33. 1 0 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, The Problem of Chemical and Biological Yearbook . 1985 (New York: Oxford University Press...Deterring Chemical Warfare: U.S. Policy Options for the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon & Brassey , 1986. Stockholm International Peace Research...Policy: Response Considerations 6. AUTHOR( S ) MAJ Lewis L. VanDyke, USA 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  15. Considerations on automation of coating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; O'Donnell, Michael S.

    2015-04-01

    Most deposition chambers sold into the optical coating market today are outfitted with an automated control system. We surveyed several of the larger equipment providers, and nine of them responded with information about their hardware architecture, data logging, level of automation, error handling, user interface, and interfacing options. In this paper, we present a summary of the results of the survey and describe commonalities and differences together with some considerations of tradeoffs, such as between capability for high customization and simplicity of operation.

  16. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  17. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  18. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28184202

  20. Numerical considerations for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models: Eliminating rogue trajectories, and the importance of numerical accuracy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...

  1. Next Generation Science Standards: Considerations for Curricula, Assessments, Preparation, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief provides an overview of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), discusses policy considerations for adopting or adapting the new standards, and presents examples from states considering or implementing the NGSS. Changing academic standards is a complex process that requires significant investments of time, money, and human…

  2. [Special considerations in dental surgery procedures on organ transplantation patients].

    PubMed

    Schmelzeisen, R; Eckardt, A; Knoll, M; Girod, S

    1991-01-01

    In 150 patients 366 (95%) of 385 dental surgery procedures performed prior to organ transplantations were free of complications. In 6 patients circumscribed wound infections occurred, and 5 post-operative hemorrhages as well as 2 injection hematomas were observed. In the group of patients where dental surgery was performed after organ transplantation, all 123 procedures were free of complications. Treatment of transplantation patients in the dental office requires a profound understanding of the complex clinical problems these patients might present, a good coordination of the required measures and close cooperation between the transplantation center and the attending dentist. Special considerations of the treatment of organ transplantation patients and the indications for dental surgery are discussed.

  3. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, G S; Yang, Y; Wang, Y M; Ming, T F; Han, X; Liu, S C; Wang, E H; Liu, Y K; Yang, W J; Li, G Q; Hu, Q S; Gao, X

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  4. Design considerations for developing biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    2011-04-01

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. Candidate biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and microstructure, and effects as a cellular behavior can be a difficult and time-intensive process. A systems design approach has the power to provide significant contributions in the development of the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations, and hurdles for developing new cast magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials.

  5. Cochlear implant considerations in children with additional disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, C. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Early identification and management of disabilities in children are essential to reduce long-term developmental sequelae. Many of the causes of hearing loss also produce cognitive delays resulting in a large number of children with both deafness and developmental disabilities. Children who have hearing loss and additional disabilities require complex, individualized therapy to maximize their long-term quality of life. Hearing loss is often detected early because of widespread newborn hearing screening programs and the decision for cochlear implantation in children presenting with multiple medical and developmental disorders is still evolving. This article will review the literature regarding cochlear implant considerations in children with additional developmental disabilities in areas of family perception, speech and language development, cognitive development including adaptive behavior and intelligence, communication and functional skills, auditory outcomes, quality of life outcomes, predictors of outcomes and realistic expectations after cochlear implantation. PMID:23772353

  6. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  7. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Liu, Y. K.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.; Gao, X.

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  8. Considerations for Reporting Finite Element Analysis Studies in Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent M.; Halloran, Jason; Tadepalli, Srinivas C.; Morrison, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based medicine and the development of complex computer models of biological structures is becoming ubiquitous for advancing biomedical engineering and clinical research. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been widely used in the last few decades to understand and predict biomechanical phenomena. Modeling and simulation approaches in biomechanics are highly interdisciplinary, involving novice and skilled developers in all areas of biomedical engineering and biology. While recent advances in model development and simulation platforms offer a wide range of tools to investigators, the decision making process during modeling and simulation has become more opaque. Hence, reliability of such models used for medical decision making and for driving multiscale analysis comes into question. Establishing guidelines for model development and dissemination is a daunting task, particularly with the complex and convoluted models used in FEA. Nonetheless, if better reporting can be established, researchers will have a better understanding of a model’s value and the potential for reusability through sharing will be bolstered. Thus, the goal of this document is to identify resources and considerate reporting parameters for FEA studies in biomechanics. These entail various levels of reporting parameters for model identification, model structure, simulation structure, verification, validation, and availability. While we recognize that it may not be possible to provide and detail all of the reporting considerations presented, it is possible to establish a level of confidence with selective use of these parameters. More detailed reporting, however, can establish an explicit outline of the decision-making process in simulation-based analysis for enhanced reproducibility, reusability, and sharing. PMID:22236526

  9. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations Regarding the Use of Virus-Induced Carcinogenesis and Oncolytic Viral Models.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephanie D; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2016-01-01

    The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise. Responsible animal use integrates good science, humane care, and regulatory compliance. To meet those standards, the IACUC, in conjunction with the research investigator and attending veterinarian, must address a wide range of issues, including animal model selection, cancer model selection, humane end point considerations, experimental considerations, postapproval monitoring, reporting requirements, and animal management and personnel safety considerations.

  10. Considerations for the Next Revision of STRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of NASAs Software Defined Radio architecture, the Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS), was initiated in 2004 with a goal of reducing the cost, risk and schedule when implementing Software Defined Radios (SDR) for NASA space missions. Since STRS was first flown in 2012 on three Software Defined Radios on the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, only minor changes have been made to the architecture. Multiple entities have since implemented the architecture and have provided significant feedback for consideration for the next revision of the standard. The focus for the first set of updates to the architecture is items that enhance application portability. Items that require modifications to existing applications before migrating to the updated architecture will only be considered if there is compelling reasons to make the change. The significant suggestions that were further evaluated for consideration include expanding and clarifying the timing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), improving handle name and identification (ID) definitions and use, and multiple items related to implementation of STRS Devices. In addition to ideas suggested while implementing STRS, SDR technology has evolved significantly and this impact to the architecture needs to be considered. These include incorporating cognitive concepts - learning from past decisions and making new decisions that the radio can act upon. SDRs are also being developed that do not contain a General Purpose Module which is currently required for the platform to be STRS compliant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the comments received, provide a summary of the evaluation considerations, and examine planned dispositions

  11. Science policy considerations for responsible nanotechnology decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeff; Willis, Jim; de Martinis, Domenico; Hansen, Bjorn; Laursen, Henrik; Sintes, Juan Riego; Kearns, Peter; Gonzalez, Mar

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing literature on the use of science to inform decisions on the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but little has been published by those who make such decisions. Here, as officials of the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, we discuss the types of decision facing government regulators, the new considerations nanotechnology brings to decision-making, the role of science in informing decisions, how regulators cooperate internationally on policy issues, and the challenges that lie ahead.

  12. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  13. Bioreactor design considerations for hollow organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jeff; Halberstadt, Craig; McCoy, Darell W; Robbins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    There are many important considerations in the design, construction, and use of a bioreactor for growing hollow organs such as vessels, gastrointestinal tissue, esophagus, and others. The growth of new organs requires a specialized container that provides sterility and an environment conducive to cell-seeding and attachment onto a three-dimensional bioabsorbable porous scaffold, incubation, maturation, and shipping for implantation. The materials' selection, dimensions, manufacturing, testing, and use of the bioreactor are all factors that should be considered in designing a bioreactor for the development of hollow organs.

  14. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  15. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  16. Safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty.

    PubMed

    Giese, S Y

    2001-11-01

    Proper patient selection, diligent fluid management, and attention to body temperature are important safety considerations in large-volume lipoplasty (LVL). Complications related to fluid overload, lidocaine toxicity, coagulopathies, and lengthy combined surgical procedures are preventable and not directly linked to LVL technique. Benefits as well as morbidity and mortality from LVL can be weighed against risk factors such as obesity, a prediabetic condition, and/or adverse effects of weight-loss medications. The author describes how she incorporates safeguards into her LVL procedures. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:545-548.).

  17. Aesthetic considerations in algorithmic and generative composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Kerry L.

    Models of chance operations, random equations, stochastic processes, and chaos systems have inspired composers as historical as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. As these models advance and new processes are discovered or defined, composers continue to find new inspirations for musical composition. Yet, the relative artistic merits of some of these works are limited. This paper explores the application of extra-musical processes to the sonic arts and proposes aesthetic considerations from the point of view of the artist. Musical examples demonstrate possibilities for working successfully with algorithmic and generative processes in sound, from formal decisions to synthesis.

  18. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media.

  19. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  20. Conventional fire protection considerations in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    1985-01-01

    In Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) the presence of liquid alkali metals such as sodium or NaK precludes the utilization of conventional fire fighting agents in areas containing liquid metals. Also because of fundamental differences between an LMFBR plant layout and that of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant, special LMFBR fire protection guidelines were established. This report describes the design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) fire protection system. The report concludes with a description of the CRBRP fire protection design features major differences from LWRs.

  1. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process.

  2. Considerations for proper selection of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Simon, James F; Darnell, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper cement for sufficient bond strength has become progressively complicated as the number of different materials for indirect restorations has increased. The success of any restoration is highly dependent on the proper cement being chosen and used. The function of the cement is not only to seal the restoration on the tooth but also, in some cases, to support the retention of the restoration. This ability to strengthen retention varies by the cement chosen by the clinician; therefore, careful consideration must precede cement selection.

  3. Wing design with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Shrout, B. L.; Darden, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A CAD process that includes leading-edge thrust considerations for wings with high aerodynamic efficiencies is outlined. Rectangular grids are used for evaluation of both subsonic and supersonic pressure loadings. Account is taken of the Mach number, Re, the wing planform, the presence of camber, the airfoil geometry and the locations and forces induced by shed vortices. Optimization techniques are applied to the candidate surfaces in order to consider the attainable thrust. Inclusion of the optimization techniques permits analyses of mission-adaptive wings and various flap systems and the elimination of singularities in the flight envelope.

  4. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  7. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  8. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  9. Odour sampling 1: Physical chemistry considerations.

    PubMed

    Hudson, N; Ayoko, G A

    2008-07-01

    The selection of an odour sampling device may influence the composition of the resulting odour sample. Limited comparison of emission rates derived from turbulent and essentially quiescent sampling devices confirms that the emission rates derived from these devices are quite different. There is therefore compelling evidence that current odour sampling practice should have greater regard for fundamental physical and chemical principles, the nature of the odour source and the conditions created by the sampling device. Such consideration may identify the most appropriate situations under which the use of these devices may or may not be correct.

  10. Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

  11. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the ‘Facebook effect’ (the relative permanence of postings) and the ‘online disinhibition effect’. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media. PMID:23633902

  12. 12 CFR 907.13 - Consideration and Final Decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consideration and Final Decisions. 907.13... § 907.13 Consideration and Final Decisions. (a) Consideration by Board of Directors. The Board of... considering the Petition. Consideration of a Petition at a meeting shall be governed by the...

  13. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  14. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  15. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds. The right-hand panel ...

  16. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  17. The future of complexity engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

  18. Considerations on non equilibrium thermodynamics of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Nature can be considered the "first" engineer! For scientists and engineers, dynamics and evolution of complex systems are not easy to predict. A fundamental approach to study complex system is thermodynamics. But, the result is the origin of too many schools of thermodynamics with a consequent difficulty in communication between thermodynamicists and other scientists and, also, among themselves. The solution is to obtain a unified approach based on the fundamentals of physics. Here we suggest a possible unification of the schools of thermodynamics starting from two fundamental concepts of physics, interaction and flows.

  19. Coherence, Complexity and Creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, Fortunato Tito

    We review the ideas and experiments that established the onset of laser coherence beyond a suitable threshold. That threshold is the first of a chain of bifurcations in a non linear dynamics, leading eventually to deterministic chaos in lasers. In particular, the so called HC behavior has striking analogies with the electrical activity of neurons. Based on these considerations, we develop a dynamical model of neuron synchronization leading to coherent global perceptions. Synchronization implies a transitory control of neuron chaos. Depending on the time duration of this control, a cognitive agent has different amounts of awareness. Combining this with a stream of external inputs, one can point at an optimal use of internal resources, that is called cognitive creativity. While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. What is the relation among the three concepts in the title? While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. Creativity corresponds to a free selection of a coherence path within a complex nest. As sketched above, it seems dynamically related to chaos control.

