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Sample records for douala-edea reserve cameroon

  1. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a) to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b) to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II) close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test) was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey) suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60%) reported that mangrove marketed wood constitute a principal

  2. Cameroon.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  3. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sonké, Bonaventure; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontanacrassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  4. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontana crassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  5. English Teaching Profile: Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in Cameroon begins with an overview of the distribution of English speakers and the common uses of English. Subsequent sections outline (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education; (2) the availability of English language…

  6. Dietary preferences of a submontane population of the rare Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the dietary preferences of chimpanzees residing in a Nigerian submontane forest using a combination of fecal analysis, observations of feeding remains, evidence from feeding tools and fruiting phenological data between April 2010 and March 2011. A total of 495 fecal samples were collected in which 52 fruit taxa were identified as having being consumed by chimpanzees, including 22 identified to species level and two identified to genus level. Ficus (seven species) was the most common seed genus identified, occurring in 61.2% of all fecal samples. Based on fecal analysis and phenological data, Ngel Nyaki chimpanzees do not solely consume fruits based on their availability within the habitat; while the proportion of fruit consumed did reflect the relative availability of fruit in the forest for some fruit species, Ficus was a preferred fruit even when scarce. In contrast, the proportion consumed of other fruit species was low relative to the abundance of their fruit available in the forest. Our results from the Rank Preference Index (RPI) suggest that relative preferences in fruit are seasonal. We discuss the role of Ficus in the diet of chimpanzees in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve.

  7. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  8. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  9. [The rural exodus in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Barbier, J C; Courade, G; Gubry, P

    1981-01-01

    The authors first attempt to provide a definition of the concept of rural exodus. They then present an analysis of the phenomenon in Cameroon at the arrondissement level. The causes and consequences of this migration are considered, and some alternative steps that might be taken to direct the flows of the rural exodus are suggested. (summary in ENG)

  10. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  11. English in Francophone Elementary Grades in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Since Reunification of French Cameroon and British Cameroons in 1961, the country has adopted French and English as its joint official languages and recommended the promotion of bilingualism in these two foreign languages in official domains. This paper focuses on the primary school level in the francophone sub system of education and examines the…

  12. Basals in Cameroon: Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    1999-01-01

    States that in "developing" countries such as Cameroon, educators struggle to overcome the remnants of colonial educational systems and instructional methods, which are not in keeping with current educational theory. Examines the inadequacies of the Evans English textbooks used for literacy instruction in West Cameroon schools as an example of how…

  13. [Tungiasis in Bangou (West Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Simeni Njonnou, R; Takougang, I; Kaptue, L

    2012-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitosis caused by penetration into the skin of the sand or chigger flea, Tunga penetrans. The epidemiology in Cameroon of this disease, often associated with poverty, is unknown. Accordingly, in August 2008, we conducted a study in Bangou, in Western Cameroon, among a sample of 403 people, divided in 111 families. All data were collected and analyzed with Epi-Info 6.4 software. The prevalence in this population was 32.7%, with infestation more frequent in males (P = 0.013), mostly in children aged 1 to 5 years. The most frequent clinical features were simple inflammatory lesions (100%), infected lesions (2.27%) and necrosis (0.75%). Most patients had a moderate infestation (86.4%), lived in houses with mud floors and brick walls (OR = 2.57; 95%CI [1.67-3.96]), and had animals (dogs) in the household. The principal risk factors were sex- and age-related: boys younger than 15 years old (OR = 5.40; 95%CI [3.20-9.12]) and schoolchildren (OR = 2.57; 95%CI [1.67-3.96]). The main sequelae were toenail deformations (34%). PMID:23419286

  14. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  15. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases.

  16. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  17. English Pronunciation in Cameroon: Conflicts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, A. Simo

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines some of the social and pedagogical problems caused by the conflicting forms of English pronunciation found in Cameroon. American, Nigerian, and local variations compete with British Received Pronunciation. The problems can be minimized through a more adequate training of broadcasters and teachers. (21 references) (MDM)

  18. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  19. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  20. AIDS prevention through drama in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A play prepared by a group of Cameroon prostitutes, "Marriage to the Condom," represents an effective innovation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The prostitutes are part of a group, The Friends of Doug and Rose, that seeks to spread awareness of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, among their peers and the general public and to promote condom use. This group had its origins in an AIDS prevention campaign conducted in Yaounde in 1987 and targeted at prostitutes. Over 125 of these prostitutes, 7% of whom were positive for the AIDS virus, were trained as peer health educators. The idea to produce a play came out of a role-playing exercise aimed at teaching the prostitute peer health educators techniques for motivating their colleagues to use condoms during all commercial sexual encounters. The play presents a true picture of the working lives of prostitutes and the repercussions of sexually transmitted diseases. The play's characters agree to make condom use a prerequisite to accepting clients. The group is joining with a condom social marketing program to travel throughout Cameroon presenting the play to neighborhood associations, health centers, and sexually transmitted diseases clinics. The activity is in keeping with the African tradition of using street theater to spread messages on health and family planning. To ensure that those impacted by the play's message are actually able to obtain condoms, the US Agency for International Development has supplied the Government of Cameroon with 9 million condoms.

  1. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  2. 76 FR 1660 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Art in Cameroon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural... ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural Dialogues,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  3. Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, A. Tassy; Carr, Jean K.; Tamoufe, Ubald; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Torimiro, J. Ndongo; LeBreton, Matthew; McCutchan, Francine E.; Birx, Deborah L.; Burke, Donald S.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to nonhuman primates has led to the emergence of important diseases, including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, and adult T-cell leukemia. To determine the extent of exposure to nonhuman primates, persons were examined in 17 remote villages in Cameroon that represented three habitats (savanna, gallery forest, and lowland forest). Questionnaire data were collected to assess whether persons kept wild animal pets; hunted and butchered wild game; had experienced bites, scratches, or injuries from live animals; or had been injured during hunting or butchering. While all villages had substantial exposure to nonhuman primates, higher rates of exposure were seen in lowland forest sites. The study demonstrates that exposure is not limited to small groups of hunters. A high percentage of rural villagers report exposure to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids and risk acquiring infectious diseases. PMID:15663844

  4. Language Practices and Religious Rites in the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with language practices in one Pentecostal church in Cameroon, i.e. the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon (FGMC). The data are produced by some 80 pastors, church officials, choir leaders and congregants, and the settings are some 20 churches located in two anglophone regions and two francophone regions of Cameroon. The instruments…

  5. Cameroon: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Jasmin

    This report on the educational system of Cameroon contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Cameroon to specified levels of study in the United States. In Cameroon French and English languages share…

  6. General overview of the disaster management framework in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bang, Henry Ngenyam

    2014-07-01

    Efficient and effective disaster management will prevent many hazardous events from becoming disasters. This paper constitutes the most comprehensive document on the natural disaster management framework of Cameroon. It reviews critically disaster management in Cameroon, examining the various legislative, institutional, and administrative frameworks that help to facilitate the process. Furthermore, it illuminates the vital role that disaster managers at the national, regional, and local level play to ease the process. Using empirical data, the study analyses the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions of disaster managers. Its findings reveal inadequate disaster management policies, poor coordination between disaster management institutions at the national level, the lack of trained disaster managers, a skewed disaster management system, and a top-down hierarchical structure within Cameroon's disaster management framework. By scrutinising the disaster management framework of the country, policy recommendations based on the research findings are made on the institutional and administrative frameworks.

  7. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (<1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  8. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes.

  9. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Sean David

    2012-01-01

    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  10. Linguistic Interference in a Multilingual Setting: The Case of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nashipu

    2006-01-01

    Cameroon, a central African state is one of the few countries in the world where, in addition to a very rich linguistically diverse landscape (a little below 300 identified indigenous languages) there is English and French (all vestiges of colonial legacy) used as official languages. Coupled with this, there is pidgin English which plays the role…

  11. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as 'Africa in miniature'?

    PubMed

    Mbenda, Huguette Gaelle Ngassa; Awasthi, Gauri; Singh, Poonam K; Gouado, Inocent; Das, Aparup

    2014-09-01

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ~ 20 million population, is commonly regarded as 'Africa in miniature' due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and diverse topography. Over 90 percent Cameroonians are at risk of malaria infection, and ~ 41 percent have at least one episode of malaria each year. Historically, the rate of malaria infection in Cameroon has fluctuated over the years; the number of cases was about 2 million in 2010 and 2011. The Cameroonian malaria control programme faces an uphill task due to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Above all, continued human migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high rate of ecological instabilities caused by deforestation, poor housing, lack of proper sanitation and drainage system might have resulted in the recent increase in incidences of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Cameroon. The available data on eco-environmental variability and intricate malaria epidemiology in Cameroon reflect the situation in the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the malaria triangle (host-parasite-vector-environment). PMID:25116627

  12. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  13. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in two areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Shimada, Jun; Koike, Katsuaki; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Richard, Akoachere; Tandia, Beatrice Ketchemen; Nkeng, George Elambo; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2014-06-01

    Water containing high concentrations of nitrate is unfit for human consumption and, if discharging to freshwater or marine habitats, can contribute to algal blooms and eutrophication. The level of nitrate contamination in groundwater of two densely populated, agro-industrial areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area) was evaluated. A total of 100 samples from boreholes, open wells and springs (67 from the Banana Plain; 33 from springs only, in the Mount Cameroon area) were collected in April 2009 and January 2010 and analyzed for chemical constituents, including nitrates. The average groundwater nitrate concentrations for the studied areas are: 17.28 mg/l for the Banana Plain and 2.90 mg/l for the Mount Cameroon area. Overall, groundwaters are relatively free from excessive nitrate contamination, with nitrate concentrations in only 6 % of groundwater resources in the Banana Plain exceeding the maximum admissible concentration for drinking water (50 mg/l). Sources of NO3 - in groundwater of this region may be mainly anthropogenic (N-fertilizers, sewerage, animal waste, organic manure, pit latrines, etc.). Multivariate statistical analyses of the hydrochemical data revealed that three factors were responsible for the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination): (1) a geogenic factor; (2) nitrate contamination factor; (3) ionic enrichment factor. The impact of anthropogenic activities, especially groundwater nitrate contamination, is more accentuated in the Banana Plain than in the Mount Cameroon area. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  14. New species of Elaphomyces (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota) from tropical rainforests of Cameroon and Guyana.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Michael A; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Séné, Olivier; Elliott, Todd F; Truong, Camille; Henkel, Terry W

    2016-06-01

    The sequestrate false truffles Elaphomyces favosus, E. iuppitercellus, and E. labyrinthinus spp. nov. are described as new to science from the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon. Elaphomyces adamizans sp. nov. is described as new from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. The Cameroonian species are the first Elaphomyces taxa to be formally described from Africa, occurring in lowland Guineo-Congolian tropical rainforests dominated by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) canopy tree Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). The Guyanese species is the third to be discovered in lowland tropical South America, occurring in forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat, and DNA sequence data are provided for each new species. Molecular and morphological data place these fungi in Elaphomycetaceae (Eurotiales, Ascomycota). Unique morphological features are congruent with molecular delimitation of each of the new species based on a phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA ITS and 28S loci across the Elaphomycetaceae. The phylogenetic analysis also suggests that a common ancestor is shared between some Elaphomyces species from Africa and South America, and that species of the stalked, volvate genus Pseudotulostoma may be nested in Elaphomyces.

  15. New species of Elaphomyces (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota) from tropical rainforests of Cameroon and Guyana.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Michael A; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Séné, Olivier; Elliott, Todd F; Truong, Camille; Henkel, Terry W

    2016-06-01

    The sequestrate false truffles Elaphomyces favosus, E. iuppitercellus, and E. labyrinthinus spp. nov. are described as new to science from the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon. Elaphomyces adamizans sp. nov. is described as new from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. The Cameroonian species are the first Elaphomyces taxa to be formally described from Africa, occurring in lowland Guineo-Congolian tropical rainforests dominated by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) canopy tree Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). The Guyanese species is the third to be discovered in lowland tropical South America, occurring in forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat, and DNA sequence data are provided for each new species. Molecular and morphological data place these fungi in Elaphomycetaceae (Eurotiales, Ascomycota). Unique morphological features are congruent with molecular delimitation of each of the new species based on a phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA ITS and 28S loci across the Elaphomycetaceae. The phylogenetic analysis also suggests that a common ancestor is shared between some Elaphomyces species from Africa and South America, and that species of the stalked, volvate genus Pseudotulostoma may be nested in Elaphomyces. PMID:27433441

  16. Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward; Rachlis, Beth; Wu, Ping; Wong, Elaine; Wilson, Kumanan; Singh, Sonal

    2005-01-01

    Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%); human rights considerations (71%); study protocol concerns (46%); general suspicions regarding trial location (37%) and inadequate prevention counseling (29%). The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%); participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%); inadequate number of staff (46%); participants being exploited (46%) and an unethical study design (38%). Only 3/23 (13%) reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8%) reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media in formulation of

  17. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  18. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of fluids along the cameroon volcanic line, cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanyileke, G.Z.; Kusakabe, M.; Evans, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the chemical and isotopic analysis of the water and gases discharged from volcanic crater lakes and soda springs located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line were used to characterize and infer their genetic relationships. Variations in the solute compositions of the waters indicate the dominant influence of silicate hydrolysis. Na+ (40-95%) constitutes the major cation in the springs while Fe2+ + Mg2+ (70%) dominate in the CO2-rich lakes. The principal anion is HCO3 (>90%), except in the coastal springs where Cl predominates. Lakes Nyos and Monoun have Fe-Mg-Ca-HCO3 type signatures; the soda springs are essentially Na-HCO3 type, while all other lakes show similar ionic compositions to dilute surface waters. Dissolved gases show essentially CO2 (>90%), with small amounts of Ar and N2, while CH4 constitutes the principal component in the non-gassy lakes. Active volcanic gases are generally absent, except in the Lobe spring with detectable H2S. Stable isotope ratio evidence indicates that the bicarbonate waters are essentially of meteoric origin. CO2 (??13C = -2 to -8???) and He (3He/4He = 1 to 5.6Ra) infer a mantle contribution to the total CO2. CH4 has a biogenic source, while Ar and N2 are essentially atmospheric in origin, but mixing is quite common.

  19. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Djomassi, L Dempouo; Gessner, Bradford D; Andze, G Ondobo; Mballa, G A Etoundi

    2013-11-01

    Background. The cholera burden in Cameroon has increased during the past 2 decades. During 2010 and 2011, the largest number of cholera cases in Cameroon since February 1971 were reported. This article describes cholera outbreaks during 2010-2011. Methods. Data received from the national surveillance system from 2010 and 2011 were compiled and analyzed. Results. The first suspected cholera cases were reported in the Far North region on 6 May 2010. In 2010, 10 759 cholera cases were reported by 8 of the 10 regions in the country, with 657 deaths (case-fatality ratio [CFR], 6.1%). In 2011, through September 22, 17 121 suspected cholera cases, including 636 deaths (CFR, 3.7%), were reported all over the country. During 2010, the Far North region accounted for 87.6% of cases (9421/10 759) and 91.6% of deaths (602/657) recorded. By contrast, during 2011, 5 regions (Far North, North, Center, Southwest, and Littoral) accounted for 90.6% of cases (15 511/17 121) and 84.0% of deaths recorded. Vibrio cholerae was identified in 525 stool specimens, and all organisms were serogroup O1. Conclusions. The ongoing cholera outbreak in Cameroon increased in intensity and geographic spread from 2010 to 2011. Nevertheless, the overall CFR decreased during this period. Strengthening the early warning system and enhancing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and sensitization should be considered in addressing cholera outbreaks.

  20. Characterizing the Phylogenetic Tree Community Structure of a Protected Tropical Rain Forest Area in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J.; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world. PMID:24936786

  1. Characterizing the phylogenetic tree community structure of a protected tropical rain forest area in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Manel, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world.

  2. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon.

  3. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  4. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  5. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon and I hereby waive such restriction....

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests,…

  7. Lava flow risk maps at Mount Cameroon volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, M.; Fornaciai, A.; Papale, P.; Tarquini, S.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Cameroon, in the southwest Cameroon, is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Rising 4095 m asl, it has erupted nine times since the beginning of the past century, more recently in 1999 and 2000. Mount Cameroon documented eruptions are represented by moderate explosive and effusive eruptions occurred from both summit and flank vents. A 1922 SW-flank eruption produced a lava flow that reached the Atlantic coast near the village of Biboundi, and a lava flow from a 1999 south-flank eruption stopped only 200 m from the sea, threatening the villages of Bakingili and Dibunscha. More than 450,000 people live or work around the volcano, making the risk from lava flow invasion a great concern. In this work we propose both conventional hazard and risk maps and novel quantitative risk maps which relate vent locations to the expected total damage on existing buildings. These maps are based on lava flow simulations starting from 70,000 different vent locations, a probability distribution of vent opening, a law for the maximum length of lava flows, and a database of buildings. The simulations were run over the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using DOWNFLOW, a fast DEM-driven model that is able to compute detailed invasion areas of lava flows from each vent. We present three different types of risk maps (90-m-pixel) for buildings around Mount Cameroon volcano: (1) a conventional risk map that assigns a probability of devastation by lava flows to each pixel representing buildings; (2) a reversed risk map where each pixel expresses the total damage expected as a consequence of vent opening in that pixel (the damage is expressed as the total surface of urbanized areas invaded); (3) maps of the lava catchments of the main towns around the volcano, within every catchment the pixels are classified according to the expected impact they might produce on the relative town in the case of a vent opening in that pixel. Maps of type (1) and (3) are useful for long term planning

  8. Dynamic evolution of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Dan N.; Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Godfrey Fitton, J.

    2014-05-01

    The growth and destruction of a volcanic edifice reflects dynamic processes that shape the Earth, including transport of mass and heat in a cooling planet versus the mechanical and chemical degradation of igneous material driving toward equilibrium. Central to understanding the nature of volcanoes are determinations of the rates of change in the volumes of these features. Through a quantitative temporal framework it is possible to elucidate the relative importance of competing processes that govern growth and destruction of volcanoes, e.g., magma production versus mass wasting. As the energetics of constructive and destructive processes are directly linked to the hazards that they pose to human populations and because volcanoes are stochastic systems, the only means of long-term forecast is via comprehensive understanding of volcanic history. Mount Cameroon is one of Africa's largest volcanoes and is currently the only active centre on the Cameroon line. The edifice is 4 km high with a volume of at least 1200 km3. Seventeen eruptions have been reported since 1800 and a time-averaged eruption volume of 6 x 106 m3/year is calculated from 7 eruptions over the past 91 years. Eight new Ar/Ar ages have been determined for basaltic rocks distributed across Mt. Cameroon; plateau ages are 4139±19 ka, 195±2 ka, 187±5 ka, 161±2 ka, 82±4, 68±3, 14±4 and 2±4 ka (1σ). The upper age from this set defines the oldest age yet measured for the Mt. Cameroon system. The data demonstrate activity through the mid to upper Pleistocene, continuing through to modern activity. Using recent estimates for basin-wide erosion of ca. 0.05 mm/a on a similar edifice (Kauai, Hawaii, Gayer et al 2008) and extrapolating over the Mt. Cameroon edifice yields an erosion rate of 5x104 m3/a, a factor of 30 times lower than the modern magma production rate. Considering these two fluxes implies that approximately 700 ka is required to construct an edifice of 1200 km3 (the current volume of Mt

  9. Coverage and costs of childhood immunizations in Cameroon.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Hugh R.; Dougherty, Leanne; Tegang, Simon-Pierre; Tran, Nhan; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Long, Kanya; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Burke, Donald S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between household-level and provider-level determinants and childhood immunization rates in Cameroon while also calculating the cost of childhood immunizations. METHODS: This study uses multilevel regression analysis to calculate these relationships. The 1998 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey and the 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are the main sources of household-level data. These surveys are supplemented by data from a 2002 survey of health facilities conducted in three provinces. At the national level, immunization financing data were collected from the Ministry of Health and donors that support the national Expanded Programme on Immunization. FINDINGS: The 1998 survey found that nationally 37% of children were fully immunized; the 2000 survey found that nationally 34% were fully immunized. These results are strongly correlated with both the mother's level of education and the household's economic status. Multilevel logistic regression shows that maternal education level is a stronger predictor of positive immunization status than is relative economic status. Children of mothers with secondary education or higher education were 3 times more likely to be fully vaccinated than children whose mothers had not completed primary education. At the health-facility level, both having art immunization plan and regular supervisory visits from someone at the health-district level are strongly positively associated with immunization rates. The cost of routine vaccinations for each fully immunized child is 12.73 U.S. dollars when donors' contributions are included but not the costs of immunization campaigns. CONCLUSION: Studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s found that costs per fully immunized child varied from 2.19 U.S. dollars to 26.59 U.S. dollars (not adjusted for inflation) in a range of low-income and middle-income countries. The relatively low rates of immunization coverage in Cameroon, and the strong influence of

  10. The situation of women in physics in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulache, Rosalie Laure; Kom, Guillaume; Siebatcheu, Beatrice Couonang; Onana, Marthe Boyomo

    2013-03-01

    The progress of women in science has been widely discussed in recent years. Women have made great progress in the social sciences, but they lag in the field of physics. A survey of the situation of women in physics in Cameroon over the last three years shows some improvement and some areas of stagnation. For example, the statistics show an increase of women teaching physics in secondary school and a slight improvement in the numbers of women studying physics at the university level, but stagnation in the number of women lecturers in physics.

  11. Overcoming Underrepresentation of Women Physics Teachers in Cameroon: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyomo, M.; Kom, G. H.; Siebatcheu, B.; Asse, M. L.; Woulache, R.; Mvoudjo, E.

    2009-04-01

    At a time when much energy is being spent all over the world to bring women into the fast-developing world of science, it is regrettable that these efforts are still at their genesis in Cameroon. It is however, worth noting that efforts geared toward the education of the girl child are yielding fruit, even if much remains to be done in rural areas. The only unfortunate revelation is that increase in the number of young girls in scientific classes observed in high school is not reflected at the tertiary level in physics. Thus, young women are almost completely absent when it comes to recruiting lecturers and researchers in the subject. It is time a serious study is carried out on the status of the woman physicist in Cameroon. It is time to evaluate the importance of the woman physicist to our society and to the field of study as well. It is also necessary to develop a new policy geared toward encouraging young girls to take up a career in physics.

  12. Seroprevalence of Human Herpesvirus-8 in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Individuals in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbondji-Wonje, Christelle; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Wood, Owen; Awazi, Bih; Hewlett, Indira K.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in 516 plasma samples collected from HIV positive and negative patients from blood banks and urban areas of Cameroon. Among HIV-1 positive samples, HHV-8 seropositivity rate was 61% based on combined reactivity using both ELISA and IFA techniques. HIV negative samples showed 62% seropositivity rate for HHV-8 antibodies. Our results indicate a high HHV-8 prevalence rate in both HIV infected and uninfected individuals in Cameroon. PMID:24056671

  13. Comparative avian phylogeography of Cameroon and equatorial Guinea mountains: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Smith, T B; Holder, K; Girman, D; O'Keefe, K; Larison, B; Chan, Y

    2000-10-01

    We illustrate the use of Faith's 'Phylogenetic Diversity' measure to compare the phylogeographic structure of two bird species with patterns of avian endemism across six mountains in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Mountain Greenbul and Cameroon Blue-headed Sunbird showed phylogeographic patterns that together defined three biogeographic regions: Bioko, Mt. Cameroon, and the northern mountains of Cameroon. In contrast, the distributions of endemic species were largely a function of geographical distance, with close mountains sharing more endemic species than distant mountains. Moreover, for both species, populations on Mt. Cameroon were distinctive with respect to the ecologically relevant character bill size. Our results, while preliminary, illustrate the utility of a comparative approach for identifying geographical regions that harbour evolutionarily distinct populations and caution against using only the distributional patterns of endemics to prioritize regions for conservation. Results show that patterns of endemism may not be concordant with patterns of phylogenetic diversity nor morphological variation in a character important in fitness. While incorporation of additional species from unrelated taxa will be necessary to draw definitive conclusions about evolutionarily distinct regions, our preliminary results suggest a conservation approach for the Afromontane region of the Gulf of Guinea that would: (i) emphasize protection of both Bioko and Mt. Cameroon, thereby maximizing preservation of within-species phylogenetic and morphologic diversity; (ii) emphasize protection within the northern mountains to further conserve intraspecific phylogenetic diversity and maximize protection of endemic species.

  14. Gas bursts from cameroon crater lakes: a new natural hazard.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, H

    1988-06-01

    Gas bursts from tropical crater lakes constitute a hitherto unrecognized natural hazard, which claimed 37 lives around Lake Monoun in 1984 and 1,746 lives in 1986 around Lake Nyos in Cameroon, west Africa. Studies of these events indicate that the lethal gas clouds were dominantly CO(2) which exsolved catastrophically from deep waters of the lakes, producing in the case of Lake Nyos a gas cloud of 1.94 times 10(6) tons CO(2) . Carbon-isotope data indicate a magmatic source of the carbon dioxide, but the geochemistry of deep water and gases does not support a sudden injection of volcanic gas from a deep source into the lakes. Rather, it is proposed that the gas bursts were preceded by gradual build-up of dissolved bicarbonate in deep waters, where anoxic conditions in enclosed and stagnant basins led to low pH and pCO(2) close to saturation. Steady input from the Earth's mantle to submerged mofettes or CO(2) -rich soda springs within the lakes is most likely the primary source of carbon dioxide. Lethal effects of the gas bursts are almost entirely due to CO(2) -induced asphyxia. A small percentage of victims awoke from coma one or two days after the event, but most died. Unusual skin lesions on about 5% of victims arose from the comatose state. It is shown that the mass of gas required to account for the lethal effects and observed gas clouds is an order of magnitude less than the potential gas yield from the lakes. In view of the lethal gas bursts from the small Cameroon lakes, the potential hazard of future gas bursts from other much larger density-stratified equatorial lakes must be seriously considered, particularly in Lake Kivu in east Africa, where methane and carbon dioxide gas content is higher by two to four orders of magnitude than that of the Cameroon lakes. A gas burst from Lake Kivu would form a carbon dioxide cloud up to 340 km(3) in volume and expansion of the exsolving gas from deep water to atmospheric pressure would correspond to an energy release

  15. Gas bursts from cameroon crater lakes: a new natural hazard.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, H

    1988-06-01

    Gas bursts from tropical crater lakes constitute a hitherto unrecognized natural hazard, which claimed 37 lives around Lake Monoun in 1984 and 1,746 lives in 1986 around Lake Nyos in Cameroon, west Africa. Studies of these events indicate that the lethal gas clouds were dominantly CO(2) which exsolved catastrophically from deep waters of the lakes, producing in the case of Lake Nyos a gas cloud of 1.94 times 10(6) tons CO(2) . Carbon-isotope data indicate a magmatic source of the carbon dioxide, but the geochemistry of deep water and gases does not support a sudden injection of volcanic gas from a deep source into the lakes. Rather, it is proposed that the gas bursts were preceded by gradual build-up of dissolved bicarbonate in deep waters, where anoxic conditions in enclosed and stagnant basins led to low pH and pCO(2) close to saturation. Steady input from the Earth's mantle to submerged mofettes or CO(2) -rich soda springs within the lakes is most likely the primary source of carbon dioxide. Lethal effects of the gas bursts are almost entirely due to CO(2) -induced asphyxia. A small percentage of victims awoke from coma one or two days after the event, but most died. Unusual skin lesions on about 5% of victims arose from the comatose state. It is shown that the mass of gas required to account for the lethal effects and observed gas clouds is an order of magnitude less than the potential gas yield from the lakes. In view of the lethal gas bursts from the small Cameroon lakes, the potential hazard of future gas bursts from other much larger density-stratified equatorial lakes must be seriously considered, particularly in Lake Kivu in east Africa, where methane and carbon dioxide gas content is higher by two to four orders of magnitude than that of the Cameroon lakes. A gas burst from Lake Kivu would form a carbon dioxide cloud up to 340 km(3) in volume and expansion of the exsolving gas from deep water to atmospheric pressure would correspond to an energy release

  16. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA) was required. Methodology The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT). The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%. Principal findings Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3%) were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%), with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2–5.5) to 20.0% (95% CI: 10–30). The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08–0.16) in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13–2.26) for the total population examined. Conclusion/significance ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%). Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites) necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination. PMID:26353087

  17. Parameter Identification in a Tuberculosis Model for Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany Pascal; Röblitz, Susanna; Ehrig, Rainald; Deuflhard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A deterministic model of tuberculosis in Cameroon is designed and analyzed with respect to its transmission dynamics. The model includes lack of access to treatment and weak diagnosis capacity as well as both frequency- and density-dependent transmissions. It is shown that the model is mathematically well-posed and epidemiologically reasonable. Solutions are non-negative and bounded whenever the initial values are non-negative. A sensitivity analysis of model parameters is performed and the most sensitive ones are identified by means of a state-of-the-art Gauss-Newton method. In particular, parameters representing the proportion of individuals having access to medical facilities are seen to have a large impact on the dynamics of the disease. The model predicts that a gradual increase of these parameters could significantly reduce the disease burden on the population within the next 15 years. PMID:25874885

  18. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Tiodjio, Rosine E.; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fantong, Wilson Y.; Tchakam, Kamtchueng B.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Victor J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Shogo; Ueda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial sequences suggest a close correspondence of the potential microbial functions to the physico-chemical pattern of the lake. We also obtained evidence of a rich microbial diversity likely to include several novel microorganisms of environmental importance in the large unexplored microbial reservoir of Lake Nyos. PMID:25141868

  19. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced

  20. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  1. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon.

  2. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon.

  3. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: <21-500,000 ppm). Sixty-six percent of the new paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale.

  4. Abattoir-based estimates of mycobacterial infections in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Egbe, N. F.; Muwonge, A.; Ndip, L.; Kelly, R. F.; Sander, M.; Tanya, V.; Ngwa, V. Ngu; Handel, I. G.; Novak, A.; Ngandalo, R.; Mazeri, S.; Morgan, K. L.; Asuquo, A.; Bronsvoort, B. M. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause major diseases including human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease. In livestock, the dominant species is M. bovis causing bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a disease of global zoonotic importance. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Mycobacteria in slaughter cattle in Cameroon. A total of 2,346 cattle were examined in a cross-sectional study at four abattoirs in Cameroon. Up to three lesions per animal were collected for further study and a retropharyngeal lymph node was collected from a random sample of non-lesioned animals. Samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and identified using the Hain® Genotype kits. A total of 207/2,346 cattle were identified with bTB-like lesions, representing 4.0% (45/1,129), 11.3% (106/935), 23.8% (38/160) and 14.8% (18/122) of the cattle in the Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs respectively. The minimum estimated prevalence of M. bovis was 2.8% (1.9–3.9), 7.7% (6.1–9.6), 21.3% (15.2–28.4) and 13.1% (7.7–20.4) in the four abattoirs respectively. One M. tuberculosis and three M. bovis strains were recovered from non-lesioned animals. The high prevalence of M. bovis is of public health concern and limits the potential control options in this setting without a viable vaccine as an alternative. PMID:27075056

  5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon.

  6. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon. PMID:23446968

  7. [Yellow fever epidemic in the extreme North of Cameroon in 1990: first yellow fever virus isolation in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Vicens, R; Robert, V; Pignon, D; Zeller, H; Ghipponi, P M; Digoutte, J P

    1993-01-01

    Some two years ago, suspicious cases of yellow fever (YF) were reported in northern Cameroon. A deadly epidemic broke out during the second half of the rainy season (from 15 September to 22 December 1990) with 180 known cases, of which 125 died. The real figures could have been between 5000 and 20,000 cases with between 500 and 1000 deaths. The affected area was within the yellow fever belt, which is situated around latitude 11 degrees North and 14 degrees East. In this mountainous area (altitude, about 800 m) the rural inhabitants are scattered, with a high density of 200,000 people per 1000 km2. Investigations began at the start of the dry season and a strain of yellow fever virus was isolated for the first time in Cameroon. A study of 107 serum samples (23 families in 11 villages) was carried out by immunofluorescence and ELISA, which showed 20% IgM carriers for yellow fever virus and nothing for the three other flaviviruses, although these were largely present; there were up to 98% crossed reactions in IgG with dengue 2 and West Nile strains. The under-10 age group represented 63% of the IgM carriers. An entomological study was carried out at the same time. It permitted the capture of Aedes aegypti, A. furcifer, A. luteocephalus and the identification of numerous potential larval sites, at times still in the productive phase of A. aegypti which is considered to be the principal vector.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The Fallacy of Promoting Non Native Varieties of English in Postcolonial Multilingual Settings: The Case of Cameroon English (CamE) in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essossomo, Serges Moïse

    2015-01-01

    This research endeavour is a major contribution to the current debate on the integration of non-native varieties into the school curriculum in non-native settings. Taking the specific case of Cameroon, this work rests on the solid assumption that the promotion of CamE to the detriment of Standard British English accent is definitely a fallacy. The…

  9. Using weight-for-age for predicting wasted children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kien, Agatha Tanya Nguti; Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The equipment for taking body weights (scales) are more frequently used in Cameroon health centres than measuring boards for heights. Even when the later exist there are some difficulties inherent in their qualities; thus the height measurement is not always available or accurate. Our objective for this study was to construct statistical models for predicting wasting from weight-for-age. Methods 3742 children aged 0 to 59 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional household survey (2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) covering the entire Cameroon national territory. Results There were highly significant association between underweight and wasting. For all discriminant statistical methods used, the test error rates (using an independent testing sample) were less than 5%; the Area Under Curve (AUC) using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) was 0.86. Conclusion The study showed that weight-for-age can be used for accurately classifying a child whose wasting status is unknown. The result is useful in Cameroon as too often the height measurements may not be feasible, thus the need for estimating wasted children. This study provides baseline information that will help to design a preliminary pivotal study on an immediate nutrition intervention for acute undernutrition. Its complications that could lead to morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced or set up a management control strategy that will go a long way in reducing the cost of health care in Cameroon. PMID:23717712

  10. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  11. 40Ar/39Ar dating of basaltic dykes swarm in Western Cameroon: Evidence of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic magmatism in the corridor of the Cameroon Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Simeni Wambo, Nicole Armelle; Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Li, Xian-Hua

    2014-05-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of three basalt dykes that intrude the Precambrian basement in the southern continental part of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line are presented. Specimen were sampled at Dschang, Maham and Kendem (Cameroon). The ages obtained are 421.3 ± 3.5 Ma (Dschang), 404.22 ± 3.51 Ma (Maham), and 192.10 ± 7.45 Ma (Kendem). The Dschang and Maham samples yield a relatively undisturbed spectrum while the Kendem sample shows an excess of argon but with plateau ages in the frame of the Mesozoic. Plateau ages at Dschang, Maham and Kendem represent more than 80% of the total 39Ar released and are interpreted as emplacement ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating results confirm Devonian and Jurassic K/Ar ages obtained from similar dykes of the same region. Geochemically, the basalt dykes are subalkaline in composition with 45-50 wt.% SiO2. Incompatible trace elements and rare earth elements are lower than that of the Cameroon Line basalts. Overall geochemical characteristics of the basalt dykes much more closely resemble those of tholeiites of the Benue Through in Nigeria that are interpreted as related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The combination of 40Ar/39Ar ages, major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry data demonstrate a magmatic phase that is significantly older and different of that of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line and younger than the dominantly granitic Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the region. These findings offer new clues for a better understanding of the tectonic history of the region, particularly the origin of the Cameroon Line and Africa-South America pre-drift reconstitutions.

  12. Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 μg/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 μg/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 μg/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 μg/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 μg/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

  13. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2014-11-28

    Altogether 24 species of ptyctimous mites were found in sifting litter samples from the Cameroon. Twelve new species of the ptyctimous mites, Indotritia montkoupensis sp. nov., Acrotritia furca sp. nov., Acrotritia quasidivida sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus kumboensis sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus reticulatus sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus spinus sp. nov., Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) quaternarius sp. nov., Austrophthiracarus bicarinatus sp. nov., Protophthiracarus diatropos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus korupensis sp. nov., Protophthiracarus preptos sp. nov., Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) gibbus sp. nov., from the Cameroon are described and figured. Seven species are recorded for the first time for the Cameroon oribatid mite fauna. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Taxonomical notes and additional information for two ptyctimous species: Acrotritia ardua (C.L.Koch, 1841), Arphthicarus sculptilis (Niedbała, 1988), were added. Keys for Afrotropical species of genera Hoplophthiracarus and Protophthiracarus are presented. 

