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Sample records for double hit method

  1. Cutaneous presentation of Double Hit Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Khelfa, Yousef; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), representing approximately 25% of diagnosed NHL. DLBCL is heterogeneous disease both clinically and genetically. The 3 most common chromosomal translocations in DLBCL involve the oncogenes BCL2, BCL6, and MYC. Double hit (DH) DLBCL is an aggressive form in which MYC rearrangement is associated with either BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement. Patients typically present with a rapidly growing mass, often with B symptoms. Extranodal disease is often present. Though there is a paucity of prospective trials in this subtype, double hit lymphoma (DHL) has been linked to very poor outcomes when patients are treated with standard R-CHOP. There is, therefore, a lack of consensus regarding the standard treatment for DHL. Several retrospective analyses have been conducted to help guide treatment of this disease. These suggest that DA EPOCH-R may be the most promising regimen and that achievement of complete resolution predicts better long-term outcomes. PMID:27115017

  2. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome in Double-Hit Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Peddi, Prakash; Gallagher, Kevin M.; Chandrasekharan, Chandrikha; Wang, Qi; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo; Nair, Binu S.; Munker, Reinhold; Mills, Glenn M.; Koshy, Nebu V.

    2015-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a painful condition characterized by hemicranial pain, retroorbital pain, loss of vision, oculomotor nerve paralysis, and sensory loss in distribution of ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal nerve. Lymphomas rarely involve cavernous sinus and simulate Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Here we present a first case of double-hit B cell lymphoma (DHL) relapsing and masquerading as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. The neurological findings were explained by a lymphomatous infiltration of the right Gasserian ganglion which preceded systemic relapse. As part of this report, the diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and double-hit lymphoma are reviewed and updated treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:25918657

  3. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells in a Double-Hit Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mildau, Céline; Shen, Jie; Kasoha, Mariz; Laschke, Matthias W.; Roolfs, Torge; Schmiedl, Andreas; Tschernig, Thomas; Bieback, Karen; Gortner, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) presents a major threat of very preterm birth and treatment options are still limited. Stem cells from different sources have been used successfully in experimental BPD, induced by postnatal hyperoxia. Objectives We investigated the effect of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in a new double-hit mouse model of BPD. Methods For the double-hit, date mated mice were subjected to hypoxia and thereafter the offspring was exposed to hyperoxia. Human umbilical cord blood MNCs were given intraperitoneally by day P7. As outcome variables were defined: physical development (auxology), lung structure (histomorphometry), expression of markers for lung maturation and inflammation on mRNA and protein level. Pre- and postnatal normoxic pups and sham treated double-hit pups served as control groups. Results Compared to normoxic controls, sham treated double-hit animals showed impaired physical and lung development with reduced alveolarization and increased thickness of septa. Electron microscopy revealed reduced volume density of lamellar bodies. Pulmonary expression of mRNA for surfactant proteins B and C, Mtor and Crabp1 was reduced. Expression of Igf1 was increased. Treatment with umbilical cord blood MNCs normalized thickness of septa and mRNA expression of Mtor to levels of normoxic controls. Tgfb3 mRNA expression and pro-inflammatory IL-1β protein concentration were decreased. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrate the therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood MNCs in a new double-hit model of BPD in newborn mice. We found improved lung structure and effects on molecular level. Further studies are needed to address the role of systemic administration of MNCs in experimental BPD. PMID:24069341

  4. Double hit diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2015-03-01

    Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is curable with standard chemoimmunotherapy, over 30% of patients with advanced stage disease experience refractory disease or progression. Recent studies suggest that rearrangement of the myc oncogene occurs in approximately 10% of patients with DLBCL, and confers a very poor prognosis, particularly when there is concomitant rearrangement of bcl-2, a condition referred to as "double hit DLBCL". Using immunohistochemistry, up to 30% of patients have evidence of increased expression of myc, which occurs in both activated B-cell and germinal center type DLBCL. When bcl-2 is also positive by immunohistochemistry, prognosis is also poor. There are no randomized studies guiding treatment for patients with double hit DLBCL, but new datasets are emerging suggesting a possible role for dose-adjusted EPOCH infusional chemotherapy with rituximab. This review will conclude with a survey of novel agents which may be rationally incorporated into chemotherapy platforms for this high risk subset of DLBCL.

  5. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  6. Hepatitis C and double-hit B cell lymphoma successfully treated by antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Giovanni; Rampa, Lorenzo; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Marino, Mirella; Pisani, Francesco; Cota, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandro; Picardi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    B cells lymphoma is one of the most challenging extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recently, a new kind of B-cell lymphoma, named double-hit B (DHL), was characterized with an aggressive clinical course whereas a potential association with HCV was not investigated. The new antiviral direct agents (DAAs) against HCV are effective and curative in the majority of HCV infections. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of DHL and HCV-infection successfully treated by new DAAs. According to our experience, a DHL must be suspected in case of HCV-related lymphoma, and an early diagnosis could direct towards a different hematological management because a worse prognosis might be expected. A possible effect of DAAs on DHL regression should be investigated, but eradicating HCV would avoid life-threatening reactivation of viral hepatitis during pharmacological immunosuppression in onco-haematological diseases. PMID:27803769

  7. Hepatitis C and double-hit B cell lymphoma successfully treated by antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Galati, Giovanni; Rampa, Lorenzo; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Marino, Mirella; Pisani, Francesco; Cota, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandro; Picardi, Antonio

    2016-10-18

    B cells lymphoma is one of the most challenging extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recently, a new kind of B-cell lymphoma, named double-hit B (DHL), was characterized with an aggressive clinical course whereas a potential association with HCV was not investigated. The new antiviral direct agents (DAAs) against HCV are effective and curative in the majority of HCV infections. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of DHL and HCV-infection successfully treated by new DAAs. According to our experience, a DHL must be suspected in case of HCV-related lymphoma, and an early diagnosis could direct towards a different hematological management because a worse prognosis might be expected. A possible effect of DAAs on DHL regression should be investigated, but eradicating HCV would avoid life-threatening reactivation of viral hepatitis during pharmacological immunosuppression in onco-haematological diseases.