  20. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  1. Neuroinflammation and Microglia: Considerations and approaches for neurotoxicity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Harry, G. Jean; Kraft, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The impact of an inflammatory response, as well as interactions between the immune and nervous systems, are rapidly assuming major roles in neurodegenerative disease and injury. However, it is now appreciated that the exact nature of such responses can differ with each type of insult and interaction. More recently, neuroinflammation and the associated cellular response of microglia are being considered for their contribution to neurotoxicity of environmental agents; yet, to date, the inclusion of inflammatory endpoints into neurotoxicity assessment have relied primarily on relatively limited measures or driven by in vitro models of neurotoxicity. Objective To present background information on relevant biological considerations of neuroinflammation and the microglia response demonstrating the complex integrative nature of these biological processes and raising concern with regards to translation of effects demonstrated in vitro to the in vivo situation. Specific points are addressed that would influence the design and interpretation of neuroinflammation with regards to neurotoxicology assessment. Conclusion There is a complex and dynamic response in the brain to regulate inflammatory processes and maintain a normal homeostatic level. The classification of such responses as beneficial or detrimental is an oversimplification. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes where subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. The tendency to over-interpret data obtained in an isolated culture system should be discouraged. Rather, the use of cross-disciplinary approaches to evaluate multiple endpoints should be incorporated into the assessment of inflammatory contributions to the neurotoxicity of environmental exposures. PMID:18798697

  2. Considerations for personal health record procurement.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses require tools and resources to facilitate self-management. Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a promising option for delivering these tools and resources to patients with chronic illnesses. As such, many organizations are becoming interested in PHR procurement. However, traditional procurement methods may not ensure the system success and adoption. In this study a group of subject matter experts discussed the possibility of converting a paper-based PHR into an electronic tool. These discussions resulted in generation of several important criteria for assessing commercially available PHR solutions and other considerations related to PHR procurement. These considerations should be contemplated and discussed with stakeholders prior to PHR procurement. In order to realize the benefits PHRs, it is imperative that the appropriate selection is made. Prior to purchase commitment, a trial period can prove extremely useful for performing usability analyses and ensuring interoperability. Supplementing traditional procurement methods with these preliminary user evaluations will increase the likelihood that the selected system best matches the needs of users and purchasers. Moreover, the risk of system failure and the risk of limited adoption of the PHR by the public will be reduced as a result of adopting these methods.

  3. Considerations for blending data from various sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Brian P.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    A project is being proposed at the EROS Data Center to blend the information from sensors aboard various satellites. The problems of, and considerations for, blending data from several satellite-borne sensors are discussed. System descriptions of the sensors aboard the HCMM, TIROS-N, GOES-D, Landsat 3, Landsat D, Seasat, SPOT, Stereosat, and NOSS satellites, and the quantity, quality, image dimensions, and availability of these data are summaries to define attributes of a multi-sensor satellite data base. Unique configurations of equipment, storage, media, and specialized hardware to meet the data system requirement are described as well as archival media and improved sensors that will be on-line within the next 5 years. Definitions and rigor required for blending various sensor data are given. Problems of merging data from the same sensor (intrasensor comparison) and from different sensors (intersensor comparison), the characteristics and advantages of cross-calibration of data, and integration of data into a product matrix field are addressed. Data processing considerations as affected by formation, resolution, and problems of merging large data sets, and organization of data bases for blending data are presented. Examples utilizing GOES and Landsat data are presented to demonstrate techniques of data blending, and recommendations for future implementation of a set of standard scenes and their characteristics necessary for optimal data blending are discussed.

  4. Physics Considerations for Double-Shell Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, W.; Montgomery, D. S.; Wilson, D.; Simakov, A.; Dodd, E.; Merritt, L.; Cardenas, T.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shell capsules offer an alternative approach for achieving burn on the National Ignition Facility. These capsules consist of a low-Z ablatively driven outer shell that converges a factor of 3 before colliding with a high-Z inner shell filled with liquid DT. Such targets permit short simple laser pulses using near vacuum hohlraum conditions, which have been shown to eliminate laser plasma instabilities, resulting in good coupling efficiency. The adiabat of the fuel is set predominantly by a single strong shock, followed by the nearly adiabatic compression of the fuel volume by a convergence ratio of 9 . In this talk, we present some key physics consideration for double-shell targets, including design constraints for optimizing the kinetic energy transfer to the inner shell. These basics considerations are confirmed by a series of 1D simulations, resulting in several optimized point designs. Two-dimensional simulations are employed to evaluate the influence of low-mode asymmetries, as well as the stability of both the outer and inner shells as the implosion proceeds.

  5. Design considerations for a space database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Lance M.

    1989-01-01

    Part of the information used in a real-time simulator is stored in the visual database. This information is processed by an image generator and displayed as a real-time visual image. The database must be constructed in a specific format, and it should efficiently utilize the capacities of the image generator that is was created for. A visual simulation is crucially dependent upon the success with which the database provides visual cues and recognizable scenes. For this reason, more and more attention is being paid to the art and science of creating effective real-time visual databases. Investigated here are the database design considerations required for a space-oriented real-time simulator. Space applications often require unique designs that correspond closely to the particular image-generator hardware and visual-database-management software. Specific examples from the databases constructed for NASA and its Evans and Sutherland CT6 image generator illustrate the various design strategies used in a space-simulation environment. These database design considerations are essential for all who would create a space database.

  6. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  7. Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

  8. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  9. Price and Value: Considerations for College Shoppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broh, C. Anthony; Ansel, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Parents and students recognize the value of a college degree. Increasingly, they are borrowing large sums of money to invest in the future. Their choices about how to save for college, where to attend college, how much and from where to borrow for college, and how to repay their loans, have grown more complex. Yet families work with incomplete…

  10. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  11. Rheological and Mechanical Considerations for Photovoltaic Encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-11-01

    Photovoltaic (pv) devices are encapsulated in polymeric materials not only for corrosion protection, but also for mechanical support. Even though ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) suffers from having both glass and melting phase transitions at temperatures experienced under environmental exposure, its low cost and good optical transmission made EVA the most commonly used material for PV modules. These transitions, however, cause EVA to embrittle at low temperatures (~ -15 deg C) and to be very soft at high temperatures (>40 deg C). From mechanical considerations, one would prefer a material that was relatively unchanged under a wide temperature range. This would produce a more predictable and reliable package. These concerns are likely to become more important as silicon based cells are made thinner.

  12. Current Considerations About the Elderly and Firearms

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, more than 17 million people aged 65 years or older own a firearm. They have the highest rate of suicide by a firearm, and recent data suggest that a disproportionate number apply to carry a concealed weapon. At least one new handgun has been designed and marketed for older people. Memory, thinking, and judgment as well as physical and behavioral competence issues related to an elderly person's safe operation of a motor vehicle apply to firearms, too. Gun availability can pose a particular risk to those with dementia and to their caretakers. The elderly constitute a substantial and rapidly growing population and market segment for whom the public health implications of firearm production, promotion, access, ownership, and use merit consideration. PMID:22390501

  13. Diagnostic radiology in the tropics: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; McLean, Ian Donald

    2011-11-01

    An estimated two thirds of the world's population is currently without access to diagnostic radiology services, and most of them live in resource-limited tropical regions with harsh environments. Most patients are diagnosed and treated in poorly equipped government-funded hospitals and clinics that have insufficiently trained staff and are barely operational. Any available imaging equipment is likely to be functioning suboptimally and be poorly maintained. The root of the problem is usually a lack of know-how and a quality culture, combined with insufficient basic equipment and infrastructure. Radiological imaging is an essential aspect of primary care and used in the critical diagnosis and management of trauma, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, and other respiratory and abdominal diseases. Considerations such as quality management and infrastructure, personnel, equipment, and radiation protection and safety are important to ensure the proper functioning and rational use of a diagnostic radiology facility in the tropics.

  14. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  15. Dust storms on Mars: Considerations and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; White, B. R.; Pollack, J. B.; Iverson, J. D.; Leach, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Aeolian processes are important in modifying the surface of Mars at present, and appear to have been significant in the geological past. Aeolian activity includes local and global dust storms, the formation of erosional features such as yardangs and depositional features such as sand dunes, and the erosion of rock and soil. As a means of understanding aeolian processes on Mars, an investigation is in progress that includes laboratory simulations, field studies of earth analogs, and interpretation of spacecraft data. This report describes the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel, an experimental facility established at NASA-Ames Research Center, and presents some results of the general investigation. Experiments dealing with wind speeds and other conditions required for the initiation of particle movement on Mars are described and considerations are given to the resulting effectiveness of aeolian erosion.

  16. Practical Considerations for Simultaneous LDV & PIV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothos, Stamatios; Boomsma, Aaron; Troolin, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements are useful for validation experiments and when correlating high temporal resolution measurements with large structures of the flow. Performing simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements can be a challenging task due to the differences in temporal and spatial resolution of each technique, as well as requirements for adequate signal. Even so, simultaneous hot-wire and PIV measurements is even more difficult. Unlike hot-wire, LDV is a non-intrusive technique that is unaffected by PIV laser light-sheet heating. Furthermore, hot-wire measurements are adversely affected by seeding particles in the flow required for PIV. In the present study, we discuss several practical considerations for performing simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements. We completed two separate experiments, each with different seeding densities, flow velocities, and working fluids. With these data sets, we studied the effects of temporal and spatial interpolation, up/down sampling, PIV window size and overlap on the simultaneous signals.

  17. Considerations in insulin delivery device selection.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Virginia; Kruger, Davida F

    2010-06-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes promote the use of insulin sooner rather than later in patients with type 2 diabetes to achieve goal range glucose control (< 7%) but remain silent on a recommendation for delivery system. Even though there is widespread consensus among experts and payers that people with type 2 diabetes should use insulin earlier to achieve tight control, it still remains an elusive goal. Benefits of pen-type delivery devices include accurate dosing, faster and easier setting of dose and injection times, and increased patient acceptance and adherence. Before healthcare professionals can recommend a delivery device, it is critical they understand not only the medication in the device but also the various features and benefits to the different devices available and how those impact the patient. We will present considerations to assist in making appropriate device selection, to optimize patient success.

  18. Considerations about our approach to obstetric psychoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, R; Volpe, B; Sichel, M P; Sandri, M; Sbrignadello, C; Fede, T

    1983-01-01

    Usually the term "obstetric psychoprophylaxis" refers to a specific method or technique. We prefer to consider it as a procedure that involves on one side the woman, the child and its family, and on the other the services entitled to give pre- and post-natal assistance. In order to realize this, a reformation of our methodological parameters and a critical analysis of the results obtained are required. In the courses of obstetric psychoprophylaxis that are held in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Padua we take into consideration the following themes: - Methodological approach - Professional training of the staff - Significance of psychosocial culture in the management of the pregnancy by the health services.

  19. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  20. Commercial considerations in uranium transactions - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1988-03-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium appears in a variety of forms including: ore, natural uranium concentrates, natural UF{sub 6}, enriched and depleted UF{sub 6}, enriched UO{sub 2} powder, pellets, fabricated fuel, and spent fuel. Less common forms include UF{sub 4} (green salt), natural UO{sub 2}, and uranium metal. Most uranium commerce, however, involves one or more of the following forms - natural uranium concentrates (referred to herein as {open_quotes}concentrates{close_quotes}), natural UF{sub 6}, and enriched UF{sub 6}. While uranium is normally considered fungible, uranium commerce is often circumscribed by such factors as: (1) Milling arrangements; (2) converters` policies and capabilities; (3) storage arrangements; (4) origin restrictions; and (5) ownership, possession and location considerations. This article reviews these factors and the resulting commercial implications associated with natural uranium concentrates. Future articles will cover natural UF{sub 6} and enriched UF{sub 6}.

  1. Nutritional considerations for the palliative care patient.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Clare; Eldridge, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Many palliative care patients experience nutritional problems as their conditions progress. This includes those with progressive neurological conditions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as advanced cancer. Nutritional issues not only impact patients physically but also psychologically and can also have an effect on those caring for them. It is important that patients are screened appropriately and that one identifies what symptoms are potentially affecting their intake. Decisions should always be patient-centred. Nutritional interventions range from food modification and nutritional supplements, to more intense methods such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, and these may have ethical and legal considerations. This article explores the nutritional issues faced by palliative patients, the ethical issues supporting decision-making and the methods of nutritional support available.