  14. Origin and age of the Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Lake Nyos occupies a young maar crater in the Precambrian granitic terrane of northwest Cameroon. The lake is partly surrounded by poorly consolidated, ultramafic nodule-bearing pyroclastic surge deposits that were explosively ejected from the Nyos crater at the time of its formation. Radiocarbon dates show that the maar probably formed about 400 years ago. Field evidence suggests that carbon dioxide could have been the principal volatile involved in the formation of the Nyos maar, and that the role of water may have been minor. The formation of the Nyos maar was preceded by a brief period of effusive basaltic volcanism, but the maar itself may have largely formed by cold, 'dry' explosive processes. Carbon dioxide may still be trapped interstitially in a diatreme inferred to underlie Lake Nyos; its gradual release into the waters of Lake Nyos may have set the stage for the tragic gas-release event of August 21, 1986. Only young maar lakes such as Nyos may pose a danger of future lethal gas releases. ?? 1989.

  15. A lithospheric instability origin for the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C.

    2012-06-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is an enigmatic structure that defies common dynamic models of melt generation and volcanic activity on Earth. There, magma generation and intrusion has been sustained for more than 70 Myr over a 1600 km long chain straddling the ocean-continent boundary, with no detectable spatial age progression. The chain is nearly perpendicular to the coastline and terminates in a Y-shaped structure that has not been affected by absolute plate motions, implying that the mantle upwelling that feeds magmatic activity is attached to the continent. We propose that this form of volcanism is due to a new type of instability that may develop within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle at the edge of a continent. Laboratory experiments document how lithosphere beneath a continental block of finite size can become unstable due to cooling from above. The instability pattern is made of linear upwellings and downwellings that converge radially towards the center of the continent in an outer region and an array of polygonal cells in a central region. The pattern is characterized by branching structures that are reminiscent of the strike and Y-shaped outline of the CVL. The instability develops over long timescales with small rates of upwelling and melting, and is attached to the continent by construction. Downwellings adjacent to upwellings induce compression in the crust, which may account for deformation in the Benue trough just before the onset of CVL magmatism.

  16. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal.

    PubMed

    Southgate, V R; Tchuenté, L A; Théron, A; Jourdane, J; Ly, A; Moncrieff, C B; Gryseels, B

    2000-11-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maximum production of cercariae for 1 day was 4892 observed in a snail from the MDI group at day 43 post-infection. The mean longevity of snails was higher in group MD1 (88 days p.i.) than in group MD5 (65 days p.i.). The chronobiological emergence pattern revealed a circadian rhythm with one shedding peak at mid-day. Comparisons are made with the vectorial capacity of the sympatric combination of B. pfeifferi Senegal/S. mansoni Senegal.

  17. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of trees in Fundong, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Focho, Derek A; Newu, Muh C; Anjah, Mendi G; Nwana, Fongod A; Ambo, Fonge B

    2009-01-01

    Ethnobotanical investigations were conducted in Fundong Central Subdivision in the Northwest Region of Cameroon to identify trees growing in the area and collect information on their uses by the local people. This research covered a period of 12 months from May 2007 to April 2008. Ethnobotanical information was collected through the show-and-tell/semi-structured method and personal interviews during field trips. Three villages were investigated. A total of 82 tree species were identified belonging to 70 genera and 42 families. Among these species, 40 were widely used by the local people in traditional medicine to treat 48 human ailments. Tree species were also used for fuel wood, construction materials, wood carving and honey production. Leaves and barks were commonly used in traditional medicine while the wood, branches and the entire plants were commonly used for other purposes. In spite of the scarcity of natural forests in the study area, the local populations continue to depend on indigenous and exotic trees in their surroundings for their survival. There is therefore need for cultivation, protection and sustainable management of these valuable resources for rural livelihoods. PMID:19555468

  19. Perspectives in genetics and sickle cell disease prevention in Africa: beyond the preliminary data from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Bitoungui, Valentina Josiane Ngo; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Cameroon is a country of 20 million inhabitants with a carrier frequency of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) ranging from 8 to 34 % [1]. Despite the exceptional severity, illustrated by a high prevalence of stroke (6·7%) among SCD patients [2], there are no specialized centres for lifelong medical care in Cameroon. Therefore, management needs to be accompanied by various preventive strategies. Prevention also extends to early detection with the aim to identify SCD in the foetus, provide reproductive options and options for treatment and prognosis. PMID:26044545

  20. A Ground Deformation Monitoring Approach to Understanding Magma Chamber Systems and Eruptive Cycles of Mount Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, S.; Clarke, A.

    2005-05-01

    Mount Cameroon is a 13,400ft basanite volcano on the passive margin of West Africa. It has erupted seven times in the past century making it one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Most recently Mount Cameroon erupted in 1999 and 2000 first issuing strombolian explosions from vents near the summit, and later erupting effusively from a fissure running southwest from the summit (Suh et al., 2003). Prior to 2004, the only monitoring equipment on Mount Cameroon was a small seismometer network installed following the 1982 eruption. By 1999 only a single seismometer in the network was functional. Seismic activity did not rise above background levels until the few days immediately preceding the eruption. In an effort to raise awareness of the volcano's condition and provide a more efficient warning of impending eruptions we have begun constructing a ground deformation network on Mount Cameroon. The new network currently consists of two Applied Geomechanics 711-2A(4X) biaxial tiltmeters capable of resolving 0.1 microradians of tilt. One station is located approximately 500 m from the 2000 summit vent, and the other is approximately 1km away from the central fissure approximately 5km southwest of the 2000 summit vent. Three primary processes could precede eruptions at Mt. Cameroon, offering the opportunity for detection and prediction by our network. These processes are magma chamber pressurization, magma ascent via a central conduit, and/or propagation of magma along the central fissure. Magma chamber location, if a significant chamber exists, is poorly constrained, however, previous petrologic studies on Mount Cameroon (Suh et al., 2003; Fitton et al., 1983) suggest Mount Cameroon magmas originate at a depth less than 40km. Published seismic data (Ambeh, 1989) contains evidence of magmatic activity and possible chambers at depths ranging from 10km to 70km. Preliminary calculations using a simple Mogi model suggest deformation caused by pressurization of a large

  1. The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile ZK; Nsagha, Sarah M; Assob, Jules-Clement N; Kamga, Henri-Lucien F; Njamnshi, Dora M; Njunda, Anna L; Obama, Marie-Thérèse O; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Cameroon and Africa, and the challenges of orphans and vulnerable children are a threat to child survival, growth and development. The HIV prevalence in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% in 2010. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach working experience with traditional rulers, administrative authorities and health stakeholders in Yaounde I and Yaounde VI Councils, Nanga Eboko Health District, Isangelle and Ekondo Titi Health Areas, Bafaka-Balue, PLAN Cameroon, the Pan African Institute for Development-West Africa, Save the orphans Foundation, Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Health. Results show that only 9% of all OVC in Cameroon are given any form of support. AIDS death continue to rise in Cameroon. In 1995, 7,900 people died from AIDS in the country; and the annual number rose to 25,000 in 2000. Out of 1,200,000 orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon in 2010, 300,000(25%) were AIDS orphans. Orphans and the number of children orphaned by AIDS has increased dramatically from 13,000 in 1995 to 304,000 in 2010. By 2020, this number is projected to rise to 350,000. These deaths profoundly affect families, which often are split up and left without any

  2. Oil reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory a facility run for the Department of Energy prepared a supplemental environmental impact statements for Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) near Bakersfield, California. This paper concludes that NPR-1 might contribute to the decline of an endangered species the San Joaquin kit fox and contaminate nearby ground water. However, DOE disagreed with Argonne about the impact of NPR-1 operations on the endangered fox and nearby ground water. Because these disagreements were unresolved when DOE took over the preparation of the supplemental environmental impact statement the official draft of which is not yet completed it is unclear how Argonne's views will be reflected in the document when it is published for comment. DOE has not taken sufficient action to ensure that NPR-1 operations have complied with environmental laws and regulations governing endangered species, historic preservation, and wastewater sumping. Noncompliance with these requirements could result in legal action, fines, and even a possible shutdown of NPR-1 operations until compliance is achieved. The Department of Interior is investigating to see if prosecution is warranted for possible endangered species violations. Although DOE is trying to address possible problems, similar problems may occur at NPR-1 in the future unless DOE management controls are improved.

  3. Deep seismic imaging across the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.B.; Rosendahl, B.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a southwest-trending line of volcanic centers that extends from near Lake Chad to at least the island of Pagalu. The Sao Tome and Principe Islands along the CVL have intrigued explorationists for decades because oil seeps and windows of sediments occur on them. Recently the 'PROBE Study' acquired a grid of deep-imagining multifold seismic data cross submarine portions of the CVL. Profiles crossing the CVL show upward flexure of oceanic crust and Moho reflections of more than 3 km locally. Upper Cretaceous/lower Tertiary drift sequence reflectors are concordant to crustal uplift, and shoal toward the islands where they are enmeshed with volcanics. These sediments are apparently the source of oil seeps on Sao Tome and Principe. On the flanks of CVL islands and seamounts, regionally continuous sequence boundaries are observed onlapping rotated older sediment reflectors. These sequence boundaries display either base-discordant onlap patterns or divergent onlap patterns, both indicative of uplift, not eustatic fluctuation. The 'uplift sequence boundaries' probably result from uplift associated with pulses of colcanism in the Miocene. It is likely this arching is the equivalent of the Miocene Adamawa uplift that occurs on land. The authors hypothesize crustal uplift was produced by upwelling of the asthenosphere and upward percolation of light mantle fluids. Features which may be the tops of magma bodies 2-20 km wide are imaged in some of the reflection profiles, and possible shear zones and fluid conduits are observed as sub-Moho dipping reflector events.

  4. [Epidemiology of obesity in the work milieu, Douala, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fouda, A A Bita; Lemogoum, D; Manga, J Owona; Il Dissongo, J; Tobbit, R; Moyo, D F Ngounou; Sume, G Etapelong; Kollo, B

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide public health problem, and its burden has been poorly explored in Cameroon, especially in work place. We therefore carried out in April 2010, an analytic cross-sectional study aiming to determine the prevalence of obesity, associated risk factors and health risk in six randomly selected enterprises based in Douala. Among the 552 participants, 383 (69.4%) were males. Most of the workers (55.4%) were aged less than 35 years old. There was 191 (34.60%) office staff as against 361 (65.40%) labourers. In each participant, blood pressures, and fasting blood glucose were recorded, as well as obesity indexes comprising body mass index and waist circumference. They were calculated and data analyzed using SPSS 16 and Win Pepi 11.8. The prevalence of obesity in workers was 23.4%, and was more pronounced in women than in men (36.1% vs 17.8%; P < 0.005). The workers aged > or = 45 years old exhibited highest obesity rate than other age group (P = 0.03). Importantly, the prevalence of hypertension was two fold greater in obese workers than non obese (P < 0.005; RR = 2.1; IC 95%: 1.57-2.83). 271 (49.1%) of the workers were overweight. Among the obese subjects, those with visceral obesity: 56 (43.4%) females with a waist circumference > 88 cm and 41 (31.8%) men with a waist circumference > 102 cm were at very high health risk. Obesity was significantly associated with excessive alcohol consumption (P = 0.013) and high salt diet (P = 0.022). This study reveals a high burden of obesity in the work place in Douala and outlines the urgent needs of implementation of prevention programme in that milieu. PMID:22891584

  5. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  6. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  7. Students' Indiscipline: Types, Causes and Possible Solutions: The Case of Secondary Schools in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwokabuenui, Ponfua Yhayeh

    2015-01-01

    This study explores students' indiscipline in secondary schools in Cameroon. The purpose of this research is to examine the familiar or common forms, the causes and probable ways to curb indiscipline in schools. The study made use of descriptive survey research design. The study was guided by four research questions whereas two hypotheses were…

  8. [Intestinal parasite diagnoses in Chad and North Cameroon, 1963-2009].

    PubMed

    Massenet, D; Gamougam, K; Djerané, L; Toukour, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of parasitological analyses of stool samples in N'Djamena (Chad) since 1963 and in Garoua (North Cameroon) since 1990. The number of positive stool examinations has fallen, with a significant decline in helminthiases, although the level of protozoan infections has remained essentially the same.

  9. Lolodorfus, a new genus of net-winged beetles (Coleoptera: Lycidae: Dexorinae) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bocakova, Milada

    2014-06-04

    A new genus Lolodorfus is proposed within the subfamily Dexorinae and Lolodorfus flavus sp. nov. from Cameroon is described. Illustrations of diagnostic characters are given. The genus Mimolibnetis Pic, 1936 is transferred to the Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989, and consequently the subfamily Mimolibnetinae Kazantsev, 2013 is considered to be a younger synonym of Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989.

  10. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  11. The Emotional World of Kinship: Children's Experiences of Fosterage in East Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notermans, Catrien

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through sharing food and intimacy, children directly…

  12. [Biogeographical distribution of snakes in Cameroon: the case of venomous snakes].

    PubMed

    Gonwouo, N L; LeBreton, M; Chirio, L; Ngassam, P; Ngoa, L E; Dzikouk, G

    2005-11-01

    A preliminary analysis of the distribution of snakes captured in Cameroon between 1999 and 2004 is presented in this study. This work helps to provide a better understanding of the distribution of the venomous snakes. The main focus of this study was to identify regions of high diversity of venomous species, a useful step towards developing a national strategy of snakebite care and antivenom distribution. We recorded 4,910 specimens of 150 species from 361 localities throughout Cameroon. Among the ten provinces in Cameroon, the southwest province recorded the highest number of venomous snakes. Diversity was less in the far-north province, but the high abundance of Echis ocellatus seems to be responsible for many snake bites in the region. Of all venomous snakes, the forest cobra Naja melanoleuca was the most abundant in the forest region. The humid savannah region was dominated by Causus maculatus while the Sahelian part by Echis ocellatus. Given the abundance and high snake bite cases of the latter in the region, snakebite care from a national point of view should begin from the far-north towards the forest region of the south-west Cameroon.

  13. Technical and Vocational Education in Cameroon and Critical Avenues for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, S. Megan

    2007-01-01

    Technical and vocational education (TVE) can influence development and economic progress for post-colonial societies. Some newly independent sub-Saharan African countries attempted curricular transformation that might produce a skilled workforce through widespread access to versions of TVE. In Cameroon, no such post-colonial curricular revolution…

  14. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  15. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  16. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  17. The Dynamics of Political Competition and the Future of Democratization Process in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forje, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The paper looks at the process of democratisation in Cameroon and its failure to respond to the basic tenets of democracy that meets the aspirations of the people. It argues that though there have been some quasi moves following the collapse of the Soviet Union in trying to open the political space, this has been done to meet donors wish and not…

  18. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  19. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  20. Frequency and Use of Modals in Cameroon English and Application to Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemleke, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This contribution investigates the frequency patterns of the modal verbs as they occur in the one-million-word corpus of Cameroon written English. An analysis of dominant senses of some of the modals is also attempted. I have used results and statistical figures from British and American English (as reported in studies such as Biber et al. 1999…

  1. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  2. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  3. [An inventory of activities related to the collection of demographic data concerning households in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fotso, E

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to list, following a brief introduction, all the projects undertaken since 1921 that have included the collection of demographic data concerning Cameroon. Information is included on the title of the census or survey, date, geographic coverage, executing agency, and publication of results. PMID:12339838

  4. Language Ideology and the Colonial Legacy in Cameroon Schools: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon prior to colonization had many languages, with none having precedence over the other. With the development of trade and the installation of missionaries along its coast, a number of local and European languages gained prominence. English became the most widely used western language. It established itself as the language of trade and of…

  5. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  6. The Position of English Globally and Nationally: A Comparison of Cameroon and Vanuatu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abongdia, Jane-Francis A.; Willans, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates language ideologies relevant to medium of instruction policy within two postcolonial countries: Cameroon and Vanuatu. Each country experienced British and French rule, and has retained both English and French as official languages and media of instruction. However, since Independence, there has been a difference in the way…

  7. "A Child has Many Mothers": Views of Child Fostering in Northwestern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This article examines 20 fostering arrangements in a growing urban community in northwestern Cameroon from the perspectives of those involved. Analysis of interviews with caregivers and birth mothers suggests that the nature of adult relationships is central to children's living arrangements. Three caregiver-mother relationship profiles are…

  8. Exploring the Game of "Julirde": A Mathematical-Educational Game Played by Fulbe Children in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Paulus

    2001-01-01

    Presents an educational mathematical activity from Africa. Shows how one child explored the game of Julirde, a game of the mosque emphasizing problem solving and symmetry. Offers several suggestions for exploring the game from the central African country of Cameroon in the elementary school mathematics classroom. (ASK)

  9. The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

  10. Is Language Planning an Indispensable Tool for Developing Nations? The Case of Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Tabe Florence Ako

    2000-01-01

    Suggest that because language planning is a tool in the service of many different latent goals, it rarely conforms to a rational paradigm of decision-making or problem-solving. This article presents a linguistic profile of Cameroon. (Author/VWL)

  11. Local Agency in the Development of Minority Languages: Three Language Committees in Northwest Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Examples of effective community-based action in defence of minority indigenous language are relatively few. However, three indigenous language committees of Northwest Cameroon, the Bafut, Kom and Nso' language committees, provide dynamic models of the role that community-based organisations can play in the development and maintenance of minority…

  12. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  13. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  14. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  15. Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line from SKS and SKKS Splitting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, F. W.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Reusch, A. M.; Euler, G. G.; Shore, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is an 1800-km-long line of Cenozoic volcanism that runs from the island of Annobòn in the Atlantic to northeast Cameroon. It does not show a chronological progression consistent with hotspot-related volcanism. We investigate seismic anisotropy to determine the upper mantle lattice preferred orientation and constrain the mantle flow pattern. For this study, we use a temporary array of 32 broadband seismographs deployed throughout Cameroon for 1 to 2 years between 2005 and 2007 along with two additional permanent seismographs in adjacent countries. Using the SKS splitting method described by Silver and Chan (1991) and the analysis program of George Helffrich, we investigate SKS and SKKS arrivals from 44 earthquakes with sources 95 to 145 degrees away and magnitudes greater than 6.0. First we determine the fast direction and lag time indicated beneath each station for each event, and then we stack the high-quality measurements for each station to find the final fast axis and lag time. We interpret the fast directions as indicating the direction of flow in the upper mantle, as suggested by laboratory experiments and previous studies of mantle xenoliths. Our results indicate four regions with different anisotropic parameters in the upper mantle. Two regions indicate anisotropy with a northeast-southwest-oriented fast direction and split time of about 1 s: the Congo craton in Southern Cameroon and the eastern end of the CVL. Between the Congo craton and the CVL, in central Cameroon, the fast direction is variable and has a small lag time of about 0.3 s. Along the CVL, the fast direction has an approximate north-south orientation, with a lag time of about 0.7 s. The splitting values in Southern Cameroon are consistent with large splitting times and NE directions found at GSN stations in Gabon and the Central African Republic and probably indicate a strong consistent anisotropic fabric frozen into the cratonic lithosphere. Splitting

  16. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  17. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  18. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo.

    PubMed

    Papachroni, Danai; Graikou, Konstantia; Kosalec, Ivan; Damianakos, Harilaos; Ingram, Verina; Chinou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Three triterpenes and two diprenyl-flavonoids were identified from Congo propolis, which has been investigated for the first time, while thirteen triterpenes, three diprenyl-flavonoids, two monoterpenic alcohols and one fatty acid ester have been identified from Cameroon propolis samples. To our knowledge, the identified diprenyl-flavonoids, as well as five of the isolated and determined triterpenes, are reported for the first time in propolis. Moreover, the total polyphenol content was estimated in all extracts and the antimicrobial activities of all four extracts were studied against six Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi, showing an interesting antibacterial profile.

  19. Doassansiopsis caldesiae sp. nov. and Doassansiopsis tomasii: two remarkable smut fungi from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Marcin; Vánky, Kálmán; Mossebo, Dominique C; Piatek, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Three recent collections of Doassansiopsis from western Cameroon are assessed taxonomically. Doassansiopsis caldesiae M. Piatek & Vánky is described as a new species from infected leaves of Caldesia reniformis (D. Don) Makino. Its diagnostic characters are flat, nonthickened sori with spore balls as blackish, slightly elevated dots, more or less globoid spores, conspicuous cortical sterile cells and parasitism on Caldesia reniformis of family Alismataceae. The species is compared to another Doassansiopsis species on host plants belonging to family Alismataceae. Doassansiopsis tomasii Vánky is described from two localities on Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae), which represents the first report of this smut from Cameroon and western Africa. Similarities between this species and Doassansiopsis nymphaeae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Thirum. and D. ticonis M. Piepenbr. are outlined and the global distribution of the three taxa is mapped. The species concept in the genus Doassansiopsis is discussed, and a key to all known species of the genus is provided.

  20. The Burden of Leprosy in Cameroon: Fifteen Years into the Post-elimination Era

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kanyi; Bratschi, Martin W.; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Plushke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon achieved the elimination target of leprosy in 2000, and has maintained this status ever since. However, a number of health districts in the country continue to report significant numbers of leprosy cases. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of leprosy in Cameroon from 2000 to 2014. Methods We obtained and analysed using the new leprosy burden concept of analysis, leprosy surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2014 from the National Leprosy Control Programme. Principal findings Cameroon achieved leprosy elimination in 2000, registering a prevalence rate of 0.94/10,000 population. The prevalence rate dropped further to reach 0.20/10,000 population (78% reduction) in 2014. Similarly, the new case detection rate dropped from 4.88/100,000 population in 2000 to 1.46/100,000 population (85.3% reduction) in 2014. All 10 regions of the country achieved leprosy elimination between 2000 and 2014; however, 10 health districts were still to do so by 2014. The number of high-leprosy-burden regions decreased from 8 in 2000 to 1 in 2014. Seven and two regions were respectively medium and low-burdened at the end of 2014. At the health districts level, 18 remained at the high-leprosy-burdened level in 2014. Conclusion The leprosy prevalence and detection rates as well as the overall leprosy burden in Cameroon have dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. However, a good number of health districts remain high-leprosy-burdened. The National Leprosy Control Programme should focus efforts on these health districts in the next coming years in order to further reduce the burden of leprosy in the country. PMID:27732603

  1. Cadmium content of Cameroonian cigarettes: Comparison with other foreign brands sold in Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Tamboue, H.S. ); Tamboue, E.D.; Leno, M. )

    1991-07-01

    Given the increasing concern about heavy metal and in particular cadmium toxicity, the present study has two objectives. First, the authors wanted to measure and compare the amount of cadmium found in Cameroonian cigarettes and in foreign brands sold in Cameroon. Secondly, they measured the amount of cadmium in smoke, ashes and the amount retained by filters of some Cameroonian cigarettes after using a smoking machine.

  2. Genetic Structure of the Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Methods and Results Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (FST = 0.068, P<0.0001). Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. Conclusion The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions. PMID:21629655

  3. Distribution and heterogeneity of hepatitis C genotypes in hepatitis patients in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Christophe; Njouom, Richard; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Dubois, Martine; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Vessière, Aurelia; Timba, Isabelle; Thonnon, Jocelyn; Izopet, Jacques; Nerrienet, Eric

    2005-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects humans world-wide. The virus genome varies greatly and it has several genotypes. HCV infection is highly prevalent in Central Africa and Cameroon. Initial studies on the genetic variability of HCV showed infection with HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 4. We have now sequenced the NS5b and E2 regions of 156 HCV isolates collected from patients presenting for diagnosis in Yaounde and used the data to describe the distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in patients with hepatitis in Cameroon. Genotype 1 was more frequent than Genotypes 4 and 2. Genotypes 1 and 4 were highly heterogeneous, containing many subtypes described previously (1b, 1c, 1e, 1h, 1l, 4f, 4t, 4p, 4k) and unsubtyped groups. There was a systematic phylogenetic concordance between NS5b and E2 sequence clustering. The Genotype 2 sequences did not vary. Neither subject age nor gender influenced HCV distribution. HCV Genotypes 1 and 4 are very heterogeneous in Cameroon, perhaps due to ancient infections. The homogeneity of HCV Genotype 2 indicates its more recent introduction from western Africa.

  4. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon.

  5. Public awareness, perceptions, and attitudes with respect to epilepsy in Ebolowa and Sangmelima--Urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njamnshi, Alfred K; Yepnjio, Faustin N; Tabah, Earnest N; Dema, Fidèle; Angwafor, Samuel A; Fonsah, Julius Y; Angwafo, Fru F; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of a series of studies mandated by the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon to obtain baseline data for an epilepsy education program adapted to our communities, we interviewed 456 subjects without epilepsy in the Ebolowa Regional and Sangmelima District Hospitals. We found that 99.6 and 72.6% had heard or knew a person or people with epilepsy (PWE) and 76.8% had seen a seizure. About 58% of respondents would offer equal employment opportunities to PWE; 39.6% and 33.6% would respectively object to their children associating with or marrying PWE; 13% associated epilepsy with insanity and witchcraft, whereas 82.5% would recommend modern treatment for epilepsy. Predictors of negative attitudes were the beliefs that epilepsy is hereditary (26.3%) and epilepsy is a form of insanity (13%). Familiarity with epilepsy in Ebolowa and Sangmelima is high, and attitudes toward PWE are better there than in other areas of Cameroon. These results demonstrate a regional variation in public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy and suggest that urban populations may constitute targets as well as channels for epilepsy sensitization campaigns in Cameroon.

  6. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008), 14.3% (2009) and 10.4% (2010) in Central African Republic and 39% (2007) and 34.9% (2009) in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence. PMID:22958546

  7. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern.

  8. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon. PMID:27055484

  9. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern. PMID:25957194

  10. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  11. HIV type 1 group M clades infecting subjects from rural villages in equatorial rain forests of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ping; Burda, Sherri; Urbanski, Mateusz; Kenfack, Henriette; Tongo, Marcel; Heyndrickx, Leo; Nanfack, Aubin; Shang, Judith; Agyingi, Lucy; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Zekeng, Leopold; Nyambi, Phillipe

    2002-12-15

    Though the HIV-1 subtypes infecting patients living in urban and semi-urban areas in Cameroon have been reported, information on the subtypes infecting patients in rural villages is lacking. To begin to understand the diversity of the HIV-1 group M subtypes infecting persons living in rural villages in the equatorial rain forest regions of Cameroon, 49 plasma samples from 14 rural villages in four provinces of Cameroon were analyzed using heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA), DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic tree analysis on the basis of env C2V5, gag, or pol regions. Sixty-one percent of the group M infections were clade A or CRF02_AG-like as subtyped by env and gag. Of the remaining group M infections, 12% were either A or CRF02_AG-like or CRF01_AE-like in recombination with other clades; 25% were infections that were entirely non-A or non-CRF02_AG-like; and 2% were CRF11_cpx. The HIV-1 group M clades identified included A, D, F (F2), G, and H. The CRF strains identified were CRF02_AG-like, CRF01_AE-like, and CRF11_cpx. Two new intersubtype recombinant infections, H/G and A/F2, were identified. This study suggests that the HIV-1 diversity in rural villages in the equatorial rain forest of Cameroon is at least as broad as has been observed in major cities of Cameroon and that multiple HIV-1 group M subtypes are infecting persons living in the countryside of Cameroon.

  12. Ambient noise tomography of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Northern Congo craton: new constraints on the structure of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Aoudia, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the lithospheric structure of Cameroon inverting Rayleigh waves obtained from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. We correlate seismic records between 32 broad-band stations and we obtain good quality Rayleigh waves for 310 interstation paths. We measure group velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 10-35 s and we invert the group velocities for tomographic images. After the tomography the group velocities are then inverted, together with longer period group velocity measurements from existing literature, to compute a 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Cameroon lithosphere down to 100 km depth. Our results provide an unprecedented mapping of the physical properties of the different crustal units and their correlations with surface geology, as well as with mantle lithospheric variations. The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) appears as a segmented feature exhibiting different physical properties along strike. The active Mt Cameroon volcano is underlain by very low velocities, unlike the other segments of the CVL. The along-strike variations in crustal structure suggest that lateral heterogeneities in lithospheric thickness and physical properties have influenced the location and distribution of magmatism. The crust beneath the Central African Shear Zone exhibits a sizeable low velocity anomaly. The lithosphere beneath Cameroon is characterised by a heterogeneous crust with a relatively constant thickness and a low velocity uppermost mantle at the edge of the Congo Craton. Our results favour processes combining small-scale upwelling at the edge of a thick lithosphere and reactivation of Precambrian basement structures to explain the distribution of Holocene-Recent magmatism and plateau uplift. Our results also indicate that Mt Cameroon and surroundings areas are the most at risk zones for magmatic activity during this stage of CVL development.

  13. Early Infant Male Circumcision in Cameroon and Senegal: Demand, Service Provision, and Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Kenu, Ernest; Sint, Tin Tin; Kamenga, Claude; Ekpini, Rene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Male circumcision is almost universal in North and West Africa, and practiced for various reasons. Yet there is little documentation on service delivery, clinical procedures, policies, and programmatic strategies. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) commissioned country program reviews in 2014 to shed light on the delivery of male circumcision services for infants in Cameroon and Senegal. Methods: We conducted a policy desk review, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions at health centers and in communities. Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted 21 key informant interviews (13 with regional and district officers, 5 with national officers, and 3 with UNICEF officials) and 36 focus group discussions (6 with men, 6 with women, 12 with adolescent boys, and 12 with service providers). Some of the men and women were parents of the adolescents who participated in the focus group discussions. In the French-speaking areas, the focus group discussions were conducted in French through an accredited translator, audio recorded, and transcribed into English. Results: All of the facilities we visited in Cameroon and Senegal offer medical male circumcision, with 10 out of 12 performing early infant male circumcision (EIMC) routinely. Neither country has policies, guidelines, or strategies for EIMC. The procedure is done mainly by untrained service providers, with some providers using modern circumcision devices. There are no key messages on EIMC for families; the increasing demand for EIMC is led by the community. Conclusion: Despite the absence of national policies and strategies, EIMC is routinely offered at all levels of the health care system in Cameroon and Senegal, mainly by untrained service providers. Improving circumcision services will require guidelines for EIMC and improvements in training, equipment, supply chains, recordkeeping, and demand creation. PMID:27413080

  14. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; Petit, Elsa; Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding") and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  15. Cure or control: complying with biomedical regime of diabetes in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Awah, Paschal Kum; Unwin, Nigel; Phillimore, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to explore the cultural aspect of compliance, its underlying principles and how these cultural aspects can be used to improve patient centred care for diabetes in Cameroon. Methods We used participant observation to collect data from a rural and an urban health district of Cameroon from June 2001 to June 2003. Patients were studied in their natural settings through daily interactions with them. The analysis was inductive and a continuous process from the early stages of fieldwork. Results The ethnography revealed a lack of basic knowledge about diabetes and diabetes risk factors amongst people with diabetes. The issue of compliance was identified as one of the main themes in the process of treating diabetes. Compliance emerged as part of the discourse of healthcare providers in clinics and filtered into the daily discourses of people with diabetes. The clinical encounters offered treatment packages that were socially inappropriate therefore rejected or modified for most of the time by people with diabetes. Compliance to biomedical therapy suffered a setback for four main reasons: dealing with competing regimes of treatment; coming to terms with biomedical treatment of diabetes; the cost of biomedical therapy; and the impact of AIDS on accepting weight loss as a lifestyle measure in prescription packages. People with diabetes had fears about and negative opinions of accepting certain prescriptions that they thought could interfere with their accustomed social image especially that which had to do with bridging their relationship with ancestors and losing weight in the era of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The cultural pressures on patients are responsible for patients' partial acceptance of and adherence to prescriptions. Understanding the self-image of patients and their background cultures are vital ingredients to improve diabetes care in low-income countries of Sub-Sahara Africa like Cameroon. PMID:18298835

  16. Near full-length HIV type 1M genomic sequences from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tongo, Marcel; Dorfman, Jeffrey R.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Burgers, Wendy A.; Martin, Darren P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cameroon is the country in which HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely originated and is today a major hotspot of HIV-1M genetic diversity. It remains unclear, however, whether the highly divergent HIV-1M lineages found in this country arose during the earliest phases of the global HIV-1M epidemic, or whether they arose more recently as a result of recombination events between globally circulating HIV-1M lineages. Methodology: To differentiate between these two possibilities, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the near full genome sequences of nine newly sequenced divergent HIV-1M isolates and 15 previously identified, apparently unique recombinant forms (URFs) from Cameroon. Results: Although two of the new genome sequences were clearly classifiable within subtype G, the remaining seven were highly divergent and phylogenetically branched either outside of, or very near the bases of clades containing the well characterised globally circulating viral lineages that they were most closely related to. Recombination analyses further revealed that these divergent viruses were likely complex URFs. We show, however that substantial portions (>1 Kb) of three of the new genome sequences and 15 of the previously characterised Cameroonian URFs have apparently been derived from divergent parental viruses that branch phylogenetically near the bases of the major HIV-1M clades. Conclusions and implications: Our analyses indicate the presence in Cameroon of contemporary descendants of numerous early-diverging HIV-1M lineages. Further efforts to sample and sequence viruses from such lineages could be crucial both for retracing the earliest evolutionary steps during the emergence of HIV-1M in humans, and accurately reconstructing the ancestral sequences of the major globally circulating HIV-1M lineages. PMID:26354000

  17. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Lezama, Ines; Asse, Marie-Louise; Okala, Georges; Bosu, William K.; Fanou, Nadia; Mbala, Ludvine; Zagre, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administered during in-person interviews was used to collect data on existing programs and content of training curricula. Nutrition curricula were reviewed against the following criteria: intended objectives, coverage of nutrition topics, and teaching methods. Results In total, five nutrition degree programs (four undergraduate programs and one master's program) were identified. Three additional programs were about to be launched at the time of data collection. We did not find any doctorate degree programs in nutrition. All the undergraduate programs only had little focus on public health nutrition whereas the master's program in our sample offered a good coverage of all dimensions of human nutrition including basic and applied nutrition. The predominant teaching method was didactic lecture in all the programs. We did not find any formal documentation outlining the competencies that students were expected to gain upon completion of these programs. Nutrition courses in agricultural and health schools were limited in terms of contact hours and scope. Public health nutrition was not covered in any of the health professional schools surveyed. We found no institution offering in-service nutrition training at the time of the study. Conclusions Based on our findings, we recommend that nutrition training programs in Cameroon be redesigned to make them more responsive to the public health needs of the country. PMID:26818193

  18. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. )

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  19. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  20. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  1. Chemistry and origin of the Mayo Kila sapphires, NW region Cameroon (Central Africa): Their possible relationship with the Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Mbih, Kemeng; Meffre, Sebastien; Yongue, Rose Fouateu; Kanouo, Nguo Sylvestre; Jay, Thomson

    2016-06-01

    Mineralogical, chemical and geochronological studies constrained the origin of sapphires from Mayo Kila, Northwest Cameroon. The sapphires are mostly blue, with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. The pale blue grains are transparent, whereas, other corundums are transparent to translucent and/or opaque. The sapphires are dominantly euhedral to sub-hedral with few polished lustrous grains, acquired features during moderate to short distance transport from a proximal source rock. Solid inclusions are limited to rutile and zircon. Trace element analysis of sapphires shows significant concentration (in ppm) in some elements: Fe (2208-14,473), Ti (82-1783), Ga (77-512), Mg (0.9-264.9), Cr (b.d.l -168) and V (1.3-82). The other elements (e.g. Sn, Nb, Ta, Th, Zr, Ni, Ce) are generally below 10 ppm. The calculated ratios for some of the selected elements show an extreme variation: Fe/Mg (43-3043), Fe/Ti (2-76), Ti/Mg (1-328), and Ga/Mg (0.4-363). They are dominantly corundum crystallized in alkaline magma (s) with few from metamorphic source (s). Trace elemental features with Hf (13,354-26,238 ppm), Th (4018-45,584 ppm) and U (7825-17,175 ppm), and Th/U (0.39-2.65) found in zircon inclusions are compatible with quantified values in magmatic crystallized zircons. The Cenozoic age (mean of 30.78 ± 0.28 Ma) obtained for zircon inclusions is close to the age of some igneous rocks found within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (e.g. rocks of the Mount Oku: 31-22 Ma), showing the same period of formation. The most probable source of the zircon host sapphires is the Oku Mountain located SW of Mayo Kila.