  8. A double hit model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillale, Nagaraja Rao

    2013-09-01

    Incubation time is a key epidemiologic descriptor of an infectious disease. In the case of HIV infection this is a random variable and is probably the longest one. The probability distribution of incubation time is the major determinant of the relation between the incidences of HIV infection and its manifestation to Aids. This is also one of the key factors used for accurate estimation of AIDS incidence in a region. The present article i) briefly reviews the work done, points out uncertainties in estimation of AIDS onset time and stresses the need for its precise estimation, ii) highlights some of the modelling features of onset distribution including immune failure mechanism, and iii) proposes a 'Double Hit' model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset in the cases of (a) independent and (b) dependent time variables of the two markers and examined the applicability of a few standard probability models.

  9. Double-hit lymphoma at second relapse of Burkitt-like lymphoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Shinichiro; Abe, Daijiro; Sakai, Shio; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is a rare and extremely unfavorable type of lymphoma with concurrent chromosomal translocations of BCL2 and MYC. It is considered that BCL2 translocation precedes MYC events in lymphomagenesis of DHL. In fact, most cases of DHL arise de novo or following FL. We describe a very rare case of DHL arising from Burkitt-like lymphoma according to the revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms. A 67-year-old Japanese male presented with persistent fever. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed multiple abnormal accumulations in the bone marrow, pancreas, and periphery of the left kidney. The patient was diagnosed with Burkitt-like lymphoma according to a bone marrow biopsy. At the disease onset and the first relapse, chemotherapy was effective and the patient experienced sustained and complete remission. At the second relapse, however, the clinical presentation and morphology of lymphoma cells were nearly identical, but a high level of chemoresistance was acquired, and the patient succumbed almost 1 month after hospitalization. Chromosomal analyses revealed a complex karyotype with concurrent t(14;18) and t(8;22) translocations, which have not been previously detected. It is therefore important to note that DHL cannot be diagnosed without chromosomal analysis. Cytogenetic analyses should thus be performed for patients with high-grade B-cell lymphoma and who experience a recurrence of this lymphoma.

  10. Low incidence of MYC/BCL2 double-hit in Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Maki; Ichikawa, Ayako; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kiyasu, Junichi; Kimura, Yoshizo; Niino, Daisuke; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Translocations involving MYC are highly characteristic for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). BCL2 expression has also been found previously in about 10 to 20% of BL cases, and BCL2 translocation is a major mechanism for the deregulation of BCL2 expression in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. However, we know little about the incidence of MYC/BCL2 double-hit (DH) in BL. We examined BL cases to determine how frequently they contained BCL2 translocations in combination with MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization. We also determined the effect of BCL2 expression on clinical outcomes of BL. BCL2 translocations were detected in 3.5% (2/57 cases) of the cases, and BCL2 expression was detected in 33%. Two cases with BCL2 translocation also showed BCL2 expression. The incidence of BCL2 expression was significantly higher in patients 16 years of age and older (46%) than in patients under 16 years of age (6%). Among patients 16 years of age and older, we did not detect significant differences in overall survival with respect to BCL2 expression status. In conclusion, BCL2 translocation is a rare cytogenetic abnormality in BL, and BL probably accounts for only a small fraction of MYC/BCL2 DH lymphomas. BCL2 expression in BL is probably not associated with BCL2 translocations.

  11. A double hit implicates DIAPH3 as an autism risk gene.

    PubMed

    Vorstman, J A S; van Daalen, E; Jalali, G R; Schmidt, E R E; Pasterkamp, R J; de Jonge, M; Hennekam, E A M; Janson, E; Staal, W G; van der Zwaag, B; Burbach, J P H; Kahn, R S; Emanuel, B S; van Engeland, H; Ophoff, R A

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that more than 10% of autism cases are caused by de novo structural genomic rearrangements. Given that some heritable copy number variants (CNVs) have been observed in patients as well as in healthy controls, to date little attention has been paid to the potential function of these non-de novo CNVs in causing autism. A normally intelligent patient with autism, with non-affected parents, was identified with a maternally inherited 10 Mb deletion at 13q21.2. Sequencing of the genes within the deletion identified a paternally inherited nonsynonymous amino-acid substitution at position 614 of diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) (proline to threonine; Pro614Thr). This variant, present in a highly conserved domain, was not found in 328 healthy subjects. Experiments showed a transient expression of Diaph3 in the developing murine cerebral cortex, indicating it has a function in brain development. Transfection of Pro614Thr in murine fibroblasts showed a significant reduction in the number of induced filopodia in comparison to the wild-type gene. DIAPH3 is involved in cell migration, axon guidance and neuritogenesis, and is suggested to function downstream of SHANK3. Our findings strongly suggest DIAPH3 as a novel autism susceptibility gene. Moreover, this report of a 'double-hit' compound heterozygote for a large, maternally inherited, genomic deletion and a paternally inherited rare missense mutation shows that not only de novo genomic variants in patients should be taken seriously in further study but that inherited CNVs may also provide valuable information.