  2. MicroRNA profiling: approaches and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Colin C.; Cheng, Heather H.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (~22 nt long) that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms, in both normal physiologic and disease contexts. MiRNA expression profiling is gaining popularity because miRNAs, as key regulators in gene expression networks, can influence many biological processes and have also shown promise as biomarkers for disease. Technological advances have enabled the development of various platforms for miRNA profiling, and an understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches can aid in the effective use of miRNA profiling for diverse applications. We review here the major considerations for carrying out and interpreting results of miRNA profiling studies, as well as current and emerging applications of miRNA profiling. PMID:22510765

  3. Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JohnEric W.; Holmes, Megan E.; McAllister, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. PMID:26464898

  4. Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D A

    1978-01-01

    The problem of reducing the sugar content of sugary foods is presented from the food manufacturer's point of view. The distinction is made between the need for artificial sweeteners and the more pressing need for bulking agents with at least some of the technological properties of sugar. In view of the considerable sales success of sugarless confections, accounting for over an estimated 30,000,000 lbs. of sorbitol per annum, the clouded prospect for more general sugar substitution in other food categories is discussed with especial reference to the consequent problems in product claims and nomenclature, and the enormous expense of proving safety and dental claims. Finally, an overview of the competitive consumer and regulatory pressures is given, with an urgent appeal to the dental profession to take the initiative for guiding the food processor to dentally improved foods.

  5. Satellite sound broadcasting system study: Mobile considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the mobile reception part of a study to investigate a satellite sound broadcast system in the UHF or L bands. Existing propagation and reception measurements are used with proper interpretation to evaluate the signaling, coding, and diversity alternatives suitable for the system. Signal attenuation in streets shadowed by buildings appear to be around 29 db, considerably higher than the 10 db adopted by CCIR. With the marriage of proper technologies, an LMSS class satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability in UHF or L bands for high quality mobile and portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers. This scheme requires terrestrial repeaters for satisfactory mobile reception in urban areas. A specialized bandwidth efficient spread spectrum signalling technique is particularly suitable for the terrestrial repeaters.

  6. Pediatric Exposures to Ionizing Radiation: Carcinogenic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Lumen, Annie; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Children are at a greater risk than adults of developing cancer after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of their developing bodies and long life expectancy post-exposure, children require specific attention in the aftermath of nuclear accidents and when radiation is used for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In this review, we discuss the carcinogenic potential of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation from accidental, diagnostic, and therapeutic modalities. Particular emphasis is given to leukemia and thyroid cancers as consequences of accidental exposures. We further discuss the evidence of cancers that arise as a result of radiotherapy and conclude the review with a summary on the available literature on the links between computer tomography (CT) and carcinogenesis. Appropriate actions taken to mitigate or minimize the negative health effects of pediatric exposures to ionizing radiation and future considerations are discussed. PMID:27801855

  7. Narcissism and the self: psychoanalytic considerations.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the relation of narcissism to the concept of the self. Based on the concept of the self-as-person, distinction is drawn between the self as a substantial, relatively autonomous source of agency and of both conscious and unconscious mentation and action on one hand and the self as the object of narcissistic investment on the other. The argument presumes abandonment of both the concept of narcissism as libidinal drive cathexis of the self (the most common understanding of narcissism among analysts) and the converse proposition defining the self as derived from and reflecting narcissistic origins. It is proposed that development of self structure arises on the basis of other than narcissistic considerations, but once established it can become the object of narcissistic investment. As such the self cannot be reduced to or defined in terms of narcissistic derivation. Implications for the understanding of self-esteem are explored and clinical implications suggested.

  8. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  9. Theoretical considerations for oocyte cryopreservation by freezing.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Gregory M

    2007-06-01

    Attempts to cryopreserve oocytes by freezing have, to date, been based mostly on empirical approaches rather than on basic principles, and perhaps in part for this reason have not been very successful. Theoretical considerations suggest some fairly 'heretical' conclusions. The concentrations of permeating cryoprotectants employed in past studies have probably been inadequate, and the choice of propylene glycol (PG) as a protective agent is questionable. The use of non-penetrating agents, such as sucrose to preshrink oocytes prior to freezing and which, therefore, exacerbate osmotic stress during freezing, may be inappropriate, yet may protect in part by reducing the concentration of PG during freezing. The methods used to add and remove cryoprotectant may be suboptimal, and may be based on an inadequate understanding of the cryobiological constraints for oocyte survival. Given these concerns, it is not surprising that fully satisfactory results have been elusive, but there is every reason to believe that greater success is possible using a more theoretically appropriate approach.

  10. Yoga for osteoarthritis: nursing and research considerations.

    PubMed

    Taibi, Diana M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2012-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Current treatment guidelines recommend nonpharmacological approaches such as yoga for firstline treatment of OA. Yoga is a promising mind-body practice that includes physical postures, breathing practices, and meditative mental focus. This article presents the current evidence, as well as a proposed conceptual model for future research. Current research on yoga for OA is scant but promising, showing some evidence of reduced pain, sleep disturbance, and disability. The conceptual model described here proposes musculoskeletal effects (strengthening, flexibility, relaxation), reduction of autonomic arousal, and therapeutic cognitive patterns (distraction, mindfulness) as potentially important mechanisms of yoga. This article also describes considerations for patients and health care providers when evaluating the potential usefulness and safety of yoga programs: yoga style, instructor qualifications, and amount of time spent in yoga practice.

  11. Breast feeding: social, economic and medical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1983-10-01

    A certain attitude and lifestyle is needed if breast feeding is to be successful. It must have priority over all other activities save the very basic ones. The rural environment provides a situation in which breast feeding can flourish . With urbanisation and the accompanying change in lifestyle breast feeding becomes very difficult. Since successful breast feeding needs strong motivation, the change in attitude of urbanised wives makes it even more unlikely. The Singapore experience demonstrates this convincingly; even though awareness of the benefits of breast feeding is widespread, the motivation to breast feed is not. Remedial measures should take into consideration the need to motivate the mother and family, the prevention of commercial infant food companies influencing public opinion, and incentives for the working mothers to breast feed.

  12. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  13. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  14. Basic Considerations on Defining Safety Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Hakata, Tadakuni

    2003-06-15

    A study on considerations and strategies for developing safety goals applicable to all nuclear facilities is presented. A scheme of basic safety goals and subsidiary safety goals is assumed, and quantitative basic safety goals for radiation protection of individuals in the vicinity of nuclear facilities are discussed. The risk limit rules are based on comparative risk factors for various health effects, including annual dose, health detriments, acute fatality, latent cancers, and severe hereditary effects. The comparative factor of 1% is used for nonfatal health detriments and 0.1% for fatal effects. A risk limit profile is generated from the risk factors, biological effects, and statistics of injury and mortality rates from general causes. The approaches have potential for developing integrated and comprehensive safety goals.

  15. Design considerations for piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Brown, L F

    2000-01-01

    Much work has been published on the design of ultrasound transducers using piezoelectric ceramics, but a great deal of this work does not apply when using the piezoelectric polymers because of their unique electrical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to review and present new insight into seven important considerations for the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers: piezoelectric polymer materials selection, transducer construction and packaging requirements, materials characterization and modeling, film thickness and active area design, electroding selection, backing material design, and front protection/matching layer design. Besides reviewing these design considerations, this paper also presents new insight into the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic transducers. The design and fabrication of an immersible ultrasonic transducer, which has no adhesive layer between the active element and backing layer, is included. The transducer features direct deposition of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer onto an insulated aluminum backing substrate. Pulse-echo tests indicated a minimum insertion loss of 37 dB and -6 dB bandwidth of 9.8 to 22 MHz (71%). The use of polymer wear-protection/quarter-wave matching layers is also discussed. Test results on a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer showed that a Mylar/sup TM/ front layer provided a slight increase in pulse-echo amplitude of 15% (or 1.2 dB) and an increase in -6 dB pulse-echo fractional bandwidth from 86 to 95%. Theoretical derivations are reported for optimizing the active area of the piezoelectric polymer element for maximum power transfer at resonance. These derivations are extended to the special case for a low profile (i.e., thin) shielded transducer. A method for modeling the non-linear loading effects of a commercial pulser-receiver is also included.

  16. Proxies and Other External Raters: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A Lynn; Cook, Karon F; Lin, Pay-Shin; Morgan, Robert O; Magaziner, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the measurement and subsequent analysis considerations involved when using externally rated data. We will define and describe two categories of externally rated data, recommend methodological approaches for analyzing and interpreting data in these two categories, and explore factors affecting agreement between self-rated and externally rated reports. We conclude with a discussion of needs for future research. Data Sources/Study Setting Data sources for this paper are previous published studies and reviews comparing self-rated with externally rated data. Study Design/Data Collection/Extraction Methods This is a psychometric conceptual paper. Principal Findings We define two types of externally rated data: proxy data and other-rated data. Proxy data refer to those collected from someone who speaks for a patient who cannot, will not, or is unavailable to speak for him or herself, whereas we use the term other-rater data to refer to situations in which the researcher collects ratings from a person other than the patient to gain multiple perspectives on the assessed construct. These two types of data differ in the way the measurement model is defined, the definition of the gold standard against which the measurements are validated, the analysis strategies appropriately used, and how the analyses are interpreted. There are many factors affecting the discrepancies between self- and external ratings, including characteristics of the patient, the proxy, and of the rated construct. Several psychological theories can be helpful in predicting such discrepancies. Conclusions Externally rated data have an important place in health services research, but use of such data requires careful consideration of the nature of the data and how it will be analyzed and interpreted. PMID:16179002

  17. [Occult child abuse (opinions, considerations, personal observations)].

    PubMed

    Paci, A; Migliaccio, P; Paci, G

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the statement the authors point out some lesser aspects of child's ill-treatment (previously suggested by them in other occasions) as expressions of very strict educational systems which strongly limit childrens' freedom or impose them several extrascholastic activities (such as: athletics, music with participation in competitive examination, studies of foreign languages, Latin and so on) where the child must excel in (composex of the "leader-child"). Then these authors suggest using the term "abuse" to mean lexically every excessive, undue, arbitrary use and not only "sexual". They point out the seriousness of abuse as far as juvenile exploitation is concerned both in case of manual labour and prostitution. But the pay particularly attention to the problem of sport when it is gone in for too intensively (as athletics). These authors infact sum up the harms that sport can cause when it is gone in for during the age under the stabilized puberty. Physical harms may occur especially during the practice of risky sports such as: Alpine skiing, cycling on the road, swimming combined with diving, fencing, boxing) and during tiring condition, while psychic harms can entail a fall in scholastic performances, irritability, insomnia, anxiety. The authors depreciate the behaviour of those parents who stimulate their children' aggressiveness during competitions and scold them when their performances are insufficient, or give them forbidden stimulants of hormonal anabolic drugs instead of taking care of their children in order to keep away from the arms mentioned above. However, after all these observations and considerations about competitive sports in juvenile age, these authors can firmly state that all this could be meant as an important aspects of the juvenile exploitation that must be taken in great consideration.

  18. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  19. Large Scale CW ECRH Systems: Some considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erckmann, V.; Kasparek, W.; Plaum, B.; Lechte, C.; Petelin, M. I.; Braune, H.; Gantenbein, G.; Laqua, H. P.; Lubiako, L.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Michel, G.; Turkin, Y.; Weissgerber, M.

    2012-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is a key component in the heating arsenal for the next step fusion devices like W7-X and ITER. These devices are equipped with superconducting coils and are designed to operate steady state. ECRH must thus operate in CW-mode with a large flexibility to comply with various physics demands such as plasma start-up, heating and current drive, as well as configurationand MHD - control. The request for many different sophisticated applications results in a growing complexity, which is in conflict with the request for high availability, reliability, and maintainability. `Advanced' ECRH-systems must, therefore, comply with both the complex physics demands and operational robustness and reliability. The W7-X ECRH system is the first CW- facility of an ITER relevant size and is used as a test bed for advanced components. Proposals for future developments are presented together with improvements of gyrotrons, transmission components and launchers.