  2. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  3. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB), which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low-cost way to

  4. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  5. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-09-07

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  6. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  7. A case of abdominal textiloma following gynecologic surgery at the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2013-01-01

    Textiloma is the inadvertent retention of a textile foreign body on the surgical site. It is a rare complication of surgery but which carries severe consequences for both patients and surgeons in terms of morbi-mortality and medico-legal procedures respectively. We herein report the case of an abdominal textiloma in a 42 year old woman who underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. We also depict the errors that led to this mishap in a tertiary hospital in Yaounde (Cameroon). The textiloma was recognized six weeks after the causative surgery and removed by laparotomy without further complications. PMID:24876905

  8. English-Medium Instruction in an English-French Bilingual Setting: Issues of Quality and Equity in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    Despite its multilingual nature Cameroon's educational system provides for full immersion into either French-medium or English-medium education from the first year schooling. Following political tensions in the early 1990s the country decided to reaffirm its commitment to promote bilingualism in the educational system with the outcome being the…

  9. ''I Eat to Be Happy, to Be Strong, and to Live.'' Perceptions of Rural and Urban Adolescents in Cameroon, Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dapi, Leonie N.; Omoloko, Cecile; Janlert, Urban; Dahlgren, Lars; Haglin, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Settings: Yaounde urban and Bandja rural areas. Participants: Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural…

  10. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  11. "This Is No French School": Language and Education Traditions in Primary Schooling in Cameroon -- A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on the concepts of instrumental and expressive orders to analyse school practice in two Anglophone and two Francophone primary schools in Cameroon, and how micro processes of language socialisation in the schools studied instantiated Anglophone and Francophone education traditions and related to macro processes of systems of…

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 CRF02_AG in Cameroon and African Patients Living in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Véras, Nazle Mendonca Collaço; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Presti, Alessandra Lo; Olearo, Flaminia; Cappelli, Giulia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Takou, Desiré; Torimiro, Judith; Russo, Gianluca; Callegaro, Annapaola; Salpini, Romina; D'Arrigo, Roberta; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for >50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of the population. The remaining Cameroonian sequences and the new strains isolated from Italian patients were interspersed mainly within West and Central African sequences in the tree, indicating a continuous exchange of CRF02_AG viral strains between Cameroon and other African countries, as well as multiple independent introductions in the Italian population. The evaluation of the spread of CRF02_AG may provide significant insight about the future dynamics of the Italian and European epidemic. PMID:21453131

  13. An Exploration of the Relationship between Language Attitudes and Ideologies in a Study of Francophone Students of English in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyers, Charlyn; Abongdia, Jane-Francis

    2010-01-01

    What are the similarities and differences between the concepts "language attitudes" (LAs) and "language ideologies" (LIs)? The need to answer this question arose from a study done by Abongdia in Cameroon with Francophone high school students of English to determine their attitudes towards English as well as their motivation for learning the…

  14. Age, geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanic rocks in the Bafang region, West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuimegnie Ngongang, Nicaise Blaise; Kamgang, Pierre; Chazot, Gilles; Agranier, Arnaud; Bellon, Hervé; Nonnotte, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    The origin of the volcanism in the Cameroon Volcanic Line and the nature of its mantle sources are still highly controversial. We present major and trace element compositions as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic results on mafic and intermediate lavas from the Bafang area in the central part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. The lavas range from basanites and basalts to hawaiites and mugearites with an alkaline affinity and were emplaced between 10 and 6 Ma ago. The evolution from basalts and basanites to more differentiated rocks involved fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, but the isotopic compositions show that crustal contamination processes affected some magmas during their ascent in the crust. Basalts and basanites originated from a garnet-bearing mantle source and their differences are mostly due to variable degrees of partial melting. The isotopic composition of the uncontaminated samples imply the participation of three distinct mantle components, the depleted MORB mantle (not dominant), an enriched component and a Pb radiogenic component similar to the source of the Mount Cameroon. Combined with previously published isotopic data from the Cameroon Volcanic Line, our new results indicate that the source of the volcanism mostly reside in the lithospheric mantle and is different from what can be expected from the melting of a mantle accreted from or modified during the emplacement of the St. Helena mantle plume.

  15. Barriers to Community Participation in Development Planning: Lessons from the Mutengene (Cameroon) Self-Help Water Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.

    2002-01-01

    A community water supply project in Cameroon illustrates the following constraints on community participation in development: paternalistic authorities, prescriptive role of the state, selective participation, bias toward "hard" issues, inattention to negative results, group conflicts, gatekeeping, pressure for immediate results, population size,…

  16. The determinants of the willingness-to-pay for community-based prepayment scheme in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Makaudze, Ephias; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2011-09-01

    In rural Cameroon, many people have no access to quality healthcare services. This is largely attributed to lack of private out-of-pocket payment to finance healthcare services. A community-based prepayment health insurance scheme may be implemented to improve healthcare access in rural areas. This study examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for a community-based prepayment healthcare system using a contingent valuation method conducted in rural Cameroon. To mitigate potential hypothetical bias, a consequential script is introduced in the questionnaire. The results indicate age, religion, profession, knowledge of community-based health insurance, awareness of usual practice in rural areas, involvement in association and disposable income are the key determinants of willingness to pay for a prepayment health scheme. On average, willingness to pay for the scheme by rural households is 1011 CFA francs/person/month (2.15 US dollars). The results underlie two important implications: first, there is substantial demand for a community healthcare prepayment scheme by rural poor households in Cameroon; second, rural households are averse to health shocks and hence they are willing to sacrifice monthly premium payments to protect themselves (and their households) from unforeseen health-related risks. If government could engage in social marketing strategies such as mass media campaigns and awareness, this could prove vital for encouraging participation by the rural poor in healthcare prepayment scheme in Cameroon. PMID:21874541

  17. From Chicken Breath to the Killers Lake of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorenzo, Ron

    2001-02-01

    By using a single equation prototype, seven interesting mysteries and phenomena can be seen as sharing a common chemical underpinning. The applications discussed are the Killer Lakes of Cameroon, chicken breath, the Permian Ocean, the snow line, boiler scale, the Fizz Keeper, and stalactites and stalagmites.

  18. From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Recommends integrating different applications to serve the need for students to know the relevancy of the course of their future. Uses different and unrelated phenomena to teach equilibria. Introduces six phenomena; (1) Killer Lakes of Cameroon, (2) Chicken Breath, (3) The Permian Ocean, (4) Snow Line, (5) Hard-Water Boiler Scale, and (6)…

  19. The determinants of the willingness-to-pay for community-based prepayment scheme in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Makaudze, Ephias; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2011-09-01

    In rural Cameroon, many people have no access to quality healthcare services. This is largely attributed to lack of private out-of-pocket payment to finance healthcare services. A community-based prepayment health insurance scheme may be implemented to improve healthcare access in rural areas. This study examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for a community-based prepayment healthcare system using a contingent valuation method conducted in rural Cameroon. To mitigate potential hypothetical bias, a consequential script is introduced in the questionnaire. The results indicate age, religion, profession, knowledge of community-based health insurance, awareness of usual practice in rural areas, involvement in association and disposable income are the key determinants of willingness to pay for a prepayment health scheme. On average, willingness to pay for the scheme by rural households is 1011 CFA francs/person/month (2.15 US dollars). The results underlie two important implications: first, there is substantial demand for a community healthcare prepayment scheme by rural poor households in Cameroon; second, rural households are averse to health shocks and hence they are willing to sacrifice monthly premium payments to protect themselves (and their households) from unforeseen health-related risks. If government could engage in social marketing strategies such as mass media campaigns and awareness, this could prove vital for encouraging participation by the rural poor in healthcare prepayment scheme in Cameroon.

  20. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural…

  1. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  2. Serological and molecular tools to detect neurologic parasitic zoonoses in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2011-11-01

    Parasitic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis are a public health threat, since they can affect the brain leading to neurological disorders. Epilepsy and paragonimiasis are common in southwestern Cameroon. We reviewed the literature for studies using antigens to diagnose toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and paragonimiasis. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 26 (15.5%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons examined [78 males (15.2 +/- 8.2 years old), 90 females (12.9 +/- 5.9 years old), 143 persons < 20 years old] had antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. Of the 14 people with epilepsy, 5 were seropositive for Toxocara antigens and 1 was positive for both Toxocara and Paragonimus antigens. Two children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis. Serologic screening for cysticercosis may be feasible to detect asymptomatic cysticercosis in children in endemic areas leading to early treatment. The causative Paragonimus species was confirmed to be P. africanus by molecular sequencing. Education, screening and confirmation test for these diseases may be needed for control in Cameroon.

  3. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano’s underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon’s magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano’s two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs. PMID:27713494

  4. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  5. Locally Confined Clonal Complexes of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Two Buruli Ulcer Endemic Regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Sarah; Minyem, Jacques C.; Um Boock, Alphonse; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre Franklin; Junghanss, Thomas; Brites, Daniela; Harris, Simon R.; Parkhill, Julian; Pluschke, Gerd; Lamelas Cabello, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU), which has been reported from over 30 countries worldwide. The majority of notified patients come from West African countries, such as Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon. All clinical isolates of M. ulcerans from these countries are closely related and their genomes differ only in a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a molecular epidemiological study with clinical isolates from patients from two distinct BU endemic regions of Cameroon, the Nyong and the Mapé river basins. Whole genome sequencing of the M. ulcerans strains from these two BU endemic areas revealed the presence of two phylogenetically distinct clonal complexes. The strains from the Nyong river basin were genetically more diverse and less closely related to the M. ulcerans strain circulating in Ghana and Benin than the strains causing BU in the Mapé river basin. Conclusions Our comparative genomic analysis revealed that M. ulcerans clones diversify locally by the accumulation of SNPs. Case isolates coming from more recently emerging BU endemic areas, such as the Mapé river basin, may be less diverse than populations from longer standing disease foci, such as the Nyong river basin. Exchange of strains between distinct endemic areas seems to be rare and local clonal complexes can be easily distinguished by whole genome sequencing. PMID:26046531

  6. Doassansiopsis caldesiae sp. nov. and Doassansiopsis tomasii: two remarkable smut fungi from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Marcin; Vánky, Kálmán; Mossebo, Dominique C; Piatek, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Three recent collections of Doassansiopsis from western Cameroon are assessed taxonomically. Doassansiopsis caldesiae M. Piatek & Vánky is described as a new species from infected leaves of Caldesia reniformis (D. Don) Makino. Its diagnostic characters are flat, nonthickened sori with spore balls as blackish, slightly elevated dots, more or less globoid spores, conspicuous cortical sterile cells and parasitism on Caldesia reniformis of family Alismataceae. The species is compared to another Doassansiopsis species on host plants belonging to family Alismataceae. Doassansiopsis tomasii Vánky is described from two localities on Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae), which represents the first report of this smut from Cameroon and western Africa. Similarities between this species and Doassansiopsis nymphaeae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Thirum. and D. ticonis M. Piepenbr. are outlined and the global distribution of the three taxa is mapped. The species concept in the genus Doassansiopsis is discussed, and a key to all known species of the genus is provided. PMID:18833759

  7. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2016-10-01

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano’s underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon’s magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano’s two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  8. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees.

  9. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of “community capacity” to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  10. 'The vagina does not talk': conception concealed or deliberately disclosed in eastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    van der Sijpt, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of current alternative 'horizons of honour' such as schooling, employment or relationships with rich urban men, women's intentions with regard to marriage and motherhood acquire different meanings. On their pathways to urban forms of honour, formal engagements and childbearing are often postponed, while premarital sexual encounters proliferate. This paper explores the meanings of pregnancy within the context of these fragile relationships and women's urban aspirations; fertility will be shown to be a 'bet' that may either disrupt or stabilize urban affairs and ambitions. As such, pregnancies can be strategically anticipated and deliberately disclosed or unexpectedly encountered and secretly disrupted. This paper sheds light on women's strategies of concealment and disclosure of pregnancies and shows that these practices are often inspired by a notion of the 'right timing' of particular reproductive conjunctures - a notion that is of increasing relevance in current frames of female honour in Cameroon. PMID:22118422

  11. Characteristics associated with prevalent HIV infection among a cohort of sex workers in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, K. A.; Roddy, R. E.; Zekeng, L.; Weir, S. S.; Tamoufe, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of HIV infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Cameroon, and to describe characteristics associated with HIV infection in this population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, 2260 female sex workers in Cameroon were interviewed and screened for HIV serostatus. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and sexual and health behaviours. RESULTS: Seropositive participants (18%) were more likely to be over age 25, have four or more children, live in Yaounde or Douala for 5 years or less, solicit clients in their homes or on the street, have a low educational level, earn a weekly income of less than $24, and have no other occupation outside of sex work. A logistic regression model of selected sociodemographic characteristics indicated that women at particularly high odds of HIV infection were older, poorer, and new immigrants to their city of residence. CONCLUSION: This seroprevalence study found a lower HIV prevalence than had been previously reported. Although our results are different, this group is still at much higher risk of HIV infection than the population as a whole. 




 PMID:9634326

  12. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Millard, James D.; Nji, Theobald M.; Tantoh, William F.; Nyoh, Doris N.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Methods Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Results Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. Conclusion We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. PMID:25969503

  13. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  14. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41-50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  15. The Two-Phase Emergence of Non Pandemic HIV-1 Group O in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leoz, Marie; Feyertag, Felix; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Mauclère, Philippe; Lachenal, Guillaume; Damond, Florence; De Oliveira, Fabienne; Lemée, Véronique; Simon, François; Robertson, David L; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Unlike the pandemic form of HIV-1 (group M), group O viruses are endemic in west central Africa, especially in Cameroon. However, little is known about group O's genetic evolution, and why this highly divergent lineage has not become pandemic. Using a unique and large set of group O sequences from samples collected from 1987 to 2012, we find that this lineage has evolved in successive slow and fast phases of diversification, with a most recent common ancestor estimated to have existed around 1930 (1914-1944). The most rapid periods of diversification occurred in the 1950s and in the 1980s, and could be linked to favourable epidemiological contexts in Cameroon. Group O genetic diversity reflects this two-phase evolution, with two distinct populations potentially having different viral properties. The currently predominant viral population emerged in the 1980s, from an ancient population which had first developed in the 1950s, and is characterized by higher growth and evolutionary rates, and the natural presence of the Y181C resistance mutation, thought to confer a phenotypic advantage. Our findings show that although this evolutionary pattern is specific to HIV-1 group O, it paralleled the early spread of HIV-1 group M in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both viral lineages are likely to have benefited from similar epidemiological contexts. The relative role of virological and social factors in the distinct epidemic histories of HIV-1 group O and M needs to be reassessed. PMID:26241860

  16. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombination in Cameroon by Use of Nonspecific Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iles, James C.; Njouom, Richard; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bonsall, David; Bowden, Rory; Trebes, Amy; Piazza, Paolo; Barnes, Ellie; Pépin, Jacques; Klenerman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recombination in the evolution and genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently uncertain. Only a small number of intergenotypic recombinants have been identified so far, and each has core and envelope genes classified as belonging to genotype 2. Here, we investigated two putative genotype 4/1 recombinants from southern Cameroon using a number of approaches, including standard Sanger sequencing, genotype-specific PCR amplification, and non-HCV-specific Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Recombination between genotypes 1 and 4 was confirmed in both samples, and the parental lineages of each recombinant belong to HCV subtypes that are cocirculating at a high prevalence in Cameroon. Using the RNA-seq approach, we obtained a complete genome for one sample, which contained a recombination breakpoint at the E2/P7 gene junction. We developed and applied a new method, called Deep SimPlot, which can be used to visualize and identify viral recombination directly from the short sequence reads created by next-generation sequencing in conjunction with a consensus sequence. PMID:26202126

  17. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombination in Cameroon by Use of Nonspecific Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Iles, James C; Njouom, Richard; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bonsall, David; Bowden, Rory; Trebes, Amy; Piazza, Paolo; Barnes, Ellie; Pépin, Jacques; Klenerman, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-10-01

    The importance of recombination in the evolution and genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently uncertain. Only a small number of intergenotypic recombinants have been identified so far, and each has core and envelope genes classified as belonging to genotype 2. Here, we investigated two putative genotype 4/1 recombinants from southern Cameroon using a number of approaches, including standard Sanger sequencing, genotype-specific PCR amplification, and non-HCV-specific Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Recombination between genotypes 1 and 4 was confirmed in both samples, and the parental lineages of each recombinant belong to HCV subtypes that are cocirculating at a high prevalence in Cameroon. Using the RNA-seq approach, we obtained a complete genome for one sample, which contained a recombination breakpoint at the E2/P7 gene junction. We developed and applied a new method, called Deep SimPlot, which can be used to visualize and identify viral recombination directly from the short sequence reads created by next-generation sequencing in conjunction with a consensus sequence.

  18. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  19. Independent origins and incipient speciation among host-associated populations of Thielaviopsis ethacetica in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbenoun, Michael; Wingfield, Michael J; Letsoalo, Teboho; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Roux, Jolanda

    2015-11-01

    Thielaviopsis ethacetica was recently reinstated as a distinct taxon using DNA phylogenies. It is widespread affecting several crop plants of global economic importance. In this study, microsatellite markers were developed and used in conjunction with sequence data to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Th. ethacetica in Cameroon. A collection of 71 isolates from cacao, oil palm, and pineapple, supplemented with nine isolates from other countries were analysed. Four genetic groups were identified. Two of these were associated with oil palm in Cameroon and showed high genetic diversity, suggesting that they might represent an indigenous population of the pathogen. In contrast, the remaining two groups, associated with cacao and pineapple, had low genetic diversity and, most likely, represent introduced populations. There was no evidence of gene flow between these groups. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the tef1-α as well as the combined flanking regions of six microsatellite loci were consistent with population genetic analyses and suggested that Th. ethacetica is comprised of two divergent genetic lineages. PMID:26466872

  20. Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This quantitative cross-sectional study examines sexual behaviour of a target group of hearing-impaired persons in Yaounde, the capital city of the Republic of Cameroon. It measures their HIV prevalence to enable assessment of their sexual vulnerability and to help reduce the gap in existing HIV serology data among people with disabilities in general and the deaf in particular. Methods The snowball sampling procedure was adopted as an adequate approach to meet this hard-to-reach group. A total of 118 deaf participants were interviewed for the behavioural component, using sign language as a means of data collection, while 101 participants underwent HIV serology testing. Descriptive analyses were done for behavioural data with Epi info software, while sera were tested by health personnel, using rapid and confirmation test reagents. Results From the results, it was clear that the hearing impaired were highly involved in risky sexual practices, as observed through major sexual indicators, such as: age at first sexual intercourse; condom use; and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. Furthermore, it was noted that the HIV prevalence rate of the hearing impaired in the capital of Cameroon was 4%, close to the prevalence in the city's general population (4.7%). Conclusions Such results suggest that there is a need for in-depth behavioural research and serological studies in this domain to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behaviour among the hearing impaired, and to propose operational prevention approaches for this group. PMID:20181091

  1. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  2. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Methods Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Results Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and

  3. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (χ2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p < 0.05. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B infection (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29

  4. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  5. Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Nicola; Zardi, Enrico; Strollo, Rocky; Arigliani, Michele; Daverio, Andrea; Olearo, Flaminia; Tosi, Daniele; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scarpa, Filomena; Pedone, Claudio; Tegue Simo, Hervé Hilaire; Mottini, Giovanni; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed <2 years), aged 47–85 and 109 controls comparable for age and sex. Subjects were recruited during a health campaign conducted in April 2009. Blood glucose control (HbA1c, fasting blood glucose) and major cardiovascular risk factors (complete lipid panel, blood pressure) were also measured. Mean carotid IMT was higher in subjects with diabetes than healthy controls at each scanned segment (common, internal carotid and bulb) (P<0.05), except the near wall of the left bulb. Vascular stiffness tended to be higher and pressure-strain elastic modulus of the left carotid was increased in subjects with diabetes than controls (P<0.05), but distensibility was similar between the two groups. At least one plaque >0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c<7%, while over 41.6% presented with marked hyperglycemia (HbA1c>9%). The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. Conclusions Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate

  6. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  7. [Iodine levels in food and soil in different regions in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Taga, Ibrahim; Sameza, Modeste Lambert; Kayo, Anne Valerie; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency diseases (IDD) are a public health problem in many developing countries, such as Cameroon. They are often the consequence of insufficient iodine intake and/or the effect of thiocyanate in foods such as cassava; this chemical inhibits iodine fixation by the thyroid gland. One method of combatting these diseases is to counsel and encourage the consumptions of iodine-rich foods. We accordingly undertook an evaluation of the iodine content of staple foods, the soil, and the salt in some zones of western Cameroon and in the capital. Food (63), salt (04) and soil (05) samples were collected in four villages of western Cameroon, and food (20), water (18) and salt samples (14) were collected in Yaoundé (central province). Iodine content in foods and soils was assessed by the catalytic destructive testing of thiocyanate by nitrate in the presence of iodine. Iodine content in water was determined colorimetrically after mineralization and in salt by volumetric methods. Results show that iodine levels in salt depend on its origin, but was much lower than the 50-100 ppm recommended by the WHO. Soil and water levels depended on the stream and the origin. Several of the more than 20 foods sampled from Yaoundé had iodine concentrations higher than 10 microg/100 g: plantain (22.5 microg/100 g), wheat flour (21 microg/100 g), corn flour (17.75 microg/100 g), groundnuts (12.5 microg/100 g), sweet potatoes (12.25 microg/100 g), zoom (11.34 microg/100 g) and rice (10.45 microg /100 g). In western villages, we noted that iodine levels in food crops depended on the soil levels. Nevertheless, it was high in cocoyam (79.5 microg/100 g), yarns (68 microg/100 g), potatoes (62 microg/100 g), plantains (58.15 microg/100 g), and red beans (53.93 microg/100 g). In general, these crops contain more iodine than the food in Yaoundé; these results can be used to combat IDD, especially among young children, teenagers and pregnant women.

  8. Identification of new, emerging HIV-1 unique recombinant forms and drug resistant viruses circulating in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Cameroon is characterized by a high degree of viral genetic diversity with circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) being predominant. The goal of our study was to determine recent trends in virus evolution and emergence of drug resistance in blood donors and HIV positive patients. Methodology Blood specimens of 73 individuals were collected from three cities and a few villages in Cameroon and viruses were isolated by co-cultivation with PBMCs. Nested PCR was performed for gag p17 (670 bp) pol (840 bp) and Env gp41 (461 bp) genes. Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using a reference set of sequences from the Los Alamos database. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences revealed that 65% (n = 48) of strains were CRF02_AG, 4% (n = 3) subtype F2, 1% each belonged to CRF06 (n = 1), CRF11 (n = 1), subtype G (n = 1), subtype D (n = 1), CRF22_01A1 (n = 1), and 26% (n = 18) were Unique Recombinant Forms (URFs). Most URFs contained CRF02_AG in one or two HIV gene fragments analyzed. Furthermore, pol sequences of 61 viruses revealed drug resistance in 55.5% of patients on therapy and 44% of drug naïve individuals in the RT and protease regions. Overall URFs that had a primary HIV subtype designation in the pol region showed higher HIV-1 p24 levels than other recombinant forms in cell culture based replication kinetics studies. Conclusions Our results indicate that although CRF02_AG continues to be the predominant strain in Cameroon, phylogenetically the HIV epidemic is continuing to evolve as multiple recombinants of CRF02_AG and URFs were identified in the individuals studied. CRF02_AG recombinants that contained the pol region of a primary subtype showed higher replicative advantage than other variants. Identification of drug resistant strains in drug-naïve patients suggests that these viruses are being transmitted in the population studied. Our findings support the need for continued molecular surveillance in this region

  9. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A.; Smith, Thomas B.; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  10. Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an ... CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, ...

  11. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  12. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. Methods We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Results Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7–7.4) and 7.5% (5.9–9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5–9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4–11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting

  13. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  14. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. PMID:27394634

  15. Mycorrhiza status of Gnetum spp. in Cameroon: evaluating diversity with a view to ameliorating domestication efforts.

    PubMed

    Bechem, Eneke Esoeyang Tambe; Alexander, Ian James

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was carried out to investigate the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Gnetum spp. in Cameroon. The extent and variation of ectomycorrhizal colonisation as well as the degree of host specificity were evaluated. Gnetum spp. were found to be almost always ectomycorrhizal in all sites visited. There were just two ectomycorrhizal morphotypes ('yellow' and 'white') associated with this plant. Such low diversity is unusual for an ectomycorrhizal plant. The yellow morphotype was the most widespread and prevalent and was identified by morphological and molecular methods to have been formed with Scleroderma sinnamariense. Propagules of this fungus were present in soil collected from farm lands, cocoa plantations, Chromolaena and bush fallows, as well as in a relatively undisturbed forest harbouring ectomycorrhizal legumes. The fungus responsible for the white morphotype was identified as also belonging to the genus Scleroderma by ITS sequence similarity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal structures were absent in cleared and stained portions of the roots.

  16. [Two new species of Myxidium (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) parasites of fresh water fish in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fomena, A; Lekeufack, Folefack G B; Bouix, G

    2010-03-01

    The study of Myxosporidia infecting Clarias pachynema Boulenger, 1903 (Clariidae), Ctenopoma petherici Günther, 1864 (Anabantidae) and Parachanna obscura (Günther, 1861) (Channidae) from the basin of Nkam in Cameroon, revealed the presence of two new species of Myxosporidia of the genus Myxidium Bütschli, 1882, all found in the gall bladder of their hosts. These new species were: Myxidium nkamensis n. sp., found in Clarias pachynema and M. sangei n. sp. found in the gall bladder wall of Parachanna obscura. Two other species, Myxidium petrocephali Fomena and Bouix, 1986 and M. distichodi Kostoïngué, Faye and Toguebaye, 1998 were found in new hosts. The list of Myxidium species parasitizing African fresh water fishes is given.

  17. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  18. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  19. General public knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to epilepsy in the Batibo Health District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njamnshi, Alfred K; Angwafor, Samuel A; Tabah, Earnest N; Jallon, Pierre; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to obtain baseline data for an epilepsy education program adapted to communities in Cameroon. We conducted 302 face-to-face interviews with patients without epilepsy, caregivers, and visitors in the Batibo District Hospital. Most respondents (99.3%) had heard or read about epilepsy, 89.7% knew someone with epilepsy, and 87.7% had witnessed a seizure. About 43% would object to associating with people with epilepsy (PWE) and 75.8% would object to their children marrying PWE, whereas 35.1% would offer PWE equal employment. Predictors of negative attitudes were: advanced age, lack of formal education, and the belief that epilepsy is hereditary, contagious, or a form of insanity. In conclusion, the high level of public awareness of epilepsy in the Batibo Health District may reflect the magnitude of the condition, contrasting with the prevalent negative attitudes. A successful epilepsy education program must take into account the beliefs and value systems of the community.

  20. Geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (Equatorial Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This work proposes a new geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (CHL) in Equatorial Africa. It is based on the analysis of the distribution of lineaments and of magmatic bodies (Paleogene anorogenic ring-complexes and Neogene volcanic centres). Two successive geodynamic models are proposed to explain the distribution of the Cainozoic to recent magmatic activity. They are both sinistral. The first one, during the Paleogene, developed around the N ∼ 70°E direction while the second one (Neogene) is oriented around the N ∼ 130°E direction. The two periods are separated by a short transition. The emplacement follows the local reactivation of pre-existing (Pan-African) faults in relation to the collision between the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates, during the Alpine history.

  1. Measuring the impact of health education modules in Cameroon, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaponniere, Paulette A; Cherup, Susan M; Lodge, Lillie

    2013-07-01

    Each year, more than two million people die from diarrhea-associated diseases. Although there is a global need for safe drinking water, culturally appropriate health teaching is essential to behavior change. This study evaluated the impact of a health education program in a small rural community in Cameroon. Flash cards and a modified version of the CDC-KPC 2000 survey were used to collect data in 57 homes. Children who lived in households with working Manz BioSand filters were less likely to have had diarrhea in the 2 weeks prior to the evaluation. There remained a gap between health knowledge and healthy behaviors for hand hygiene and malaria prevention. This gap was significant in the diarrheal treatment (McNemar's test, p < .000). The interdisciplinary program and 7-year time frame were crucial to sustainability. Faculty and students learned the importance of pairing service learning and research that respect local cultures in fostering a healthier global community. PMID:23765564

  2. Contrasting modes of rifting: The Benue Trough and Cameroon Volcanic Line, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, C. S.

    1988-08-01

    The Benue trough of west Africa is commonly believed to be a rift feature that originated in the Cretaceous at about the time that Africa and South America began to separate. Bouguer gravity and available geological data in the trough indicate that its formation was probably the result of regional horizontal stresses in the lithosphere, causing crustal extension and surface subsidence. By contrast, the data for the adjoining Cameroon volcanic line suggests that the associated tensional stresses relate to mantle upwarp causing thinning of the lithosphere and regional crustal uplift similar to that associated with the Kenya rift. Thus the association of passive and active rifts seen in the Afro-Arabia rift system is also a feature of the Cretaceous rift system in west Africa.

  3. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  4. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV). PMID:27262944

  5. [Telemedicine, a medical social network for humanitarian aid between Spain and Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Manchón, David

    2015-01-01

    The application of information technologies and telecommunications in healthcare in southern countries can improve the health of millions of people living in poverty without access to high-quality health services. Specifically, telemedicine not synchronized with internet platforms is a very efficient option for international cooperation projects. Since its inception, the project Health 2.0: professionals from Africa-Spain connected, of the Spanish organization, Foundation Recover, Hospitals for Africa, has managed to connect health professionals from both continents with the goal of improving health in Cameroon. Thanks to a social network with the scientific format of case management and clinical updates, Spanish physicians collaborate through volunteer e-health in the training of their African colleagues to improve the quality of care provided to residents and also create sources of knowledge and research.

  6. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes –environmental and water bug transmission– to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission. PMID:26658922

  7. Snakebite in bedroom kills a physician in Cameroon: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand; Mbasso, Leopold Cyriaque Donfack; Pouth, Franky Baonga Ba; Dzudie, Anastase; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Ngouakam, Hermann; Diffo, Joseph Le Doux; Eyongorock, Hanny; Mbacham, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Case management of snake bites are not adequate in many health facilities in developing countries where personnel are not always abreast with the new developments in snake bite management and in addition, quite often the anti-venom serum is lacking. We report the case of a medical doctor bitten by a cobra in the rural area of Poli, Cameroon while asleep in his bedroom. Lack of facilities coupled with poor case management resulted in a fatal outcome. PMID:27800086

  8. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations.

  9. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  10. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Michele Lolita, Yotat; Ashu Michael, Agbor; Hubert, Ntumba; Florence, Djachechi; Jacques, Bolenge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4%) males, and 100 (54,6%) females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%); 86 (47.3%) and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4%) had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6%) had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1%) had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3%) had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6%) had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4%) have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7%) were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6%) at the mandible, 2 (1.1%) were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6%) at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%), financial difficulties 124 (67.8%), and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%). Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor. PMID:26633972

  11. Effect of agropesticides use on male reproductive function: a study on farmers in Djutitsa (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Manfo, Faustin Pascal Tsagué; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Déchaud, Henri; Tchana, Angéle Nkouatchoua; Nantia, Edouard Akono; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Pugeat, Michel

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of agropesticides on male reproductive function in farmers in Djutitsa (West Cameroon). To this end, 47 farmers in Djutitsa were asked questions on their health status and pesticide use in agriculture. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of sex hormones including serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androstenedione, testosterone, as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Their serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were also measured. Thirty seven men not exposed to agropesticides were recruited as control group. Fifty six pesticides containing 25 active substances were currently used by farmers enrolled in our study, and most of their symptoms were related to spread/use of these chemicals. Compared to the control group, there was no significant difference in FSH, LH, SHBG, estradiol, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels. Farmers had significantly lower serum testosterone (20.93 ± 1.03 nM vs. 24.32 ± 1.32 nM; P < 0.05) and higher androstenedione level (3.83 ± 0.20 nM vs. 2.80 ± 0.15 nM; P < 0.001). Their serum free testosterone as well as bioavailable testosterone were unchanged, while estradiol/testosterone and androstenedione/testosterone ratios were significantly increased (0.45 ± 0.03% vs. 0.33 ± 0.02%; P < 0.01 and 12.26 ± 3.64 vs 19.31 ± 6.82; P < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that male farmers of Djutitsa (West Cameroon) are exposed to agropesticides due to improper protective tool, and this exposure may impair their reproductive function through inhibition of testosterone synthesis; probably by inhibition of testicular 17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD3) and induction of aromatase (CYP19).

  12. [HIV and risk factors for the blood donors at the central hospital of Yaounde, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mole, S; Onana, E; Biholong, D

    2011-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection is in a permanent progress in Cameroon. Through this descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare the occurrence of the HIV by taking into account the risks factors that are significantly associated with HIV. The investigation was carried out from 1 January till 31 December 2009 in the Blood Bank of the Central Hospital of Yaounde in Cameroon. A structured questionnaire was proposed to collect socio-demographic and risk behavioral information. Venous blood was collected for HIV antibody testing. Generalized estimating equation with logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for HIV infection. In all, 5 058 persons were included in this study. Serological examination revealed a total prevalence of 5.4% of HIV infection in the population studied. The family/replacement donors constituted the majority (69.5%) and showed a higher risk of seropositivity of HIV than the benevolent donors in raw analysis; but after adjustment, the family donors had the same risk of seropositivity of HIV than voluntary blood donors (aOR = 1.00). Variables such as homosexual intercourse (aOR = 1.61), to have already made a screening test of HIV (aOR = 1.83), mobility (aOR = 2.24), treatment and records of STI (aOR = 3.81), use of the condom (aOR = 6.63), more than one sexual partner (aOR = 8.40) remained significantly linked to the result of the HIV serology and constituted risk factors that will be emphasized during the selection of the donors. PMID:21695495

  13. Anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in Ndop health district, north west region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. To effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local Anopheles species is essential. Therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between August 2010 and May 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the Ndop health district in the northwest region of Cameroon where malaria is holoendemic, as a means to acquiring evidence based data for improved vector intervention. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled both indoor and outdoor for four consecutive nights in each locality during each month of survey. Sampling was done by the human landing catch method on volunteers. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and their ovaries randomly dissected for parity determination. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected by Circumsporozoite protein ELISA. Members of An. gambiae complex were further identified to molecular level by PCR and RFLP PCR. Results An. ziemanni was the main malaria vector and whether outdoor or indoor. The man biting rate for the vectors ranged from 6.75 to 8.29 bites per person per night (b/p/n). The entomological inoculation rate for this vector species was 0.0278 infectious bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Mbapishi, 0.034 ib/p/n in Mbafuh, and 0.063 ib/p/n in Backyit. These were by far greater than that for An. gambiae. No difference was observed in the parity rate of these two vectors. PCR analysis revealed the presence of only An. colluzzi (M- form). Conclusions An. ziemanni is an important local malaria vector in Ndop health district. The findings provide useful baseline information on the anopheles species composition, their distribution and role in malaria transmission that would guide the implementation of integrated vector management strategies in the locality. PMID

  14. Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

    2014-03-01

    Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Naturals Hazards in the Caldera of Mount Bambouto (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangmo Tefogoum, G.; Kagou Dongmo, A.; Nkouathio, D. G.; Wandji, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Bambouto is polygenic stratovolcano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, build between 21 Ma and 4,5Ma (Nkouathio et al., 2008). It is situated at about 200 km NE of mount Cameroon, at 09°55' and 10°15' East and, 05°25' and 05°50' Nord. This volcano covers an area of 500 Km2 and culminates at 2740 m at Meletan hill and bears a collapse caldera (13 x 8 km). Fissural, extrusive and explosive dynamism are responsible of the construction in three main stages this volcano including the edification of a sommital large rim caldera. Mount Bambouto structure gives rise to different natural hazards, of volcanological origin and meteorological origin. In the past time, landslides, floodings, firebush, blocks collapse took place in this area with catastrophic impact on the population. New research program had been carried out in the caldera concerning qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural risks and catastrophes. The main factors of instability are rain, structure of the basement, slopes, lithology and anthropic activities; particularly, the occurrence of exceptional rainfall due to global change are relevant; this gives opportunity to draw landslides hazards zonation map of the Bambouto caldera which is the main risk in this area. We evaluate the financial potential of the caldera base on the average income of breeding, farming, school fees and the cost of houses and equipments for each family. The method of calculation revealed that, the yearly economy of the mounts Bambouto caldera represents about 2 billions FCFA. Some recommendations have been made in order to prevent and reduced the potential losses and the number of victims in particular by better land use planning. These help us to estimate the importance of destruction of the environment and biodiversity in case of catastrophes. We conclude that in the Bambouto caldera there is moderate to high probability that destructive phenomena due to landslides occurs within the upcoming years with enormous

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bronsvoort, B. M. de C.; Radford, A. D.; Tanya, V. N.; Nfon, C.; Kitching, R. P.; Morgan, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. Most studies of FMDV are done in countries where control measures are being implemented. In contrast, in areas such as sub-Saharan Africa, where FMDV is endemic and new strains are likely to emerge, there are only sporadic submissions to the World Reference Laboratory, Pirbright, United Kingdom. This paper describes the molecular epidemiology of FMDV in the Adamawa province of Cameroon based on a population sample of cattle herds. Serotypes SAT2 and A were isolated in the cross-sectional study. SAT2 isolates were all similar, with phylogenetic distances of <6%, and were most closely related to published sequences of isolates from Eritrea and Saudi Arabia. Serotype A isolates were more variable, with phylogenetic distances of 0 to 11%, and were most closely related to historic isolates from Cameroon. Use of a population-based sample gives a representative sample of virus diversity and will improve our understanding of the evolution of FMDV and its epidemiology. A supplementary study of pigs passing through the railhead collection yard at Ngaoundere detected a serotype O virus. A third pilot longitudinal study monitored viral persistence in three cattle herds over 12 months, and serotype O and A viruses were recovered from a herd 12 months after it was first recorded as being infected with SAT2 virus. The pig type O isolate was not closely related to that recovered from the cattle, suggesting that the pigs had not introduced the O virus into the cattle herds. PMID:15131187

  17. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa.