  12. Relapsed or Refractory Double-Expressor and Double-Hit Lymphomas Have Inferior Progression-Free Survival After Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alex F; Mei, Matthew; Low, Lawrence; Kim, Haesook T; Griffin, Gabriel K; Song, Joo Y; Merryman, Reid W; Bedell, Victoria; Pak, Christine; Sun, Heather; Paris, Tanya; Stiller, Tracey; Brown, Jennifer R; Budde, Lihua E; Chan, Wing C; Chen, Robert; Davids, Matthew S; Freedman, Arnold S; Fisher, David C; Jacobsen, Eric D; Jacobson, Caron A; LaCasce, Ann S; Murata-Collins, Joyce; Nademanee, Auayporn P; Palmer, Joycelynne M; Pihan, German A; Pillai, Raju; Popplewell, Leslie; Siddiqi, Tanya; Sohani, Aliyah R; Zain, Jasmine; Rosen, Steven T; Kwak, Larry W; Weinstock, David M; Forman, Stephen J; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Kim, Young; Rodig, Scott J; Krishnan, Amrita; Armand, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Double-hit lymphomas (DHLs) and double-expressor lymphomas (DELs) are subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with poor outcomes after standard chemoimmunotherapy. Data are limited regarding outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory (rel/ref) DEL or DHL who undergo autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). We retrospectively studied the prognostic impact of DEL and DHL status on ASCT outcomes in patients with rel/ref DLBCL. Methods Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive rel/ref DLBCL who underwent ASCT at two institutions and in whom archival tumor material was available were enrolled. Immunohistochemistry for MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC were performed. In cases with MYC rearrangement or copy gain, FISH for BCL2 and BCL6 was also performed. Results A total of 117 patients were included; 44% had DEL and 10% had DHL. DEL and DHL were associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS), and DHL was associated with poorer overall survival (OS). The 4-year PFS in patients with DEL compared with those with non-DEL was 48% versus 59% ( P = .049), and the 4-year OS was 56% versus 67% ( P = .10); 4-year PFS in patients with DHL compared with those with non-DHL was 28% versus 57% ( P = .013), and 4-year OS was 25% versus 61% ( P = .002). The few patients with concurrent DEL and DHL had a poor outcome (4-year PFS, 0%). In multivariable models, DEL and DHL were independently associated with inferior PFS, whereas DHL and partial response ( v complete response) at transplant were associated with inferior OS. Conclusion DEL and DHL are both associated with inferior outcomes after ASCT in patients with rel/ref DLBCL. Although ASCT remains a potentially curative approach, these patients, particularly those with DHL, are a high-risk subset who should be targeted for investigational strategies other than standard ASCT.

  13. Combining Computational Methods for Hit to Lead Optimization in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Freundlich, Joel S.; Hobrath, Judith V.; White, E. Lucile; Reynolds, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tuberculosis treatments need to be shorter and overcome drug resistance. Our previous large scale phenotypic high-throughput screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has identified 737 active compounds and thousands that are inactive. We have used this data for building computational models as an approach to minimize the number of compounds tested. Methods A cheminformatics clustering approach followed by Bayesian machine learning models (based on publicly available Mtb screening data) was used to illustrate that application of these models for screening set selections can enrich the hit rate. Results In order to explore chemical diversity around active cluster scaffolds of the dose-response hits obtained from our previous Mtb screens a set of 1924 commercially available molecules have been selected and evaluated for antitubercular activity and cytotoxicity using Vero, THP-1 and HepG2 cell lines with 4.3%, 4.2% and 2.7% hit rates, respectively. We demonstrate that models incorporating antitubercular and cytotoxicity data in Vero cells can significantly enrich the selection of non-toxic actives compared to random selection. Across all cell lines, the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) and cytotoxicity model identified ~10% of the hits in the top 1% screened (>10 fold enrichment). We also showed that seven out of nine Mtb active compounds from different academic published studies and eight out of eleven Mtb active compounds from a pharmaceutical screen (GSK) would have been identified by these Bayesian models. Conclusion Combining clustering and Bayesian models represents a useful strategy for compound prioritization and hit-to lead optimization of antitubercular agents. PMID:24132686

  14. Methods to identify, study and understand End-user participation in HIT development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Experience has shown that for new health-information-technology (HIT) to be suc-cessful clinicians must obtain positive clinical benefits as a result of its implementation and joint-ownership of the decisions made during the development process. A prerequisite for achieving both success criteria is real end-user-participation. Experience has also shown that further research into developing improved methods to collect more detailed information on social groups participating in HIT development is needed in order to support, facilitate and improve real end-user participation. Methods A case study of an EHR planning-process in a Danish county from October 2003 until April 2006 was conducted using process-analysis. Three social groups (physicians, IT-professionals and administrators) were identified and studied in the local, present perspective. In order to understand the interactions between the three groups, the national, historic perspective was included through a literature-study. Data were collected through observations, interviews, insight gathered from documents and relevant literature. Results In the local, present perspective, the administrator's strategy for the EHR planning process meant that there was no clinical workload-reduction. This was seen as one of the main barriers to the physicians to achieving real influence. In the national, historic perspective, physicians and administrators have had/have different perceptions of the purpose of the patient record and they have both struggled to influence this definition. To date, the administrators have won the battle. This explains the conditions made available for the physicians' participation in this case, which led to their role being reduced to that of clinical consultants - rather than real participants. Conclusion In HIT-development the interests of and the balance of power between the different social groups involved are decisive in determining whether or not the end-users become real