  20. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  1. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  2. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  3. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  4. Complex index of refraction estimation from degree of polarization with diffuse scattering consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hanyu; Voelz, David G; Cho, Sang-Yeon; Xiao, Xifeng

    2015-11-20

    The estimation of the refractive index from optical scattering off a target's surface is an important task for remote sensing applications. Optical polarimetry is an approach that shows promise for refractive index estimation. However, this estimation often relies on polarimetric models that are limited to specular targets involving single surface scattering. Here, an analytic model is developed for the degree of polarization (DOP) associated with reflection from a rough surface that includes the effect of diffuse scattering. A multiplicative factor is derived to account for the diffuse component and evaluation of the model indicates that diffuse scattering can significantly affect the DOP values. The scattering model is used in a new approach for refractive index estimation from a series of DOP values that involves jointly estimating n, k, and ρ(d)with a nonlinear equation solver. The approach is shown to work well with simulation data and additive noise. When applied to laboratory-measured DOP values, the approach produces significantly improved index estimation results relative to reference values.

  5. Major cultural-compatibility complex: considerations on cross-cultural dissemination of patient safety programmes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Pham, Julius C; Kim, Minji; Engineer, Cyrus; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    As the importance of patient safety has been broadly acknowledged, various improvement programmes have been developed. Many of the programmes with proven efficacy have been disseminated internationally. However, some of those attempts may encounter unexpected cross-cultural obstacles and may fail to harvest the expected success. Each country has different cultural background that has shaped the behavior of the constituents for centuries. It is crucial to take into account these cultural differences in effectively disseminating these programmes. As an organ transplantation requires tissue-compatibility between the donor and the recipient, there needs to be compatibility between the country where the program was originally developed and the nation implementing the program. Though no detailed guidelines exist to predict success, small-scale pilot tests can help evaluate whether a safety programme will work in a new cultural environment. Furthermore, a pilot programme helps reveal the source of potential conflict, so we can modify the original programme accordingly to better suit the culture to which it is to be applied. In addition to programme protocols, information about the cultural context of the disseminated programme should be conveyed during dissemination. Original programme designers should work closely with partnering countries to ensure that modifications do not jeopardise the original intention of the programme. By following this approach, we might limit barriers originating from cultural differences and increase the likelihood of success in cross-cultural dissemination.

  6. Growth and development considerations for craniomaxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Costello, Bernard J; Rivera, Reynaldo D; Shand, Jocelyn; Mooney, Mark

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of craniomaxillofacial surgery is to improve function, occlusion, craniofacial balance, and aesthetics. Accurate diagnosis, assessment, and careful treatment planning are essential in achieving a successful outcome, and an understanding of the pattern of facial growth is integral in this process. Patients with craniofacial congenital dysmorphologies, posttraumatic asymmetries, or disturbances of facial balance from radiation may have functional and/or aesthetic issues that require treatment. Understanding the complexities of growth in the skull and face is a key component to appropriate treatment planning for these disorders. This article reviews growth and development in the craniofacial skeleton.

  7. Drones--ethical considerations and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Drones enhance military capability and form a potent element of force protection, allowing humans to be removed from hazardous environments and tedious jobs. However, there are moral, legal, and political dangers associated with their use. Although a time may come when it is possible to develop a drone that is able to autonomously and ethically engage a legitimate target with greater reliability than a human, until then military drones demand a crawl-walk-run development methodology, consent by military personnel for weapon use, and continued debate about the complex issues surrounding their deployment.

  8. Special surgical considerations for functional brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Kekhia, Hussein; Rigolo, Laura; Norton, Isaiah; Golby, Alexandra J

    2011-04-01

    The development of functional mapping techniques gives neurosurgeons many options for preoperative planning. Integrating functional and anatomic data can inform patient selection and surgical planning and makes functional mapping more accessible than when only invasive studies were available. However, the applications of functional mapping to neurosurgical patients are still evolving. Functional imaging remains complex and requires an understanding of the underlying physiologic and imaging characteristics. Neurosurgeons must be accustomed to interpreting highly processed data. Successful implementation of functional image-guided procedures requires efficient interactions between neurosurgeon, neurologist, radiologist, neuropsychologist, and others, but promises to enhance the care of patients.

  9. Special Considerations in Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Stacey; Kostecky, Linda; Charania, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Care of infants supported with mechanical ventilation is complex, time intensive, and requires constant vigilance by an expertly prepared health care team. Current evidence must guide nursing practice regarding ventilated neonates. This article highlights the importance of common language to establish a shared mental model and enhance clear communication among the interprofessional team. Knowledge regarding the underpinnings of an open lung strategy and the interplay between the pathophysiology and individual infant's response to a specific ventilator strategy is most likely to result in a positive clinical outcome.

  10. Perioperative and Anesthetic Considerations in Ebstein's Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ross, Faith J; Latham, Gregory J; Richards, Michael; Geiduschek, Jeremy; Thompson, Douglas; Joffe, Denise

    2016-03-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a complex and heterogeneous form of congenital heart disease characterized by malformation and apical displacement of the tricuspid valve leaflets. Patients may present at any time from the neonatal period to adulthood with symptoms ranging from cardiac failure and cyanosis to paroxysmal arrhythmias. Depending on the timing of presentation, various surgical options are available for the management of symptomatic patients. This review will discuss the perioperative and anesthetic management of patients with Ebstein's anomaly with reference to the more common surgical approaches.

  11. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  12. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  13. Ethical, social, and cultural considerations for site selection for research with genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lavery, James V; Harrington, Laura C; Scott, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in technology have made strategies for disease control using genetically modified (GM) vectors more plausible. Selecting an appropriate field site for research with GM mosquitoes may be one of the most complex and significant aspects of the research process. Among the key considerations of the process is the need to address ethical, legal, and cultural (ESC) issues. No guidelines have been developed to date for this complicated and sensitive process. In this paper, we describe a site selection process and a set of preliminary considerations for addressing the ESC aspects of a research program involving genetic strategies for the control of mosquitoes as vectors for dengue viruses. These considerations reflect some of the key ESC issues for site selection decisions for research with GM vectors.

  14. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  15. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-12-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI.

  16. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems.

  17. Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.

  18. Design Considerations for High Temperature Power Inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2005-01-01

    A uniform B-field approximation model is used to develop design formulas for single-layer wound, toroidal core, ac power inductors that must handle a specified current. Such a geometry is well suited for high temperature, high frequency inductors, where removal of heat from the core becomes critical. Explicit expressions are derived for core radii, core and winding volumes, winding turns and core permeability as functions of a dimensional scaling ratio (S). A limit on the maximum allowed core B-field leads to the result that the minimum core volume is proportional to the permeability, which has a lower bound. Plots versus S are provided for a specific case, to show that good designs can be picked in the overlap regions around the minima in mass and overall size, where the mass and size are relatively flat. Data to 250 C are presented for an MPP core based inductor to show that a quasi-linear, high temperature inductor can be constructed with available materials. A similar development is applied to a toroidal air-core geometry, showing that for the same ratings, such an inductor is considerably bigger and more massive, at least in the single-layer version.

  19. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  20. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Seeding materials: Health and safety considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of a proper seeding material for laser velocimeters must include health and safety considerations. Failure to do so can lead to catastrophic results. All materials are toxic, and laser velocimeter seeding materials are no exception. Toxicity may be considered an inherent property of a given material. The manifestation of that property or the physiological response to the material is dependent on dose and exposure conditions. An approximate physiological classification of toxicity is given in tablular form. Toxicity in some situations is not necessarily the most restrictive factor in selection of materials. It is also very important to consider how the material is used so that actual exposure to the material in a damaging form can result. For example, nickel and cadmium are both extremely toxic as systemic poisons and in the case of nickel as a carcinogen. Seeding materials are dispersed in air under conditions that favor personnel exposure. Dispersal equipment is frequently if not normally manned, and personnel are often required to make frequent adjustments to assure proper operations.

  2. [Management of eyelid tumors: general considerations].

    PubMed

    Lasudry, J

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the majority of eyelid tumors are benign, proper management in daily practice requires detection of the malignant ones. Several clinical criteria are usually proposed to support or reject a hypothesis of malignancy; however, most are of limited reliability. In any case of doubt, outpatient biopsy is recommended, so as to establish the correct diagnosis and formulate the most appropriate treatment plan. In all facial malignancies, the first (and absolutely mandatory) consideration is control of the cancer. Then, restoration of eyelid function can be addressed, in the following order: protection of the globe by complete dynamic eyelid closure and opening, visual function (and prevention of possible deprivation amblyopia) by insuring a clear visual axis, correction of the tear film, efficient lachrymal drainage, and only then the role of the eyelids in facial expression and esthetics. For most malignant eyelid tumors, the best assurance of complete excision is obtained by extemporaneous examination of the resection margins by frozen section (by Mohs' micrographic surgery techniques, or a variation thereof). Currently, advancement and transposition flaps, possibly in combination with tarso-conjunctival or skin grafts, are the most utilised techniques. Despite the lack of histological verification, new treatment modalities, including topical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy, may provide interesting treatment options, particularly in collaboration with the dermatologist.

  3. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964

  4. Display Considerations For Intravascular Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessert, James M.; Krinke, Charlie; Mallery, John A.; Zalesky, Paul J.

    1989-08-01

    A display has been developed for intravascular ultrasonic imaging. Design of this display has a primary goal of providing guidance information for therapeutic interventions such as balloons, lasers, and atherectomy devices. Design considerations include catheter configuration, anatomy, acoustic properties of normal and diseased tissue, catheterization laboratory and operating room environment, acoustic and electrical safety, acoustic data sampling issues, and logistical support such as image measurement, storage and retrieval. Intravascular imaging is in an early stage of development so design flexibility and expandability are very important. The display which has been developed is capable of acquisition and display of grey scale images at rates varying from static B-scans to 30 frames per second. It stores images in a 640 X 480 X 8 bit format and is capable of black and white as well as color display in multiplevideo formats. The design is based on the industry standard PC-AT architecture and consists of two AT style circuit cards, one for high speed sampling and the other for scan conversion, graphics and video generation.

  5. Some geophysical considerations in radioisotope dating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Radioisotope dating only assumes radioactive decay laws are taking place allowing closed form solutions to be obtained in generating a sample date estimate. To be discussed in this work is the isotopic distribution expected in geological samples due to mass diffusion superimposed on that from simple radioactive decay. By taking into consideration the isotope effect (differential mass diffusion rates) when measuring isotopic ratios from very old samples, the distribution dependency will cause a bias if isotopic diffusion rates are not identical throughout a material (or at least across the boundaries of all samples measured). The isotope effect being that isotopes having a smaller atomic mass will diffuse faster in a medium than will their heavier counterparts causing concentration gradients of their ratios even when there are no contributions from radioactive decay which will tend to bias all sample ages (slopes of the isochron) to have a more linear distribution. The application to Sr/Rb dating is evaluated and shown to result in expected age overestimates. Suggested methods to test for this effect along with sample preparation techniques to minimize it are discussed. Special thanks the NCSU Nuclear Engineering Department.

  6. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  7. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  8. Theoretical consideration of methane emission from sediments.

    PubMed

    Bazhin, N M

    2003-01-01

    A stationary theory of gas emission from sedimentary (active) layers of wetlands is developed. The theory takes into account methane generation in a sedimentary layer (W1) and its depth dependence, (W1(z)), the solubility, determined by Henry's constant (K1), and the mobility of methane molecules set by the methane diffusion coefficient (D1). The exponential dependence of methane generation rate decay with depth is considered in more detail. The penetration of atmospheric nitrogen into the active layer is also taken into consideration. It is shown that the value of diffusion methane flux from sedimentary layers is proportional to square root(K1D1P0W10) where P0 characterizes the atmospheric pressure and W10 characterizes the maximum generation rate. Coefficients relating the diffusion methane flux to the square root(K1D1P0W10) value are calculated for the different depth dependencies of methane generation rate. The values of these coefficients are not much different from unity for most real cases.

  9. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.A.; Wilder, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand.

  10. Theoretical considerations and measurements for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Jie

    2008-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in current optometry practice. The quality and verification of the instrument are of the utmost importance. In 1997, International Organization for Standardization published the first ISO standard for requirements of phoropters. However, in China, few standard and test method are suggested for phoropters. Research work on test method for phoropters was carried out early in 2004 by China National Institute of Metrology. In this paper, first, structure of phoropters is described. Then, theoretical considerations for its optical design are analyzed. Next, a newly developed instrument is introduced and measurements are taken. By calibration, the indication error of the instrument is not over 0.05m-1. Finally, measurement results show that the quality situation of phoropters is not as good as expected because of production and assembly error. Optical design shall be improved especially for combinations of both spherical and cylindrical lenses with higher power. Besides, optical requirements specified in ISO standard are found to be a little strict and hard to meet. A proposal for revision of this international standard is drafted and discussed on ISO meeting of 2007 held in Tokyo.