  18. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pongou, Roland; Ezzati, Majid; Salomon, Joshua A

    2006-01-01

    Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD), i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006) and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026) between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel) and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs. PMID:16618370

  19. Factors influencing consumption of nutrient rich forest foods in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John H; Kabahenda, Margaret; Okia, Clement A; Snook, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies show that a number of forest foods consumed in Cameroon are highly nutritious and rich in health boosting bioactive compounds. This study assessed the knowledge and perceptions towards the nutritional and health promoting properties of forest foods among forest dependent communities. The relationship between knowledge, perceptions and socio-demographic attributes on consumption of forest foods was also determined. A total of 279 females in charge of decision making with respect to food preparation were randomly selected from 12 villages in southern and eastern Cameroon and interviewed using researcher administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors affecting consumption of forest foods. Baillonella toxisperma (98%) and Irvingia gabonesis (81%) were the most known nutrient rich forest foods by the respondents. About 31% of the respondents were aware of the nutritional value and health benefits of forest foods. About 10%-61% of the respondents expressed positive attitudes to questions related with health benefits of specific forest foods. Consumption of forest foods was found to be higher among polygamous families and also positively related to length of stay in the forest area and age of respondent with consumption of forest foods. Education had an inverse relationship with use of forest foods. Knowledge and positive attitude towards the nutritional value of forest foods were also found to positively influence consumption of forest foods. Since knowledge was found to influence attitude and consumption, there is need to invest in awareness campaigns to strengthen the current knowledge levels among the study population. This should positively influence the attitudes and perceptions towards increased consumption of forest foods.

  20. Molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains circulating in Yaoundé, Cameroon, September 2007-December 2012.

    PubMed

    Boula, Angeline; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Njiki Kinkela, Mina; Esona, Mathew D; Kemajou, Grace; Mekontso, David; Seheri, Mapaseka; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Emah, Irene; Ela, Serge; Dahl, Benjamin A; Kobela, Marie; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Etoundi Mballa, Georges Alain; Genstch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; Koki Ndombo, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 453,000 rotavirus-attributable deaths occur annually. Through the WHO, the Rotavirus Sentinel Surveillance Program was established in Cameroon in September 2007 with the Mother and Child Center (MCC) in Yaoundé playing the role of sentinel site and national laboratory for this program. The objectives of this surveillance were to assess the rotavirus disease burden and collect baseline information on rotavirus strains circulating in Cameroon. Diarrheal stool samples were collected in a pediatric hospital from children under 5, using the WHO case definition for rotavirus diarrhea. Antigen detection of rotavirus was performed by using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The genotypic characterization was performed using multiplexed semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Between September 2007 and December 2012, 2444 stool samples were received at the MCC laboratory for rotavirus antigen detection, of which 999 (41%) were EIA positive. Among EIA positive samples 898 were genotyped. Genotype prevalence varied each year. Genotype G9P[8] was the dominant type during 2007 (32%) and 2008 (24%), genotype G3P[6] predominated in 2010 (36%) and 2011 (25%), and G1P[8] was predominant in 2012 (44%). The findings showed that the rotavirus disease burden is high and there is a broad range of rotavirus strains circulating in Yaoundé. These data will help measure the impact of vaccination in the future.

  1. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Caught Chimpanzees from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nerrienet, Eric; Santiago, Mario L.; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bailes, Elizabeth; Mundy, Nicolas I.; Njinku, Bernadette; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ayouba, Ahidjo

    2005-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz) infecting chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in west central Africa are the closest relatives to all major variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ([HIV-1]; groups M, N and O), and have thus been implicated as the source of the human infections; however, information concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and subspecies association of SIVcpz still remains limited. In this study, we tested 71 wild-caught chimpanzees from Cameroon for evidence of SIVcpz infection. Thirty-nine of these were of the central subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), and 32 were of the Nigerian subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus), as determined by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Serological analysis determined that one P. t. troglodytes ape (CAM13) harbored serum antibodies that cross-reacted strongly with HIV-1 antigens; all other apes were seronegative. To characterize the newly identified virus, 14 partially overlapping viral fragments were amplified from fecal virion RNA and concatenated to yield a complete SIVcpz genome (9,284 bp). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SIVcpzCAM13 fell well within the radiation of the SIVcpzPtt group of viruses, as part of a clade including all other SIVcpzPtt strains as well as HIV-1 groups M and N. However, SIVcpzCAM13 clustered most closely with SIVcpzGAB1 from Gabon rather than with SIVcpzCAM3 and SIVcpzCAM5 from Cameroon, indicating the existence of divergent SIVcpzPtt lineages within the same geographic region. These data, together with evidence of recombination among ancestral SIVcpzPtt lineages, indicate long-standing endemic infection of central chimpanzees and reaffirm a west central African origin of HIV-1. Whether P. t. vellerosus apes are naturally infected with SIVcpz requires further study. PMID:15613358

  2. Motorcycle injury among secondary school students in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nyagwui, Asonganyi Edwin; Fredinah, Namatovu; Che, Longho Bernard; Yulia, Blomstedt

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injury from motorcycle is a considerable cause of disability and death in the world and especially in low and middle-income countries; it is one of the most serious public health problems. In Cameroon, motorcycle is commonly used for transportation particularly among students. The aim of this paper is to study the risk-factors of the motorcycle-related accidents and injuries among secondary school students’ in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2012 on 391 students age 16-24 from public and private schools in the Tiko Municipality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between risk factors and injuries. A closed-ended and few open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Results The study showed that over 70% of students used motorcycles always or often. Few had undergone any formal training for driving a motorcycle. The vast majority reported not wearing protective gear while driving or riding a motorcycle. Usage of protective gear was particularly low among girls. Over 16% reported using a motorbike always or occasionally under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Over 58% of respondents reported having an accident and over 35% were injured when driving or riding a motorcycle. Those who lived at the Tiko-Douala road have three times higher probability to sustain accidents and injuries than students residing elsewhere (OR 3.19 (1.20-8.46). Conclusion It is deeply alarming that every second respondent in the study reported having been in an accident and every third motorcycle user was somehow injured. We therefore call for an immediate attention and a deeper investigation into the highlighted situation, particularly at Tiko-Douala road. PMID:27642454

  3. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  4. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82%) was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs. PMID:22112686

  5. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    PubMed Central

    Dapi, Léonie N.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Tetanye, Ekoe; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2010-01-01

    Background Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods Schoolchildren (N = 285) aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot) and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%), had fatigue (76%), and headaches (38%) in Yaoundé. Prevalences (%) were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39), feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21), and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18). Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning. PMID:21139702

  6. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks. PMID:26893797

  7. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks. PMID:26893797

  8. HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon from 2006 to 2013: Prevalence, genetic diversity, evolution and public health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Domyeum, Jenny; Mouacha, Fatima; Butel, Christelle; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is characterized by a tremendously high genetic diversity, leading to the currently known circulating HIV types, groups, subtypes, and recombinant forms. HIV-1 group O is one of the most diverse forms of HIV-1 and has been so far related to Cameroon or individuals originating from Cameroon. In this study, we investigated in Cameroon, the evolution of this viral group from 2006 to 2013, in terms of prevalence, genetic diversity and public health implications. Our results confirmed the predominance of HIV-1 group M (98.5%), a very low prevalence (<0.02%) for HIV-1 group N and P, and HIV-2 in this country. HIV-1 group O was found at around 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.4–0.8%), indicating that the frequency of this virus in Cameroon has remained stable over the last decades. However, we found an extensive high genetic diversity within this HIV-1 group, that resulted from previous steady increase on the effective number of HIV-1 group O infections through time, and the current distribution of the circulating viral strains still does not allow classification as subtypes. The frequency of dual infections with HIV-1 group M and group O was 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.6–1.0%), but we found no recombinant forms in co-infected patients. Natural resistance to integrase inhibitors was not identified, although we found several mutations considered as natural polymorphisms. Our study shows that infections with HIV-1 group O can be adequately managed in countries where the virus circulates, but this complex virus still represents a challenge for diagnostics and monitoring strategies. PMID:26371064

  9. [History of the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in Bipindi (southern Cameroon), from 1896 to today].

    PubMed

    Sonne, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide historical background on the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in the Bipindi area of southern Cameroon, from the first suspected cases in 1896 until today. Two recent events have created the need for historical perspective on this topic. In December 1994, an OCEAC mission led by Francis Louis discovered 7 cases in the area between the Lolodorf and Bipindi districts. The epicentre was the village of Bidjouka. Five years later, mass screening of all residents in the Bipindi district revealed a total of 44 cases. Although no previous medical studies are available, historical research indicates that the disease has always present in Bipindi area in a less prevalent and virulent form than in neighboring regions along the Nyong River. Bipindi is located about 140 kilometers northeast of Campo, an area on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea where sleeping sickness has been a low-grade health problem since the 1880s. Many Cameroonian refugees forced to live in Campo during a war that ended in February 1916 returned with the trypanosome and subsequently contaminated people who stayed in Bipindi. Transmission of sleeping sickness in Bipindi can also be attributed to economic development since the end of the nineteenth century. Numerous plantations have been installed in the area. Migration and trade with the Gulf of Guinea have expanded greatly, especially involving areas on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. This study is based on written documentations obtained from the National Archives in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and the "Colegio Claret" Library, in Luba (Republic of Equatorial Guinea) and on firsthand reports from reliable sources in the Bipindi area. PMID:11803831

  10. [History of the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in Bipindi (southern Cameroon), from 1896 to today].

    PubMed

    Sonne, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide historical background on the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in the Bipindi area of southern Cameroon, from the first suspected cases in 1896 until today. Two recent events have created the need for historical perspective on this topic. In December 1994, an OCEAC mission led by Francis Louis discovered 7 cases in the area between the Lolodorf and Bipindi districts. The epicentre was the village of Bidjouka. Five years later, mass screening of all residents in the Bipindi district revealed a total of 44 cases. Although no previous medical studies are available, historical research indicates that the disease has always present in Bipindi area in a less prevalent and virulent form than in neighboring regions along the Nyong River. Bipindi is located about 140 kilometers northeast of Campo, an area on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea where sleeping sickness has been a low-grade health problem since the 1880s. Many Cameroonian refugees forced to live in Campo during a war that ended in February 1916 returned with the trypanosome and subsequently contaminated people who stayed in Bipindi. Transmission of sleeping sickness in Bipindi can also be attributed to economic development since the end of the nineteenth century. Numerous plantations have been installed in the area. Migration and trade with the Gulf of Guinea have expanded greatly, especially involving areas on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. This study is based on written documentations obtained from the National Archives in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and the "Colegio Claret" Library, in Luba (Republic of Equatorial Guinea) and on firsthand reports from reliable sources in the Bipindi area.

  11. Absence of Ornithodoros moubata, the vector of African swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ekue, N F; Wilkinson, P J

    1990-05-01

    No evidence for the presence of soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex was found during a survey of African swine fever carried out between 1985 and 1988 in the West Province and southern parts of the North West and South West Provinces of Cameroon. The survey consisted of interviews of veterinary assistants and farmers, distribution of a questionnaire and tick searches both manually and with carbon dioxide traps. The absence of warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) from these areas was also recorded. PMID:2371751

  12. Poor ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  13. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  14. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  15. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  16. The substitution of mineral fertilizers by compost from household waste in Cameroon: economic analysis with a partial equilibrium model.

    PubMed

    Jaza Folefack, Achille Jean

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of substitution between compost and mineral fertilizer in order to assess the impact on the foreign exchange savings in Cameroon of increasing the use of compost. In this regard, a partial equilibrium model was built up and used as a tool for policy simulations. The review of existing literature already suggests that, the compost commercial value i.e. value of substitution (33,740 FCFA tonne(-1)) is higher compared to the compost real price (30,000 FCFA tonne(-1)), proving that it could be profitable to substitute the mineral fertilizer by compost. Further results from the scenarios used in the modelling exercise show that, increasing the compost availability is the most favourable policy for the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost. This policy helps to save about 18.55% of the annual imported mineral fertilizer quantity and thus to avoid approximately 8.47% of the yearly total import expenditure in Cameroon. The policy of decreasing the transport rate of compost in regions that are far from the city is also favourable to the substitution. Therefore, in order to encourage the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost, programmes of popularization of compost should be highlighted and be among the top priorities in the agricultural policy of the Cameroon government. PMID:19423599

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education. PMID:26140673

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in the southern ecological zones of Cameroon, as shown by genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of mortality and suffering worldwide, with over 95% of TB deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. In recent years, molecular typing methods have been widely used in epidemiological studies to aid the control of TB, but this usage has not been the case with many African countries, including Cameroon. The aims of the present investigation were to identify and evaluate the diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates circulating in two ecological zones of Cameroon, seven years after the last studies in the West Region, and after the re-organization of the National TB Control Program (NTBCP). These were expected to shed light also on the transmission of TB in the country. The study was conducted from February to July 2009. During this period, 169 patients with symptomatic disease and with sputum cultures that were positive for MTBC were randomly selected for the study from amongst 964 suspected patients in the savannah mosaic zone (West and North West regions) and the tropical rainforest zone (Central region). After culture and diagnosis, DNA was extracted from each of the MTBC isolates and transported to the BecA-ILRI Hub in Nairobi, Kenya for molecular analysis. Methods Genetic characterization was done by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeat typing (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Results Molecular analysis showed that all TB cases reported in this study were caused by infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (98.8%) and Mycobacterium africanum (M. africanum) (1.2%) respectively. We did not detect any M. bovis. Comparative analyses using spoligotyping revealed that the majority of isolates belong to major clades of M. tuberculosis: Haarlem (7.6%), Latin American-Mediterranean (34.4%) and T clade (26.7%); the remaining isolates (31.3%) where distributed among the minor clades. The predominant group of isolates (34.4%) corresponded to spoligotype 61

  19. [Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Ngambi Kunga

    1990-01-01

    Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more

  20. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... liabilities of depository institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation... monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes the payment... affect the Federal Reserve's ability to implement monetary policy in the event that all...

  1. Petrogenesis of the Sabongari alkaline complex, cameroon line (central Africa): Preliminary petrological and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njonfang, Emmanuel; Tchoneng, Gilbert Tchuenté; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Lucci, Federico

    2013-07-01

    The petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemical features of the Sabongari alkaline complex are presented and discussed in this paper with the aim of constraining its petrogenesis and comparing it with other alkaline complexes of the Cameroon Line. The complex is mainly made up of felsic rocks: (i) granites predominate and include pyroxene-amphibole (the most abundant), amphibole-biotite, biotite and pyroxene types; (ii) syenites are subordinate and comprise amphibole-pyroxene and amphibole-biotite quartz syenites; (iii) pyroxene-amphibole-biotite trachyte and (iv) relatively abundant rhyolite. The minor basic and intermediate terms associated with felsic rocks consist of basanites, microdiorite and monzodioites. Two groups of pyroxene bearing rocks are distinguished: a basanite-trachyte-granite (Group 1) bimodal series (SiO2 gap: 44 and 63 wt.%) and a basanite-microdiorite-monzodiorite-syenite-granite (Group 2) less pronounced bimodal series (reduced SiO2 gap: 56-67 wt.%). Both are metaluminous to peralkaline whereas felsic rocks bare of pyroxene (Group 3) are metaluminous to peraluminous. The Group 1 basanite is SiO2-undersaturated (modal analcite in the groundmass and 11.04 wt.% normative nepheline); its Ni (240 ppm) and Cr (450 ppm) contents, near mantle values, indicate its most primitive character. The Group 2 basanite is rather slightly SiO2-saturated (1.56 wt.% normative hypersthene), a marker of its high crustal contamination (low Nb/Y-high Rb/Y). The La/Yb and Gd/Yb values of both basanites (1: 19.47 and 2.92; 2: 9.09 and 2.23) suggest their common parental magma composition, and their crystallization through two episodes of partial melting (2% and 3% respectively) of a lherzolite mantle source with <4% residual garnet. The effects of crustal contamination were selectively felt in the values of HFSE/LREE, LREE/LILE and LREE/HFSE ratios, known as indicators. Similar features have been recently obtained in the felsic lavas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

  2. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-01-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1–3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  3. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods: To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results: Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001) and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58) respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001). On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001), was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the

  4. Proportion of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Ngaoundere, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to determine the proportion of ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and to analyse some risk factors associated with ESBL carriage. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 208 different outpatients and 150 healthy student volunteers between 3 January and 3 April 2009. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk synergy test. Presumptive ESBL-producing isolates with positive synergy test were identified by Mass Spectrometry using the BioTyper MALDI-TOF. For such ESBL positive isolates, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 system. PCR and sequencing were performed for the detection of different types of ESBL genes in presumptive ESBL-producing isolates. Statistical methods were used for the univariate calculation of risk factors. Results During the study period, a total of 358 faecal samples were analysed; 58 of such samples (16%) showed an ESBL phenotype and were confirmed by PCR. The proportion of ESBL producers in faecal carriage was statistically different between outpatients and student volunteers (23.1% vs. 6.7%: p < 0.000). According to a univariate analysis, previous use of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) appeared to be a risk factor for ESBL carriage (p < 0.05). Escherichia coli was the species most frequently isolated among the ESBL producers in outpatients (66.7%) and student volunteers (90%). Isolates showed additional resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but none of them was resistant to temocillin, amikacin or meropenem. Most of the strains (97%) produced a CTX-M group 1 enzymes [CTX-M-15 (98%) or CTX-M-1 (2%)] and the remaining strains produced SHV-12 enzyme (3%). Conclusions The use of drugs such as

  5. Molecular typing reveals substantial Plasmodium vivax infection in asymptomatic adults in a rural area of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria in Cameroon is due to infections by Plasmodium falciparum and, to a lesser extent, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale, but rarely Plasmodium vivax. A recent report suggested “Plasmodium vivax–like” infections around the study area that remained unconfirmed. Therefore, molecular and antigenic typing was used to investigate the prevalence of P. vivax and Duffy in asymptomatic adults resident in Bolifamba. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2008 to October 2009. The status of all parasite species was determined by nested PCR in 269 blood samples collected. The P. falciparum and P. vivax anti-MSP/CSP antibody status of each subject was also determined qualitatively by a rapid card assay. Parasite DNA was extracted from a sample infected with three parasite species, purified and sequenced. The Duffy antigen status of 12 subjects infected with P. vivax was also determined by sequencing. In silico web-based tools were used to analyse sequence data for similarities and matches to reference sequences in public DNA databases. Results The overall malaria parasite prevalence in 269 individuals was 32.3% (87) as determined by PCR. Remarkably, 14.9% (13/87) of infections were caused either exclusively or concomitantly by P. vivax, established both by PCR and microscopic examination of blood smears, in individuals both positive (50%, 6/12) and negative (50%, 6/12) for the Duffy receptor. A triple infection by P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae, was detected in one infected individual. Anti-MSP/CSP antibodies were detected in 72.1% (194/269) of samples, indicating high and continuous exposure to infection through mosquito bites. Discussion These data provide the first molecular evidence of P. vivax in Duffy positive and negative Cameroonians and suggest that there may be a significant prevalence of P. vivax infection than expected in the study area. Whether the P. vivax cases were imported or due to expansion of a founder

  6. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-07-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1-3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  7. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-07-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1-3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  8. Habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. Understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. In Africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. However, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate. Methods Indoor-resting mosquitoes were sampled from 386 villages covering the full range of ecological settings available in Cameroon, Central Africa. Using a predictive species distribution modeling approach based only on presence records, habitat suitability maps were constructed for the five major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. The influence of 17 climatic, topographic, and land use variables on mosquito geographic distribution was assessed by multivariate regression and ordination techniques. Results Twenty-four anopheline species were collected, of which 17 are known to transmit malaria in Africa. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, Habitat Suitability modeling and Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed marked differences among the five major malaria vector species, both in terms of ecological requirements and niche breadth. Eco-geographical variables (EGVs) related to human activity had the highest impact on habitat suitability for the five major malaria vectors, with areas of low population density being of marginal or unsuitable habitat quality. Sunlight exposure, rainfall, evapo-transpiration, relative humidity, and wind speed were among the most discriminative EGVs separating "forest" from "savanna" species. Conclusions The distribution of major malaria vectors in Cameroon is strongly affected by the impact of humans on the environment, with variables related to proximity to human

  9. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Frédéric; Ayala, Diego; Kamdem, Guy Colince; Pombi, Marco; Etouna, Joachim; Ose, Kenji; Fotsing, Jean-Marie; Fontenille, Didier; Besansky, Nora J; Costantini, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of chromosomal inversions. Conclusion Our

  10. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  11. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  12. High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617

  13. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  14. China's petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  15. Aurifilum, a new fungal genus in the Cryphonectriaceae from Terminalia species in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Begoude, Aime Didier B; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2010-10-01

    Native Terminalia spp. in West Africa provide a popular source of construction timber as well as medical, spiritual and social benefits to rural populations. Very little is, however, known regarding the diseases that affect these trees. During an investigation into possible diseases of Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, orange to yellow fungal fruiting structures, resembling those of fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae, were commonly observed on the bark of native Terminalia ivorensis, and on dead branches of non-native Terminalia mantaly. In this study the fungus was identified based on morphological features as well as DNA sequence data (ITS and beta-tubulin) and its pathogenicity was tested on T. mantaly seedlings. Our results showed that isolates of this fungus represent a previously undescribed genus in the Cryphonectriaceae, which we describe as Aurifilum marmelostoma gen. et sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests revealed that A. marmelostoma is pathogenic on T. mantaly. These tests, and the association of A. marmelostoma with disease symptoms on T. ivorensis, suggest that the fungus is a pathogen of this important tree. PMID:20559872

  16. Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16 years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P≤0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12 years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum.

  17. [Anopheles gambiae, major malaria vector in Logbessou, a peri-urban area of Douala (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Akono, P Ntonga; Tonga, C; Mbida, J A Mbida; Hondt, O E Ngo; Ambene, P Awono; Ndo, C; Magne, G Tamdem; Peka, M F; Ngaha, R; Lehman, L G

    2015-12-01

    An entomological survey was carried out from August to November 2013, in order to determine the vector system of a building site for social housing in a coastal periurban district of Douala (Cameroon). Mosquito larvae were collected and adult endophilic mosquitoes captured on volunteers, for a total sample of 4897 mosquitoes. Morpho-taxonomic techniques alongside molecular techniques enabled the identification of 4 species, all aggressive to humans: Cx. pipiens (22.3%), Ae. albopictus (0.3%), An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (77.4%). The overall average biting rate recorded was 41.73 bites/person/night (b/p/n). An. gambiae s.l. represents 90.82% of this aggressive fauna, followed by Cx. pipiens (8.58%) and Ae. albopictus (0.6%). The detection of CSP showed that An. gambiae was responsible for 100% of P. falciparum transmission. The overall mean Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) was 3.94 ib/p/n. Female An. gambiae mortality rates were 14.47%, 82.5% and 100% respectively with DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin. The proliferation of An. gambiae in this area during raining season, at the detriment of An. coluzzii Coetze & Wilkerson and An. melas Theobald known to be major malaria vectors in island and coastal areas of Africa, may owe to the forest that still colonises this coastal peri-urban locality. Residents should therefore make use of deltamethrin based protective measures.

  18. The June 27, 2001 landslide on volcanic cones in Limbe, Mount Cameroon, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayonghe, S. N.; Ntasin, E. B.; Samalang, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2004-06-01

    On 27 June 2001, between 12:00 and 14:00 hours GMT, the worst ever recorded landslides and floods in the history of Cameroon occurred on volcanic cones in Limbe, killing 24 people. This brisk event, which from eyewitness reports, lasted for about 30 min, produced more than 43 landslide scars, several tension cracks, destroyed 120 houses and rendered over 2800 people homeless. Field studies indicated the alignment of the landslide scars along a northwest-southeast zone antithetic to the Mabeta fault previously identified by a linear pattern of earthquake epicentres along its length, although volcanic rocks cover this fault. The landslides occurred on slopes with dips ranging from 35° to 80°. The regolith from the slide surfaces destroyed trees and houses, and blocked gutters producing floods along the low-lying coastal parts of Limbe. The mechanism of sliding ranged from planar sliding or mud flows on impermeable surfaces of basaltic flows and/or compacted clayey volcanic tuff, to rotational sliding, or toppling failure on the steeper slopes. Intensive rainfall which preceded the event for two days as well as human intervention on slopes in the form of farming and terracing to build houses, were important contributory factors. On the basis of these findings, measures aimed at reducing the impact of future landslides on the population in the area are proposed.

  19. Preliminary examination of integrated vector management in a tropical rainforest area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, G A; Dobson, H M; Nkot, P B; Wiles, T L; Birchmore, M

    2009-11-01

    In the tropical rainforest area of Cameroon, people are affected by blackflies (Simulium spp.) and mosquitoes (Anopheles spp). Use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) has been promoted to protect vulnerable groups from mosquito bites, whereas historically indoor residual spraying (IRS) was the primary intervention. In a malaria-endemic area, a pilot study examined different mosquito control interventions applied to entire villages to assess their impact on vectors, malaria incidence and the quality of life of the communities. The Sanaga River near these villages was treated with insecticide to kill blackfly larvae. A medical survey of the six villages had shown that 20% of the population suffered from malaria, while 50% were infected with onchocerciasis and 5% with Loa loa. IRS+ITN using ICON CS (lambda-cyhalothrin capsule suspension formulation) or improved screening of houses combined with outdoor misting reduced the numbers of mosquitoes collected from exit traps compared to the other treatments. More sporozoites were detected in mosquitoes sampled in exit traps in the untreated village than in the treated villages. Malaria incidence several months after treatments was not significantly different from pre-treatment levels. Blackfly adult populations were reduced for several weeks following larvicide application but recovered when treatment was halted. PMID:19345969

  20. Association of body mass with price of bushmeat in Nigeria and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, David W; Johnson, Paul J; Albrechtsen, Lise; Dutton, Adam; Seymour, Sarah; Dupain, Jef; Hall, Amy; Fa, John E

    2011-12-01

    Spatially extensive patterns of bushmeat extraction (and the processes underlying these patterns) have not been explored. We used data from a large sample (n= 87) of bushmeat trading points in urban and rural localities in Nigeria and Cameroon to explore extraction patterns at a regional level. In 7,594 sample days, we observed 61,267 transactions involving whole carcasses. Rural and urban trading points differed in species for sale and in meat condition (fresh or smoked). Carcass price was principally associated with body mass, with little evidence that taxonomic group (primate, rodent, ungulate, or mammalian carnivore) affected price. Moreover, meat condition was not consistently associated with price. However, some individual species were more expensive throughout the region than would be expected for their size. Prices were weakly positively correlated with human settlement size and were highest in urban areas. Supply did not increase proportionally as human settlement size increased, such that per capita supply was significantly lower in urban centers than in rural areas. Policy options, including banning hunting of more vulnerable species (those that have low reproductive rates), may help to conserve some species consumed as bushmeat because carcass prices indicate that faster breeding, and therefore the more sustainable species, may be substituted and readily accepted by consumers.

  1. Vulnerability to climate change of mangroves: assessment from cameroon, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Joanna C; Zouh, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Intertidal mangrove ecosystems are sensitive to climate change impacts, particularly to associated relative sea level rise. Human stressors and low tidal range add to vulnerability, both characteristics of the Doula Estuary, Cameroon. To investigate vulnerability, spatial techniques were combined with ground surveys to map distributions of mangrove zones, and compare with historical spatial records to quantify change over the last few decades. Low technology techniques were used to establish the tidal range and relative elevation of the mapped mangrove area. Stratigraphic coring and palaeobiological reconstruction were used to show the longer term biological history of mangroves and net sedimentation rate, and oral history surveys of local communities were used to provide evidence of recent change and identify possible causes. Results showed that the seaward edge of mangroves had over two thirds of the shoreline experienced dieback at up to 3 m per year over the last three decades, and an offshore mangrove island had suffered 89% loss. Results also showed low net sedimentation rates under seaward edge mangroves, and restricted intertidal elevation habitats of all mangroves, and Avicennia and Laguncularia in particular. To reduce vulnerability, adaptation planning can be improved by reducing the non-climate stressors on the mangrove area, particularly those resulting from human impacts. Other priorities for adaptation planning in mangrove areas that are located in such low tidal range regions are to plan inland migration areas and strategic protected areas for mangroves, and to undertake management activities that enhance accretion within the mangroves. PMID:24832511

  2. Neighborhood diversity of potentially pathogenic bacteria in drinking water from the city of Maroua, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Lee, Seungjun; Mouhaman, Arabi; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the spatial variation of potential gastrointestinal pathogens within drinking water sources and home storage containers in four neighborhoods in Maroua, Cameroon. Samples were collected from source (n = 28) and home containers (n = 60) in each study neighborhood. Pathogen contamination was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting Campylobacter spp., Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (virulence genes, stx1 and stx2), and Salmonella spp. Microbial source tracking (MST) targeted three different host-specific markers: HF183 (human), Rum2Bac (ruminant) and GFD (poultry) to identify contamination sources. Staphylococcus aureus and the tetracycline-resistance gene (tetQ) were assessed to measure human hand contact and presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pathogen/MST levels were compared statistically and spatially, and neighborhood variation was compared with previously collected demographic information. All the test fecal markers and pathogens (except Arcobacter) were detected in home and source samples. Two neighborhoods tested positive for most pathogens/MST while the others only tested positive for one or two. Spatial variation of pathogens/MST existed between sources, storage containers, and neighborhoods. Differing population density and ethno-economic characteristics could potentially explain variation. Future research should explore the influence of demographic and ethno-economic factors on water quality during microbial risk assessments in urban Africa. PMID:27280618

  3. Bacteriological assessment of the hospital environment in two referral hospitals in Yaoundé-Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Guenou, Etienne; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Tankeu, Dongmo Norbert; Mbopi-Keou, Francois Xavier; Takongmo, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies still show significant numbers of surgical patients contracting nosocomial infections each year globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacteria reservoirs that may be responsible for nosocomial infection in surgical services in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH) and the Central Hospital Yaoundé (CHY). Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2012. Air, water, and surface samples were collected from two surgical services and subjected to standard bacteriological analysis. Results A total of 143 surface samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated in all surfaces except from one trolley sample and a surgical cabinet sample. The predominant species in all services was coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS). The average number of colonies was 132. 82CFU/25cm2. The bacteria isolated in the air were similar to those isolated from surfaces. From the 16 water samples cultured, an average of 50.93 CFU/100ml bacteria were isolated. The distribution of isolated species showed a predominance of Burkholderia cepacia. Conclusion These results showed the importance of the hospital environment as a potential reservoir and source of nosocomial infections amongst surgical patient at YUTH and CHY, thus we suggest that Public health policy makers in Cameroon must define, publish guidelines and recommendations for monitoring environmental microbiota in health facilities. PMID:26140067

  4. Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Cameroon: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Nkwabong, Elie; Dingom, Madye A N

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study, aimed at identifying the sociodemographic characteristics of women diagnosed with acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), as well as the microorganisms isolated, was carried out between October 1st, 2013 and March 31st, 2014 in two major hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Seventy women diagnosed with acute PID were recruited. The main variables recorded were maternal age, occupation, marital status, number of current sexual partners, the clinical presentation at admission and the microorganisms identified. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Mean maternal age was 29.0 ± 7.7 years. Students were more represented (37.1%), 58.6 % were single, 64.3% had ≥ 2 sexual partners. The most frequent signs and symptoms were abnormal vaginal discharge (100%), adnexal tenderness (97.1%), cervical motion tenderness (94.3%) and fever ≥ 38.3 degrees C (82.9%). No microorganism was isolated in 20% of cases, especially among women who underwent intra-uterine procedures. The most frequent microorganisms were genital tract mycoplasmas (54.3%). Acute PID is common among young, single women with multiple sexual partners. The micro-organisms frequently responsible for acute PID were genital tract mycoplasmas, whose identification should be included among routine tests for women with suspected acute PID in the hospitals. PMID:27337857

  5. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  6. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  7. Regulation of business activities of petroleum contractors in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Frilet, M.; Newman, J.

    1982-03-01

    Foreign companies engaging in business in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast are subject to a broad range of regulations. This article deals only with those aspects of the regulations that are most important to petroleum contractors intending to engage in business in these countries. The regulator scheme actually applicable in a given case will depend on the legal structure through which a corporation operates. An American corporation may envisage engaging in business on a long-term basis through a local subsidiary or branch. On the other hand, it may wish only to perform temporary activities pursuant to one or more fixed-duration contracts with petroleum companies operating in one of countries. Each of these situations is dealt with. Common features of each area of regulation were described and the differences in regulations were presented. These topics were included: exchange control regulation, corporate forms of business association, authorization to engage in business, requirement of government or local participation in capital, investment code incentives, labor law requirements, taxation of corporations, taxation of profits, taxation of income from movable capital, taxation of amounts paid abroad as technical assistance fees, royalties and similar compensation, turnover taxes, payroll taxes, taxation of business performed without forming a local company or branch, taxation of employees and Social Security contributions. (DP)

  8. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756

  9. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Healy Profitós, Jessica M.; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Seungjun; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Tien, Joe; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries), leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals) was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality. PMID:25464137

  10. Associations between the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) and sympatric monkeys in Korup National Park, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Astaras, Christos; Krause, Stefan; Mattner, Lutz; Rehse, Christoph; Waltert, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Studies of polyspecific associations among African forest primates have primarily focused on arboreal Cercopithecus and Procolobus/Colobus species. We examined the association frequency of the terrestrial drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) with six sympatric monkey species in Korup National Park, Cameroon, testing reports that Mandrillus associations are infrequent and transient. We conducted 3,284 km of trail walks for 12 months (February-June 2006; July 2007 to January 2008), recording species composition in 612 primate clusters. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo test, we compared the observed frequency of dyadic associations against null models of "no association." A novel conservative statistical approach which addresses possible dependence of observations close in time was also used, further strengthening confidence in our findings. Drills associated with all monkeys throughout the study period, and were with at least one other species (range 1-5) in half of the encounters. The association frequency of drills with red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) was greater than expected by chance, which is interesting given the morphological adaptation of the Mandrillus-Cercocebus clade for the exploitation of the same dietary niche, hard seeds. The difference we observed in the use of forest strata by drills and mangabeys may reflect a strategy to reduce food competition while in association. The nature and duration of observed drill associations varied. Although some associations seemed to be chance encounters, others lasted for hours with the involved species foraging together.