  15. Novel Double-Hit Model of Radiation and Hyperoxia-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage Relevant to Space Travel

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Lehman, Stacey L.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Solomides, Pantelis; Koch, Cameron J.; Mishra, Om P.; Koumenis, Constantinos; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight occasionally requires multiple extravehicular activities (EVA) that potentially subject astronauts to repeated changes in ambient oxygen superimposed on those of space radiation exposure. We thus developed a novel in vitro model system to test lung cell damage following repeated exposure to radiation and hyperoxia. Non-tumorigenic murine alveolar type II epithelial cells (C10) were exposed to >95% O2 for 8 h only (O2), 0.25 Gy ionizing γ-radiation (IR) only, or a double-hit combination of both challenges (O2 + IR) followed by 16 h of normoxia (ambient air containing 21% O2 and 5% CO2) (1 cycle = 24 h, 2 cycles = 48 h). Cell survival, DNA damage, apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell survival across all challenge conditions along with an increase in DNA damage, determined by Comet analysis and H2AX phosphorylation, and apoptosis, determined by Annexin-V staining, relative to cells unexposed to hyperoxia or radiation. DNA damage (GADD45α and cleaved-PARP), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3 and BAX), and antioxidant (HO-1 and Nqo1) proteins were increased following radiation and hyperoxia exposure after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. Importantly, exposure to combination challenge O2 + IR exacerbated cell death and DNA damage compared to individual exposures O2 or IR alone. Additionally levels of cell cycle proteins phospho-p53 and p21 were significantly increased, while levels of CDK1 and Cyclin B1 were decreased at both time points for all exposure groups. Similarly, proteins involved in cell cycle arrest was more profoundly changed with the combination challenges as compared to each stressor alone. These results correlate with a significant 4- to 6-fold increase in the ratio of cells in G2/G1 after 2 cycles of exposure to hyperoxic conditions. We have characterized a novel in vitro model of double-hit, low-level radiation and hyperoxia exposure that

  16. Novel Double-Hit Model of Radiation and Hyperoxia-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage Relevant to Space Travel.

    PubMed

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Lehman, Stacey L; Arguiri, Evguenia; Solomides, Pantelis; Koch, Cameron J; Mishra, Om P; Koumenis, Constantinos; Goodwin, Thomas J; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-06-16

    Spaceflight occasionally requires multiple extravehicular activities (EVA) that potentially subject astronauts to repeated changes in ambient oxygen superimposed on those of space radiation exposure. We thus developed a novel in vitro model system to test lung cell damage following repeated exposure to radiation and hyperoxia. Non-tumorigenic murine alveolar type II epithelial cells (C10) were exposed to >95% O₂ for 8 h only (O₂), 0.25 Gy ionizing γ-radiation (IR) only, or a double-hit combination of both challenges (O₂ + IR) followed by 16 h of normoxia (ambient air containing 21% O₂ and 5% CO₂) (1 cycle = 24 h, 2 cycles = 48 h). Cell survival, DNA damage, apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell survival across all challenge conditions along with an increase in DNA damage, determined by Comet analysis and H2AX phosphorylation, and apoptosis, determined by Annexin-V staining, relative to cells unexposed to hyperoxia or radiation. DNA damage (GADD45α and cleaved-PARP), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3 and BAX), and antioxidant (HO-1 and Nqo1) proteins were increased following radiation and hyperoxia exposure after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. Importantly, exposure to combination challenge O₂ + IR exacerbated cell death and DNA damage compared to individual exposures O₂ or IR alone. Additionally levels of cell cycle proteins phospho-p53 and p21 were significantly increased, while levels of CDK1 and Cyclin B1 were decreased at both time points for all exposure groups. Similarly, proteins involved in cell cycle arrest was more profoundly changed with the combination challenges as compared to each stressor alone. These results correlate with a significant 4- to 6-fold increase in the ratio of cells in G2/G1 after 2 cycles of exposure to hyperoxic conditions. We have characterized a novel in vitro model of double-hit, low-level radiation and hyperoxia

  17. One Question, Multiple Answers: Biochemical and Biophysical Screening Methods Retrieve Deviating Fragment Hit Lists.

    PubMed

    Schiebel, Johannes; Radeva, Nedyalka; Köster, Helene; Metz, Alexander; Krotzky, Timo; Kuhnert, Maren; Diederich, Wibke E; Heine, Andreas; Neumann, Lars; Atmanene, Cedric; Roecklin, Dominique; Vivat-Hannah, Valérie; Renaud, Jean-Paul; Meinecke, Robert; Schlinck, Nina; Sitte, Astrid; Popp, Franziska; Zeeb, Markus; Klebe, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Fragment-based lead discovery is gaining momentum in drug development. Typically, a hierarchical cascade of several screening techniques is consulted to identify fragment hits which are then analyzed by crystallography. Because crystal structures with bound fragments are essential for the subsequent hit-to-lead-to-drug optimization, the screening process should distinguish reliably between binders and non-binders. We therefore investigated whether different screening methods would reveal similar collections of putative binders. First we used a biochemical assay to identify fragments that bind to endothiapepsin, a surrogate for disease-relevant aspartic proteases. In a comprehensive screening approach, we then evaluated our 361-entry library by using a reporter-displacement assay, saturation-transfer difference NMR, native mass spectrometry, thermophoresis, and a thermal shift assay. While the combined results of these screening methods retrieve 10 of the 11 crystal structures originally predicted by the biochemical assay, the mutual overlap of individual hit lists is surprisingly low, highlighting that each technique operates on different biophysical principles and conditions.