  11. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix...) Pt. 356, App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities A.... Tax Considerations Treasury inflation-protected securities and the stripped interest and...

  12. 46 CFR 92.01-15 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 92.01-15 Section 92.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 92.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will...

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.206-1 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General considerations...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206-1 General considerations. In determining requirements for shelf-life items, the following elements should be taken into consideration: (a) Assigned storage...

  14. 17 CFR 201.401 - Consideration of stays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of stays. 201... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Appeal to the Commission and Commission Review § 201.401 Consideration of stays... consideration. Where the action complained of has already taken effect and the motion for stay is filed...

  15. 46 CFR 72.01-20 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 72.01-20 Section 72.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 72.01-20 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will be given to...

  16. 46 CFR 190.01-15 - Special consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 190.01-15 Section 190.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 190.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  18. 48 CFR 750.7106-2 - Amendments without consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consideration. 750.7106-2 Section 750.7106-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7106-2 Amendments without consideration. (a) Where an... of performance, considerations of fairness may make appropriate some adjustment in the contract....

  19. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  1. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  3. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations? General. Interest on savings bonds is subject to taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,...

  5. 40 CFR 122.49 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 122... Conditions § 122.49 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply... must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular...

  6. 40 CFR 270.3 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 270... Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of... applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular permit conditions or requires the denial of...

  7. 48 CFR 6101.28 - Full Board consideration [Rule 28].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Effect of motion. A pending request for full Board consideration, whether initiated by a party or by the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Full Board consideration..., GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.28 Full Board consideration . (a) Requests...

  8. Cost/feasibility considerations for off-shore engineering/construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sturges, R.K.; Harrison, J.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Considerable construction activity is now occurring in areas of the world where in-country engineering/construction capability is limited. This limitation requires the use of off-shore capabilities in conjunction with local engineering contractors (LEC's) to satisfy local legal requirements for use of on-shore services. While LEC's can provide the advantage of relatively inexpensive labor, it also brings the challenge of managing an international team given the difference in productivity and cultures. Procurement of equipment worldwide also has advantages and disadvantages. Government regulations relative to equipment purchased off-shore can be complex. Shipping considerations are significant when the existing infrastructure is taken into account, particularly when modular construction techniques are utilized. Understanding the contractual and documentation required takes a major effort. This paper addresses the complexities of off-shore engineering/construction from a management and cost perspective.

  9. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  10. Strategy for genotoxicity testing--metabolic considerations.

    PubMed

    Ku, Warren W; Bigger, Anita; Brambilla, Giovanni; Glatt, Hansruedi; Gocke, Elmar; Guzzie, Peggy J; Hakura, Atsushi; Honma, Masamitsu; Martus, Hans-Joerg; Obach, R Scott; Roberts, Stanley

    2007-02-03

    The report from the 2002 International Workshop on Genotoxicity Tests (IWGT) Strategy Expert Group emphasized metabolic considerations as an important area to address in developing a common strategy for genotoxicity testing. A working group convened at the 2005 4th IWGT to discuss this area further and propose practical strategy recommendations. To propose a strategy, the working group reviewed: (1) the current status and deficiencies, including examples of carcinogens "missed" in genotoxicity testing, established shortcomings of the standard in vitro induced S9 activation system and drug metabolite case examples; (2) the current status of possible remedies, including alternative S9 sources, other external metabolism systems or genetically engineered test systems; (3) any existing positions or guidance. The working group established consensus principles to guide strategy development. Thus, a human metabolite of interest should be represented in genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing, including evaluation of alternative genotoxicity in vitro metabolic activation or test systems, and the selection of a carcinogenicity test species showing appropriate biotransformation. Appropriate action triggers need to be defined based on the extent of human exposure, considering any structural knowledge of the metabolite, and when genotoxicity is observed upon in vitro testing in the presence of metabolic activation. These triggers also need to be considered in defining the timing of human pharmaceutical ADME assessments. The working group proposed two strategies to consider; a more proactive approach, which emphasizes early metabolism predictions to drive appropriate hazard assessment; and a retroactive approach to manage safety risks of a unique or "major" metabolite once identified and quantitated from human clinical ADME studies. In both strategies, the assessment of the genotoxic potential of a metabolite could include the use of an alternative or optimized in vitro

  11. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  12. Special Considerations for Multiple Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Pasquina, Paul F; Miller, Matthew; Carvalho, A J; Corcoran, Michael; Vandersea, James; Johnson, Elizabeth; Chen, Yin-Ting

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 1.6 million individuals in the United States have undergone at least one amputation. The literature abounds with research of the classifications of such injuries, their etiologies, epidemiologies, treatment regimens, average age of onset (average age of amputation), and much more. The subpopulation that is often overlooked in these evaluations, however, is comprised of individuals who have suffered multiple limb loss. The challenges faced by those with single-limb loss are amplified for those with multiple limb loss. Pain, lifestyle adjustment, and quality of life return are just a few key areas of concern in this population. Along with amputations resulting from trauma, many individuals with multiple amputations have endured them as a result of dysvascular disease. Over recent years, amputations as a result of dysvascular disease have risen to comprise more than 80 % of new amputations occurring in the United States every year. This compares to just 54 % of total current prevalence. Those with diabetes comorbid with dysvascular disease make up 74 % of those with dysvascular amputations, and these individuals with diabetes comorbid with dysvascular disease have a 55 % chance of enduring an amputation of their contralateral limb within 2-3 years of their initial amputation. With the well-documented aging of the nation's population and the similarly skyrocketing prevalence of dysvascular disease and diabetes, it can be expected that the number of individuals with multiple limb loss will continue to increase in the United States. This article outlines the recommended measures of care for this particular subpopulation, including pain management, behavioral health considerations, strategies for rehabilitation for various levels and variations of multiple limb loss, and the assistive technology and adaptive equipment that might be available for these individuals to best enable them to continue healthy, fulfilling lives following

  13. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  14. Design considerations for healthcare simulation facilities.

    PubMed

    Seropian, Michael; Lavey, Robert

    2010-12-01

    The number of simulation facilities across the United States and internationally is growing rapidly. The capital investment required can be substantive regardless of size. This article focuses on ways to optimize expenditures and maximize utility. Several key factors will play decisive roles in the successful launch of a new simulation facility. Mission/vision, budget, functional need, and space are partners in determining the final design of the simulation facility. Ideally, the budget is based on the functional requirements and desired capacity; but when this is not the case, of course, the owner must prioritize the needs of the new center. The type of space allocated for the facility is also critical and can seriously impact the budget because renovating a space that is fitted for another purpose versus constructing the center in an open shell space can add considerable cost. A well-balanced design team led by a diligent and knowledgeable project manager who can keep the team focused is integral to the success of designing and constructing a new facility. Users should inform themselves about each of the issues that a design team may consider to ensure that the issues are resolved in a way that meets the needs and vision of the program(s). A simulation facility, such as any education facility, should be built around the concepts of the overall mission, vision, and values of the institution(s) and stakeholder(s). For any new educational facility to be a success, the thoughts, ideas, and creativity of the owner, users, and stakeholders must find its way into the ultimate built environment. The experience base of simulation facility design is fragmented and not standardized. Therefore, we live at a time where the risk of ineffective design is higher than one would like given the costs involved. It behooves the owner to set parameters with the planning and design team that they want a balanced, controlled, collaborative, and inclusive design process.

  15. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGES

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; ...

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  16. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocols and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.

  17. Practice considerations in providing cancer risk assessment and genetic testing in women's health.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Suzanne M; Crecelius, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Providers of women's health services are often confronted with questions about cancer genetic testing. The provision of these services is complex. The process begins with accurate risk assessment and identification of individuals who might benefit from genetic testing services. There are practice, administrative, legal, and ethical considerations that should be considered when developing policies for the referral of at-risk individuals or before deciding to provide genetic services.

  18. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-08-21

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.

  19. Telemedicine: socio-ethical considerations in the Indian milieu.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Luv K; Rajput, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine is the rapidly developing application of clinical medicine by telephone, the internet or other networks for the purpose of consulting, and on occasions carrying out examinations or medical procedures. Telemedicine may be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over the telephone, or as complex as using satellite technology and video-conferencing equipment to conduct a real-time consultation between medical specialists in two different countries. Telemedicine offers real benefits in a country as vast as India where the majority of the population lives in remote areas with no access to even the most basic healthcare. As the practice of telemedicine spreads, maintaining standards, security and privacy, will be a challenge especially with regard to legal and regulatory measures and who will be held responsible if telemedicine-assisted surgery fails due to failure in connectivity? Is it the surgeon, the satellite provider or the software/hardware engineer? What is the legal status of telemedicine-based diagnosis and treatment? Other legal issues involve conflicting national laws and information piracy, the dangers of prescription drugs that are banned in one country but not in another and quacks who offer medical advice and prescribe drugs over the internet. This paper discusses some of the legal, ethical and social considerations in the Indian context.

  20. Automation and robotics considerations for a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Soloway, Donald I.; McKinney, William S., Jr.; Cornils, Karin; Doggett, William R.; Cooper, Eric G.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1992-09-01

    An envisioned lunar outpost shares with other NASA missions many of the same criteria that have prompted the development of intelligent automation techniques with NASA. Because of increased radiation hazards, crew surface activities will probably be even more restricted than current extravehicular activity in low Earth orbit. Crew availability for routine and repetitive tasks will be at least as limited as that envisioned for the space station, particularly in the early phases of lunar development. Certain tasks are better suited to the untiring watchfulness of computers, such as the monitoring and diagnosis of multiple complex systems, and the perception and analysis of slowly developing faults in such systems. In addition, mounting costs and constrained budgets require that human resource requirements for ground control be minimized. This paper provides a glimpse of certain lunar base tasks as seen through the lens of automation and robotic (A&R) considerations. This can allow a more efficient focusing of research and development not only in A&R, but also in those technologies that will depend on A&R in the lunar environment.

  1. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: current considerations and expectations.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Benson, D Woodrow; Dubin, Anne M; Cohen, Meryl S; Maxey, Dawn M; Mahle, William T; Pahl, Elfriede; Villafañe, Juan; Bhatt, Ami B; Peng, Lynn F; Johnson, Beth Ann; Marsden, Alison L; Daniels, Curt J; Rudd, Nancy A; Caldarone, Christopher A; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Morales, David L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Gaynor, J William; Tweddell, James S; Deal, Barbara J; Furck, Anke K; Rosenthal, Geoffrey L; Ohye, Richard G; Ghanayem, Nancy S; Cheatham, John P; Tworetzky, Wayne; Martin, Gerard R

    2012-01-03

    In the recent era, no congenital heart defect has undergone a more dramatic change in diagnostic approach, management, and outcomes than hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). During this time, survival to the age of 5 years (including Fontan) has ranged from 50% to 69%, but current expectations are that 70% of newborns born today with HLHS may reach adulthood. Although the 3-stage treatment approach to HLHS is now well founded, there is significant variation among centers. In this white paper, we present the current state of the art in our understanding and treatment of HLHS during the stages of care: 1) pre-Stage I: fetal and neonatal assessment and management; 2) Stage I: perioperative care, interstage monitoring, and management strategies; 3) Stage II: surgeries; 4) Stage III: Fontan surgery; and 5) long-term follow-up. Issues surrounding the genetics of HLHS, developmental outcomes, and quality of life are addressed in addition to the many other considerations for caring for this group of complex patients.

  3. Design considerations for medical devices in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Kaufman-Rivi, Diana; Collins-Mitchell, Janette; Jetley, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    Patient demographics, economic forces, and technological advancements contribute to the rise in home care services. Advanced medical devices and equipment originally designed for use by trained personnel in hospitals and clinics are increasingly migrating into the home. Unlike the clinical setting, the home is an uncontrolled environment with additional hazards. The compatibility of the device with the recipient's knowledge, abilities, lifestyle, and home environment plays a significant role in their therapy and rehabilitation. The advent of new device technologies such as wireless devices and interoperability of systems lends a new and complex perspective for medical device use in the home that must also be addressed. Adequately assessing and matching the patient and their caregiver with the appropriate device technology while considering the suitability of the home environment for device operation and maintenance is a challenge that relies on good human factors principles. There is a need to address these challenges in the growing home care sector In this article, the authors take a look at some important considerations and design issues for medical devices used in the home care environment.