  11. Secondary school students' knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward epilepsy in the Batibo Health District--Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njamnshi, Alfred K; Angwafor, Samuel A; Jallon, Pierre; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2009-05-01

    Using a 12-item questionnaire, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) toward epilepsy and identified determinants of inappropriate attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) among 910 randomly selected secondary school students in Batibo (Cameroon). Ninety-five percent of the students had heard or read about epilepsy, 73.3% knew an epileptic, and 76.4% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to PWE, refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 58.6%, 25.4%, and 64.2%, respectively. Negative attitudes appeared to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is hereditary (25.7%), contagious (49.9%), or a kind of insanity (38%). Acquaintance with PWE tended to improve the misconception that epilepsy is contagious (p < 0.001), and to reinforce the view that it is a form of insanity (p < 0.01). A successful epilepsy education program must account for local beliefs, and secondary school students may constitute a good channel for community education.

  12. Influences of family structure experiences on the risk of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle Monique; Defo, Barthélemy Kuate

    2013-12-01

    The link between family structure experiences and premarital sexual initiation in sub-Saharan African settings has been investigated using primarily the socialization perspective. This article tests additional hypotheses using the perspectives of change and duration of exposure. The analyses are based on time-dependent retrospective data on family living arrangements from a sample of 1182 individuals aged 12-24 years old, drawn from the Cameroon Family and Health Survey. From the socialization perspective for both females and males: living without both biological parents does not necessarily increase the probability of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence; the timing of family structure experiences is an important factor to consider in life course transitions; and other relatives play a protective role during adolescence, especially among females living in mother-only families. Findings also provide some support for the instability and change hypothesis as well as for the duration of exposure conjecture: a change from other family structure types to a both biological parents structure between age 6 and age 12 (change perspective) and living with the biological mother only at all the time (duration of exposure perspective) are associated with lower risks of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence among females. Our results have implications for preventing risky sexual behaviours during adolescence. PMID:24796711

  13. [Anopheles gambiae, major malaria vector in Logbessou, a peri-urban area of Douala (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Akono, P Ntonga; Tonga, C; Mbida, J A Mbida; Hondt, O E Ngo; Ambene, P Awono; Ndo, C; Magne, G Tamdem; Peka, M F; Ngaha, R; Lehman, L G

    2015-12-01

    An entomological survey was carried out from August to November 2013, in order to determine the vector system of a building site for social housing in a coastal periurban district of Douala (Cameroon). Mosquito larvae were collected and adult endophilic mosquitoes captured on volunteers, for a total sample of 4897 mosquitoes. Morpho-taxonomic techniques alongside molecular techniques enabled the identification of 4 species, all aggressive to humans: Cx. pipiens (22.3%), Ae. albopictus (0.3%), An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (77.4%). The overall average biting rate recorded was 41.73 bites/person/night (b/p/n). An. gambiae s.l. represents 90.82% of this aggressive fauna, followed by Cx. pipiens (8.58%) and Ae. albopictus (0.6%). The detection of CSP showed that An. gambiae was responsible for 100% of P. falciparum transmission. The overall mean Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) was 3.94 ib/p/n. Female An. gambiae mortality rates were 14.47%, 82.5% and 100% respectively with DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin. The proliferation of An. gambiae in this area during raining season, at the detriment of An. coluzzii Coetze & Wilkerson and An. melas Theobald known to be major malaria vectors in island and coastal areas of Africa, may owe to the forest that still colonises this coastal peri-urban locality. Residents should therefore make use of deltamethrin based protective measures. PMID:26419486

  14. Comparative Study of Epidemiological and Anthropological Aspects of Diabetes and Hypertension in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tsabang, N; Fongnzossie, E; Donfack, D; Yedjou, CG; Tchounwou, PB; Minkande, JZ; Nouedou, C; Van, PD; Sonwa

    2016-01-01

    The traditional medicine in Africa in general and specifically in Cameroon does not manage diabetes and arterial hypertension very well. Yet, these pathologies are becoming more prevalent among the populations that need adequate knowledge to fight against them. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of indigenous people regarding diabetes and hypertension control, and to assess the epidemiological aspects of these diseases in order to reinforce their health education and promote a better health care through traditional medicine. To achieve this objective, 1,131 households including 70 traditional healers, 114 diabetics, 167 hypertensive patients, 30 hypertensive patients-diabetics and other Cameroonians were questioned on their ethnomedical knowledge of diabetes and arterial hypertension. Fifty-eight randomly distributed tribes were taking in account. The elucidation of anthropological and epidemiological aspects of diabetes and hypertension improved the beliefs of indigenous people and facilitated the modernization of diabetes and hypertension comprehension that remained focused on the elucidation of diseases' causes and complications, as well as on the behaviors that could help translate biomedical terms into locally meaningful metaphors.

  15. Novel highly divergent reassortant bat rotaviruses in Cameroon, without evidence of zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Yinda, Claude Kwe; Zeller, Mark; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Maes, Piet; Deboutte, Ward; Beller, Leen; Heylen, Elisabeth; Ghogomu, Stephen Mbigha; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for zoonotic viruses. To date, only three RVA strains have been reported in bats in Kenya and China. In the current study we investigated the genetic diversity of RVAs in fecal samples from 87 straw-colored fruit bats living in close contact with humans in Cameroon using viral metagenomics. Five (near) complete RVA genomes were obtained. A single RVA strain showed a partial relationship with the Kenyan bat RVA strain, whereas the other strains were completely novel. Only the VP7 and VP4 genes showed significant variability, indicating the occurrence of frequent reassortment events. Comparing these bat RVA strains with currently used human RVA screening primers indicated that most of the novel VP7 and VP4 segments would not be detected in routine epidemiological screening studies. Therefore, novel consensus screening primers were developed and used to screen samples from infants with gastroenteritis living in close proximity with the studied bat population. Although RVA infections were identified in 36% of the infants, there was no evidence of zoonosis. This study identified multiple novel bat RVA strains, but further epidemiological studies in humans will have to assess if these viruses have the potential to cause gastroenteritis in humans. PMID:27666390

  16. Muddying the waters: a new area of concern for drinking water contamination in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Seungjun; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Tien, Joe; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-11-28

    In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries), leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals) was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship's impact on drinking water quality.

  17. Preliminary examination of integrated vector management in a tropical rainforest area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, G A; Dobson, H M; Nkot, P B; Wiles, T L; Birchmore, M

    2009-11-01

    In the tropical rainforest area of Cameroon, people are affected by blackflies (Simulium spp.) and mosquitoes (Anopheles spp). Use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) has been promoted to protect vulnerable groups from mosquito bites, whereas historically indoor residual spraying (IRS) was the primary intervention. In a malaria-endemic area, a pilot study examined different mosquito control interventions applied to entire villages to assess their impact on vectors, malaria incidence and the quality of life of the communities. The Sanaga River near these villages was treated with insecticide to kill blackfly larvae. A medical survey of the six villages had shown that 20% of the population suffered from malaria, while 50% were infected with onchocerciasis and 5% with Loa loa. IRS+ITN using ICON CS (lambda-cyhalothrin capsule suspension formulation) or improved screening of houses combined with outdoor misting reduced the numbers of mosquitoes collected from exit traps compared to the other treatments. More sporozoites were detected in mosquitoes sampled in exit traps in the untreated village than in the treated villages. Malaria incidence several months after treatments was not significantly different from pre-treatment levels. Blackfly adult populations were reduced for several weeks following larvicide application but recovered when treatment was halted.

  18. Characterization of Doayo and Kapsiki taurine cattle breeds of Cameroon in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Ebangi, A Lot; Achukwi, M D; Messine, O; Abba, D

    2011-08-01

    Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), height-at-withers (HW), trunk length (TL), age, sex, and coat color of 207 taurines cattle--122 of the Doayo (Namchi) breed and 85 of the Kapsiki (Kirdi) breed. The animals, aged 1 to 20 years, were selected from 60 herds randomly selected from villages of Poli of Faro and Mokolo of Tsanga, divisions of the North and Far North Regions of Cameroon. The data were analyzed using the SAS program with a linear model, applying standard tests. Results indicated no breed effect (P > 0.05) in the growth trends of LW, HG, HW, and TL. HG and TL were highly significantly (P < 0.0001) related to LW. The growth pattern for the two breeds was the same since the linear contrast of least square means for the traits at various age groups did not differ (P > 0.05) significantly. The breeds attained maturity as from 4 years. In the absence of breed effect (P > 0.05), a single regression equation was established for the estimation of live weight as thus LW = -244.42 (±22.57) kg + 2.49 (±0.23) HG + 1.04 (±0.25) TL, with HG contributing up to 70% of total variation and TL, 2%. This equation could be used to develop a measuring band useful in the rural environment for commercial and clinical veterinary purposes.

  19. Neighborhood diversity of potentially pathogenic bacteria in drinking water from the city of Maroua, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Lee, Seungjun; Mouhaman, Arabi; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the spatial variation of potential gastrointestinal pathogens within drinking water sources and home storage containers in four neighborhoods in Maroua, Cameroon. Samples were collected from source (n = 28) and home containers (n = 60) in each study neighborhood. Pathogen contamination was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting Campylobacter spp., Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (virulence genes, stx1 and stx2), and Salmonella spp. Microbial source tracking (MST) targeted three different host-specific markers: HF183 (human), Rum2Bac (ruminant) and GFD (poultry) to identify contamination sources. Staphylococcus aureus and the tetracycline-resistance gene (tetQ) were assessed to measure human hand contact and presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pathogen/MST levels were compared statistically and spatially, and neighborhood variation was compared with previously collected demographic information. All the test fecal markers and pathogens (except Arcobacter) were detected in home and source samples. Two neighborhoods tested positive for most pathogens/MST while the others only tested positive for one or two. Spatial variation of pathogens/MST existed between sources, storage containers, and neighborhoods. Differing population density and ethno-economic characteristics could potentially explain variation. Future research should explore the influence of demographic and ethno-economic factors on water quality during microbial risk assessments in urban Africa.

  20. Coping strategies of health personnel during economic crisis: A case study from cameroon

    PubMed

    Israr

    2000-04-01

    objectives Severe economic crisis compelled many governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to adopt structural adjustment programmes. This was accompanied by price increases and cuts in the salaries of civil servants. We explored how health personnel in one province of Cameroon coped with this situation, and what the perceived effects on service quality were. methods Key informant and focus group interviews with government and mission (church) health personnel; interviews with service users to validate the findings. results Government health personnel had experienced larger cuts in salaries than their mission counterparts; they no longer received allowances and incentives still available to mission personnel and appeared more demotivated. Most government and mission personnel reported legal after-hours income raising activities. Government personnel frequently reported additional 'survival strategies' such as parallel selling of drugs, requesting extra charges for services, and running private practices during work hours. There was a high level of self criticism among government personnel indicating a dissonance between their attitude and practices. They considered these practices negative and harmful for service users. conclusion Remedial action is urgent. Options include reinstating allowances for good performance and ensuring regular supervision without blaming individual health workers for problems caused by the state of the health system.

  1. Vulnerability to Climate Change of Mangroves: Assessment from Cameroon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Joanna C.; Zouh, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Intertidal mangrove ecosystems are sensitive to climate change impacts, particularly to associated relative sea level rise. Human stressors and low tidal range add to vulnerability, both characteristics of the Doula Estuary, Cameroon. To investigate vulnerability, spatial techniques were combined with ground surveys to map distributions of mangrove zones, and compare with historical spatial records to quantify change over the last few decades. Low technology techniques were used to establish the tidal range and relative elevation of the mapped mangrove area. Stratigraphic coring and palaeobiological reconstruction were used to show the longer term biological history of mangroves and net sedimentation rate, and oral history surveys of local communities were used to provide evidence of recent change and identify possible causes. Results showed that the seaward edge of mangroves had over two thirds of the shoreline experienced dieback at up to 3 m per year over the last three decades, and an offshore mangrove island had suffered 89% loss. Results also showed low net sedimentation rates under seaward edge mangroves, and restricted intertidal elevation habitats of all mangroves, and Avicennia and Laguncularia in particular. To reduce vulnerability, adaptation planning can be improved by reducing the non-climate stressors on the mangrove area, particularly those resulting from human impacts. Other priorities for adaptation planning in mangrove areas that are located in such low tidal range regions are to plan inland migration areas and strategic protected areas for mangroves, and to undertake management activities that enhance accretion within the mangroves. PMID:24832511

  2. Remote sensing and deforestation in humid tropical region: case of Bambouto mountain in West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël Leumbe Leumbe, Olivier; Bitom, Dieudonné; Joly Assako Assako, René

    2015-04-01

    A diachronic study of landscapes base on remote sensing data, has been realized on mount Bambouto in the humid tropical mountain region, through soil occupation analyses. It is a volcanic massif situated in the western part of Cameroon. It has an altitude of 2740 m. The objective is to evaluate the anthropic preasure on deforestation within this zone in order to predie the consequences on the area within a short period. The successive ways in which people occupy the soil within a period of about 30 years have thus been evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the bases of MSS images of 1978, Tm images of 1988, ETM+ of 2001 and 2007 of Landsat. In these images, the successive application of the index of vegetation and of a supervised classification couple with field observations, digital terrain model and with population data which display serious soils degradation of the volcanic massif from the 1980s, due to continous growing anthropic preasures. In all, between 1978 and 2007, the density of population became 17 times more important more than 43 000 ha of the massif soils has been deforested, this correspond to 1 483 ha/year. IF this velocity of deforestation is maintain, most of the natural vegetation in the Bambouto massif will disappear in 2029

  3. Treatment of Diabetes and/or Hypertension Using Medicinal Plants in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tsabang, N; Yedjou, CG; Tsambang, LWD; Tchinda, AT; Donfagsiteli, N; Agbor, GA; Tchounwou, PBB; Nkongmeneck, BA

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have served as valuable starting materials for drug development in both developing and developed countries. Today, more than 80% of the people living in Africa were depended on medicinal plants based medicines to satisfy their healthcare needs. The main goal of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension in Cameroon. To reach this objective, data were collected from 328 patients who have been diagnosed at least once by a physician as diabetics and/or hypertension patients. One hundred and eighty two (182) among them took for a period of 10 days different varieties of medicinal plants which were prepared in form of decoction, maceration and infusion and administered orally twice or three times daily. As result, 70% of patients who used plants were relieved at the end of the treatment. Thirty-three plants have been recorded and documented for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension. The results of this study can stimulate a sustainable development by providing the basis for drugs discovery and by documenting biodiversity for long time exploitation. PMID:26550547

  4. Comparative Study of Epidemiological and Anthropological Aspects of Diabetes and Hypertension in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tsabang, N; Fongnzossie, E; Donfack, D; Yedjou, CG; Tchounwou, PB; Minkande, JZ; Nouedou, C; Van, PD; Sonwa

    2016-01-01

    The traditional medicine in Africa in general and specifically in Cameroon does not manage diabetes and arterial hypertension very well. Yet, these pathologies are becoming more prevalent among the populations that need adequate knowledge to fight against them. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of indigenous people regarding diabetes and hypertension control, and to assess the epidemiological aspects of these diseases in order to reinforce their health education and promote a better health care through traditional medicine. To achieve this objective, 1,131 households including 70 traditional healers, 114 diabetics, 167 hypertensive patients, 30 hypertensive patients-diabetics and other Cameroonians were questioned on their ethnomedical knowledge of diabetes and arterial hypertension. Fifty-eight randomly distributed tribes were taking in account. The elucidation of anthropological and epidemiological aspects of diabetes and hypertension improved the beliefs of indigenous people and facilitated the modernization of diabetes and hypertension comprehension that remained focused on the elucidation of diseases' causes and complications, as well as on the behaviors that could help translate biomedical terms into locally meaningful metaphors. PMID:27708987

  5. Plant selection for nest building by western lowland gorillas in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Willie, Jacob; Tagg, Nikki; Petre, Charles-Albert; Pereboom, Zjef; Lens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    We examined 834 nests built by western lowland gorillas in Cameroon between July 2008 and July 2011 to identify the plant species used in their construction. Preference for each plant species for nesting was assessed using a 'preference index' calculated by combining information on the occurrence of each species in the forest and in the nests. Forty-six plant species representing about 15 % of the total number of species in the forest and 26 % of species used for nest building were frequently used by gorillas. Preference levels significantly varied among these species. Nests were mostly built with herbs of the families Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae and woody species such as Manniophyton fulvum (liana) and Alchornea floribunda (shrub). As observed in other gorilla populations, suitability for nest building and availability of gorilla food in stems were the likely determinants of plant selection. The total number of species used per nest ranged from 1 to 11, with an average of 4.9. This is high compared to other sites, emphasizing variability in the availability of nest building materials and habitat differences across the range of the western gorilla. Seasonal changes in the use of different habitat types for nesting did not appear to influence plant use for nest building as there was little variation in plant selection across seasons or the composition of nests. Our findings suggest that gorillas non-randomly select plant species to build nests, and use a particular set of species combined at varying proportions, with no clear seasonal or spatial patterns.

  6. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti (Primates: Hominidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Hua; Wang, Yin-Hua; Tang, Ming-Gui; Chai, Hai-Xia; Xuan, Xing-Wei; Guo, Wei-Yan; Yang, Mu; Pu, Jian-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees are especially suited to teach us about ourselves, both in terms of their similarities and differences with human, and such important similarities and differences have also been noted for the incidence and severity of several major human diseases. In the present work, we report the entire mitochondrial genome of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) for the first time. Results shows that this mitogenome is 16,559 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 putative non-coding region (D-loop region). The genomic organization and gene order are the same as other Chimpanzees. The whole nucleotide base composition is 31.1% of A, 30.7% of C, 12.9% G, and 25.3% T, with a slight A+T bias of 56.4%. Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here provides useful genetic information for P. t. ellioti, and will further contribute to the comparative genomics studies in primates.

  8. [Does the National HIV /AIDS Control programme provide support for district hospitals in Cameroon?].

    PubMed

    Keugoung, Basile; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Buve, Anne; Marchal, Bruno; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the national HIV/AIDS control programme on district hospitals in Cameroon. A multiple case study was conducted in two district hospitals- one public and one faith-based. Data were collected by document review, semi-structured interviews and observation of managerial processes and health care delivery. Programme interventions result in a series of positive and negative effects on the functioning of district hospitals and local health systems. High input and support of staff skills were observed for antiretroviral therapy and the management of opportunistic infections. However, the impact of the programme on the stewardship function is problematic. The low implication of district management teams in the implementation of HIV /AIDS activities reduces their structural capacity to run the local health systems. Programme and health system managers failed to take advantage of opportunities to develop synergies between the HIV/AIDS programme and local health systems. The HIV/AIDS programme weakens the systemic and structural capacity of local health systems. Managers of both programmes and general health systems should analyse and adapt their interventions in order to effective' strengthen health systems. One of the research questions is to understand why health system stakeholders do not seize opportunities to develop synergies between programmes and the general system and to strengthen health systems.

  9. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  10. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n=43) and SIV-negative (n=71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV− samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1 % of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8 %) and Blastocystis (2.9 %), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8 %. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  11. Risk Factors for Buruli Ulcer: A Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pouillot, Régis; Matias, Gonçalo; Wondje, Christelle Mbondji; Portaels, Françoise; Valin, Nadia; Ngos, François; Njikap, Adelaïde; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs) were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs) corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. Conclusions/Significance Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease. PMID:18160977

  12. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality. PMID:22539220

  13. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality.

  14. On Not Knowing Zoonotic Diseases: Pastoralists’ Ethnoveterinary Knowledge in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Mark; Ewing, Daniel; Garabed, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the implications of Murray Last’s (1981) Knowing About Not Knowing for the study of ethnoveterinary knowledge of mobile pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Specifically, we ask two interrelated questions: (1) what is the nature of this knowledge, and (2) what is the best way to study it? We conducted a study of pastoralists’ knowledge of human and animal infectious diseases to evaluate the claim that mobile pastoralists in the Chad Basin do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. We used a combination of free lists and semi-structured interviews to study pastoralists’ knowledge. The results suggest that pastoralists do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. Moreover, we found considerable variation in pastoralists’ ethnoveterinary knowledge and examples of not knowing, which contrasts with previous studies that do not describe much variation in ethnoveterinary knowledge. In our discussion, we consider to what extent descriptions of ethnoveterinary knowledge are the product of researchers’ conceptual framework and methodology. PMID:23990687

  15. Loiasis--a neglected and under-estimated affliction: endemicity, morbidity and perceptions in eastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Takougang, I; Meli, J; Lamlenn, S; Tatah, P N; Ntep, M

    2007-03-01

    Loiasis is a neglected disease that may have great social and economic impact in some endemic areas. This study was designed to update the geographical distribution of loiasis and assess the frequency and perceptions of the clinical signs of the disease in the Eastern province of Cameroon. The investigation covered 32 villages and involved 4146 respondents. Human infection with Loa loa was endemic in all the study villages but the prevalence of microfilaraemia generally decreased from south to north. All of the study villages had local names for eye worm and Calabar swellings that varied in meaning and among the various ethnic groups. The most common traditional treatment for eye worm was garlic or onion juice, which is dripped into the affected eye. The body sites that were most affected by Calabar swellings were the upper (30%) or lower (32%) limbs. The swellings were very painful (46%), mildly painful (28%) or painless (26%). Most respondents (94%) reported that the swellings itched. The prevalence of L. loa microfilaraemia in most of the study villages was >20%. These villages are clearly at risk of severe adverse events, with encephalopathy, following mass distribution of ivermectin. The prevalence of the main clinical manifestations of loiasis (i.e. eye worm and/or Calabar swellings) was twice that of detectable microfilaraemia. PMID:17316501

  16. [Epidemiologic study of dracunculosis in the Podokwos of the Mandara mountains (northern Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Issoufa, H; Monekosso, G; Ripert, C

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is the study of the epidemiological aspects of dracontiasis in an endemic area in Cameroon. The study was undertaken in the central Podokwo settlement in Mora subdivision. It is a mountainous area with a climate characterized by a long dry season, from October to mid-May, and a short rainy season. Two seasonal, streams run across the settlement. The water supply of the community is ensured throughout the year by two well built wells. During the rainy season, shallow unprotected wells are the water sources of about 80% of the inhabitants. Among the 944 subjects studied in our sample, 251 had the disease, corresponding to a prevalence of 26 6%. There is no significant difference between both sexes in the prevalence of the disease in our study. The age group 13-26 years is most affected. The worm load varies from 1 to 5, averagely 1.5. As to the localization of the worms in the body, in 92.7% of cases the worms is located in the lower limbs, the feet alone representing up to 46.8%. Less common sites of localization are the head, the breast, the external genitalia. The maximum rate of infestation is observed between August and September. Desinfection of wells with chemicals would be recommended during this period of time.

  17. Cryptoccocal meningitis in Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients: Diagnosis, frequency and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates susceptibility study to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Kammalac Ngouana, T; Dongtsa, J; Kouanfack, C; Tonfack, C; Fomena, S; Mallié, M; Delaporte, E; Boyom, F-Fekam; Bertout, S

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a mycosis encountered especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is fatal in the absence of treatment. Information on epidemiology, diagnosis and susceptibility profile to antifungal drugs, are scarce in Cameroon. Authors evaluated the diagnosis possibilities of the cryptococcal meningitis in Cameroon, and studied the antifungal susceptibility of isolated strains to fluconazole, used as first line treatment of the disease in Cameroon. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 146 cerebrospinal fluids obtained from HIV patients with suspicion of meningitis were analysed. The diagnosis procedure involved macroscopic and cyto-chemical analysis, India ink test, culture on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium and antigen latex agglutination test. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolated strains to fluconazole was done by the E-test(®) method. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis gave 28.08% positive cases. Among these patients, 80% were at stages III and IV and 20% at stage I of the HIV infection, according to the WHO previous classification. Cyto-chemical analysis showed current findings in the case of cryptococcal meningitis. India ink test and latex agglutination test exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity (>94%). Fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing gave MICs lower than 32μg/mL to 92.7% of isolated strains and MICs greater than this value to 7.3% of isolates. These results showed that cryptococcal meningitis remains a real problem among HIV infected patients in Yaoundé. The emergence of fluconazole reduced susceptibility strains is worrying. Nevertheless, efficacy of rapid detection tests is interesting because this will help in rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients.

  18. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A.; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon. PMID:23628785

  19. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-05-01

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%-12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from ≤2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon. PMID:23628785

  20. Phenotypic characterization of human pathogenic bacteria in fish from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis T K; Bughe, Rhoda N; Oben, Benedicta O; Ndip, Lucy M; Ndip, Roland N

    2009-01-01

    Increasing economic and recreational opportunities, attractive scenery and a perception of a better quality of life are luring people to the coast. Unfortunately, these activities together with the commensurate increase in population in the area inevitably result in pollution of coastal waters with excessive microorganisms and other pollutants. Microbial pollutants not only contaminate the coastal water but also aquatic food sources, thus posing a health risk to consumers. Fish is a major source of protein in Cameroon, especially in the coastal areas. In this study, we investigated the microbiological quality of fish from the Limbe and Tiko beaches in South West Cameroon from May to October 2007. We isolated human pathogenic bacteria from three anatomic sites (skin, gills, intestine) of 50 fish (150 specimens) and investigated their susceptibility patterns to a battery of antibiotics. Data were analyzed statistically using chi2 with significance set at p < .05. Eleven bacterial species were identified, including Escherichia coli type 1 (20.8%), Citrobacter fruendii (16.4%), Proteus vulgaris (13%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.1%), Klebsiella ozaenae (7.7%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.2%), Klebsiella oxytoca (5.8%), Serratia marcescens (4.8%), Serratia odorifera (4.8%), Hafnia alvei (4.4%) and Proteus penneri (2.9%). More contaminated fish were found at Limbe beach than at Tiko beach (61.4% versus 38.6%, respectively (p < .05)). When ranking contamination with respect to anatomic site, skin was the most contaminated (40.6%) specimen and gills the least (28.5%). Ciprofloxacillin, ofloxacillin, and cotrimoxazole were the most effective antibiotics against all isolates, exhibiting 100% sensitivity. Almost half of the isolates (45.7%) were resistant to ampicillin. The results of our study demonstrate that fish from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon are a source of human pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria; hence this finding has public health implications. PMID

  1. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  2. Online Course Reserves and Graduate Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses student satisfaction with online course reserves in a graduate environment. Surveys indicated that students prefer online course reserves over in-library print course reserves. Pre-printed course readers are preferred when the purchase price of the reader is less than the cost of printing online reserves. Graduate students are…

  3. Estimating the number of helminthic infections in the Republic of Cameroon from data on infection prevalence in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Donnelly, C. A.; Guyatt, H. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of infection with helminths is markedly dependent on age, yet estimates of the total number of infections are typically based on data only from school-aged children. Such estimates, although useful for advocacy, provide inadequate information for planning control programmes and for quantifying the burden of disease. Using readily available data on the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren, the relation between the prevalence of infection in school-aged children and prevalence in the wider community can be adequately described using species-specific models. This paper explores the reliability of this approach to predict the prevalence infection in the community and provides a model for estimating the total number of people infected in the Republic of Cameroon. METHODS: Using data on the prevalence of helminthic infection in school-aged children in Cameroon, the prevalence of infection in pre-school children and adults was estimated from species-specific linear and logistic regression models developed previously. The model predictions were then used to estimate the number of people infected in each district in each age group in Cameroon. RESULTS: For Cameroon, if only the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren is used, the number of people infected with each helminthic species will be overestimated by up to 32% when compared with the estimates provided by the species-specific models. The calculation of confidence intervals supports the statistical reliability of the model since a narrow range of parameter estimates is evident. Furthermore, this work suggests that estimation of national prevalence of infection and the number infected will be enhanced if data are stratified by age; this model represents a useful planning tool for obtaining more accurate estimates. Estimates based on data aggregated from three geographical levels (district, regional, and national) show that summarizing prevalence data at the national level will result

  4. The impact of signing a memorandum of understanding on reproductive health with the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Robert J I; Njotang, Nana P; Shearon, Azong B; Wankah, Charlotte A

    2014-10-01

    Health statistics relating to Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 are poor for most low-resource countries. Professional societies can assist governments to improve these health indicators. For an effective collaboration, the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians Cameroon (SOGOC) and the Ministry of Public Health signed a memorandum of understanding on reproductive health. A major consequence of this collaboration was the ease of transfer of competence associated with SOGOC adopting a monitoring and evaluation role, which has improved quality of care. The impact of this collaboration for the Society has been significant; SOGOC is recognized as a partner and has an opportunity to play a leadership role in issues concerning reproductive health.

  5. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions.

    PubMed

    Graves, K J

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.

  6. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed. PMID:10658960

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  8. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  9. US gas reserves show gain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports that the Energy Information Administration reports 1990 U.S. natural gas reserves increased for the first time since 1981. Reserves inched up 1.3% to 169.346 tcf, largely because of coalbed methane development. Gas reserves in Alaska and the Lower 48 not only increased, but the latter are higher than they were in 1985. Gas discoveries increased 23.3% and totaled 12.368 tcf in 1990. Major finds were drilled in New Mexico, in Alabama state water, and off Louisiana. Crude oil reserves dropped less than 1% to 26.254 billion bbl, close to the average decline of 1.2%/year for the past decade. Crude oil discoveries were 20% less than the annual average for the past decade.

  10. Oil and gas reserves estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrell, R.; Gajdica, R.; Elliot, D.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Khurana, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a summary of a panel session at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference. Oil and gas reserves estimates are further complicated with the expanding importance of the worldwide deepwater arena. These deepwater reserves can be analyzed, interpreted, and conveyed in a consistent, reliable way to investors and other stakeholders. Continually improving technologies can lead to improved estimates of production and reserves, but the estimates are not necessarily recognized by regulatory authorities as an indicator of "reasonable certainty," a term used since 1964 to describe proved reserves in several venues. Solutions are being debated in the industry to arrive at a reporting mechanism that generates consistency and at the same time leads to useful parameters in assessing a company's value without compromising confidentiality. Copyright 2005 Offshore Technology Conference.

  11. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level. PMID:14627367

  12. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities. PMID:26523191

  13. Psychosocial burden of sickle cell disease on parents with an affected child in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Mba, Caryl Zameyo; Mbanya, Dora; Ngogang, Jeanne; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-04-01

    The chronicity of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) could impair the quality of life of caregivers. We performed a quantitative study to assess various indices of psychosocial burden on Cameroonian parents (N = 130) with at least one living SCD-affected child. Demographic and medical information were obtained from the participants and the review of the patients' medical records. The survey instrument included a 38-item stress factors scale using Likert-type statements, evaluating general perceptions of stress and five main specific stressors: disease factors (clinical severity), hospital factors, financial factors, family factors (life/dynamic) and SCD-child factors (perceived quality of life). The items pertaining to burden involved four response options with increasing severity: 0, 1, 2 or 3. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Participants were typically aged 38 years, urban dwellers (89%), female (80%), married (60.2%), employed (61.7%) and had secondary/tertiary education (82%). Median age of SCD-affected children was 9 years. The median age at diagnosis of SCD was 6 months; 47.8% had more than 3 painful crises per year. The majority of participants (88.3%) experienced moderate to severe difficulty coping with SCD. On a 0-3 scale, median score of SCD clinical severity was the major factor to undermine the coping ability of parents (2.2); vaso-occlusive painful events (>3 per year) was the disease-related stressor that most impacted their coping ability. The family life dynamic was the least stressful (0.7). Unemployment affected all the stressors' categories. Stressors scores also increased with female, single, low education level, age of SCD-affected children or more than 3 children in the family. In Cameroon, there is an urgent need to implement practices that ensure affordable access to health-care and activities that would reduce SCD morbidity.