  18. A double hit implicates DIAPH3 as an autism risk gene

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, JAS; van Daalen, E; Jalali, GR; Schmidt, ERE; Pasterkamp, RJ; de Jonge, M; Hennekam, EAM; Janson, E; Staal, WG; van der Zwaag, B; Burbach, JPH; Kahn, RS; Emanuel, BS; van Engeland, H; Ophoff, RA

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that more than 10% of autism cases are caused by de novo structural genomic rearrangements. Given that some heritable copy number variants (CNVs) have been observed in patients as well as in healthy controls, to date little attention has been paid to the potential function of these non-de novo CNVs in causing autism. A normally intelligent patient with autism, with non-affected parents, was identified with a maternally inherited 10 Mb deletion at 13q21.2. Sequencing of the genes within the deletion identified a paternally inherited nonsynonymous amino-acid substitution at position 614 of diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) (proline to threonine; Pro614Thr). This variant, present in a highly conserved domain, was not found in 328 healthy subjects. Experiments showed a transient expression of Diaph3 in the developing murine cerebral cortex, indicating it has a function in brain development. Transfection of Pro614Thr in murine fibroblasts showed a significant reduction in the number of induced filopodia in comparison to the wild-type gene. DIAPH3 is involved in cell migration, axon guidance and neuritogenesis, and is suggested to function downstream of SHANK3. Our findings strongly suggest DIAPH3 as a novel autism susceptibility gene. Moreover, this report of a ‘double-hit’ compound heterozygote for a large, maternally inherited, genomic deletion and a paternally inherited rare missense mutation shows that not only de novo genomic variants in patients should be taken seriously in further study but that inherited CNVs may also provide valuable information. PMID:20308993

  19. Two Methods for Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir

    2005-01-01

    A paper addresses much of the same subject matter as that of Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis (NPO-30582), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. However, in the paper, the emphasis is more on the hitting-set problem (also known as the transversal problem), which is well known among experts in combinatorics. The authors primary interest in the hitting-set problem lies in its connection to the diagnosis problem: it is a theorem of model-based diagnosis that in the set-theory representation of the components of a system, the minimal diagnoses of a system are the minimal hitting sets of the system. In the paper, the hitting-set problem (and, hence, the diagnosis problem) is translated from a combinatorial to a computational problem by mapping it onto the Boolean satisfiability and integer- programming problems. The paper goes on to describe developments nearly identical to those summarized in the cited companion NASA Tech Briefs article, including the utilization of Boolean-satisfiability and integer- programming techniques to reduce the computation time and/or memory needed to solve the hitting-set problem.

  20. Comparison of Document Index Graph Using TextRank and HITS Weighting Method in Automatic Text Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadyan, Fadhlil; Shaufiah; Arif Bijaksana, Moch.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic summarization is a system that can help someone to take the core information of a long text instantly. The system can help by summarizing text automatically. there’s Already many summarization systems that have been developed at this time but there are still many problems in those system. In this final task proposed summarization method using document index graph. This method utilizes the PageRank and HITS formula used to assess the web page, adapted to make an assessment of words in the sentences in a text document. The expected outcome of this final task is a system that can do summarization of a single document, by utilizing document index graph with TextRank and HITS to improve the quality of the summary results automatically.

  1. A double-hit model of stress dysregulation in rats: implications for limbic corticosteroid receptors and anxious behavior under amitriptyline treatment.

    PubMed

    Cotella, Evelin M; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2014-05-01

    Adversity during early life can lead to diverging endocrine and behavioral responses to stress in adulthood. In our laboratory, we evaluated the long-term effects of early life adversity and its interaction with chronic stress during adulthood. We propose this as a model of vulnerability to dysregulation of the stress response. We hypothesized that rats subjected to both protocols would show differential expression of corticosteroid receptors measured as number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptors (GR) or mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), in limbic areas related to the control of anxiety-like behavior. We also evaluated the effect of amitriptyline expecting to prevent the outcomes of the model. Male Wistar rats were separated from the mother (MS) for 4.5 h every day for the first 3 weeks of life. From postnatal day 50, rats were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) during 24 d (five types of stressor at different times of day). During the stress protocol, the rats were administered amitriptyline (10 mg/kg i.p.) daily. MS evoked lower MR expression in the central amygdaloid nucleus and this was reversed by amitriptyline. Furthermore, CVS increased MR immunoreactivity in the hippocampal area CA2 and increased anxious behavior; both effects were prevented by the antidepressant. When MS was combined with CVS during adulthood, there was a reduction of locomotor activity, with no corrective effect of amitriptyline. The differential effects among groups could mean that MS would promote an alternative phenotype that is expressed when facing CVS (a double hit) later in life.