  4. Methodological considerations for designing a community water fluoridation cessation study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sonica; Farmer, Julie; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-22

    High-quality, up-to-date research on community water fluoridation (CWF), and especially on the implications of CWF cessation for dental health, is limited. Although CWF cessation studies have been conducted, they are few in number; one of the major reasons is the methodological complexity of conducting such a study. This article draws on a systematic review of existing cessation studies (n=15) to explore methodological considerations of conducting CWF cessation studies in future. We review nine important methodological aspects (study design, comparison community, target population, time frame, sampling strategy, clinical indicators, assessment criteria, covariates and biomarkers) and provide recommendations for planning future CWF cessation studies that examine effects on dental caries. There is no one ideal study design to answer a research question. However, recommendations proposed regarding methodological aspects to conduct an epidemiological study to observe the effects of CWF cessation on dental caries, coupled with our identification of important methodological gaps, will be useful for researchers who are looking to optimize resources to conduct such a study with standards of rigour.

  5. Cytopathologic characteristics and differential diagnostic considerations of osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Matsunaga, Toru

    2014-09-01

    Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare variant of conventional ependymoma found predominantly in the sacrococcygeal region in young adults and characterized by its distinct epithelial and stromal components (WHO grade I designation). MPE with extensive osteolysis is extremely uncommon and only up to 40 cases have been documented. A case is presented here in which imprint smears of a sacral tumor in an 18-year-old man revealed complex papillary structures, small loose clusters, or cord-like structures of bland tumor cells embedded in a myxoid or mucinous background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and occasional intracytoplasmic vacuoles were observed. A cytologic diagnosis of a MPE was suggested and histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed diffuse and strong membranous and cytoplasmic staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary protein, and S-100 protein, but negative for epithelial membrane antigen, pan-neuroendocrine markers (i.e., NSE, chromogranin A, synaptophysin), or brachyury. The proliferative index with MIB-1 was around 10%. The diagnosis of osteolytic MPE was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological, immunohistochemical results, radiologic findings, and the location of the tumor. We demonstrated here the cytopathological features of osteolytic MPE with emphasis on differential diagnostic considerations.

  6. Sensor and actuator considerations for precision, small machines: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S T; Seugling, R M

    2005-04-04

    This article reviews some design considerations for the scaling down in size of instruments and machines with a primary aim to identify technologies that may provide more optimal performance solutions than those, often established, technologies used at macroscopic, or conventional, scales. Dimensional metrology within emerging applications will be considered for meso- through micro-down to nanometer level systems with particular emphasis on systems for which precision is directly related to function. In this paper, attention is limited to some of the more fundamental issues associated with scaling. For example, actuator work or power densities or the effect of noise on the sensor signals can be readily evaluated and provide some guidance in the selection for any given size of device. However, with reductions in scale these parameters and/or phenomena that limit performance may change. Within this review, the authors have tried to assess these complex inter-relationships between performance and scale, again from a fundamental perspective. In practice, it is likely that the nuances of implementation and integration of sensor, actuator and/or mechanism designs will determine functionality and commercial viability of any particular system development.

  7. Ethical considerations in clinical training, care and research in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D

    2011-04-01

    Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training.

  8. Esthetic considerations in interdental papilla: remediation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anita Angela; Park, Jae Hyun

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews the etiology and treatment of open gingival embrasures or black triangles. An open gingival embrasure or black triangle occurs as a result of a deficiency of papilla beneath the contact point. The treatment of open embrasures may require restorative, orthodontic and periodontal considerations depending on the underlying etiology. The authors reviewed a total of 42 articles including review of literature, radiographic, cross-sectional, and retrospective studies in Ovid search engine using the terms "open gingival embrasure,"interdental papilla," and "black triangle." The studies provided information regarding etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of open embrasures. There are several risk factors leading to the development of open gingival embrasures. These factors include aging, periodontal disease, loss of height of the alveolar bone relative to the interproximal contact, length of embrasure area, root angulations, interproximal contact position, and triangular-shaped crowns. Treatment of open embrasures requires an interdisciplinary approach of orthodontic, periodontic, and restorative treatment. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Open gingival embrasures are complex esthetic and functional problems. An interdisciplinary team approach with the general dentist, orthodontist, and periodontist is critical. Management of open embrasures requires careful evaluation of the underlying etiology.

  9. Gene therapy for cancer: regulatory considerations for approval.

    PubMed

    Husain, S R; Han, J; Au, P; Shannon, K; Puri, R K

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly changing field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments for cancer patients. Advances in genetic modification of cancer and immune cells and the use of oncolytic viruses and bacteria have led to numerous clinical trials for cancer therapy, with several progressing to late-stage product development. At the time of this writing, no gene therapy product has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Some of the key scientific and regulatory issues include understanding of gene transfer vector biology, safety of vectors in vitro and in animal models, optimum gene transfer, long-term persistence or integration in the host, shedding of a virus and ability to maintain transgene expression in vivo for a desired period of time. Because of the biological complexity of these products, the FDA encourages a flexible, data-driven approach for preclinical safety testing programs. The clinical trial design should be based on the unique features of gene therapy products, and should ensure the safety of enrolled subjects. This article focuses on regulatory considerations for gene therapy product development and also discusses guidance documents that have been published by the FDA.

  10. Practical considerations for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Carmel M; Hart, Bruce W

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a well established class of therapeutics as evidenced by a large number of FDA approved mAbs for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal antibodies that are molecularly engineered for enhanced functions and pharmacokinetic properties are routinely being considered for development by many biotechnology companies. Safety evaluation of current generation of mAbs poses new challenges due to the highly complex nature of engineering aspects and variability induced by the diverse recombinant cell systems to generate them. This review provides a basic outline for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic antibodies. Important considerations for planning a preclinical program, the types of nonclinical safety studies, and a general timeline for their conduct in relation to clinical trials are described. A list of relevant regulatory documents issued by government agencies is also provided. Adoption of these principles will greatly enhance the quality and relevance of the nonclinical safety data generated and will facilitate future development of mAb therapeutics. PMID:20046568

  11. Automation and robotics considerations for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Soloway, Donald I.; Mckinney, William S., Jr.; Cornils, Karin; Doggett, William R.; Cooper, Eric G.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    An envisioned lunar outpost shares with other NASA missions many of the same criteria that have prompted the development of intelligent automation techniques with NASA. Because of increased radiation hazards, crew surface activities will probably be even more restricted than current extravehicular activity in low Earth orbit. Crew availability for routine and repetitive tasks will be at least as limited as that envisioned for the space station, particularly in the early phases of lunar development. Certain tasks are better suited to the untiring watchfulness of computers, such as the monitoring and diagnosis of multiple complex systems, and the perception and analysis of slowly developing faults in such systems. In addition, mounting costs and constrained budgets require that human resource requirements for ground control be minimized. This paper provides a glimpse of certain lunar base tasks as seen through the lens of automation and robotic (A&R) considerations. This can allow a more efficient focusing of research and development not only in A&R, but also in those technologies that will depend on A&R in the lunar environment.

  12. Considerations about retirement from clinical practice by obstetrician-gynecologists.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Strunk, Albert L; Petterson, Stephen M

    2015-09-01

    Retirement of obstetrician-gynecologists is becoming a matter of increasing concern in light of an expected shortage of practicing physicians. Determining a retirement age is often complex. We address what constitutes a usual retirement age range from general clinical practice for an obstetrician-gynecologist, compare this with practitioners in other specialties, and suggest factors of importance to obstetrician-gynecologists before retirement. Although the proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists ≥55 years old is similar to other specialists, obstetrician-gynecologists retire at younger ages than male or female physicians in other specialties. A customary age range of retirement from obstetrician-gynecologist practice would be 59-69 years (median, 64 years). Women, who constitute a growing proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists in practice, retire earlier than men. The large cohort of "baby boomer" physicians who are approaching retirement (approximately 15,000 obstetrician-gynecologists) deserves tracking while an investigation of integrated women's health care delivery models is conducted. Relevant considerations would include strategies to extend the work longevity of those who are considering early retirement or desiring part-time employment. Likewise volunteer work in underserved community clinics or teaching medical students and residents offers continuing personal satisfaction for many retirees and preservation of self-esteem and medical knowledge.

  13. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  14. Surgical, ethical, and psychosocial considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Furr, Allen; Hardy, Mark A; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-19

    Transplanting a head and brain is perhaps the final frontier of organ transplantation. The goal of body-to-head transplantation (BHT) is to sustain the life of individuals who suffer from terminal disease, but whose head and brain are healthy. Ideally BHT could provide a lifesaving treatment for several conditions where none currently exists. BHT is no ordinary experiment, to transfer a head to another body involves extraordinarily complex medical challenges as well as ethical and existential dilemmas that were previously confined to the imagination of writers of fiction. The possibility of replacing an incurably ill body with a healthy one tests not only our surgical limits, but also the social and psychological boundaries of physical life and alters what we recognize life to be. The purpose of this target article, the complementary manuscript focused on immunological issues in BHT, and the accompanying Commentaries by scholars and practitioners in medicine, immunology, and bioethics is to review major surgical and psychosocial-ethical and immunological considerations surrounding body-to-head transplantation. We hope that together these ideas will provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the possibilities and challenges associated with BHT and initiate professional discussion and debate through which this new frontier in medicine is considered and approached.

  15. EBF3 Design and Sustainability Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is a cross-cutting technology for producing structural metal parts using an electron beam and wire feed in a layer-additive fashion. This process was developed by researchers at NASA Langley to specifically address needs for aerospace applications. Additive manufacturing technologies like EBF3 enable efficient design of materials and structures by tailoring microstructures and chemistries at the local level to improve performance at the global level. Additive manufacturing also facilitates design freedom by integrating assemblies into complex single-piece components, eliminating flanges, fasteners and joints, resulting in reduced size and mass. These same efficiencies that permit new design paradigms also lend themselves to supportability and sustainability. Long duration space missions will require a high degree of self-sustainability. EBF3 is a candidate technology being developed to allow astronauts to conduct repairs and fabricate new components and tools on demand, with efficient use of feedstock materials and energy.

  16. Pharmacotherapeutic Considerations for Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Erik; Blanco, Javier G

    2017-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) is the most common survivable disorder due to aneuploidy. Individuals with DS may experience multiple comorbid health problems including congenital heart defects, endocrine abnormalities, skin and dental problems, seizure disorders, leukemia, dementia, and obesity. These associated conditions may necessitate pharmacotherapeutic management with various drugs. The complex pathobiology of DS may alter drug disposition and drug response in some individuals. For example, reports have documented increased rates of adverse drug reactions in patients with DS treated for leukemia and dementia. Intellectual disability resulting from DS may impact adherence to medication regimens. In this review, we highlight literature focused on pharmacotherapy for individuals with DS. We discuss reports of altered drug disposition or response in patients with DS and explore social factors that may impact medication adherence in the DS setting. Enhanced monitoring during drug therapy in individuals with DS is justified based on reports of altered drug disposition, drug response, and other characteristics present in this population.

  17. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  18. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required.

  19. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  20. Building Complex Reference Objects from Dual Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey, Sanford, Sturt, & Morrow, 2004; Sanford &…

  1. COMPLEXITIES IN UNDERSTANDING ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment of 03 impact requires consideration of many factors that, perhaps are not of concern in human health risk assessments. The episodic nature of 03 exposure, functional complexity of species assemblages, and the broad spatial and temporal scales character...

  2. First MARS Outpost: Development Considerations and Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. The central goal of this activity is to conceptualize a scenario of sequential, integrated private enterprise initiatives that can carry humankind forward to Mars. This presentation highlights planning considerations and design concepts for establishing a first settlement on Mars. The outpost would support surface missions lasting up to about 500 days and would serve as the initial stage of a larger and continuously operational development which would utilize Mars resources to be less reliant on materials from Earth. Key elements of this first stage mission development sequence include a new heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle; a plasma- drive Mars transit vehicle; habitat modules for crews in transit to and from Mars; "hard" and "inflatable" surface habitats and laboratories; a mobile power unit; a spacecraft to assist orbital assembly; and vehicles to lift crews off the Mars surface and land them safely back on Earth from LEO. SICSA's space development approach differs in fundamental ways from conventional NASA-sponsored initiatives. First, virtually all baseline planning assumptions are influenced by the private sector-driven nature of an approach that aims to avoid all possible reliance upon government financing, agendas and schedules. In this regard, any involvements with NASA or the space agencies of other countries would be premised upon mutual public-corporate partnership benefits rather than upon federal contract awards, management and control. Another potential difference relates to program philosophy. Unlike Apollo Program "sprint" missions which culminated with footprints and flagpoles on the Moon, the aim is to realize sustainable and continuing planetary exploration and development progress. This goal can be advanced through approaches that

  3. [Medical and social considerations of family planning].