  14. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  15. Does HIV Services Decentralization Protect against the Risk of Catastrophic Health Expenditures? Some Lessons from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Sylvie; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Blanche, Jérôme; Loubière, Sandrine; Bonono, Renée-Cécile; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Ventelou, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Objective Scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) through decentralization of HIV care is increasingly recommended as a strategy toward ensuring equitable access to treatment. However, there have been hitherto few attempts to empirically examine the performance of this policy, and particularly its role in protecting against the risk of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE). This article therefore seeks to assess whether HIV care decentralization has a protective effect against the risk of CHE associated with HIV infection. Data Source and Study Design We use primary data from the cross-sectional EVAL-ANRS 12-116 survey, conducted in 2006–2007 among a random sample of 3,151 HIV-infected outpatients followed up in 27 hospitals in Cameroon. Data Collection and Methods Data collected contain sociodemographic, economic, and clinical information on patients as well as health care supply-related characteristics. We assess the determinants of CHE among the ART-treated patients using a hierarchical logistic model (n = 2,412), designed to adequately investigate the separate effects of patients and supply-related characteristics. Principal Findings Expenditures for HIV care exceed 17 percent of household income for 50 percent of the study population. After adjusting for individual characteristics and technological level, decentralization of HIV services emerges as the main health system factor explaining interclass variance, with a protective effect on the risk of CHE. Conclusion The findings suggest that HIV care decentralization is likely to enhance equity in access to ART. Decentralization appears, however, to be a necessary but insufficient condition to fully remove the risk of CHE, unless other innovative reforms in health financing are introduced. PMID:22092226

  16. Serological Studies of Neurologic Helminthic Infections in Rural Areas of Southwest Cameroon: Toxocariasis, Cysticercosis and Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Kouojip-Mabou, Alida; Nganou, Christ Nadège; Saijo, Yasuaki; Knapp, Jenny; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old) were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3%) with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%), 72 (42.8%), and 19 (11.3%) persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 25 (14.9%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. Conclusions/Significance Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early

  17. Haemostatic trends in HIV-infected individuals in Yaoundé, Cameroon: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Tene, Larissa; Tagny, Claude T.; Mintya-Ndoumba, Annick; Fossi, Vincent N.; Mbanya, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding disorders are haematological manifestations that are frequently observed during HIV infection. This study intends to describe the haemostatic trends in HIV-infected patients in Cameroon. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the haematology unit of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital from March to June 2012. It included consenting HIV-positive patients, aged 18 years and above, naive to antiretroviral treatment or not. The coagulation profile was measured with Stago reagents (Stago Diagnostics, Asnières sur Seine, France) using a chronometric technique on a semi-automate (Stago Diagnostics). Platelets count was estimated on a human count automate (Human diagnostic, Wiesbaden, Germany) by flow cytometry. A total of 139 HIV-infected patients were included in this study, out of which 106 were females (76.3%) against 33 (23.7%) males, giving a sex ratio of 0.3 (M/F). Mean age was 38.85 years (range 22–73 years) and median CD4 count was 353 cells/μl (Interquartile range 200–500 cells/μl). Hyperfibrinogenaemia was the most frequent bleeding disorder in the studied population [40 of 139 (28.78%)], followed by low prothrombin time (PT) [22 of 139 (15.83%)], thrombocytopenia [19 of 139 (13.67%)], hypofibrinogenaemia [18 of 139 (12.95)], prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (7.91) and by thrombocytosis which was less frequent [6 of 139 (4.32%)]. Out of the six haemostatic disorders, only low PT was significantly associated with CD4 count (P=0.02). This study showed that bleeding disorders are very frequent in the HIV-infected patients studied. Low PT was significantly associated with CD4 count, hence it may be recommended to systematic screen for bleeding disorders in severe immune-depressed (CD4 ≤ 200) HIV-infected patients. PMID:24469390

  18. Targeting the poorest in a performance-based financing programme in northern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Flink, Ilse Je; Ziebe, Roland; Vagaï, Djebba; van de Looij, Frank; van 't Riet, Hilda; Houweling, Tanja Aj

    2016-07-01

    Performance-Based Financing (PBF) is a promising approach to improve health system performance in developing countries, but there are concerns that it may inadequately address inequalities in access to care. Incentives for reaching the poor may prove beneficial, but evidence remains limited. We evaluated a system of targeting the poorest of society ('indigents') in a PBF programme in Cameroon, examining (under)coverage, leakage and perceived positive and negative effects. We conducted a documentation review, 59 key informant interviews and 33 focus group discussions with community members (poor and vulnerable people-registered as indigents and those not registered as such). We found that community health workers were able to identify very poor and vulnerable people with a minimal chance of leakage to non-poor people. Nevertheless, the targeting system only reached a tiny proportion (≤1%) of the catchment population, and other poor and vulnerable people were missed. Low a priori set objectives and implementation problems-including a focus on easily identifiable groups (elderly, orphans), unclarity about pre-defined criteria, lack of transport for identification and insufficient motivation of community health workers-are likely to explain the low coverage. Registered indigents perceived improvements in access, quality and promptness of care, and improvements in economic status and less financial worries. However, lack of transport and insufficient knowledge about the targeting benefits, remained barriers for health care use. Negative effects of the system as experienced by indigents included negative reactions (e.g. jealousy) of community members. In conclusion, a system of targeting the poorest of society in PBF programmes may help reduce inequalities in health care use, but only when design and implementation problems leading to substantial under-coverage are addressed. Furthermore, remaining barriers to health care use (e.g. transport) and negative reactions

  19. Targeting the poorest in a performance-based financing programme in northern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Flink, Ilse JE; Ziebe, Roland; Vagaï, Djebba; van de Looij, Frank; van ‘T Riet, Hilda; Houweling, Tanja AJ

    2016-01-01

    Performance-Based Financing (PBF) is a promising approach to improve health system performance in developing countries, but there are concerns that it may inadequately address inequalities in access to care. Incentives for reaching the poor may prove beneficial, but evidence remains limited. We evaluated a system of targeting the poorest of society (‘indigents’) in a PBF programme in Cameroon, examining (under)coverage, leakage and perceived positive and negative effects. We conducted a documentation review, 59 key informant interviews and 33 focus group discussions with community members (poor and vulnerable people—registered as indigents and those not registered as such). We found that community health workers were able to identify very poor and vulnerable people with a minimal chance of leakage to non-poor people. Nevertheless, the targeting system only reached a tiny proportion (≤1%) of the catchment population, and other poor and vulnerable people were missed. Low a priori set objectives and implementation problems—including a focus on easily identifiable groups (elderly, orphans), unclarity about pre-defined criteria, lack of transport for identification and insufficient motivation of community health workers—are likely to explain the low coverage. Registered indigents perceived improvements in access, quality and promptness of care, and improvements in economic status and less financial worries. However, lack of transport and insufficient knowledge about the targeting benefits, remained barriers for health care use. Negative effects of the system as experienced by indigents included negative reactions (e.g. jealousy) of community members. In conclusion, a system of targeting the poorest of society in PBF programmes may help reduce inequalities in health care use, but only when design and implementation problems leading to substantial under-coverage are addressed. Furthermore, remaining barriers to health care use (e.g. transport) and negative

  20. Radon-thoron discriminative measurements in the high natural radiation areas of southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Saïdou; Tokonami, Shinji; Janik, Miroslaw; Samuel, Bineng Guillaume; Abdourahimi; Joseph Emmanuel, Ndjana Nkoulou I I

    2015-12-01

    Although indoor radon was initially measured in the uranium regions of Poli and Lolodorf using Electret Ionization Chambers, discriminative RADUET detectors were deployed in 70 houses of the high natural radiation areas of Bikoue and Ngombas in the uranium region of Lolodorf in Southwestern Cameroon. Radon and thoron concentrations were determined using Image-J and Microscope Methods for track evaluation. Radon and thoron concentrations follow lognormal distributions and ranged respectively from 27 ± 26 to 937 ± 5 Bq m(-3) and from 48 ± 40 to 700 ± 128 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic means of radon and thoron concentrations were found to be 92 ± 3 Bq m(-3) and 260 ± 13 Bq m(-3.) Less than 2% of houses have indoor radon above the reference level of 300 Bq m(-3) and 30% of houses have thoron concentrations above 300 Bq m(-3.) Inhalation doses due to radon and thoron range respectively between 0.6-17.7 mSv yr(-1) and 0.2-3 mSv yr(-1) with the mean values of 1.4 mSv yr(-1) and 1 mSv yr(-1). The contribution of indoor thoron to the total inhalation dose ranges between 15%- 78.5% with the mean value of 47%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation dose. PMID:26372741

  1. Plant selection for nest building by western lowland gorillas in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Willie, Jacob; Tagg, Nikki; Petre, Charles-Albert; Pereboom, Zjef; Lens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    We examined 834 nests built by western lowland gorillas in Cameroon between July 2008 and July 2011 to identify the plant species used in their construction. Preference for each plant species for nesting was assessed using a 'preference index' calculated by combining information on the occurrence of each species in the forest and in the nests. Forty-six plant species representing about 15 % of the total number of species in the forest and 26 % of species used for nest building were frequently used by gorillas. Preference levels significantly varied among these species. Nests were mostly built with herbs of the families Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae and woody species such as Manniophyton fulvum (liana) and Alchornea floribunda (shrub). As observed in other gorilla populations, suitability for nest building and availability of gorilla food in stems were the likely determinants of plant selection. The total number of species used per nest ranged from 1 to 11, with an average of 4.9. This is high compared to other sites, emphasizing variability in the availability of nest building materials and habitat differences across the range of the western gorilla. Seasonal changes in the use of different habitat types for nesting did not appear to influence plant use for nest building as there was little variation in plant selection across seasons or the composition of nests. Our findings suggest that gorillas non-randomly select plant species to build nests, and use a particular set of species combined at varying proportions, with no clear seasonal or spatial patterns. PMID:23732768

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Parrot, Laurent Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-02-15

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

  3. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F3. pH values were 5.2 to 5.7 under DMC, 4.9 to 5.3 under DS and TS, and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were high in the control sample and the DMC than in the others systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low soil pH values.

  4. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F3. pH values were 5.2-5.7 under DMC, 4.9-5.3 under DS and TS and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were higher in the control sample and DMC than in the other systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low pH values.

  5. The Clinical and Bacteriogical Spectrum of Neonatal Sepsis in a Tertiary Hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Chiabi, Andreas; Djoupomb, Marlene; Mah, Evelyne; Nguefack, Seraphin; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Zafack, Joseline; Ghoyap, Madeleine; Nkoa, Thérèse; Tchokoteu, Pierre Fernand

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates especially in developing countries where identification of the germs and treatment is often unsatisfactory. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical presentation, and bacteriological profile of neonatal infections, and the sensitivity of the causative germs to antibiotics. Methods We carried out a prospective analytic study in the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital in Cameroon over a 6 months period from 18th November 2008 to 18th May 2009. On the basis of history and/or clinical findings and paraclinical investigations, 218 neonates out of a total of 628 admissions were investigated and managed for neonatal infection. Findings The most frequent symptoms were fever (44.95%), refusal to feed/irritability (32.11%), and respiratory distress/cough (28.90%). Premature birth and prolonged rupture of membranes were the most frequent risk factors. Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp were the most frequent germs identified in respectively 28.6%, 21.4% and 14.3% of the positive samples. Overall sensitivity of the cultures to ampicillin, netilmicin and gentamycin was poor at 29.4%, 31.4% and 18.9% respectively, whereas imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime had the best sensitivities in 91.7%, 90%, 85.3% and 69.4% of the cultures respectively. The mortality rate was 22%, and low birth weight, premature birth and septicemia were significant risk factors for death. Conclusion Mortality from neonatal sepsis in this context is still high and there is an upsurge of multi-resistant germs to currently used antibiotics, calling for the need for rational use of antibiotics in the management of these infections. PMID:23056829

  6. [Evaluation of the use of diagnostic/treatment algorithms in the health centers of North Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Haegeman, F; Ledecq, J L; Wyffels, A; Dama, K

    1994-09-01

    In February 1993, four years after their introduction, an assessment was made of the use of clinical flow charts (algorithms) by 16 nurses in charge of primary medical health centers in Northern Cameroon (Diamare Division, Far North Province). A study of the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the nurses shows the flow charts to be appreciated as a tool for diagnostic aid and for professional training. 11 nurses report an initial systematic use of the flow charts. This associates with the observation of good skills in using the charts, observed among 10 of the nurses, and also with treatment standardisation. Problems in reading the flow charts correctly hinder their systematic use in diagnostic decision making. A retrospective analysis of 800 treatment prescriptions noted in the consultation registers, shows an average rate of treatment standardisation of 75%, varying from 52 to 98% among the different health centers. Three quarters of non standardised treatment is ineffective or inefficient. Specific training is using the flow charts, given in the form of a 4 day seminar to 7 of the nurses concerned, showed no better results, after 4 years, than those obtained during a practical training session of a global nature, taking place in a functional health centre. Basic professional training, as well as previous professional experience influences the performances of the nurses. This study confirms the need to introduce rationalisation in the prescription of treatment, and shows the importance of verifying practical user skills at the end of specific training sessions. It would be advisable to include the principles of clinical algorithms in the teaching programs of medical schools. PMID:7840690

  7. Spatial and temporal variations relevant to tsetse control in the Bipindi focus of southern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a public health problem in many poor countries. Due to lack of financial resources in these countries, cost-effective strategies are needed for efficient control of this scourge, especially the tsetse vector. It was shown that perennial water sources maintain a favourable biotope for tsetse flies and thus the transmission dynamics of sleeping sickness. The present paper aimed at assessing the transmission dynamics of HAT in a forest environment where the hydrographic network is important. Methods Two entomological surveys were carried out in July 2009 and March 2010 in the Bipindi sleeping sickness focus of the South Region of Cameroon. Entomological and parasitological data were collected during both trapping periods (including the climate variations throughout a year) and compared to each other. The level of risk for transmission of the disease during each trapping period was also evaluated at the trap level and materialised on the map of the Bipindi focus. Results Glossina palpalis palpalis was the most prevalent tsetse fly species captured in this focus. The overall densities of tsetse flies as well as the risk for transmission of HAT in the Bipindi focus were significantly higher in July than in March. At the trap level, we observed that these parameters were almost constant, whatever the trapping period, when the biotope included perennial water sources. Conclusions This study shows that the spatial distribution of traps, as well as the temporal climatic variations might influence entomological and parasitological parameters of HAT and that the presence of perennial water sources in biotopes would favour the development of tsetse flies and thus the transmission of sleeping sickness. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in order to provide more efficient vector control. PMID:23815985

  8. Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A study on the distribution and population density of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and the central chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) was undertaken between December 1997 and August 2000 in the Campo and Ma'an Forests in southwestern Cameroon. The aim of this survey was to estimate the densities of the apes in different parts of the area, to assess the importance of the region for the conservation of these endangered species and to determine the influence of human activities such as logging and hunting. The survey was based on night nest counts on a total of 665.5 km of line transects. The overall density in the Campo Forest was estimated at 0.2 gorillas/km(2) and at 0.63-0.78 chimpanzees/km(2). The overall density of chimpanzees in the Ma'an Forest was estimated at 0.8-1 individuals/km(2). Gorilla density in this area was too low to allow an estimation. The highest gorilla nest density was found in secondary forest. The gorilla density in unlogged forest was significantly lower. Chimpanzees showed a clear preference for less disturbed areas. In unlogged forest, old secondary forests (logging more than 23 years ago) and areas of recent logging with large remaining patches of primary forest, significantly higher densities were calculated than inside the more heavily exploited logging concession. In areas with both logging and high hunting pressure both species were rare or even absent. The Campo Ma'an area is considered a very important area for the conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees. Conservation measures are urgently required to reduce the impact of logging and hunting. The creation of the Campo Ma'an National Park in January 2000 is an important measure to preserve the unique biodiversity in this so far hardly protected area. PMID:14586801

  9. Formation of the Cameroon Volcanic Line by lithospheric basal erosion: Insight from mantle seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The formation mechanism of intraplate volcanism such as that along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is one of the controversial problems in global tectonics. Models proposed by previous studies include re-activation of ancient suture zones, lithospheric thinning by mantle plumes, and edge-driven mantle convection. To provide additional constraints on the models for the formation of the CVL, we measured shear-wave splitting parameters at 36 stations in the vicinity of the CVL using a robust procedure involving automatic batch processing and manual screening to reliably assess and objectively rank shear-wave splitting parameters (fast polarization directions and splitting times). The resulting 432 pairs of splitting parameters show a systematic spatial variation. Most of the measurements with ray-piercing points (at 200 km depth) beneath the CVL show a fast direction that is parallel to the volcanic line, while the fast directions along the coastline are parallel to the continental margin. The observations can best be interpreted using a model that involves a channel flow at the bottom of the lithosphere originated from the NE-ward movement of the asthenosphere relative to the African plate. We hypothesize that progressive thinning of the lithosphere through basal erosion by the flow leads to decompression melting and is responsible for the formation of the CVL. The model is consistent with the lack of age progression of the volcanoes in the CVL, can explain the formation of both the continental and oceanic sections of the CVL, and is supported by previous geophysical observations and geodynamic modeling results.

  10. [Reconciliation and/or mediation settlements in cases of sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Ngoh, F

    1999-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this study was to show that cases of sexual abuse involving minors can sometimes be resolved within the victim's entourage and to gain insight into the long-term clinical consequences of such acts. The study group was composed of 17 consultees recruited between 1993 and 1994. Inclusion criteria were level of education and understanding sufficient to obtain informed consent, Cameroon nationality, at least 15 years of age, and history of sexual abuse. Persons with a history of hospitalization or psychiatric treatment were excluded. After a one-hour history-taking interview, each subject filled out a questionnaire specially designed for the study. Analysis of data showed that 94 p. 100 of the victims were female. Most subjects were adolescents or younger when the sexual abuse occurred. All had been raped. Subjects presented a range of psychiatric problems, somatic manifestations and disturbances in instinctive functions. No court action had been started in 16 cases (94 p. 100) and charges had been filed in only one case (6 p. 100). Reconciliation was achieved in 2 cases (12.5 p. 100) and negotiated settlements involving payment of financial compensation to the parents of the victim were reached to avoid court action in 14 cases (87.5 p. 100). The results of this study demonstrate that reconciliation and/or negotiated settlements based on economic incentives and social pressures are sometimes preferable to court action. The clinical manifestations observed in the subjects could be considered as the long-term consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:10546190

  11. [Guidelines for evaluating the viability of health care centers: test in northern Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Bene, T; Mevel, A; Yougouda, A; Fontaine, D

    1998-01-01

    A working group has developed a manual of practical guidelines for evaluating the viability of health care centers (HCC). These guidelines were tested in 1996 at the HCC in Badjouma, Cameroon. Viability is assessed in three dimensions, i.e. quality of care, cost-effectiveness, and institutional efficacy on the basis of the demand for services, staff requirements, cash flow, and supply costs. Regular evaluation of these parameters allows identification of areas requiring improvement to enhance the viability of the HCC. With only 0.29 visits per year per inhabitant, the attendance rate at the Badjouma facility is low. Public appeal is adversely affected by an under-qualified staff and poor equipment. Overall operating expenses are 6.8 million CFA francs per year and depreciation costs are 1.7 million CFA francs per year. Direct proceeds related to health care services (mainly sale of medication) are 4.1 million CFA francs. The remaining sources of revenue are state subsidies (2.5 million CFA francs) and international aid (0.4 million CFA francs). The deficit is 1.5 million CFA francs corresponding mainly to depreciation costs. Evaluation of the financial viability based on service-generated revenues alone (49%) and on combined domestic revenues, i.e. service revenues and state subsidies (79%), shows that the HCC depends mainly on depreciation costs. Analysis of institutional efficacy by comparing real activity with activity defined in official texts showed that the state was the main decision-maker but also revealed a tendency to pass off responsibility due to poorly defined command structure. The results of this test validate the proposed manual as a tool for global analysis of the activity and relevance of a HCC. Findings can be used to draw conclusions on the effects of national health policies at the local level. PMID:10088108

  12. Micromorphology, mineralogy and geochemistry of lateritic weathering over serpentinite in south-east Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzemua, Gideon Lambiv; Mees, Florias; Stoops, Georges; Van Ranst, Eric

    2011-04-01

    A laterite profile developed on serpentinite in Lomié, south-east Cameroon, was studied to understand its structure and genesis. Micromorphological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics were studied, using thin sections, SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. In the lower saprolite, magnesite is dissolved and serpentine is gradually replaced by kaolinite, without loss of the lithic fabric (orientation of kaolinite, distribution of magnetite). This nearly iso-volumetric weathering, at the scale of the sample, can be considered as in situ replacement of serpentine by kaolinite. Iron oxide hypocoatings formed along planar voids, and also smectite formed from solution in the void system. Congruent dissolution of kaolinite starting in the mid saprolite eventually led to a collapse of the fabric and to a chaotic accumulation of fragments of the hypocoatings. In the overlying layer, this fabric is even more strongly expressed, and iron oxides are more concentrated. The weathering profile shows a severe loss of Mg and Si, and an accumulation of Al, Fe, Ti and some minor and trace elements. The overlying layers have fabrics and components different from those recognized for the saprolite, such as clastic quartz grains and iron oxide nodules with various lithic fabrics, pointing to an admixture of allochthonous materials. The appearance of mobile elements (e.g. Rb, Sr, Pb) and certain stable elements (Zr, Nb), as well as the removal of serpentinite-related elements clearly show the mixing with materials derived from micaschists in the vicinity. The presence of a discontinuity in the profile is also confirmed by variations in iron oxide mineralogy. At least three lithological discontinuities were identified.

  13. [Guidelines for evaluating the viability of health care centers: test in northern Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Bene, T; Mevel, A; Yougouda, A; Fontaine, D

    1998-01-01

    A working group has developed a manual of practical guidelines for evaluating the viability of health care centers (HCC). These guidelines were tested in 1996 at the HCC in Badjouma, Cameroon. Viability is assessed in three dimensions, i.e. quality of care, cost-effectiveness, and institutional efficacy on the basis of the demand for services, staff requirements, cash flow, and supply costs. Regular evaluation of these parameters allows identification of areas requiring improvement to enhance the viability of the HCC. With only 0.29 visits per year per inhabitant, the attendance rate at the Badjouma facility is low. Public appeal is adversely affected by an under-qualified staff and poor equipment. Overall operating expenses are 6.8 million CFA francs per year and depreciation costs are 1.7 million CFA francs per year. Direct proceeds related to health care services (mainly sale of medication) are 4.1 million CFA francs. The remaining sources of revenue are state subsidies (2.5 million CFA francs) and international aid (0.4 million CFA francs). The deficit is 1.5 million CFA francs corresponding mainly to depreciation costs. Evaluation of the financial viability based on service-generated revenues alone (49%) and on combined domestic revenues, i.e. service revenues and state subsidies (79%), shows that the HCC depends mainly on depreciation costs. Analysis of institutional efficacy by comparing real activity with activity defined in official texts showed that the state was the main decision-maker but also revealed a tendency to pass off responsibility due to poorly defined command structure. The results of this test validate the proposed manual as a tool for global analysis of the activity and relevance of a HCC. Findings can be used to draw conclusions on the effects of national health policies at the local level.

  14. One year of campaigns in Cameroon: effects on routine health services

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Edengue, Jean Marie; Lagarde, Mylene; Baonga, Simon Franky; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Targeted campaigns have been reported to disrupt routine health services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the average effect of public health campaigns over 1 year on routine services such as antenatal care, routine vaccination and outpatient services. Method: We collected daily activity data in 60 health facilities in two regions of Cameroon that traditionally undergo different intensities of campaign activity, the Centre region (low) and the Far North (high), to ascertain effects on routine services. For each outcome, we restricted our analysis to the public health centres for which good data were available and excluded private health facilities given their small number. We used segment-linear regression to account for the longitudinal nature of the data, and assessed whether the number of routine activities decreased in health facilities during periods when campaigns occurred. The analysis controlled for secular trends and serial correlation. Results: We found evidence that vaccination campaigns had a negative impact on routine activities, decreasing outpatient visits when they occurred (Centre: −9.9%, P = 0.079; Far North: −11.6%, P = 0.025). The average negative effect on routine services [outpatient visits −18% (P = 0.02) and antenatal consultations −70% [P = 0.001]) was most pronounced in the Far North during ‘intensive’ campaigns that usually require high mobilization of staff. Discussion: With an increasing number of interventions delivered by campaigns and in the context of elimination and eradication targets, these are important results for countries and agencies to consider. Achieving disease control targets hinges on ensuring high uptake of routine services. Therefore, we suggest that campaigns should systematically monitor ‘impact on routine services’, while also devising concrete strategies to mitigate potential adverse effects. PMID:27175031

  15. Radon-thoron discriminative measurements in the high natural radiation areas of southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Saïdou; Tokonami, Shinji; Janik, Miroslaw; Samuel, Bineng Guillaume; Abdourahimi; Joseph Emmanuel, Ndjana Nkoulou I I

    2015-12-01

    Although indoor radon was initially measured in the uranium regions of Poli and Lolodorf using Electret Ionization Chambers, discriminative RADUET detectors were deployed in 70 houses of the high natural radiation areas of Bikoue and Ngombas in the uranium region of Lolodorf in Southwestern Cameroon. Radon and thoron concentrations were determined using Image-J and Microscope Methods for track evaluation. Radon and thoron concentrations follow lognormal distributions and ranged respectively from 27 ± 26 to 937 ± 5 Bq m(-3) and from 48 ± 40 to 700 ± 128 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic means of radon and thoron concentrations were found to be 92 ± 3 Bq m(-3) and 260 ± 13 Bq m(-3.) Less than 2% of houses have indoor radon above the reference level of 300 Bq m(-3) and 30% of houses have thoron concentrations above 300 Bq m(-3.) Inhalation doses due to radon and thoron range respectively between 0.6-17.7 mSv yr(-1) and 0.2-3 mSv yr(-1) with the mean values of 1.4 mSv yr(-1) and 1 mSv yr(-1). The contribution of indoor thoron to the total inhalation dose ranges between 15%- 78.5% with the mean value of 47%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation dose.

  16. Mineralogical characterization of the Nkamouna Co-Mn laterite ore, southeast Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiv Dzemua, G.; Gleeson, S. A.; Schofield, P. F.

    2013-02-01

    The Nkamouna property is an oxide laterite deposit developed on serpentinized peridotite in southeast Cameroon. It is enriched in Co and Mn, has sub-economic Ni grades and will be mined primarily for Co. The ore zone is ca. 10 m thick and comprises the lower breccia (˜3 m thick) and ferralite (7-8 m thick) units sandwiched between an 8-m-thick ferricrete overburden and a barren hydrated Mg-silicate saprolite. The ore mineral assemblage includes Mn oxyhydroxides, magnetite, maghemite, ferritchromite, goethite, hematite, kaolinite and gibbsite. Lithiophorite is the most common Mn mineral and is the main host of Co, Mn and a significant proportion of Ni. It occurs as coatings in pores and on other mineral grains and as concretions and impregnations in the matrix. It is invariably associated with gibbsite in the lower breccia and with magnetite and ferritchromite in the ferralite. Although ore in the lower breccia is volumetrically less important than the ferralite, it has the highest grade and Co/Ni ratio. The lithiophorite in the ore zone is authigenic, and its formation was enhanced by influx of Al3+ from the overlying ferricrete. Magnetite and ferritchromite in the ferralite are relicts and contributed to mineralization by enhancing the permeability of the ferralite and providing substrates for the precipitation of the Mn oxyhydroxides. The structure and mode of occurrence of the lithiophorite makes Nkamouna ore amenable to physical beneficiation, producing a concentrate with Co grades 2.3-4.5 times higher than the run-of-mine ore.

  17. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  18. Profile of cardiac disease in Cameroon and impact on health care services

    PubMed Central

    Butera, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have emerged as a major public health problem and impose an escalating burden on the health care system in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to investigate the preparedness of health care services for patients presenting with CVD in general and specifically, in St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong, cardiac centre. Patients and methods Between November 2009 and November 2011, a population of 8,389 adults and 706 children consulted the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. The patients’ age ranges between 5 days and 103 years old, with a mean of 48.7±18 years. Female represented 54.2% of the total population. Results Hypertension was diagnosed in 41.5% of patients. Isolated systolic hypertension was rarely found (4.2%) and 45.2% of patients were classified as class II according to the JNC7. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 29.6%. Forty-four percent of patients were in class III and 7% in class IV heart failure (NYHA). Arrhythmia was seen in 12.2% cases, with atrial fibrillation in 35.2%, followed by ventricular ectopic beats in 20.3%. Stable angina was diagnosed in 1.5%, and acute myocardial infarction 0.9%. In children, the prevalence of congenital heart disease was (4.3%). The disease the most detected was isolated ventricular septal defect, followed by tetralogy of Fallot. Post rheumatic valvulopathies were the main cause of heart failure in teenagers and young adults. Valve replacement with a mechanical valve was performed in 110 patients, valvuloplasty in eight patients, and surgical correction of congenital heart diseases in 105 cases. Conclusions Our data, collected in a rural area, shows the high prevalence of hypertension in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Congestive heart failure mainly due to post rheumatic valvulopathies is common amongst children and young adults. PMID:24400207

  19. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  20. Serotype diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including se...

  1. Serotype Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus in Livestock without History of Vaccination in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ludi, A; Ahmed, Z; Pomeroy, L W; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G R; Moritz, M; Dickmu, S; Abdoulkadiri, S; Arzt, J; Garabed, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2016-02-01

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon.

  2. An Exploratory Multi-Method Analysis of Cybercrime Perpetrators' Perceptions to Combat Cyber Crime in Sub Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuta, Eric Agwe-Mbarika

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has projected much of Africa as a haven for cybercrime perpetration. This view was widely evidenced in Cameroon, a country regarded as a miniature Africa due to its diverse socio-cultural, economic and political characteristics. In spite of efforts by government to curb cybercrime, the perpetration rate has not declined due to a…

  3. Farmers' Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents' Characteristics as Factors for Enhancing Adult Learning in Mezam Division of Northwest Province of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Oladele O.

    2005-01-01

    The education of farmers would be result oriented if among other things the learning enhancement situations are created. Farmers' receptivity to training largely depends on the use of several educational methods by extension agents to reach farmers in Mezam division of Northwest province of Cameroon. Data were collected from May to August 2000…

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

  5. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reserves that occurred during the year, including proved undeveloped reserves converted into proved developed reserves. (c) Discuss investments and progress made during the year to convert proved...

  6. Emplacement and deformation of the Fomopéa pluton: Implication for the Pan-African history of Western Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njanko, T.; Nédélec, A.; Kwékam, M.; Siqueira, R.; Esteban, L.

    2010-03-01

    The Fomopéa pluton (622-613 Ma) is located in the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon. It comprises of 3 units: biotite-hornblende granitoids (BHG), biotite monzogranites (BmG) and edenite syenogranites (EsG). The BHG unit displays magnetic fabrics characterized by foliations gently dipping towards the ESE and ENE-trending lineations (D1 event). Microstructures are magmatic to submagmatic. In discrete N-S deformation bands (D2), lineations are rotated towards the North and microstructures indicate solid-state deformation at mid- to low-T conditions, with kinematic indicators pointing to a sinistral motion. The second unit, BmG, displays lineation trajectories suggesting emplacement during the D2 event. The EsG unit displays fabrics consistent with a later emplacement, with no superposed deformation. The last event (D3) corresponds to a dextral shear zone, that runs along the southeastern border of the Fomopéa pluton. It was responsible for protomylonitic deformation of the granitic rocks in greenschist facies conditions, whereas the core of the shear zone registered higher temperatures and strain. This shear zone induced a rejuvenation of the Rb/Sr isotopic system in the pluton at ca 572 Ma. It belongs to the Central Cameroon shear zone system, regarded as the prolongation of the dextral Patos shear zone system in Brazil.

  7. Checklist of the ancyrocephalids (Monogenea) parasitizing Tilapia species in Cameroon, with the description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Pariselle, Antoine; Bitja Nyom, Arnold R; Bilong, Charles F

    2013-01-03

    A checklist of the 23 species of Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) parasitizing Tilapia species sampled from both sides of the Cameroon Volcanic Line is provided. As already reported elsewhere, Cichlidogyrus aegypticus in Cameroon shows two different shape of its vagina, and C. tilapiae, C. arthracanthus and C. tiberianus were found on a wide range of host species. Among the 23 studied species of Monogenea, three are considered new species and are described herein: Cichlidogyrus berminensis n. sp. from Tilapia bemini, characterized by a short penis with marked narrow heel, a simple and straight accessory piece ending in a large hook, and a medium sized pair of uncinuli I; Cichlidogyrus gillesi n. sp. from Tilapia guineensis, characterized by a large and trapezoid heel of the penis and a S-shaped and wrinkle walled vagina; and Scutogyrus vanhovei n. sp. from Tilapia mariae, characterized by the presence of a distinct swollen portion of the penis. From a parasite's point of view, the CVL has no influence on species dispersion/distribution.

  8. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O’Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning. PMID:26291625

  9. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in the South West Province of Cameroon: implications for mass treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Esum, M; Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Enyong, P

    2001-01-01

    Encephalopathy has been reported in Cameroon in individuals heavily infected with Loa loa microfilariae who were treated with ivermectin against onchocerciasis. Prior to the initiation of the community-directed treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin (CDTI) in the South West Province of Cameroon, an epidemiological survey of loiasis was conducted (in July 1998-July 1999) to ascertain the intensity of the disease. Thick blood films were made from 1228 blood samples collected during the day. Rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis was conducted among 614 individuals in the Upper Bayang area. Sixteen percent of the population examined were carriers of L. loa microfilariae. More males (20.1%) than females (12.4%) were infected. The community mean microfilaraemias of the different villages were low (< 1100 mf/mL). However, 1 person was found harbouring 174,000 mf/mL of blood and 1% of the study population (12) had microfilaraemia > 8100 mf/mL. Results of the REA of onchocerciasis show that 31.3% of the population investigated in the Upper Bayang area have this disease. These findings show that loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic in the area, but the risk of developing encephalopathy after taking ivermectin is small. PMID:11816443

  10. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O'Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perreten, Vincent; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  11. Narrowing the treatment gap with equitable access: mid-term outcomes of a community case management program in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Littrell, Megan; Moukam, Laure Vartan; Libite, Roger; Youmba, Jean Christian; Baugh, Gunther

    2013-10-01

    Coverage of case management interventions remains low and inadequate to achieve millennium development goal (MDG) target reductions in child mortality. Children living in the poorest households are particularly disadvantaged. Community case management (CCM) uses trained and supervised community health workers to improve access to, quality of and demand for effective case management. Evidence that CCM programs can achieve equitable improvements in coverage is limited. This cross-sectional study uses a quasi-experimental design with intervention and comparison areas. Outcomes of a CCM program for malaria and diarrhoea operating in two districts of Cameroon were measured after 1 year of implementation. A household census (N = 16 954) provided measurement of treatment-seeking behaviour for recent episodes of fever and diarrhoea. Results were compared between areas using chi-square tests. Intervention-area children with fever or diarrhoea were nearly nine times more likely to receive treatment with artemisinin combination therapy or oral rehydration salts, respectively, vs neighbouring comparison-area children. High levels of effective treatment were equitable across socioeconomic status in intervention areas, whereas disparities were observed in neighbouring comparison areas. CCM can achieve rapid and equitable improvements in coverage of case management for malaria and diarrhoea, and is a promising strategy for achieving MDG 4. Improved access to treatment, quality of care and caregiver demand were achieved in two districts of Cameroon. CCM must be scaled up to demonstrate outcomes and impact at scale.

  12. Challenges in the Diagnosis and Management of Acquired Nontraumatic Urethral Strictures in Boys in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mouafo Tambo, F. F.; Fossi kamga, G.; Kamadjou, C.; Mbouche, L.; Nwaha Makon, A. S.; Birraux, J.; Andze, O. G.; Angwafo, F. F.; Mure, P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Urethral strictures in boys denote narrowing of the urethra which can be congenital or acquired. In case of acquired strictures, the etiology is iatrogenic or traumatic and rarely infectious or inflammatory. The aim of this study was to highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of acquired nontraumatic urethral strictures in boys in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methodology. The authors report five cases of nontraumatic urethral strictures managed at the Pediatric Surgery Department of the YGOPH over a two-year period (November 2012–November 2014). In order to confirm the diagnosis of urethral stricture, all patients were assessed with both cystourethrography and urethrocystoscopy. Results. In all the cases the urethra was inflammatory with either a single or multiple strictures. The surgical management included internal urethrotomy (n = 1), urethral dilatation (n = 1), vesicostomy (n = 2), and urethral catheterization (n = 3). With a median follow-up of 8.2 months (4–16 months) all patients remained symptoms-free. Conclusion. The authors report the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis and management of nontraumatic urethral strictures in boys at a tertiary hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The existence of an inflammatory etiology of urethral strictures in boys deserves to be considered. PMID:27239364

  13. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  14. Climate change and its role in forecasting energy demand in buildings: A case study of Douala City, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematchoua, Modeste Kameni; Roshan, Gh R.; Tchinda, René; Nasrabadi, T.; Ricciardi, Paola

    2015-02-01

    The foremost role of a building is to assure the comfort of its occupants. The thermal comfort of a building depends on the outdoor climate and requires a demand in energy for heating and cooling. In this paper, demand of energy (heating/cooling) in the buildings is discussed in Douala, Cameroon. Daily data of the last 40 years coming from five weather stations of Cameroon have been studied. Some forecasts have been carried out with 14 GCM models, associated to three future climate scenarios B1, A2, and A1B. However, only INCM3 of General Circulation Model (GCM) and A2 scenario was used. Energy demand in buildings is valued by HDD (heating degree day) and CDD (cooling degree day) indices. Obtained results show that the temperature evolves more quickly in dry season than in rainy season in Douala. Climate rise indicates an increasing demand of energy in the buildings for cooling. Global Douala heating shows a definite effect on outdoor comfort. From 2045 to 2075, the demand of energy for cooling will be superior to 50%. The total demand in energy for heating in the buildings is estimated to be 67.882 kcal from 1970 to 2000 and will be around 67.774 kcal from 2013 to 2043.

  15. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  16. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  17. HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Drug-Resistance Mutations in Chronically Infected Individuals Receiving or Naïve to HAART in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Burda, Sherri T.; Viswanath, Ragupathy; Zhao, Jiangqin; Kinge, Thompson; Anyangwe, Christopher; Tinyami, Erick T.; Haldar, Bijayesh; Powell, Rebecca L.R.; Jarido, Veronica; Hewlett, Indira K.; Nyambi, Phillipe N.