  2. Prognostic impact of history of follicular lymphoma, induction regimen and stem cell transplant in patients with MYC/BCL2 double hit lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaoying; Saksena, Annapurna; Desai, Parth; Xu, Jie; Zuo, Zhuang; Lin, Pei; Tang, Guilin; Yin, C. Cameron; Seegmiller, Adam; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Miranda, Roberto N.; Reddy, Nishitha M; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    MYC/BCL2 double hit lymphoma (DHL) has been the subject of many studies; however, no study has systemically compared the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors between patients with de novo disease versus those with a history of follicular lymphoma (FL). In addition, the prognostic importance of several other issues remains controversial in these patients. In this retrospective study, we assess 157 patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL including 108 patients with de novo disease and 49 patients with a history of FL or rarely other types of low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Patients received induction chemotherapy regimens including 61 R-CHOP, 31 R-EPOCH, 29 R-Hyper-CVAD, and 23 other regimens. Thirty-nine patients received a stem cell transplant (SCT) including 31 autologous and 8 allogeneic. Sixty-two patients achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months. Clinicopathologic features were similar between patients with de novo tumors versus those with a history of FL (P > 0.05). Using multivariate analysis, achieving CR, undergoing SCT, stage and the International Prognostic Index were independent prognostic factors for OS. Stem cell transplantion was associated with improved OS in patients who failed to achieve CR, but not in patients who achieved CR after induction chemotherapy. In conclusion, patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL who present with de novo disease and patients with a history of FL have a similarly poor prognosis. Achievement of CR, regardless of the induction chemotherapy regimen used, is the most important independent prognostic factor. Patients who do not achieve CR after induction chemotherapy may benefit from SCT. PMID:27203548

  3. A simple method for analyzing actives in random RNAi screens: introducing the “H Score” for hit nomination & gene prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Due to the numerous challenges in hit identification from random RNAi screening, we have examined current practices with a discovery of a variety of methodologies employed and published in many reports; majority of them, unfortunately, do not address the minimum associated criteria for hit nomination, as this could potentially have been the cause or may well be the explanation as to the lack of confirmation and follow up studies, currently facing the RNAi field. Overall, we find that these criteria or parameters are not well defined, in most cases arbitrary in nature, and hence rendering it extremely difficult to judge the quality of and confidence in nominated hits across published studies. For this purpose, we have developed a simple method to score actives independent of assay readout; and provide, for the first time, a homogenous platform enabling cross-comparison of active gene lists resulting from different RNAi screening technologies. Here, we report on our recently developed method dedicated to RNAi data output analysis referred to as the BDA method applicable to both arrayed and pooled RNAi technologies; wherein the concerns pertaining to inconsistent hit nomination and off-target silencing in conjugation with minimal activity criteria to identify a high value target are addressed. In this report, a combined hit rate per gene, called “H score”, is introduced and defined. The H score provides a very useful tool for stringent active gene nomination, gene list comparison across multiple studies, prioritization of hits, and evaluation of the quality of the nominated gene hits. PMID:22934950

  4. Nedley Depression Hit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nedley, Neil; Ramirez, Francisco E.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or “blows” to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed at baseline and at the eighth week of the program using a custom test. Ten cause categories were examined as predictors of depression are (1) Genetic, (2)Developmental, (3)Lifestyle, (4)Circadian Rhythm, (5)Addiction, (6)Nutrition, (7)Toxic, (8)Social/Complicated Grief, (9)Medical Condition, and (10)Frontal Lobe. Results. The relationship between the DSM-5 score and a person having four hits categories in the first program week showed a sensitivity of 89.98 % (95% CI: 89.20 % - 90.73%), specificity 48.84% (CI 45.94-51.75) and Matthew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) .41 . For the eight-week test, the results showed a sensitivity 83.6% (CI 81.9-85.5), specificity 53.7% (CI 51.7-55.6) and MCC .38. Overall, the hits that improved the most from baseline after the eighth week were: Nutrition (47%), Frontal lobe (36%), Addiction (24%), Circadian rhythm (24%), Lifestyle (20%), Social (12%) and Medical (10%). Conclusions. The Nedley four-hit hypothesis seems to predict a depressive episode and correlates well with the DSM-5 criteria with good sensitivity and MCC but less specificity. Identifying these factors and applying lifestyle therapies could play an important role in the treatment of depressed individuals. PMID:27885322

  5. A simple two-step, 'hit and fix' method to generate subtle mutations in BACs using short denatured PCR fragments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongping; Sharan, Shyam K

    2003-08-01

    The bacteriophage lambda recombination system has proven to be a valuable tool for engineering bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC). Due to its high efficiency, subtle alterations in the BACs can be generated using oligonucleotides as targeting vectors. Since no selection marker is used, recombinant clones are identified utilizing a selective PCR screening method. However, occasionally the selective PCR screening is not feasible. We describe here a two-step 'hit and fix' method that can be reliably used for generating any subtle alteration in BACs using short denatured PCR fragments as targeting vectors. In the first step of this method, 6-20 nucleotides are changed around the base where the mutation has to be generated. In the second step, these altered nucleotides are reverted to the original sequence and simultaneously a subtle alteration is introduced. Since in each step several nucleotides are changed, PCR primers specific for such alterations can be designed. This two-step method provides a simple and efficient tool for generating subtle alterations in BACs that can be very valuable for functional analysis of genes.