    PubMed

    Slocker De Arce, C

    1983-01-01

    The motivations which led to creation of a family planning specialty within social medicine are discussed and currently available contraceptive methods are reviewed. Among considerations which lead to family planning are the universal worry about uncontrolled population growth and limited resources, especially in the 3rd World: the earth's population is expected to reach 6.5 billion in the year 2000, but already 2.2 billion persons lack adequate resources. Health education and family planning are needed to promote safe conditions for pregnancy and to avoid pregnancy in cases of genetic deficiency. Family planning is a purely medical problem when the woman has a medical problem that would be life threatening to her or her child in case of pregnancy. Illnesses that may be aggravated by pregnancy include cardiopathy, diabetes, nephropathies, thyroid disease, and tuberculosis. Family planning involves provision of information and counseling for patients suffering such disorders as well as for patients who are infertile. Among psychosocial indications for family planning are 2 major problems of modern society: the quality of life and abortion. Family planning has given women the possibility of becoming sexual companions, but the fact that they and not men must submit themselves to contraceptive methods is a negative psychological factor for the stability of the couple. A great change has occurred in Spanish society, in that marriage used to be the only legitimate context for sexual activity and, for Catholics, the only legitimate sexual activity was that oriented toward procreation. Promiscuity, pornography, and sexual liberties and abuses promote undesired pregnancies and abortions. In addition, premarital and extramarital sexual relations have become more frequent. Some 300,000 abortions occur annually in Spain, but abortion can never be a valued family planning method because of its associated morbidity and mortality, and high costs of hospitalization in cases of

  4. Methodological and analytic considerations for blood biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Robert H; Duh, Show-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers typically evolve from a research setting to use in clinical care as evidence for their independent contribution to patient management accumulates. This evidence relies heavily on knowledge of the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical characteristics of the biomarker's measurement. For the preanalytical phase, considerations such specimen type, acceptable anticoagulants for blood samples, biologic variation and stability of the biomarker under various conditions are key. The analytical phase entails critical details for development and maintenance of assays having performance characteristics that are "fit for service" for the clinical application at hand. Often, these characteristics describe the ability to measure minute quantities in the biologic matrix used for measurement. Although techniques such as mass spectrometry are used effectively for biomarker discovery, routine quantification often relies on use of immunoassays; early in development, the most common immunoassay used is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. As biomarkers evolve successfully, they will be adapted to large main laboratory platforms or, depending on the need for speed, point-of-care devices. Users must pay particular attention to performance parameters of assays they are considering for clinical implementation. These parameters include the limit of blank, a term used to describe the limit of analytical noise for an assay; limit of detection, which describes the lowest concentration that can reliably be discriminated from analytical noise; and perhaps most importantly, the limit of quantitation, which is the lowest concentration at which a biomarker can be reliably measured within some predefined specifications for total analytical error that is based on clinical requirements of the test. The postanalytical phase involves reporting biomarker values, which includes reporting units, any normalization factors, and interpretation. Standardization, a process that

  5. Fathers and HIV: considerations for families

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fathers are intricately bound up in all aspects of family life. This review examines fathers in the presence of HIV: from desire for a child, through conception issues, to a summary of the knowledge base on fathers within families affected by HIV. Methods A mixed-methods approach is used, given the scarcity of literature. A review is provided on paternal and male factors in relation to the desire for a child, HIV testing in pregnancy, fatherhood and conception, fatherhood and drug use, paternal support and disengagement, fatherhood and men who have sex with men (MSM), and paternal effects on child development in the presence of HIV. Literature-based reviews and systematic review techniques are used to access available data Primary data are reported on the issue of parenting for men who have sex with men. Results Men with HIV desire fatherhood. This is established in studies from numerous countries, although fatherhood desires may be lower for HIV-positive men than HIV-negative men. Couples do not always agree, and in some studies, male desires for a child are greater than those of their female partners. Despite reduced fertility, support and services, many proceed to parenting, whether in seroconcordant or serodiscordant relationships. There is growing knowledge about fertility options to reduce transmission risk to uninfected partners and to offspring. Within the HIV field, there is limited research on fathering and fatherhood desires in a number of difficult-to-reach groups. There are, however, specific considerations for men who have sex with men and those affected by drug use. Conception in the presence of HIV needs to be managed and informed to reduce the risk of infection to partners and children. Further, paternal support plays a role in maternal management. Conclusions Strategies to improve HIV testing of fathers are needed. Paternal death has a negative impact on child development and paternal survival is protective. It is important to

  6. Design Considerations For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasheen, W. M.; Reiss, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Baird Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts, has designed and developed two similar night vision goggles. These goggles are binocular viewing to the wearer's eyes, but use a single objective lens and a single image intensifier tube. Binocular viewing is achieved by dividing a single image and sharing it between the'viewer's eyes. The goggles are self-sufficient, independent instruments which can be simply and easily interfaced with a face mask that the viewer wears. This paper covers the main design considerations that are associated with achieving the goals of these goggle configurations and their performance. Baird's first goggle design is designated the GP/NVG; the second is designated the AN/PVS-7. The GP/NVG night vision goggle is a high-performance, single intensifier tube, passive night vision device that provides the user with a 40-degree field of view at unity magnification. The fixed aperture, f/1.0 objective lens collects the available light and images it on the fiber optic faceplate of the second generation image intensifier tube. The image intensifier tube converts the real image at the fiber optic faceplate into electrons across the image, amplifies them, and then reconverts the electrons into a real, visible image at the fiber optic output of the tube. This image is then collimated to appear as if it is coming from infinity, split in two, and reimaged by the relay lenses. The eyelenses provide a magnified image to the user. The user can adjust each eyelens to clearly view the output faceplate of the image intensifier tube. This adjustment is made only once for each user. The objective focus can be manually set for distances from 25 centimeters to infinity. The general configuration of this night vision goggle is similar to that of a pair of single objective binocular field glasses. It is extremely lightweight (with most of the main construction molded from plastic) and compact for easy handling. All adjustments and on/off switching have been "human

  7. Hemophilia A: Dental considerations and management

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Shilpa Padar; Kaul, Rachna; Baroudi, Kusai; Umar, Dilshad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To review hemophilia A with emphasis on its oral manifestations, investigations, and dental management. Materials and Methods: Search was conducted using internet-based search engines, scholarly bibliographic databases, PubMed, and Medline with key words such as “Hemophilia A,” “factor VIII,” “bleeding and clotting disorders,” and “dental management.” Results: Hemophilia comprises a group of hereditary disorders caused due to the deficiency of one or more clotting factors leading to prolonged clotting time and excessive bleeding tendencies. It is broadly divided into hemophilia A, B, and C, which occur due to deficiency of factor VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive hereditary disorder and is the most common of the three, accounting for 80–85% of the cases. Conclusion: Understanding this complex entity is very important for a dentist to provide appropriate dental treatment and avoid undesirable consequences. PMID:25625071

  8. Considerations on Energy Frontier Colliders after LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2016-11-15

    Since 1960’s, particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics, 29 total have been built and operated, 7 are in operation now. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The future of the world-wide HEP community critically depends on the feasibility of possible post-LHC colliders. The concept of the feasibility is complex and includes at least three factors: feasibility of energy, feasibility of luminosity and feasibility of cost. Here we overview all current options for post-LHC colliders from such perspective (ILC, CLIC, Muon Collider, plasma colliders, CEPC, FCC, HE-LHC) and discuss major challenges and accelerator R&D required to demonstrate feasibility of an energy frontier accelerator facility following the LHC. We conclude by taking a look into ultimate energy reach accelerators based on plasmas and crystals, and discussion on the perspectives for the far future of the accelerator-based particle physics. This paper largely follows previous study [1] and the presenta ion given at the ICHEP’2016 conference in Chicago [2].

  9. A computing system for LBB considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonen, K.; Miettinen, J.; Raiko, H.; Keskinen, R.

    1997-04-01

    A computing system has been developed at VTT Energy for making efficient leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations of piping components. The system consists of fracture mechanics and leak rate analysis modules which are linked via an interactive user interface LBBCAL. The system enables quick tentative analysis of standard geometric and loading situations by means of fracture mechanics estimation schemes such as the R6, FAD, EPRI J, Battelle, plastic limit load and moments methods. Complex situations are handled with a separate in-house made finite-element code EPFM3D which uses 20-noded isoparametric solid elements, automatic mesh generators and advanced color graphics. Analytical formulas and numerical procedures are available for leak area evaluation. A novel contribution for leak rate analysis is the CRAFLO code which is based on a nonequilibrium two-phase flow model with phase slip. Its predictions are essentially comparable with those of the well known SQUIRT2 code; additionally it provides outputs for temperature, pressure and velocity distributions in the crack depth direction. An illustrative application to a circumferentially cracked elbow indicates expectedly that a small margin relative to the saturation temperature of the coolant reduces the leak rate and is likely to influence the LBB implementation to intermediate diameter (300 mm) primary circuit piping of BWR plants.

  10. Personal responsibility in oral health: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2012-11-30

    Personal responsibility is a powerful idea supported by many values central to West European thought. On the conceptual level personal responsibility is a complex notion. It is important to separate the concept of being responsible for a given state of affairs from the concept of holding people responsible by introducing measures that decrease their share of available resources. Introducing personal responsibility in oral health also has limitations of a more practical nature. Knowledge, social status and other diseases affect the degree to which people can be said to be responsible for their poor oral health. These factors affect people's oral health and their ability to take care of it. Both the conceptual and practical issues at stake are not reasons to abandon the idea of personal responsibility in oral health, but they do affect what the notion means and when it is reasonable to hold people responsible. They also commit people who support the idea of personal responsibility in oral health to supporting the idea of societal responsibility for mitigating the effects of factors that diminish people's responsibility and increase the available information and knowledge in the population.

  11. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lehrner, Amy; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk for PTSD following trauma exposure, and predict or identify recovery. While there has been much interest in PTSD biomarkers, there has been less discussion of their potential clinical applications, and of the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers. Objective This article will discuss possible applications of PTSD biomarkers, including the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers, with an emphasis on military applications. Method Literature on applications of PTSD biomarkers and on potential ethical and legal implications will be reviewed. Results Biologically informed research findings hold promise for prevention, assessment, treatment planning, and the development of prophylactic and treatment interventions. As with any biological indicator of disorder, there are potentially positive and negative clinical, social, legal, and ethical consequences of using such biomarkers. Conclusions Potential clinical applications of PTSD biomarkers hold promise for clinicians, patients, and employers. The search for biomarkers of PTSD should occur in tandem with an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the potential implications of applying biological findings in clinical and employment settings. PMID:25206945

  12. Basic technical considerations in reattachment surgery.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V E; Zhong-Wei, C; Beasley, R W

    1981-10-01

    Replantation surgery offers a rewarding challenge for one to apply basic biologic and functional concepts to deal with an infinite variety of amputation problems. Although there is an obvious requirement for technical skill, there is no place for stereotype procedures. Often the exact plan of treatment cannot be determined until debridement is completed, so by taking on the responsibility to manage these problems one must have not only fine technical skills but also a thorough knowledge and comprehensive experience in hand surgery, Upper limb amputations are complex and difficult compound hand injuries involving not only the vascular system but the bone, tendon, nerve, muscle, and skin as well. To entertain the concept that upper limb amputations are simply microvascular problems is indicative of a complete lack of comprehension of the realities of the situation. Every hand surgeon must add the ability to perform microsurgical techniques to his or her technical armamentarium, but to endorse the concept of a microsurgeon is bad for medicine and counter to both reality and concerned patient care.

  13. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion.