    2010-01-01

    The most common first-line, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) received by individuals infected with HIV-1 in Cameroon is the combination therapy Triomune, comprised of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one non-NRTI (NNRTI). To examine the efficacy of these drugs in Cameroon, where diverse non-B HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses predominate, the reverse transcriptase (RT) viral sequences in patient plasma were analyzed for the presence of mutations that confer drug resistance. Forty-nine HIV-1-positive individuals were randomly selected from those receiving care in HIV/AIDS outpatient clinics in the South-West and North-West Regions of Cameroon. Among the 28 patients receiving HAART, 39% (11/28) had resistance to NRTIs, and 46% (13/28) to NNRTIs after a median of 12 months from the start of therapy. Among those with drug-resistance mutations, there was a median of 14 months from the start of HAART, versus 9 months for those without; no difference was observed in the average viral load (10,997 copies/ml vs. 8,056 copies/ml). In contrast, drug-naïve individuals had a significantly higher average viral load (27,929 copies/ml) than those receiving HAART (9,527 copies/ml). Strikingly, among the 21 drug-naïve individuals, 24% harbored viruses with drug-resistance mutations, suggesting that HIV-1 drug-resistant variants are being transmitted in Cameroon. Given the high frequency of resistance mutations among those on first-line HAART, coupled with the high prevalence of HIV-1 variants with drug-resistance mutations among drug-naïve individuals, this study emphasizes the need for extensive monitoring of resistance mutations and the introduction of a second-line HAART strategy in Cameroon. PMID:20029816

  18. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  19. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  20. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  1. [Characteristics of murder and attempted murder in Cameroon. Study based on expert psychiatric court reports].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first

  2. Accumulation of metals in three fish species from the Yaounde Municipal Lake in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Léopold, Ekengele Nga; Jung, Myung Chae; Emmanuel, Ekodeck Georges

    2015-09-01

    Metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and they can bioaccumulate in the food chain and represent risk for humans. In order to appraise their levels in fish species, concentrations of various elements including Na, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ba, and Sr were determined in the muscles and gills of three fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, and Clarias sp.) which are more fished and consumed in the Yaounde Municipal Lake, Cameroon. According to chemical results of the fish samples analyzed by ICP-AES, the concentrations of metals (mg kg(-1), wet tissues) in those fish tissues varied as follows for the muscle (and gill) Na 1480-3780 (4180-9310), Mg 897-1250 (843-1450), K 9600-18,500 (6020-10,400), Ca 430-3900 (22,200-62,400), Al 8.10-615 (113-951), Fe 12.0-725 (307-1160), Mn 1.61-30.1 (14.3-433), Cr 1.58-267 (0.31-35.4), Ni 0.16-1.85 (1.06-2.82), Co 0.10-0.47 (0.07-0.16), Cd 0.11-0.23 (0.10-0.22), Cu 0.59-5.13 (1.31-5.13), Pb 1.11-5.12 (2.56-5.74), Zn 15.4-47.2 (45.3-69.2), Ba 0.61-51.15 (0.35-83.2), and Sr 2.31-5.74 (2.09-5.75). The results revealed that Na, Ca, Zn, Fe, and Mn were higher concentrated in the gills than in the muscles, while K, Cr, Ni, Co, and Cd were more concentrated in the muscles of the species. In addition, all the elements were bioaccumulated in the fish species and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were decreased in the following order: Cr > Ni > Zn > Al > Ca > Pb > Mn > Ba > K > Fe > Mg > Cu > Na > Sr > Co > Cd. Compared to international standards, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn were over the recommendations of the European Community, WHO, and Norwegian guidance values for human health. Therefore, fishes from the Yaounde Municipal Lake are not advised for human consumption as toxic elements might be taken above the recommended levels. PMID:26251061

  3. Microchemical signature of alluvial gold from two contrasting terrains in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omang, B. O.; Suh, C. E.; Lehmann, B.; Vishiti, A.; Chombong, N. N.; Fon, A. N.; Egbe, J. A.; Shemang, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The microchemical signature of alluvial gold particles has wide application in constraining their primary sources. In this study, we apply this concept to investigate the composition of gold-bearing alloys from alluvial samples draining two geologically distinct terrains in southern and eastern Cameroon where the search for primary gold has remained elusive. The first set of gold grains (Lom grains) are from the Lom river drainage system with predominantly metasedimentary Pan-African rocks in the catchment region while the second set of grains (Nyong grains) are from the Mbal and Ebap tributaries of the Nyong river draining over a Paleoproterozoic complex comprising metamorphosed ultramafic rocks, amphibolites and granulitic gneisses. The gold grains recovered from these fluvial networks after panning were first studied under an electron microscope in order to evaluate their morphological features and subsequently embedded in epoxy resin, polished, and their compositions determined by both electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. The Lom grains are irregular to sub rounded with extensively pitted surfaces while the Nyong grains are predominantly rounded, oblong and with smooth surfaces. Nyong grains are devoid of inclusions while galena and pyrite are entombed in the Lom grains. Both set of grains are essentially Au-Ag alloys although the Ag content of the cores of the Nyong grains from both EMPA and LA-ICP-MS analytical techniques are significantly lower (0.05-6.07 wt% Ag; 93.54-99.29 wt% Au) than for Lom gold (0.06-22.75 wt% Ag; 78.76-99.86 wt% Au). X-ray element distribution maps do not show any zonal variation in core composition suggesting the gold grains derived from lode sources with single episode of hydrothermal gold deposition. Also the Nyong grains have significant amounts of Pt, Pd and Cr suggesting a link with ultramafic rocks while the Lom grains have substantial Sb and Zn levels pointing to hydrothermal quartz veining as

  4. Gas buildup in Lake Nyos, Cameroon: The recharge process and its consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Kling, G.W.; Tuttle, M.L.; Tanyileke, G.; White, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gases dissolved in Lake Nyos, Cameroon, were quantified recently (December 1989 and September 1990) by two independent techniques: in-situ measurements using a newly designed probe and laboratory analyses of samples collected in pre-evacuated stainless steel cylinders. The highest concentrations of CO2 and CH4 were 0.30 mol/kg and 1.7 mmol/kg, respectively, measured in cylinders collected 1 m above lake bottom. Probe measurements of in-situ gas pressure at three different stations showed that horizontal variations in total dissolved gas were negligible. Total dissolved-gas pressure near the lake bottom is 1.06 MPa (10.5 atm), 50% as high as the hydrostatic pressure of 2.1 MPa (21 atm). Comparing the CO2 profile constructed from the 1990 data to one obtained in May 1987 shows that CO2 concentrations have increased at depths to below 150 m. Based on these profiles, the average rate of CO2 input to bottom waters was 2.6 ?? 108 mol/a. Increased deep-water temperatures require an average heat flow of 0.32 MW into the hypolimnion over the same time period. The transport rates of CO2, heat, and major ions into the hypolimnion suggest that a low-temperature reservoir of free CO2 exists a short distance below lake bottom and that convective cycling of lake water through the sediments is involved in transporting the CO2 into the lake from the underlying diatreme. Increased CH4 concentrations at all depths below the oxycline and a high 14C content (41% modern) in the CH4 4 m above lake bottom show that much of the CH4 is biologically produced within the lake. The CH4 production rate may vary with time, but if the CO2 recharge rate remains constant, CO2 saturation of the entire hypolimnion below 50 m depth would require ???140 a, given present-day concentrations. ?? 1993.

  5. Spatio-temporal Patterns and Landscape-Associated Risk of Buruli Ulcer in Akonolinga, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Gaudart, Jean; Carolan, Kevin; Lo Seen, Danny; Guégan, Jean-François; Eyangoh, Sara; Fontanet, Arnaud; Texier, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is an extensively damaging skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, whose transmission mode is still unknown. The focal distribution of BU and the absence of interpersonal transmission suggest a major role of environmental factors, which remain unidentified. This study provides the first description of the spatio-temporal variations of BU in an endemic African region, in Akonolinga, Cameroon. We quantify landscape-associated risk of BU, and reveal local patterns of endemicity. Methodology/Principal Findings From January 2002 to May 2012, 787 new BU cases were recorded in 154 villages of the district of Akonolinga. Incidence per village ranged from 0 (n = 59 villages) to 10.4 cases/1000 person.years (py); median incidence was 0.4 cases/1,000py. Villages neighbouring the Nyong River flood plain near Akonolinga town were identified as the highest risk zone using the SPODT algorithm. We found a decreasing risk with increasing distance to the Nyong and identified 4 time phases with changes in spatial distribution. We classified the villages into 8 groups according to landscape characteristics using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. We estimated the incidence ratio (IR) associated with each landscape using a generalised linear model. BU risk was highest in landscapes with abundant wetlands, especially cultivated ones (IR = 15.7, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 15.7[4.2–59.2]), and lowest in reference landscape where primary and secondary forest cover was abundant. In intermediate-risk landscapes, risk decreased with agriculture pressure (from IR[95%CI] = 7.9[2.2–28.8] to 2.0[0.6–6.6]). We identified landscapes where endemicity was stable and landscapes where incidence increased with time. Conclusion/Significance Our study on the largest series of BU cases recorded in a single endemic region illustrates the local evolution of BU and identifies the Nyong River as the major driver of BU

  6. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this

  7. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  8. The Writing Project on the Navajo Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Greg

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Navajo reservation in Arizona, its inhabitants, and the inservice workshop given there by consultants of the National Writing Project. Relates personal anecdotes. Claims that life and education on the reservation are much like they are everywhere else. (HB)

  9. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit

    PubMed Central

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 370–379 PMID:18205836

  10. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  11. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of 24 CFR 891.405. (b) The mixed-finance owner may obtain a disbursement from the reserve only if... viability, or as otherwise agreed by HUD. (c) Subject to HUD's approval, reserves may be used to reduce...

  12. Cognitive reserve: implications for assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This article reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies that can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.

  13. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation

  14. Public health implications of contamination of Franc CFA (XAF) circulating in Buea (Cameroon) with drug resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in different parts of the world have implicated money as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens. Such information which is necessary to facilitate infection control strategies is lacking in many sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon. This study analyzed the Franc de la Communauté Financiere d’Afrique (Franc CFA), the currency used in Cameroon and other countries in the Central African sub-region, as a potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, particularly drug-resistant strains, to generate findings which could create awareness on currency contamination and serve as a guide when formulating health policies on currency. Methods Two hundred and thirteen currency samples representing various denominations of notes and coins randomly collected from diverse sources in Buea, Cameroon were analyzed for bacteria and fungi. The sensitivity of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested using the disc diffusion method. The relationship between contamination and physical state, source or denomination of currency was assessed using the χ2 test. All statistics were discussed at 0.05 significance level. Results Two hundred (93.9%) samples were contaminated with notes (96.6%) showing higher contamination than coins (88.2%). Uncirculated (mint) samples showed no contamination. There was a significant difference (P˂0.05) in contamination with respect to currency denomination, physical state and source. All samples from butchers and patients/personnel in hospitals were contaminated. Lower denominations showed significantly higher (P = 0.008) levels of contamination than higher denominations. Dirty currency was more contaminated than clean currency. Nine bacterial species were isolated. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (54.9%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%) predominated. Among the fungi detected, Aspergillus sp (17.3%) and Penicillium sp (15.9%) showed higher frequency of occurrence. Bacteria were susceptible (100

  15. Resolving mantle and magmatic processes in basalts from the Cameroon volcanic line using the Re-Os isotope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.; Barfod, D. N.; Schiano, P.; Vlastélic, I.; Halliday, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    This study presents major-, trace element and Re-Os isotope and elemental data for young alkaline basalts (< 10 Ma) from oceanic (Annobon, S. Tomé, Principe), continental (Manengouba) and continent-oceanic boundary (COB, Mt. Cameroon) sectors of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). The CVL is a chain of Tertiary to recent, transitional to strongly alkaline intraplate volcanoes extending from the south Atlantic island of Annobon to the continental interior of West Africa (Biu Plateau). The basalts from the oceanic sector display a range of initial 187Os/188Os ratios between 0.128 and 0.190 and those from the COB and continental sector range between 0.142 and 0.560. The samples with high 206Pb/204Pb (e.g. ratios > 20) possess 187Os/188Os isotope compositions between 0.14 and 0.18 (e.g., basalts from Mt Cameroon and Sao Tomé) which reflect the chemical characteristics that are more likely to be primary features of CVL, and are close to the value of 0.153 attributed to the HIMU end-member (Tubuai-Mangaia). However, most of the lavas from the continental sector show highly radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratios (0.36 to 0.56) that are outside the range previously observed for ocean island basalts, with shifts to radiogenic Os isotope compositions accompanied by less radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb and increasing SiO2 contents. The increase in 187Os/188Os is also associated with the decrease of Os, Ni, MgO and phenocryst abundances. These data can be explained by fractional crystallisation and assimilation of continental crust by the ascending magma. The systematic shift to unradiogenic lead isotope compositions from the COB into the oceanic sector is positively correlated with variations in 187Os/188Os isotope composition (from 0.140 to 0.128). At first sight this covariation might be attributed to the mixing of HIMU material with the ambient upper mantle (DMM). However, there is a clear covariation of the Os isotope and elemental composition, best explained with contamination of

  16. Comparative analysis of cell culture and prediction algorithms for phenotyping of genetically diverse HIV-1 strains from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background With the advent of entry inhibitors, monitoring of viral tropism in the clinical setting is important. Conventional methods are cell-based and lengthy, therefore V3 sequence based prediction algorithms are becoming increasingly attractive as monitoring tools. Here we report a comparative analysis of viral tropism of strains circulating in Cameroon where diverse and emerging variant strains are prevalent. Methods Viruses were isolated from 17 HIV positive individuals from three cities in Cameroon. Ghost cell lines expressing either CCR5 or CXCR4 with CD4 or CD4 alone (NIH AIDS Reagent Program) were used to determine co-receptor usage. HIV replication was determined by measuring p24 antigen levels. Plasma viral load (VL) was determined using the Versant bDNA assay. Nucleotide sequencing was performed on the V3 region and sequences were edited, aligned and translated into amino acids as described in the algorithm. Bio-informatics tools based on the 11/25 and charge rule were used to predict co-receptor usage. Results The majority of patient isolates in our study were CRF02_AG or CRF02_AG containing recombinants. Tropism of these complex viruses based on the cell culture assay was determined to be R5 in 15/17 (88.2%) patients. However, two patient isolates were dual tropic R5X4 and had drug-specific mutations. Of these two patients, one was on antiretroviral treatment with a VL of 20,899 copies/ml and the other was drug-naïve with 141,198 copies/ml. Genotype based prediction was overall in good agreement with phenotype for R5 viruses, where 93% (14/15) of results were comparable, dual tropic viruses being reported as X4 viruses by prediction. Conclusion Our results indicate that most HIV strains in Cameroon were R5 tropic and some harbored drug-resistant mutations. V3 sequence based prediction compared well with cell based assays for R5 strains and may be useful even in settings where highly diverse strains are prevalent. PMID:19939258

  17. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  18. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable

  19. 48 CFR 49.109-2 - Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservations. 49.109-2 Section 49.109-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-2 Reservations. (a) The TCO shall— (1) Reserve in...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... out of reserve funds. Structural repairs and other significant work on major building systems such...

  1. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  2. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  3. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  4. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  5. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  6. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  7. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  8. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  9. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  10. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... establish and fund a reserve account that meets the requirements of § 3560.306. The applicant must agree...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  13. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  14. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  15. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  16. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  17. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... establish and fund a reserve account that meets the requirements of § 3560.306. The applicant must agree...

  18. 75 FR 4349 - National Estuarine Reserve System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... solicitation period for the National Estuarine research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program FY10... notice to re-open the solicitation period for the National Estuarine Research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program FY10 to provide National Estuarine Research Reserve lead State agencies...

  19. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  20. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

  1. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reserve up to 71/2 percent of the State's allotment for the same purpose. (c) Reserve for innovative and... innovative or alternative wastewater treatment processes and techniques. Of this amount not less than one... projects using innovative processes and techniques. (d) Reserve for water quality management. Each...

  2. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Susanne Banta

    1979-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  3. Elimination of Taenia solium transmission to pigs in a field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Assana, Emmanuel; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; De Deken, Redgi; Anderson, Garry A; Zoli, André P; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2010-04-01

    A pilot field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine was undertaken in Cameroon. Two hundred and forty, 2-3 month-old piglets were distributed to 114 individual households in pairs. Vaccinated animals received three immunisations with 200 microg TSOL18 plus 5 mg Quil A and 30 mg/kg oxfendazole at the time of the second immunisation. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. Viable Taenia solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%); no cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals (P<0.0001). Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs may be a relatively simple and sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans.

  4. [Incidence of peri- and intraventricular hemorrhages in a premature population at the Central Hospital of Yaounde (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Tietche; Koki Ndombo, P O; Gonsu Fotsin, J; Nko'O Amvene, S; Kago, I; Nomo, E; Obounou Akong, D

    1992-06-01

    In Cameroon, prematurity is common but few studies have been carried out on periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature neonates. Seventy neonates born between 28 and 34 weeks gestational age were studied by cerebral ultrasonography. Thirty infants (42.8%) showed evidence of periventricular or intraventricular bleeding. This proportion was 58.3% in infants born between 28 and 31 weeks gestational age. All stage III (3 cases) and stage IV (2 cases) hemorrhages were bilateral. Bilateral bleeding was less common among patients with stage I (2 cases) or stage II (2 cases) hemorrhages. Among patients born between 32 and 34 weeks gestational age, only 34.8% had ventricular hemorrhage which was always stage I or II and usually unilateral (two stage I and one stage II bilateral bleeds). The incidence of periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage is high in Yaoundé. Ultrasonographic evaluation should be routinely performed in infants born before 35 weeks gestational age. PMID:1497289

  5. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.

  6. Elimination of Taenia solium transmission to pigs in a field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assana, Emmanuel; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; De Deken, Redgi; Anderson, Garry A.; Zoli, André P.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    A pilot field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine was undertaken in Cameroon. Two hundred and forty, 2–3 month-old piglets were distributed to 114 individual households in pairs. Vaccinated animals received three immunisations with 200 μg TSOL18 plus 5 mg Quil A and 30 mg/kg oxfendazole at the time of the second immunisation. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. Viable Taenia solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%); no cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals (P < 0.0001). Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs may be a relatively simple and sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans. PMID:20138046

  7. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease. PMID:27561118

  8. An asset-based approach to vulnerability: the case of small-scale fishing areas in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Witt, Rudolf; Waibel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses vulnerability to poverty of rural small-scale fishing communities using cross-section data from 295 households in Cameroon and 267 in Nigeria. We propose a vulnerability measure that incorporates the idea of asset poverty into the concept of expected poverty, which allows decomposing expected poverty into expected structural-chronic, structural-transient, and stochastic-transient poverty. The findings show that most households in our study areas are expected to be structurally-chronic and structurally-transient poor. This underlines the importance of asset formation for long-term poverty reduction strategies. Further refinements are possible with longitudinal data and information about future states of nature. PMID:21506304

  9. Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngoh, L N; Shepherd, M D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults who had a prescription for a solid oral dosage form of antibiotic medications were developed and evaluated. The researchers conceptualized the educational messages while a local artist produced the visual aids. Seventy-eight female ambulatory patients were evaluated for comprehension and compliance with antibiotic prescription instructions. The study was conducted in three health centers in Cameroon, West Africa and followed a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up format for three groups: two experimental, and one control. All participants were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups, 26 patients to each group. Subjects in the experimental groups received visual aids alone or visual aids plus an Advanced Organizer. A comparison of the three groups showed that subjects in the experimental groups scored significantly higher than the control group in both the comprehension and compliance measures.

  10. Sensitisation to mites in a group of patients with asthma in Yaounde, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pefura-Yone, Eric Walter; Kengne, André Pascal; Kuaban, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sensitisation of asthmatic patients to mites in sub-Saharan Africa has been less described. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of sensitisation to mites in asthmatic adolescents and adults in Yaounde, Cameroon. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were employed to investigate the determinants of sensitisation to mites. Setting This study was carried out at the Jamot Hospital and CEDIMER private centre, in Yaounde, capital city of Cameroon. Participants All asthmatic patients received in consultations from January 2012 to June 2013 and in whom prick-skin tests for perennial aeroallergens were performed were included. Outcome measures Prevalence of sensitisation to mites and associated factors. Results In total, 201 patients (132 being women, 65.7%), with a median age of 36 (25th–75th centiles: 20–54) years were included, with 135 (67.2%) having a positive skin test for mites. Sensitisation to Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis was found in 53.2%, 49.8% and 47.8% of the patients, respectively. Intermittent rhinitis (16.3% vs 7.6%) and persistent rhinitis (43.0% vs 22.7%) were more frequent in sensitised patients than in the non-sensitised ones (p<0.010). Independent allergological determinants of sensitisation to mites were sensitisation to Alternaria alternata (adjusted OR 14.98 (95% CIs 1.96 to 114.4)) and sensitisation to Blattella germanica (3.48 (1.34 to 9.00)). Conclusions Sensitisation to mites was found in about two-thirds of asthmatic patients in this setting, with a frequent multiple sensitisations to A alternata and Blattella germanica. Systematically investigating asthmatic patients for mites' sensitisation and determinants will help optimising the care in this setting by combining the aetiological treatment for the allergy with symptomatic treatment for asthma, in order to modify the natural course of the disease. PMID:24390384

  11. Tsetse fly blood meal modification and trypanosome identification in two sleeping sickness foci in the forest of southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Farikou, Oumarou; Njiokou, Flobert; Simo, Gustave; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gérard; Geiger, Anne

    2010-10-01

    The blood meal origins of 222 tsetse flies (213 Glossina palpalis palpalis, 7 Glossina pallicera pallicera, one Glossina nigrofusca and one Glossina caliginea) caught in 2008 in two Human African trypanosomiasis foci (Bipindi and Campo) of south Cameroon were investigated. 88.7% of tsetse flies blood meals were identified using the heteroduplex method and the origin of the remaining blood meals (11.3%) was identified by sequencing the cytochrome B gene. Most of the meals were from humans (45.9%) and pigs (37.4%), 16.7% from wild animals. Interestingly, new tsetse fly hosts including turtle (Trionyx and Kinixys) and snake (Python sebae) were identified. Significant differences were recorded between Bipindi where the blood meals from pigs were predominant (66.7% vs 23.5% from humans) and Campo where blood meals from humans were predominant (62.9% vs 22.7% from pigs). Comparison with the data recorded in 2004 in the same foci (and with the same molecular approach) demonstrated significant modifications of the feeding patterns: increase in blood meals from pigs in Bipindi (66.7% in 2008 vs 44.8% in 2004) and in Campo (20.5% in 2008 vs 6.8% in 2004), decrease in that from human (significant in Bipindi only). 12.6%, 8.1% and 2.7% of the flies were, respectively, Trypanosoma congolense forest type, Trypanosoma congolense savannah type and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infected. These results demonstrate that tsetse fly feeding patterns can be specific of a given area and can evolve rapidly with time. They show an active circulation of a variety of trypanosomes in sleeping sickness foci of southern Cameroon.

  12. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Temwa, J.; Mouiche, M. M.; Iyawa, D.; Zoli, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481

  13. Patterns and correlates of objectively measured free-living physical activity in adults in rural and urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assah, Felix; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas; Brage, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Background Urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa is changing lifestyles and raising non-communicable disease burden. Understanding the underlying pattern of physical activity and its correlates may inform preventive interventions. We examined correlates of objectively-measured physical activity in rural and urban Cameroon. Methods Participants were 544 adults resident in rural (W-156, M-89) or urban (W-189, M-110) regions. Physical activity was measured using individually-calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing over seven continuous days. Sociodemographic data were collected by self-report. Independent associations of sociodemographic correlates with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analysed in multivariate regression models. Results Rural dwellers were significantly more active than their urban counterparts (PAEE: 58.0 vs 42.9 kJ/kg/day; MVPA: 107 vs 62 min/day; MVPA of 150 min/week in >10 min bouts: 62 vs 39%) and less sedentary (923 vs 1026 min/day); p<0.001. There was no significant seasonal difference (dry vs rainy) in activity in urban dwellers whereas in rural dwellers activity was higher during dry seasons compared to rainy seasons (p<0.001). Age, obesity and education showed significant inverse associations with activity. Urban dwellers who considered themselves adequately active were only as active as rural dwellers who thought they were not adequately active. Conclusions This is the first study providing data on sociodemographic patterning of objectively-measured physical activity in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa. Age, urban residence, obesity and higher educational level are important correlates of lower levels of physical activity. These suggest targets for public health interventions to improve physical activity in Cameroon. PMID:25841243

  14. Factors associated with blood pressure control amongst adults with hypertension in Yaounde, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Menanga, Alain; Edie, Sandrine; Boombhi, Jérôme; Musa, Ahmadou Jingi; Mfeukeu, Liliane Kuate; Kingue, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Improvement of its management to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes will require an understanding of the patient characteristics and treatment factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure. Factors that affect blood pressure control have not been sufficiently described in Cameroon. The main goal of our study was to determine the predictors of blood pressure control in patients with hypertension in an urban city in Cameroon. Methods This was descriptive cross-sectional study from five outpatient hypertension consultation units in Hospitals in Yaoundé. Controlled hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≤140/90 mmHg. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with blood pressure control. Results Among the 440 patients enrolled in the survey, 280 (63.6%) were females. The mean age was 61 (SD ±11) years. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 147 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 88 mmHg. Only 36.8% of patients had their mean blood pressure controlled (BP ≤140/90 mmHg). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed good adherence to anti-hypertensive medications (OR= 3.99; 95% CI: 2.20–7.23; P<0.000) and dietary lifestyle changes (OR =1.5; 95% CI: 0.53–2.49; P=0.031) to be factors independently associated with controlled hypertension. Conclusions Only one out of three patients has their blood pressure controlled. The results of our study suggest that good adherence to treatment are important factors for tight blood pressure control in primary care. Further identification of patients at risk of non-adherence to treatment and poor blood pressure control can lead to targeted interventions to reduce hypertension related morbidity and mortality in this setting. PMID:27747167

  15. Seasonal prevalence of malaria vectors and entomological inoculation rates in the rubber cultivated area of Niete, South Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of large scale agro-industries are subject to serious environmental modifications. In malaria endemic areas this would greatly impact on the transmission paradigm. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys to characterize the Anopheles fauna and their entomological inoculation rates were conducted during May 2010 (peak rainy season) and December 2010 (peak dry season) in the intense rubber cultivated area of Niete in southern forested Cameroon. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled by night collections on human volunteers, identified morphologically and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex further identified to species and molecular form. Parity status was determined following the dissection of the ovaries. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigen indices were estimated after the identification of CS antigen by ELISA and the average entomological inoculation rates determined. Results A total of 1187 Anopheles was collected, 419 (35.3%) in the rainy season and 768 (64.7%) in the dry season. Species found were the M molecular form of An. gambiae s.s (66.8%), An. ziemanni (28.3%), An. paludis (4.7%), An. smithii (0.2%). An. gambiae M-form was the principal species in the dry (56.2%) and wet (86.2%) seasons. Average overall entomological inoculation rate for the malaria vectors varied between the dry season (1.09 ib/p/n) and the rainy season (2.30 ib/p/n). Conclusions Malaria transmission in Niete occurs both in the dry and rainy season with the intensities peaking in the dry season. This is unlike previous studies in other areas of southern forested Cameroon where transmission generally peaks in the rainy season. Environmental modifications due to agro-industrial activities might have influenced vector distribution and the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. This necessitates the possible implementation of control strategies that are related to the eco-geography of the area. PMID:22963986

  16. Plasmodium falciparum-like parasites infecting wild apes in southern Cameroon do not represent a recurrent source of human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Liu, Weimin; Keele, Brandon F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Bittinger, Kyle; Mouacha, Fatima; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Manske, Magnus; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Li, Yingying; Malenke, Jordan A.; Delaporte, Eric; Laurent, Christian; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2013-01-01

    Wild-living chimpanzees and gorillas harbor a multitude of Plasmodium species, including six of the subgenus Laverania, one of which served as the progenitor of Plasmodium falciparum. Despite the magnitude of this reservoir, it is unknown whether apes represent a source of human infections. Here, we used Plasmodium species-specific PCR, single-genome amplification, and 454 sequencing to screen humans from remote areas of southern Cameroon for ape Laverania infections. Among 1,402 blood samples, we found 1,000 to be Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) positive, all of which contained human parasites as determined by sequencing and/or restriction enzyme digestion. To exclude low-abundance infections, we subjected 514 of these samples to 454 sequencing, targeting a region of the mtDNA genome that distinguishes ape from human Laverania species. Using algorithms specifically developed to differentiate rare Plasmodium variants from 454-sequencing error, we identified single and mixed-species infections with P. falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, and/or Plasmodium ovale. However, none of the human samples contained ape Laverania parasites, including the gorilla precursor of P. falciparum. To characterize further the diversity of P. falciparum in Cameroon, we used single-genome amplification to amplify 3.4-kb mtDNA fragments from 229 infected humans. Phylogenetic analysis identified 62 new variants, all of which clustered with extant P. falciparum, providing further evidence that P. falciparum emerged following a single gorilla-to-human transmission. Thus, unlike Plasmodium knowlesi-infected macaques in southeast Asia, African apes harboring Laverania parasites do not seem to serve as a recurrent source of human malaria, a finding of import to ongoing control and eradication measures. PMID:23569255

  17. Chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and toxicity evaluation of the essential oil of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. are used in the western highlands of Cameroon for their medicinal property. Methods The leaves of this species were collected in the West Region of Cameroon in August 2010 and subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oil. The oil was fractionated using adsorption column chromatography. The chemical composition of this oil and its fractions was analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial species and six species of Candida by the agar diffusion method. Macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal and/or fungicidal concentrations (MBCs and MFCs). The toxicity profile of the oil was studied using Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. Results Forty-nine compounds were identified in the essential oil. The main components were germacrene D (18.5%), epi-zonarene (8.2%), cis-calamenene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), linalool (6.0%) and umbellulone (6.0%). Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans were most susceptible to the oil (MICs of 1.25 and 0.16% for bacteria and fungi respectively). The estimated oral LD50 was 6.33 g/kg. There was an increase in sera ALT and AST activities while the blood cells and protein levels decreased in treated animals. Conclusion The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of C. lusitanica leaf oil in the treatment of whooping cough and skin infections though it should be used with care. This plant oil could be useful in the standardisation of phytomedicine. PMID:23758765

  18. Zircon dating and mineralogy of the Mokong Pan-African magmatic epidote-bearing granite (North Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchameni, R.; Sun, F.; Dawaï, D.; Danra, G.; Tékoum, L.; Nomo Negue, E.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Nzolang, C.; Dagwaï, Nguihdama

    2016-09-01

    We present the mineralogy and age of the magmatic epidote-bearing granite composing most of the Mokong pluton, in the Central Africa orogenic belt (North Cameroon). This pluton intrudes Neoproterozoic (~830 to 700 Ma) low- to high-grade schists and gneisses (Poli-Maroua group), and is crosscut or interleaved with bodies of biotite granite of various sizes. The pluton is weakly deformed in its interior, but solid-state deformation increases toward its margins marked by narrow mylonitic bands trending NNE-SSW. The magmatic epidote granitic rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, and syenogranite. They are medium- to coarse-grained and composed of K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + epidote + magnetite + titanite + zircon + apatite. In these granites, the pistacite component [atomic Fe+3/(Fe3+ + Al)] in epidote ranges from 16 to 29 %. High oxygen fugacity (log ƒO2 - 14 to -11) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase thermometry indicate hornblende crystallization between 0.53 and 0.78 GPa at a temperature ranging from 633 to 779 °C. Zircon saturation thermometry gives temperature estimates ranging from 504 to 916 °C, the latter being obtained on samples containing inherited zircons. U/Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS on zircon grains characterized by magmatic zoning yields a concordia age of 668 ± 11 Ma (2 σ). The Mokong granite is the only known occurrence magmatic epidote in Cameroon, and is an important milestone for the comparison of the Central Africa orogenic belt with the Brasiliano Fold Belt, where such granites are much more abundant.

  19. Lithospheric instability and the source of the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Aubreya N.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Euler, Garrett G.; Shore, Patrick J.; Tibi, Rigobert

    2015-03-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a 1800 km long volcanic chain, extending SW-NE from the Gulf of Guinea into Central Africa, that lacks the typical age progression exhibited by hot spot-related volcanic tracks. This study investigates the upper mantle seismic structure beneath the CVL and surrounding regions to constrain the origin of volcanic lines that are poorly described by the classic plume model. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are measured at periods from 20 to 182 s following the two-plane wave methodology, using data from the Cameroon Seismic Experiment, which consists of 32 broadband stations deployed between 2005 and 2007. These phase velocities are then inverted to build a model of shear wave velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath the CVL. Results show that phase velocities beneath the CVL are reduced at all periods, with average velocities beneath the CVL deviating more than -2% from the regional average and +4% beneath the Congo Craton. This distinction is observed for all periods but is less pronounced for the longest periods measured. Inversion for shear wave velocity structure indicates a tabular low velocity anomaly directly beneath the CVL at depths of 50 to at least 200 km and a sharp vertical boundary with faster velocities beneath the Congo Craton. These observations demonstrate widespread infiltration or erosion of the continental lithosphere beneath the CVL, most likely caused by mantle upwelling associated with edge-flow convection driven by the Congo Craton or by lithospheric instabilities that develop due to the nearby edge of the African continent.

  20. Lithospheric instability and the source of the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, Aubreya N.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Euler, Garrett G.; Shore, Patrick J.; Tibi, Rigobert

    2015-03-24

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a 1800 km long volcanic chain, extending SW-NE from the Gulf of Guinea into Central Africa, that lacks the typical age progression exhibited by hot spot-related volcanic tracks. Our study investigates the upper mantle seismic structure beneath the CVL and surrounding regions to constrain the origin of volcanic lines that are poorly described by the classic plume model. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are measured at periods from 20 to 182 s following the two-plane wave methodology, using data from the Cameroon Seismic Experiment, which consists of 32 broadband stations deployed between 2005 and 2007.more » These phase velocities are then inverted to build a model of shear wave velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath the CVL. Our results show that phase velocities beneath the CVL are reduced at all periods, with average velocities beneath the CVL deviating more than –2% from the regional average and +4% beneath the Congo Craton. This distinction is observed for all periods but is less pronounced for the longest periods measured. Inversion for shear wave velocity structure indicates a tabular low velocity anomaly directly beneath the CVL at depths of 50 to at least 200 km and a sharp vertical boundary with faster velocities beneath the Congo Craton. Finally, these observations demonstrate widespread infiltration or erosion of the continental lithosphere beneath the CVL, most likely caused by mantle upwelling associated with edge-flow convection driven by the Congo Craton or by lithospheric instabilities that develop due to the nearby edge of the African continent.« less

  1. Lithospheric instability and the source of the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Aubreya N.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Euler, Garrett G.; Shore, Patrick J.; Tibi, Rigobert

    2015-03-24

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a 1800 km long volcanic chain, extending SW-NE from the Gulf of Guinea into Central Africa, that lacks the typical age progression exhibited by hot spot-related volcanic tracks. Our study investigates the upper mantle seismic structure beneath the CVL and surrounding regions to constrain the origin of volcanic lines that are poorly described by the classic plume model. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are measured at periods from 20 to 182 s following the two-plane wave methodology, using data from the Cameroon Seismic Experiment, which consists of 32 broadband stations deployed between 2005 and 2007. These phase velocities are then inverted to build a model of shear wave velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath the CVL. Our results show that phase velocities beneath the CVL are reduced at all periods, with average velocities beneath the CVL deviating more than –2% from the regional average and +4% beneath the Congo Craton. This distinction is observed for all periods but is less pronounced for the longest periods measured. Inversion for shear wave velocity structure indicates a tabular low velocity anomaly directly beneath the CVL at depths of 50 to at least 200 km and a sharp vertical boundary with faster velocities beneath the Congo Craton. Finally, these observations demonstrate widespread infiltration or erosion of the continental lithosphere beneath the CVL, most likely caused by mantle upwelling associated with edge-flow convection driven by the Congo Craton or by lithospheric instabilities that develop due to the nearby edge of the African continent.

  2. Interpretation Criteria for Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in Maroua Area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Awah-Ndukum, J; Temwa, J; Ngwa, V Ngu; Mouiche, M M; Iyawa, D; Zoli, P A

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481

  3. Zircon dating and mineralogy of the Mokong Pan-African magmatic epidote-bearing granite (North Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchameni, R.; Sun, F.; Dawaï, D.; Danra, G.; Tékoum, L.; Nomo Negue, E.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Nzolang, C.; Dagwaï, Nguihdama

    2015-12-01

    We present the mineralogy and age of the magmatic epidote-bearing granite composing most of the Mokong pluton, in the Central Africa orogenic belt (North Cameroon). This pluton intrudes Neoproterozoic (~830 to 700 Ma) low- to high-grade schists and gneisses (Poli-Maroua group), and is crosscut or interleaved with bodies of biotite granite of various sizes. The pluton is weakly deformed in its interior, but solid-state deformation increases toward its margins marked by narrow mylonitic bands trending NNE-SSW. The magmatic epidote granitic rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, and syenogranite. They are medium- to coarse-grained and composed of K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + epidote + magnetite + titanite + zircon + apatite. In these granites, the pistacite component [atomic Fe+3/(Fe3+ + Al)] in epidote ranges from 16 to 29 %. High oxygen fugacity (log ƒO2 - 14 to -11) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase thermometry indicate hornblende crystallization between 0.53 and 0.78 GPa at a temperature ranging from 633 to 779 °C. Zircon saturation thermometry gives temperature estimates ranging from 504 to 916 °C, the latter being obtained on samples containing inherited zircons. U/Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS on zircon grains characterized by magmatic zoning yields a concordia age of 668 ± 11 Ma (2σ). The Mokong granite is the only known occurrence magmatic epidote in Cameroon, and is an important milestone for the comparison of the Central Africa orogenic belt with the Brasiliano Fold Belt, where such granites are much more abundant.