  6. A new method with flexible and balanced control of false negatives and false positives for hit selection in RNA interference high-throughput screening assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2007-08-01

    The z-score method and its variants for testing mean difference are commonly used for hit selection in high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD) offers a way to measure and classify the short interfering RNA (siRNA) effects. In this article, based on SSMD, the authors propose a new testing method for hit selection in RNA interference (RNAi) HTS assays. This SSMD-based method allows the differentiation between siRNAs with large and small effects on the assay output and maintains flexible and balanced control of both the false-negative rate, in which the siRNAs with strong effects are not selected as hits, and the restricted false-positive rate, in which the siRNAs with weak or no effects are selected as hits. This method directly addresses the size of siRNA effects represented by the strength of difference between an siRNA and a negative reference, whereas the classic z-score method and t-test of testing no mean difference address whether the mean of an siRNA is exactly the same as the mean of a negative reference. This method can readily control the false-negative rate, whereas it is nontrivial for the classic z-score method and t-test to control the false-negative rate. Therefore, theoretically, the SSMD-based method offers better control of the sizes of siRNA effects and the associated false-positive and false-negative rates than the commonly used z-score method and t-test for hit selection in HTS assays. The SSMD-based method should generally be applicable to any assay in which the end point is a difference in signal compared to a reference sample, including those for RNAi, receptor, enzyme, and cellular function.

  7. Enhanced HTS hit selection via a local hit rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Posner, Bruce A; Xi, Hualin; Mills, James E J

    2009-10-01

    The postprocessing of high-throughput screening (HTS) results is complicated by the occurrence of false positives (inactive compounds misidentified as active by the primary screen) and false negatives (active compounds misidentified as inactive by the primary screen). An activity cutoff is frequently used to select "active" compounds from HTS data; however, this approach is insensitive to both false positives and false negatives. An alternative method that can minimize the occurrence of these artifacts will increase the efficiency of hit selection and therefore lead discovery. In this work, rather than merely using the activity of a given compound, we look at the presence and absence of activity among all compounds in its "chemical space neighborhood" to give a degree of confidence in its activity. We demonstrate that this local hit rate (LHR) analysis method outperforms hit selection based on ranking by primary screen activity values across ten diverse high throughput screens, spanning both cell-based and biochemical assay formats of varying biology and robustness. On average, the local hit rate analysis method was approximately 2.3-fold and approximately 1.3-fold more effective in identifying active compounds and active chemical series, respectively, than selection based on primary activity alone. Moreover, when applied to finding false negatives, this method was 2.3-fold better than ranking by primary activity alone. In most cases, novel hit series were identified that would have otherwise been missed. Additional uses of and observations regarding this HTS analysis approach are also discussed.

  8. Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma With a MYC-IGH Rearrangement and Gain of BCL2: Expanding the Spectrum of MYC/BCL2 Double-Hit Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Testo, Natalia; Olson, Luke C; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Hanson, Ty; Magro, Cynthia M

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive extracutaneous B-cell lymphomas span the various stages of B-cell ontogeny and include B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas represent the most common histologic subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, comprising 30% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States. A distinctive form of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the double-hit lymphoma, with most cases exhibiting a combined MYC and BCL2 rearrangement, leading some hematopathologists to propose the term MYC/BCL2 lymphoma. More recently, MYC rearrangement with multiple copies/gain of BCL2 or multiple copies/gain of MYC with a BCL2 rearrangement have been described and exhibit a very similar clinical course to conventional double-hit lymphomas. We report the seventh case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma exhibiting this distinct cytogenetic abnormality and the first reported case in the skin. The patient's clinical course was aggressive, succumbing to disease 18 months after his initial presentation.

  9. A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based generic detection method for biochemical assay and hit discovery of histone methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Gu, X Justin; Hao, Qin; Fan, Hong; Li, Ling; Zhou, Shaolian; Zhao, Kehao; Chan, Ho Man; Wang, Y Karen

    2013-12-15

    Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, contribute to gene regulation. Growing evidence suggests that histone methyltransferases are associated with the development of various human diseases, including cancer, and are promising drug targets. High-quality generic assays will facilitate drug discovery efforts in this area. In this article, we present a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) detection assay for histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and its applications in HMT drug discovery, including analyzing the activity of newly produced enzymes, developing and optimizing assays, performing focused compound library screens and orthogonal assays for hit confirmations, selectivity profiling against a panel of HMTs, and studying mode of action of select hits. This LC/MS-based generic assay has become a critical platform for our methyltransferase drug discovery efforts.

  10. Study report on a double isotope method of calcium absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the pros and cons of three methods to study gastrointestinal calcium absorption are briefly discussed. The methods are: (1) a balance study; (2) a single isotope method; and (3) a double isotope method. A procedure for the double isotope method is also included.

  11. Computational Physics' Greatest Hits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bug, Amy

    2011-03-01

    The digital computer, has worked its way so effectively into our profession that now, roughly 65 years after its invention, it is virtually impossible to find a field of experimental or theoretical physics unaided by computational innovation. It is tough to think of another device about which one can make that claim. In the session ``What is computational physics?'' speakers will distinguish computation within the field of computational physics from this ubiquitous importance across all subfields of physics. This talk will recap the invited session ``Great Advances...Past, Present and Future'' in which five dramatic areas of discovery (five of our ``greatest hits'') are chronicled: The physics of many-boson systems via Path Integral Monte Carlo, the thermodynamic behavior of a huge number of diverse systems via Monte Carlo Methods, the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents via molecular dynamics, predictive simulations of global climate change via detailed, cross-disciplinary earth system models, and an understanding of the formation of the first structures in our universe via galaxy formation simulations. The talk will also identify ``greatest hits'' in our field from the teaching and research perspectives of other members of DCOMP, including its Executive Committee.