  14. Psychological considerations for women in sports.

    PubMed

    Barnett, N P; Wright, P

    1994-04-01

    In this article, we have tried to provide a context in which to understand the complexities of the psychological experience of being female and being an athlete. To this end, we have included general information about the socialization process, as well as a more detailed discussion of sports socialization and the impact of external influences (such as the media and role models) on the activities of young women. Information about the psychological characteristics of women athletes was provided as were brief descriptions of a number of issues common to the experience of athletes in general and the female athlete in particular. This is an exciting time for women in sports; laws are changing, opportunities have become available, and women are discovering their athletic potential. The women athlete also has choices that were not available to previous generations. It is a time of discovery as we learn what the female athlete is capable of accomplishing. "We" includes all of us, as coaches, parents, friends, the media, treating professionals, fans, and young athletes themselves. In some ways, what we learn about women athletes will be similar to what is expected in male athletics; however, the female athlete will bring a whole new set of attributes and stylistic differences to sport. It will be important not to limit her with our expectations; rather, we must encourage her to excel to her fullest capabilities.

  15. [Practical considerations on detection of publication bias].

    PubMed

    Palma Pérez, Silvia; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    The present review aims to answer 3 questions: does publication bias need to be assessed in meta-analyses?; what procedures, not requiring complex statistical approaches, can be applied to detect it?; and should other factors be taken into account when interpreting the procedures? The first question is easy to answer. Publication bias is a potential threat to the validity of the conclusions of meta-analyses. Therefore, both the MOOSE and QUOROM statements include publication bias in their guidelines; nevertheless, many meta-analyses do not use these statements (e.g., meta-analyses conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration), perhaps because they use a comprehensive search strategy. There are many methods to assess publication bias. The most frequently used are funnel plots or , (which allow the effects of bias to be estimated), and methods based upon regression on plots, such as Egger's method and funnel plot regression. An advantage of these methods is that they can only be applied using published data. However, agreement between these methods in detecting bias is often poor. Therefore, application of more than one method to detect publication bias is recommended. To correctly interpret the results, the number of pooled studies should be more than 10 and the existence of heterogeneity in the pooled estimate must be taken into account.

  16. Cross-flow Ultrafiltration Scaling Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M

    2006-04-10

    One legacy of the nuclear age is radioactive waste and it must be stabilized to be stored in a safe manner. An important part of the stabilization process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. The performance of this technology with the wastes to be treated was unknown and, therefore, had to be obtained. However, before beginning a filter study the question of experimental scale had to be addressed. Of course, carrying out experiments using full-size equipment is always ideal, but rarely practical when dealing with plant size processes. Flow loops that will handle millions of liters of slurries, which are either highly caustic or acidic, with flow rates of 10,000 lpm make full-scale tests prohibitively expensive. Moreover, when the slurries happen to be radioactive such work is also very dangerous. All of these considerations lend themselves to investigations at smaller scales and in many situations can be treated with computational analyses. Unfortunately, as scale is reduced it becomes harder to provide prototypic results and the two and three phase multi-component mixtures challenge accurate computational results. To obtain accurate and representative filter results the use of two scales were chosen: (1) Small-scale--would allow the testing with actual radioactive waste samples and compare results with simulated wastes that were not radioactive. For this scale the feed tank held 6 liters of waste and it had a single cross-flow filter tube 0.61 m long. (2) Pilot-scale--would be restricted to use simulated non-radioactive wastes. At this larger scale the feed tank held 120 liters of waste and the filter unit was prototypic to the planned plant facility in pore size (0.1 micron), length (2.29 m), diameter (0.0127 m inside and 0.0159 m outside diameter), and being multi-tubed. The small-scale apparatus is convenient, easy to use, and can test both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes; therefore, there is a

  17. Engineering Considerations Applied to Starshade Repointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Starke, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  18. Visualizing harm reduction: Methodological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Switzer, S; Guta, A; de Prinse, K; Chan Carusone, S; Strike, C

    2015-05-01

    The use of visual methods is becoming increasingly common and accepted in health research. This paper explores the opportunities and constraints of using photo-based methods in the context of a community-based participatory research study on how to engage people living with HIV in conversations about a hospital's recently introduced harm reduction policy. Using a blended approach of photovoice and photo-elicited interviews, we provided participants (n = 16) with cameras and asked them to take a series of photos that "show how you feel about or have experienced harm reduction as a Casey House client." We reflect on methodological insights from the study to think through the process of doing photo-based work on a stigmatized topic in a small hospital setting by foregrounding: 1) how the act of taking photos assisted participants in visualizing connections between space, harm reduction, and substance use; 2) expectations of participation and navigating daily health realities; and 3) issues of confidentiality, anonymity and stigma in clinical settings. These reflections provide a case study on the importance of critically examining the process of engaging with photo-based methods. We conclude the paper by re-thinking issues of context and photo-based methods. Rather than viewing context as a neutral backdrop to apply a method, context should be viewed as an active force in shaping what can or cannot be done or produced within the space. Photo-based methods may offer an effective community-engagement strategy but may require modification for use in a clinical setting when working on a stigmatized topic with individuals with complex health care needs. Given the potential of visual methods as a community engagement strategy, research teams are advised to understand the entire process as a data collection opportunity so that these methods can be further explored in a variety of contexts.

  19. Engineering considerations applied to starshade repointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-07-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure (SRP) has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  20. 7 CFR 1794.12 - Consideration of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.12 Consideration of alternatives. In determining what are...

  1. Tunable impedance matching network fundamental limits and practical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wesley N.

    As wireless devices continue to increase in utility while decreasing in dimension, design of the RF front-end becomes more complex. It is common for a single handheld device to operate on a plethora of frequency bands, utilize multiple antennae, and be subjected to a variety of environments. One complexity in particular which arises from these factors is that of impedance mismatch. Recently, tunable impedance matching networks have begun to be implemented to address this problem. This dissertation presents the first in-depth study on the frequency tuning range of tunable impedance matching networks. Both the fundamental limitations of ideal networks as well as practical considerations for design and implementation are addressed. Specifically, distributed matching networks with a single tuning element are investigated for use with parallel resistor-capacitor and series resistor-inductor loads. Analytical formulas are developed to directly calculate the frequency tuning range TR of ideal topologies. The theoretical limit of TR for these topologies is presented and discussed. Additional formulas are developed which address limitations in transmission line characteristic impedance and varactor range. Equations to predict loss due to varactor quality factor are demonstrated and the ability of parasitics to both increase and decrease TR are shown. Measured results exemplify i) the potential to develop matching networks with a small impact from parasitics, ii) the need for accurate knowledge of parasitics when designing near transition points in optimal parameters, iii) the importance of using a transmission line with the right characteristic impedance, and iv) the ability to achieve extremely low loss at the design frequency with a lossy varactor under the right conditions (measured loss of -0.07 dB). In the area of application, tunable matching networks are designed and measured for mobile handset antennas, demonstrating up to a 3 dB improvement in power delivered to a

  2. Optimizing Reconstruction with Periorbital Transplantation: Clinical Indications and Anatomic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Christensen, Joani M.; Christy, Michael R.; Bojovic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complex periorbital subunit reconstruction is challenging because the goals of effective reconstruction vary from one individual to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the indications and anatomic feasibility of periorbital transplantation by reviewing our institutional repository of facial injury. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center for a retrospective chart review conducted on patients with periorbital defects. Patient history, facial defects, visual acuity, and periorbital function were critically reviewed to identify indications for periorbital or total face (incorporating the periorbital subunit) vascularized composite allotransplantation. Cadaveric allograft harvest was then designed and performed for specific patient defects to determine anatomic feasibility. Disease conditions not captured by our patient population warranting consideration were reviewed. Results: A total of 7 facial or periorbital transplant candidates representing 6 different etiologies were selected as suitable indications for periorbital transplantation. Etiologies included trauma, burn, animal attack, and tumor, whereas proposed transplants included isolated periorbital and total face transplants. Allograft recovery was successfully completed in 4 periorbital subunits and 1 full face. Dual vascular supply was achieved in 5 of 6 periorbital subunits (superficial temporal and facial vessels). Conclusions: Transplantation of isolated periorbital structures or full face transplantation including periorbital structures is technically feasible. The goal of periorbital transplantation is to re-establish protective mechanisms of the eye, to prevent deterioration of visual acuity, and to optimize aesthetic outcomes. Criteria necessary for candidate selection and allograft design are identified by periorbital defect, periorbital function, ophthalmologic evaluation, and defect etiology. PMID:27014557

  3. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system

    PubMed Central

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; KHOSHGOFTAR, ZOHREH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; RASTEGARPOUR, HASSAN; FOROUTAN, SEYED ABBAS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system’s main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. Methods: In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the ‘Four-phase method’ adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. Results: We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Conclusion: Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion. PMID:28124017

  4. Text Complexity and Young Adult Literature: Establishing Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaus, Marci

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students for college and careers in the 21st century has shed light on text complexity as an important variable for consideration in English Language Arts. Authors of The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) define text complexity as broad, highlighting qualitative, rather than quantitative evaluations of narrative fiction as appropriate…

  5. The consideration of health in land use planning: Barriers and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jennifer Bond, Alan

    2008-02-15

    This research investigates the consideration of human health effects within the plan-making process in the East of England. It is based primarily upon questionnaires and interviews with those involved in plan-making. The results indicate that, prior to the implementation of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive, which established a statutory requirement for the consideration of significant effects on human health in European Union member states, very limited consideration has been given to human health in land use plans. The capacity of the planning system to affect human health is clearly understood by those responsible for their production, but they lack the expertise to consider the health implications of their plans. The SEA Directive, along with reforms to the planning system, does provide a framework for improving the consideration of health, but the capacity of the planning system to consider health must be improved as should dialogue with health practitioners, and the evidence base for health outcomes. Also, analytical and methodological complexity may hinder the ability of planners to consider health, indicating that greater application of the precautionary principle is required to deal with the present uncertainty over human health impacts resulting from the implementation of land use plans.

  6. 49 CFR 1110.5 - Consideration of comments received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... PROCEEDINGS § 1110.5 Consideration of comments received. All timely comments will be considered before...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 359 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... BONDS, SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some...

  8. 48 CFR 733.103-73 - Protests excluded from consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests excluded from consideration. 733.103-73 Section 733.103-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... excluded from consideration. (a) Contract administration. Disputes between a contractor and USAID...

  9. 17 CFR 201.500 - Expedited consideration of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited consideration of proceedings. 201.500 Section 201.500 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Expedited consideration of proceedings. Consistent with the Commission's or the hearing officer's...

  10. Effective Assistive Technology Consideration and Implications for Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vita L.; Hinesmon-Matthews, Lezlee J.

    2014-01-01

    Often the consideration of assistive technology devices and services during the individualized education program (IEP) process is overlooked. Because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorized this consideration, IEP team members must be keenly aware of the importance they hold in providing this valuable input. Thus, IEP…

  11. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part 351 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax...

  12. 49 CFR 190.323 - Consideration of comments received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 190.323 Section 190.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... SAFETY PROGRAMS AND RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 190.323 Consideration...

  13. 48 CFR 970.1100-2 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional considerations. 970.1100-2 Section 970.1100-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... considerations. (a) While it is not feasible to set forth standard language which would apply to every...

  14. 14 CFR 404.15 - Consideration of comments received.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consideration of comments received. 404.15 Section 404.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Consideration of comments received. All timely comments are considered before final action is taken on...

  15. An Analysis of Ethical Considerations in Programme Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations are inherent to programme design decision-making, but not normally explicit. Nonetheless, they influence whose interests are served in a programme and who benefits from it. This paper presents an analysis of ethical considerations made by programme design practitioners in the context of a polytechnic in Aotearoa/New Zealand.…

  16. Afterword: Considerations for Future Practice of Assessment and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2013-01-01

    This afterword offers challenges and considerations as the assessment movement continues to develop. The author offers some simple considerations for readers to ponder as they advance their evidence-based decision making processes, and encourages others to use these methods within the context of recent neuroscientific evidence that learning and…

  17. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price considerations. 35.937-6... Cost and price considerations. (a) General. EPA policy is that the cost or price of all subagreements... equivalent process. (b) Subagreements over $100,000. For each subagreement expected to exceed $100,000,...

  18. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price considerations. 35.937-6... Cost and price considerations. (a) General. EPA policy is that the cost or price of all subagreements... equivalent process. (b) Subagreements over $100,000. For each subagreement expected to exceed $100,000,...

  19. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's...

  20. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 322.4 Section 322.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's...