  4. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  7. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk" chronic…

  8. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... this final rule Rural Development will now base the reserve account amount on a life-cycle analysis or... formula that will be used in the life cycle analysis. A commenter suggested defining the formula to be used in the life cycle analysis as this could serve as a chart. Having the chart could alleviate...

  9. Development of the Hopi Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seig, Louis

    Repeated encroachments by Mormons and Navajos upon Arizona lands traditionally inhabited by the Hopi American Indians occasioned the Executive Order of December 16, 1882 and creation of the Executive Order Reservation. However, assignment of lands was not limited to the Hopi, for the Order stated that the lands should be "set apart for the use and…

  10. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances.

  11. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  12. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  13. How often are ethics approval and informed consent reported in publications on health research in Cameroon? A five-year review.

    PubMed

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Che, Chi Primus; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Tangwa, Godfrey B

    2011-09-01

    We assessed the extent of research ethics approval and informed consent reporting in publications emanating from Cameroon and indexed in PubMed from 2005-2009. In our review of 219 full-length articles, we found that 57.53% reported ethics approval, 70.78% informed consent, and 50.68% both ethics approval and informed consent. Reporting these procedures was more common in randomized clinical trials than in other study designs. Also, 59.52% of the articles on vulnerable populations documented ethics approval and 76.19% documented informed consent. This study also identified some structures for ethics review and recommends some next steps for research on the quality of ethics review in Cameroon.

  14. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  15. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kaas, Rolf S.; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  16. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  17. Prevalence of Buruli Ulcer in Akonolinga Health District, Cameroon: Results of a Cross Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Porten, Klaudia; Sailor, Karen; Comte, Eric; Njikap, Adelaide; Sobry, Agnes; Sihom, Francois; Meva'a, Abanda; Eyangoh, Sarah; Myatt, Mark; Nackers, Fabienne; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a chronic, indolent necrotizing disease of the skin and underlying tissues caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which may result in functional incapacity. In 2002, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) opened a BU programme in Akonolinga Hospital, Cameroon, offering antibiotic treatment, surgery and general medical care. Six hundred patients have been treated in the project to date. However, due to the nature of the disease and its stigmatization, determining the exact prevalence and burden of disease is difficult and current estimates may not reflect the magnitude of the problem. The objectives of this survey were to estimate the prevalence of BU in the health district of Akonolinga, describe the geographic extension of the highly endemic area within the health district, and determine the programme coverage and its geographical distribution. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional population survey using centric systematic area sampling (CSAS). A 15×15 km grid (quadrats of 225 km2) was overlaid on a map of Akonolinga district with its position chosen to maximize the area covered by the survey. Quadrats were selected if more than 50% of the quadrat was inside of the health district. The chiefdom located closest to the centre of each quadrat was selected and Buruli cases were identified using an active case finding strategy (the sensitivity of the strategy was estimated by capture-recapture). WHO-case definitions were used for nodules, plaque, ulcer, oedema and sequelae. Out of a total population of 103,000 inhabitants, 26,679 were surveyed within the twenty quadrats. Sensitivity of the case finding strategy was estimated to be 84% (95%CI 54–97%). The overall prevalence was 0.47% (n = 105) for all cases including sequelae and 0.25% (n = 56) for active stages of the disease. Five quadrats had a high prevalence of >0.6% to 0.9%, 5 a prevalence >0.3% to 0.6% and 10 quadrats <0.3%. The quadrats with the high

  18. Evolution of CO2 in lakes Monoun and Nyos, Cameroon, before and during controlled degassing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusakabe, M.; Ohba, T.; Issa,; Yoshida, Y.; Satake, H.; Ohizumi, T.; Evans, William C.; Tanyileke, G.; Kling, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of CO2 in Lakes Monoun and Nyos (Cameroon) before and during controlled degassing is described using results of regular monitoring obtained during the last 21 years. The CO2(aq) profiles soon after the limnic eruptions were estimated for Lakes Monoun and Nyos using the CTD data obtained in October and November 1986, respectively. Based on the CO2(aq) profiles through time, the CO2 Content and its change over time were calculated for both lakes. The CO2 accumulation rate calculated from the pre-degassing data, was constant after the limnic eruption at Lake Nyos (1986-2001), whereas the rate appeared initially high (1986-1996) but later slowed down (1996-2003) at Lake Monoun. The CO2 concentration at 58 m depth in Lake Monoun in January 2003 was very close to saturation due to the CO2 accumulation. This situation is suggestive of a mechanism for the limnic eruption, because it may take place spontaneously without receiving an external trigger. The CO2 content of the lakes decreased significantly after controlled degassing started in March 2001 at Lake Nyos and in February 2003 at Lake Monoun. The current content is lower than the content estimated soon after the limnic eruption at both lakes. At Monoun the degassing rate increased greatly after February 2006 due to an increase of the number of degassing pipes and deepening of the pipe intake depth. The current CO2 content is ???40% of the maximum content attained just before the degassing started. At current degassing rates the lower chemocline will subside to the degassing pipe intake depth of 93 m in about one year. After this depth is reached, the gas removal rate will progressively decline because water of lower CO2(aq) concentration will be tapped by the pipes. To keep the CO2 content of Lake Monoun as small as possible, it is recommended to set up a new, simple device that sends deep water to the surface since natural recharge of CO2 will continue. Controlled degassing at Lake Nyos since 2001 has also

  19. Late Holocene climatic changes in west Africa, a high resolution diatom record from equatorial Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguetsop, Victor François; Servant-Vildary, Simone; Servant, Michel

    2004-03-01

    Holocene climatic changes in West Africa are usually explained by increased/decreased activity of the monsoon from the Guinean Gulf toward the continent. According to a diatom record from Lake Ossa (3°50'N, 9°36'E), we suggest that, in the near coastal areas of Cameroon, phases of intensification of the monsoon were marked by reduced precipitation and reduced evaporation, conditions nowadays prevailing South of the equator (4-5°S) during the austral winter. Lake Ossa is a shallow lake located in one of the rainiest area of the African rain forest belt. During the wet season (March-November) it is fed by acid meteoric waters entailing low pH in the lacustrine waters. During the dry season (December-February) groundwater discharges allow the persistence of acid waters near the borders of the lake, but, in the inner parts, the waters tend to be alkaline, alkaliphilous diatoms are abundant in the surface sediment samples and are used as indicators of low precipitation. At that time, atmospheric dust containing reworked diatoms from Saharan Quaternary deposits is transported by the northern trade winds and reaches the Ossa area. Wind blown diatoms are considered as a signature of the northern trade winds. A diatom record from the western deep part of Lake Ossa has provided climatic data for the mid-late Holocene at a resolution of 50-60 years. A major climatic change at 2700 cal yr BP was marked by the appearance of wind blown diatoms. A millennial-scale alternation between low and high precipitation episodes is recorded during the last 5500 years. The low precipitation episodes before 2700 cal yr BP are interpreted as a consequence of a northward extension of the climatic conditions that nowadays characterize the Southern Congo during the austral winter, when the monsoon extends into West Africa and reaches the northern sub-tropical latitudes. The effects of low precipitation on the water balance and on the rain forest were obliterated by an extremely low

  20. Gotel Mountains, Nigeria and Cameroon, SRTM Shaded Relief plus Height as Brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    River drainage patterns provide clues to the rock types and erosional processes involved in landscape evolution. Here in the Gotel Mountains along the border between Nigeria and Cameroon two distinct and highly contrasting patterns are evident. The lowlands in the northern and northwestern parts of the scene exhibit 'dendritic' patterns, while the highlands in the southern and southeastern parts of the scene show 'rectangular' and other linear drainage patterns.

    Dendritic drainage patterns appear almost random. Moving upstream, streams split into smaller and smaller channels, with finer and finer spacing, and they show little preference for map orientation other than to complete the pattern. In contrast, rectangular and other linear drainage patterns show a distinct preference for certain orientations in map view. In this scene, the two major preferred orientations are rotated slightly clockwise of north-south and east-west.

    Linear drainage patterns usually match the cracking patterns that can occur in relatively hard rocks, including igneous rocks such as granite and basalt. Stream erosion typically follows such lines of weakness in these hard rocks. Meanwhile, the randomness of dendritic patterns indicates that no such cracks nor any other geologic structure controls the erosion where that pattern occurs.

    Given the above, the topographic pattern in this scene appears to tell us the following about the geology of this location. The lowlands are composed of poorly consolidated (relatively soft) rocks or sediments that are at least 100 meters (330 feet) thick and are 'massive' (uniform, with no prominent layering at the observed scale). The randomness of the dendritic patterns further indicates that stream erosion is the only significant dynamic process altering the lowland landscape. Forces such as volcanism and tectonics are not altering these landforms.

    Meanwhile, the neighboring highlands are composed of crystalline rocks, such as

  1. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. A national communications campaign was launched in July 2011 to ensure that as the nets were delivered, they would be used consistently to close a net use gap: only 51.6% of adults and 63.4% of their children in households with at least one net were sleeping under nets before the distribution. Even in households with at least one net for every two people, over 35% of adults were not sleeping under a net. Malaria No More (MNM) adapted its signature NightWatch communications programme to fit within the coordinated “KO Palu” (Knock Out Malaria) national campaign. This study evaluates the impact of KO Palu NightWatch activities (that is, the subset of KO Palu-branded communications that were funded by MNM’s NightWatch program) on bed net use. Methods Using national survey data collected at baseline (in March/April 2011, before the national LLIN distribution and KO Palu NightWatch launch) and post-intervention (March/April 2012), this study evaluates the impact of exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities on last-night net use by Cameroonian adults and their children under five. First, a plausible case for causality was established by comparing net use in 2011 and 2012 and measuring exposure to KO Palu NightWatch; next, a propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to estimate the impact of exposure on net use by simulating a randomized control trial; finally, the model was tested for sensitivity to unmeasured factors. Results The PSM model estimated that among Cameroonians with at least one net in their household, exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities was associated with a 6.6 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents (65.7% vs 59.1%, p < 0.05) and a 12.0 percentage point increase in last-night net

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  3. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  4. Complex histories of repeated gene flow in Cameroon crater lake cichlids cast doubt on one of the clearest examples of sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H; Cutler, Joseph S; Friel, John P; Dening Touokong, Cyrille; Coop, Graham; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    One of the most celebrated examples of sympatric speciation in nature are monophyletic radiations of cichlid fishes endemic to Cameroon crater lakes. However, phylogenetic inference of monophyly may not detect complex colonization histories involving some allopatric isolation, such as double invasions obscured by genome-wide gene flow. Population genomic approaches are better suited to test hypotheses of sympatric speciation in these cases. Here, we use comprehensive sampling from all four sympatric crater lake cichlid radiations in Cameroon and outgroups across Africa combined with next-generation sequencing to genotype tens of thousands of SNPs. We find considerable evidence of gene flow between all four radiations and neighboring riverine populations after initial colonization. In a few cases, some sympatric species are more closely related to outgroups than others, consistent with secondary gene flow facilitating their speciation. Our results do not rule out sympatric speciation in Cameroon cichlids, but rather reveal a complex history of speciation with gene flow, including allopatric and sympatric phases, resulting in both reproductively isolated species and incipient species complexes. The best remaining non-cichlid examples of sympatric speciation all involve assortative mating within microhabitats. We speculate that this feature may be necessary to complete the process of sympatric speciation in nature.

  5. Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social spaces (global-national-local linkages) through which global health policies are negotiated as transcalar networks. The framework is used to analyse policy documents, technical and media reports and journal articles focusing on two global health partnerships (GHPs)-Roll Back Malaria and the Accelerating Access Initiative-in Cameroon. Both GHPs helped to create the national Malaria and HIV/AIDS programmes in Cameroon, respectively. Global policies are negotiated through dialogue processes involving global, national and local partners who constitute the national HIV/AIDS and malaria committees. Successful policy transfer is evident from the consensual nature of decision-making. Analysis of policy implementation reveals that GHPs offer a 'technical fix' based on specific medical intervention programmes with a relatively limited focus on disease prevention. The GHP approach imposes new governance challenges due to policy resistance strategies (strategic interests of international agencies and country-specific challenges). Evidence of this is seen in the existence of several overlapping programmes and initiatives that distort accountability and governance mechanisms defined by the national committees. Finally, the implications of these challenges for achieving access to medication are discussed. PMID:20494940

  6. Complex histories of repeated gene flow in Cameroon crater lake cichlids cast doubt on one of the clearest examples of sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H; Cutler, Joseph S; Friel, John P; Dening Touokong, Cyrille; Coop, Graham; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    One of the most celebrated examples of sympatric speciation in nature are monophyletic radiations of cichlid fishes endemic to Cameroon crater lakes. However, phylogenetic inference of monophyly may not detect complex colonization histories involving some allopatric isolation, such as double invasions obscured by genome-wide gene flow. Population genomic approaches are better suited to test hypotheses of sympatric speciation in these cases. Here, we use comprehensive sampling from all four sympatric crater lake cichlid radiations in Cameroon and outgroups across Africa combined with next-generation sequencing to genotype tens of thousands of SNPs. We find considerable evidence of gene flow between all four radiations and neighboring riverine populations after initial colonization. In a few cases, some sympatric species are more closely related to outgroups than others, consistent with secondary gene flow facilitating their speciation. Our results do not rule out sympatric speciation in Cameroon cichlids, but rather reveal a complex history of speciation with gene flow, including allopatric and sympatric phases, resulting in both reproductively isolated species and incipient species complexes. The best remaining non-cichlid examples of sympatric speciation all involve assortative mating within microhabitats. We speculate that this feature may be necessary to complete the process of sympatric speciation in nature. PMID:25929355

  7. The genetic population structure of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Yaoundé and Douala abattoirs in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Koro Koro, F; Ngatchou, A F; Portal, J L; Gutierrez, C; Etoa, F X; Eyangoh, S I

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is still prevalent and under-evaluated in cattle destined for human consumption in Cameroon. Potential reservoirs of the disease include livestock imported from countries endemic for bovine tuberculosis, such as Nigeria and Chad, and potential residual reservoirs in local livestock and wildlife. Few studies have been done in Cameroon to genotype the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains responsible for bovine tuberculosis. The aim of this work is to describe the population structure of MTC strains isolated from cattle, using spoligotyping as the genotyping method. Out of 218 organs or tissues from cattle with suspected tuberculosis lesions, 90 MTC strains were isolated and underwent molecular typing; among them, 86 strains were identified as M. bovis and four strains as M. tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis strains belonged to rare M. tuberculosis lineages of the U family; among the M. bovis strains SB0944 was the most prevalent. Eight new spoligotype patterns were identified, representing 33% (30/90) of all isolates. Among these new spoligotypes, SB1955 was dominant. The spoligotype patterns of 85 M. bovis strains lacked spacer 30, a common characteristic of the M. bovis lineage African 1, described earlier in Cameroon, Chad, Mali and Nigeria. This study shows ongoing tuberculosis transmission involving M. bovis lineages not previously described as the leading cause of disease. It also shows a possible reverse zoonosis from humans to cattle. PMID:27044168

  8. Day-to-Day Variability of H Component of Geomagnetic Field in Central African Sector Provided by YACM (Yaoundé-Cameroon) Amber Magnetometer Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoundi Messanga, Honoré

    2015-04-01

    The geomagnetic data obtained from Amber Network station in Cameroon has been used for this study. The variability of H component of geomagnetic field has been examined by using geomagnetic field data of X and Y components recorded at AMBER magnetometer station hosted by the Department of Physics of University of Yaoundé (3.87°N, 11.52°E). The day-to-day variability of the horizontal intensity of the geomagnetic field has been examined and shows that the scattering of H component of magnetic field variation is more on disturbed than on quiet days. The signatures H of geomagnetic Sq and Sd variations in intensities in the geomagnetic element, has been studied. This paper shows that the daytime variations in intensities of geomagnetic elements H, Sq(H) and Sd(H) respectively are generally greater at diurnal-times than at night-times. This study mainly interests to answer to two questions: 1) how can geomagnetic variations be used to study the equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and electrojet equatorial over Africa in general and Cameroon in particular? 2) How can geomagnetic variations be used to monitor and predict Space weather events in Cameroon? This study presents and interprets the results of H component of geomagnetic field variations during magnetic storms and on quiet days.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  10. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  12. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  13. Traumatic brain injury and reserve.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  14. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could prevent an estimated 14-336 HIV

  15. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208... - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserved F Appendix F to Part 208 Reserved Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF... concerning institutional customers. Appendix F to Part 208Reserved...

  16. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  17. Coordinated Action of Fast and Slow Reserves for Optimal Sequential and Dynamic Emergency Reserve Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkuti, Surender Reddy; Bijwe, P. R.; Abhyankar, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimal dynamic reserve activation plan after the occurrence of an emergency situation (generator/transmission line outage, load increase or both). An optimal plan is developed to handle the emergency situation, using coordinated action of fast and slow reserves, for secure operation with minimum overall cost. This paper considers the reserves supplied by generators (spinning reserves) and loads (demand-side reserves). The optimal backing down of costly/fast reserves and bringing up of slow reserves in each sub-interval in an integrated manner is proposed. The simulation studies are performed on IEEE 30, 57 and 300 bus test systems to demonstrate the advantage of proposed integrated/dynamic reserve activation plan over the conventional/sequential approach.

  18. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  19. Elemental weathering fluxes and saprolite production rate in a Central African lateritic terrain (Nsimi, South Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean-Jacques; Marechal, Jean-Christophe; Riotte, Jean; Boeglin, Jean-Loup; Bedimo Bedimo, Jean-Pierre; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Nyeck, Brunot; Robain, Henri; Sekhar, M.; Audry, Stéphane; Viers, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    The comparison between contemporary and long-term weathering has been carried out in the Small Experimental Watershed (SEW) of Nsimi, South Cameroon in order to quantify the export fluxes of major and trace elements and the residence time of the lateritic weathering cover. We focus on the hillside system composed of a thick lateritic weathering cover topped by a soil layer. This study is built on the recent improvements of the hillside hydrological functioning and on the analyses of major and trace elements. The mass balance calculation at the weathering horizon scale performed with the parent rock as reference indicates (i) strong depletion profiles for alkalis (Na, K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), (ii) moderate depletion profiles for Si, P, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co, (iii) depletion/enrichment profiles for Al, Ga, Ge, Sn, Pb, LREE, HREE, Y, U, Fe, V, Cr, Mn. It is noteworthy that (i) Mn and Ce are not significantly redistributed according to oxidative processes as it is the case for Fe, V and Cr, and (ii) Ge is fractionated compared to silica with enrichment in Fe-rich horizons. The calculations performed for the topsoil with iron crust as parent material reference reveal that the degradation of the iron crust is accompanied by the loss of most of the constituting elements, among which are those specifically accumulated as the redox sensitive elements (Fe, V, Cr) and iron oxide related elements like Th. The overall current elemental fluxes from the hillside system at the springs and the seepage zones are extremely low due to the inert lateritic mineralogy. Ninety-four percent of the whole Na flux generated from the hillside corrected from atmospheric deposits (77 mol/ha/yr) represents the current weathering rates of plagioclase (oligoclase) in the system, the other remaining 6% may be attributed to the dissolution of hornblende. The silica hillside flux is 300 mol/ha/yr and can be mostly attributed to the plagioclase and kaolinite dissolution. Al and Ga

  20. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  1. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  2. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  3. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  4. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community may...

  5. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  6. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community may...

  7. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  8. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  9. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  10. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  11. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  12. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  13. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  14. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  15. Numerical experiments on the dynamics of channelised lava flows at Mount Cameroon volcano with the FLOWGO thermo-rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantim, M. N.; Kervyn, M.; Ernst, G. G. J.; del Marmol, M. A.; Suh, C. E.; Jacobs, P.

    2013-03-01

    As for many other effusive volcanoes, Mount Cameroon (MC) is a volcano for which only limited information exists on lava flow properties and emplacement dynamics for recent eruptions. This study provides new quantitative constraints for rheological and dynamic characteristics of lava flow effusion for the 1982 and 2000 eruptive events, used to calibrate the FLOWGO thermo-rheological model for these lava flows. The FLOWGO 1-D physical model is used to simulate down-flow evolution of the geometry and rheology of channel-contained cooling-limited lava flows. Morphometric data from historical lava flows were acquired from the field, e.g. channel geometry, levee and background slope, in order to estimate lava yield strength, velocity and effusion rate. Lava density and viscosity were also estimated from compositional data and laboratory methods. To account for uncertainty in the input rheological and geometrical data, three end-member scenarios were used to bracket the potential range in lava channel initial dimension, initial lava temperature and phenocryst content. For each of these scenarios, two crustal growth models were used: one assuming strong insulation due to lava flow surface crusting, the other a much lower crusting rate. Twelve numerical simulations were made per flow and the results were compared against the channel geometry, microlite content, yield strength and viscosity estimates from field and laboratory investigations. Best-fit models where obtained for both the 1982 and 2000 lava flows using a low rate of surface crusting, high initial temperature and low phenocryst content. Model-predicted lengths were within 5% of the actual lengths. Modelled mean effusion rates for the 1982 (52-64 m3 s- 1) and 2000 (10 m3 s- 1) flows closely matched field data derived estimations (26-68 and 9.5 m3 s- 1 respectively). FLOWGO model results are highly sensitive to initial channel dimensions, phenocryst content and the FLOWGO model is unable to reproduce the observed

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of

  17. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use in Adolescents with Negative or Unknown HIV status in Northwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lee; Kouya, Francine; Kwalar, Rene; Pilapil, Mariecel; Saito, Kohta; Palmer, Nancy; Posada, Roberto; Tih, Pius Muffih; Welty, Thomas; Jao, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between utilization of HIV testing and condom use amongst Cameroonian youth/adolescents who are not known to be HIV-infected. Background Worldwide, HIV is spreading most quickly amongst youth/adolescents. Between 44% and 82% of sexually active youth in Cameroon report inconsistent condom use. Data regarding utilization of HIV testing and condom use is lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 431 youth ages 12-26 years in Cameroon from September to December 2011. Data on socio-demographics, sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV status, and condom use were collected. We compared rates of inconsistent condom use between those known HIV negative who utilized testing (HIV-N) versus those with unknown status due to unutilized testing (HIV-U). Inconsistent condom use was defined as responding “never,” “sometimes,” or “usually,” while consistent condom use was defined as responding “always” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to assess the association between HIV testing and inconsistent condom use adjusting for other confounders. Results Of 414 eligible respondents, 205 were HIV-U and 209 HIV-N. HIV-U subjects were younger (mean age =16.4 vs. 17.9, p<0.001) and more likely to report living in an urban area (p=0.002) than HIV-N subjects. Seventy-two percent (137/191) of sexually active youth reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, HIV-U status [Odds Ratio (OR) =3.97, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.68-6.01] was associated with inconsistent condom use. Similarly, female gender (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.29-7.89) was associated with inconsistent condom use, while older age at sexual debut was associated with a decreased risk for inconsistent condom use (OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.56-0.81). Conclusion Cameroonian adolescents report high rates of inconsistent condom use which we found to be associated with self

  18. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  19. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  3. 75 FR 49887 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY... Period for Revised Management Plans for the following National Estuarine Research Reserves: Narragansett... management plans of the Narragansett Bay, RI National Estuarine Research Reserve and the Tijuana, CA...

  4. Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military Reservation, USACOE, 20 July 1948 - Fort Custer Military Reservation, Bounded by Territorial, Dickman, & Longman Roads & Route 94 Business, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. 78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA... its final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the redevelopment of the Muscle Shoals Reservation... Statement for the Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment was published in the Federal Register on...

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  7. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  8. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  9. Molecular evidence of 'Siisa form', a new genotype related to Onchocerca ochengi in cattle from North Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Ekale, David; Hildebrandt, Julia; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Streit, Adrian; Renz, Alfons

    2013-09-01

    Onchocerca ochengi, a filarial nematode parasite from African Zebu cattle is considered to be the closest relative of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness. Both Onchocerca species share the vector, black flies of the Simulium damnosum complex. Correct identification of their infective third-stage larvae in man-biting vectors is crucial to distinguish the transmission of human or animal parasites. In order to identify different closely related Onchocerca species we surveyed the sequences from the three mitochondrial loci 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and coxI in both adult worms isolated from Onchocerca-induced nodules in cattle and infective third stage larvae isolated from vector flies from North Cameroon. Two distinct groups of mitochondrial haplotypes were found in cattle as well as in flies. One of them has been formerly mentioned in the literature as Onchocerca sp. 'Siisa', a filaria isolated from the vector S. damnosum sensu lato in Uganda with hitherto unknown host. Both variants are found sympatric, also in the same nodule of the animal host and in the vector. In the flies we also found the mitochondrial haplotype that had been described for O. volvulus which is about equally different from the two previously mentioned ones as they are from each other. These results suggest a higher genetic diversification of Onchocerca ochengi than previously reported. PMID:23727461

  10. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  11. Antifungal activity and acute toxicity of stem bark extracts of Drypetes gossweileri S. Moore-euphorbiaceae from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngouana, Vincent; Fokou, Patrick Valère Tsouh; Foudjo, Brice Ulrich Saha; Ngouela, Silvère Augustin; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam

    2011-01-01

    Drypetes gossweilleri S. Moore is a plant used in traditional medicine in Cameroon. The antifungal properties of its stem-bark crude extract and fractions DG(1), DG(2), DG(3), DG(4), DG(5), DG(6), DG(7), DG(8) and DG(9) were assayed by agar and broth dilution methods on solid and liquid media against C. Krusei, C. albicans, C. glabrata, T. mentagerophytes, M. langeroinii, M. gypeum, M. audouini, T. rubrum, T. soudanense, T. terrestre, A. flavus and A. niger. The results revealed a substantial antifungal effect with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging respectively from 24.11µg/ml to 1562µg/ml for yeasts and from 3125µg/ml to 12500µg/ml for filamentous fungi. Among the fractions, fraction DG4 exerted the highest antifungal activity. Moreover, no toxic effect was noticed in male and female albinos Wistar rats treated per os with the crude stem bark's extract of Drypetes gossweileri at a dose up to 12g/kg of body weight. The phytochemical screening of the crude extract and fractions showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, anthocyanines, anthraquinones, sterols, lipids and essential oils. Therefore, Drypetes gossweileri may be safe as phytomedecine for the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:22468013

  12. Diversity of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Used in the Noun Division of the West Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njouonkou, André Ledoux; De Crop, Eske; Mbenmoun, Abdoulayi Mbouombouo; Kinge, Tonjock Rosemary; Biyé, Elvire Hortense; Verbeken, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents discussions of mushrooms as a source of food, income, as well as medicine among the Bamoun people of the highlands of West Cameroon, where the vegetation is mainly savannah mixed with forest galleries. Like most tribes in tropical Africa, the Bamoun people use a wide range of natural products as mushrooms. This study attempts to identify the various mushrooms exploited by the Bamoun. Ethnomycological surveys and field trips were conducted over 4 years in several villages in the Noun Division. Samples of wild mushrooms were collected from both the savannah and the forest galleries. These were described, preserved, and identified. The study shows that the Bamoun people use at least 40 species of mushrooms for either food or medicine. These species belong to 8 genera: Auricularia, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces. Species of genera Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces are most often used for food, whereas Ganoderma spp. and Pleurotus tuber-regium are mainly exploited for medicinal purposes. This survey provides an overview of the diversity of mushrooms and their importance to the local people of this area. Since some of the species mentioned by the local population were not fruiting at the time of our field trips, additional investigations are needed to further clarify the diversity and the usage of mushrooms in this region. PMID:27649600

  13. The contribution of community health workers to the control of Buruli ulcer in the Ngoantet area, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Takougang, Innocent; Mbam, Léonard Mbam; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Tamo, Claire Violette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is the third most common mycobacterial infection after tuberculosis and leprosy. Community Health Workers (CHWs) hold the potential to support patients and their families at the community level. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the participation of CHWs in the early diagnosis and treatment of BU in Ngoantet, Cameroon. The CHWs performance was measured using: the number of cases referred to the Ngoantet Health Centre, the percentage of accomplished referrals, the percentage of cases referred by CHWs confirmed by the staff of Ngoantet Health Centre. Data was analyzed using Epi-info version 3.4.1. and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. The study focused on 51 CHWs in the Ngoantet health area. Results The referral rate was 95.0%. Most of the suspicious cases (91.5%) referred were confirmed by health workers. Most CHWs (78.4%) declared that they had identified at least one presumptive case of BU infection. Conclusion We conclude that the CHWs can play a key role in scaling up BU control activities using a referral system. This study confirms the role of home visits and inspections in the early detection and treatment of BU. PMID:24711863

  14. Nest site ecology of the Cross River gorilla at the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary, Cameroon, with special reference to anthropogenic influence.

    PubMed

    De Vere, Ruth A; Warren, Ymke; Nicholas, Aaron; Mackenzie, Mary E; Higham, James P

    2011-03-01

    The Cross River gorilla is the most endangered of all Great Apes. It is currently found in 14 apparently geographically separate and increasingly isolated populations, which face severe threats from habitat loss and the bushmeat trade. Recent years have seen greater efforts to conserve the Cross River gorilla across the landscape, but details of the ecology of individual populations that might help in conservation initiatives are lacking. Here, we report on the production of the first habitat map for the recently created Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary (KGS), Cameroon, and the results of an analysis of nest site preferences of the gorillas that live there. Qualitative vegetation assessments were made to assign various categories to the topstory and understory throughout the sanctuary, and nest sites constructed between January 2006 and March 2008 were re-visited and assessed for possible site preferences. The habitat map revealed significant anthropogenic impact, with only 57% of the KGS being relatively undisturbed primary forest. Analysis of nest sites showed that ground nests are constructed preferentially in the dry season, on precipitous slopes, in light gaps and clearings, with an understory of mixed herbs. Tree nests are predominantly built in the wet season, in primary forest with saplings as the preferred understory. Gorillas avoid nesting in grasslands and farms, which visibly fragment the remaining forest in the sanctuary. The results have implications for the conservation and management of the Cross River gorilla at KGS, and offer new insight into the nesting ecology of this subspecies. PMID:20872882

  15. Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Access to Drinking-water and Associated Health Risks in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although many African countries, along the equator, receive a great amount of rainfall and possess a dense hydrographic network, access to drinking-water remains a great challenge. In many households, water is used for various purposes, including domestic and crafts activities. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated four billion cases of diarrheoa occurs worldwide, of which 88% are ascribed to unsafe drinking-water. This study aimed at evaluating health risks in the usage of contaminated drinking-water and its relationship with the prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In this cross-sectional epidemiological design, 3,034 households with children aged less than five years were investigated. Households were selected from among 20 representative neighbourhoods out of 105 that made up the city. The study revealed a diarrheoa prevalence of 14.4% (437 diarrheoa cases out of 3,034 children tested). Among various risk factors examined, water-supply modes and quality of drinking-water were statistically associated with diarrheoa cases. Moreover, levels of diarrheoa attacks varied considerably from one neighbourhood to the other. The spatial analysis helped determine neighbourhoods of higher and lower prevalence of diarrheoa in the city. PMID:20941893

  16. Trace element differentiation in ferruginous accumulation soil patterns under tropical rainforest of southern Cameroon, the role of climatic change.

    PubMed

    Temgoua, Emile; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Bitom, Dieudonné

    2003-03-01

    Regions under tropical rainforest cover, such as central Africa and Brazil are characterised by degradation and dismantling of old ferricrete structures. In southern Cameroon, these processes are relayed by present-day ferruginous accumulation soil facies, situated on the middle and the lower part of hill slopes. These facies become progressively harder towards the surface, containing from bottom to top, mainly kaolinite, kaolinite-goethite and Al-rich goethite-hematite, and are discontinuous to the relictic hematite-dominated ferricrete that exist in the upper part of the hill slope. These features were investigated in terms of geochemical differentiation of trace elements. It appears that, in contrast to the old ferricrete facies, the current ferruginous accumulations are enriched in transitional trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Y, Sc) and Pb, while alkali-earth elements are less differentiated. This recent chemical accumulation is controlled both by intense weathering of the granodiorite bedrock and by mobilisation of elements previously accumulated in the old ferricrete. The observed processes are clearly linked to the present-day humid climate with rising groundwater tables. They slowly replace the old ferricretes formed during Cretaceous time under more seasonal climatic conditions, representing an instructive case of continuos global change.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in the south region of Cameroon: case of the town of Kribi.

    PubMed

    Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed. PMID:25353268

  18. 40Ar/39Ar laser probe evidence concerning the age and associated hazards of the Lake Nyos Maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The waters of Lake Nyos are impounded by a fragile natural dam composed of pyroclastic rocks ejected during the formation of the lake crater (maar). Lateral erosion of this dam has reduced its width from over 500 m to only 45 m. Published whole-rock K-Ar ages of about 100 ka on juvenile basalt from the dam suggests that erosion has been slow and that the dam poses no imminent threat. New apparent 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1.4 to 232 Ma on xenocrystic K-feldspar contained in the basalt show that the xenocrysts, whose source is the 528-Ma crystalline basement, are carriers of inherited radiogenic 40Ar and would cause the whole-rock K-Ar ages to be too old. The best estimate for the age of the maar is provided by a 14C age of 400 ?? 100 yr BP on charcoal from the base of the dam. This young age indicates that the dam is eroding at a relatively rapid rate; its failure, perhaps within a few decades, would result in a major flood and imperil thousands of people living downstream in Cameroon and eastern Nigeria. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  19. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Tabue N.; Roland, Madgan E.; Françoise, Kenfack M. M.; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F.; Clovis, Seumen T. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ 2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Conclusion Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district. PMID:25595689

  20. Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.-J.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Boeglin, J. L.; Descloitres, M.; Deschamps, P.; Maréchal, J. C.; Viers, J.; Ndam, J.-R.; Sekhar, M.

    2009-04-01

    Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India J.-J. BRAUN1,2*, J. RIOTTE1,2, S. AUDRY2, J. L. BOEGLIN2, M. DESCLOITRES3, P. DESCHAMPS4, J. C. MARÉCHAL1,2, J. VIERS2, J.-R. NDAM5, M. SEKHAR6, B. DUPRÉ2 1IFCWS, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India. (*Correspondence: braun@civil.iisc.ernet.in) 2LMTG, Univ. Toulouse, CNRS IRD OMP, 14, avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France 3LTHE, Univ. Grenoble, CNRS, IRD, INPG, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France 4CEREGE, Univ. Aix-Marseille, CNRS, IRD, Europôle Méditerranéen de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence, France. 5Université de Yaoundé I, Faculté des Sciences, Département des Sciences de la Terre, BP80, 13545 Yaoundé, Cameroun. 6Deprtment of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India Understanding the relative controls of forcing factors on the silicate chemical weathering rates and the associated atmospheric CO2 consumption is usually assessed through investigations based on small to medium granito-gneissic watersheds from 1 to100 km2 located in different climatic and tectonic settings. In addition to climate, the importance of the thickness and nature of the blanket of loose and transportable weathered material, namely regolith, which overlies the intact bedrocks, was also recently invoked, especially in tropical environment. We have conducted an integrated approach of the Critical Zone in two pristine forested small watersheds located in Cameroon and India. Both watersheds have developed on granito-gneissic bedrocks of stable Precambrian shields. Our approach is directed at (i) understanding the bio-geochemical, hydro-geological and hydrological processes and (ii) assessing the long-term and contemporary chemical weathering rates. The Nsimi watershed, South Cameroon, has been the first to be monitored since 1994. It belongs to the Nyong River basin and has a humid tropical climate. It is