  12. Φ-score: A cell-to-cell phenotypic scoring method for sensitive and selective hit discovery in cell-based assays

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, Laurent; Lajaunie, Christian; fer, Frédéric; bhajun, Ricky; sulpice, Eric; pinna, Guillaume; campalans, Anna; radicella, J. Pablo; rouillier, Philippe; mary, Mélissa; combe, Stéphanie; obeid, Patricia; vert, Jean-Philippe; gidrol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic screening monitors phenotypic changes induced by perturbations, including those generated by drugs or RNA interference. Currently-used methods for scoring screen hits have proven to be problematic, particularly when applied to physiologically relevant conditions such as low cell numbers or inefficient transfection. Here, we describe the Φ-score, which is a novel scoring method for the identification of phenotypic modifiers or hits in cell-based screens. Φ-score performance was assessed with simulations, a validation experiment and its application to gene identification in a large-scale RNAi screen. Using robust statistics and a variance model, we demonstrated that the Φ-score showed better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility compared to classical approaches. The improved performance of the Φ-score paves the way for cell-based screening of primary cells, which are often difficult to obtain from patients in sufficient numbers. We also describe a dedicated merging procedure to pool scores from small interfering RNAs targeting the same gene so as to provide improved visualization and hit selection. PMID:26382112

  13. Recognition of Hits in a Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerak, Vojtech; Drahansky, Martin

    This paper describes two possible ways of hit recognition in a target. First method is based on frame differencing with use of a stabilization algorithm to eliminate movements of a target. Second method uses flood fill with random seed point definition to find hits in the target scene.

  14. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  15. Two hits revisited again

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, I; Roylance, R; Houlston, R

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND METHODS—Since the concept of the "two hit hypothesis" was introduced over 20 years ago, a wealth of genetic data has accumulated on the mutations found at tumour suppressor loci. Perhaps surprisingly, these data conceal large gaps in our knowledge which genetic and functional studies are beginning to uncover. The "two hit hypothesis" must be updated to take account of this new information.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION—Here, we discuss both the results of recent studies and some of the questions that they highlight. In particular, how valid are conclusions from inherited Mendelian syndromes when applied to sporadic cancers? Why is allelic loss so common and how does it occur? Are the "two hits" random or interdependent? Is abolition of protein function always optimal for tumorigenesis? Can "third hits" occur and, if so, why? How can mismatch repair deficiency and the methylator phenotype be incorporated into the "two hit" hypothesis? We suggest that the "two hit hypothesis" is not fixed but is evolving as our knowledge expands.


Keywords: two hit model; tumour suppressor; carcinogenesis PMID:11158170

  16. Advanced Doubling Adding Method for Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong

    2006-12-01

    The doubling adding method (DA) is one of the most accurate tools for detailed multiple-scattering calculations. The principle of the method goes back to the nineteenth century in a problem dealing with reflection and transmission by glass plates. Since then the doubling adding method has been widely used as a reference tool for other radiative transfer models. The method has never been used in operational applications owing to tremendous demand on computational resources from the model. This study derives an analytical expression replacing the most complicated thermal source terms in the doubling adding method. The new development is called the advanced doubling adding (ADA) method. Thanks also to the efficiency of matrix and vector manipulations in FORTRAN 90/95, the advanced doubling adding method is about 60 times faster than the doubling adding method. The radiance (i.e., forward) computation code of ADA is easily translated into tangent linear and adjoint codes for radiance gradient calculations. The simplicity in forward and Jacobian computation codes is very useful for operational applications and for the consistency between the forward and adjoint calculations in satellite data assimilation.

  17. A new method for the formulation of double nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shukai; Anton, Nicolas; Akram, Salman; Er-Rafik, Meriem; Anton, Halina; Klymchenko, Andrey; Yu, Wei; Vandamme, Thierry F; Serra, Christophe A

    2017-02-22

    Double emulsions are very attractive systems for many reasons; the most important of these are their capacity to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules simultaneously in a single particle and their potentiality to protect fragile hydrophilic molecules from the continuous phase. Double emulsions represent a technology that is widely present down to the micrometer scale; however, double nanoemulsions, with their new potential applications as nanomedicines or diagnosis agents, currently present a significant challenge. In this study, we propose an original two-step approach for the fabrication of double nanoemulsions with a final size below 200 nm. The process consists of the formulation of a primary water-in-oil (w1/O) nanoemulsion by high-pressure homogenization, followed by the re-emulsification of this primary emulsion by a low-energy method to preserve the double nanostructure. Various characterization techniques were undertaken to confirm the double structure and to evaluate the encapsulation efficiency of a small hydrophilic probe in the inner aqueous droplets. Complementary fluorescence confocal and cryo-TEM microscopy experiments were conducted to characterize and confirm the double structure of the double nanoemulsion.

  18. Cyclone Chris Hits Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This false-color image shows Cyclone Chris shortly after it hit Australia's northwestern coast on February 6, 2002. This scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. (Please note that this scene has not been reprojected.) Cyclone Chris is one of the most powerful storms ever to hit Australia. Initially, the storm contained wind gusts of up to 200 km per hour (125 mph), but shortly after making landfall it weakened to a Category 4 storm. Meteorologists expect the cyclone to weaken quickly as it moves further inland.

  19. Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a “statistical contagion effect”. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  20. But Can You Hit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The author shares a story told to him by a colleague more than thirty years ago. The dean of a midsized American university was explaining the path to tenure to a roomful of newly appointed assistant professors. "We know you boys can all "field"," he declared. "Now we want to see if you can hit." A lot has changed over the intervening decades. If…

  1. Multiple-hit parameter estimation in monolithic detectors

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, William C. J.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Lewellen, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a maximum-a-priori (MAP) method for estimating the primary interaction position of gamma rays with multiple-interaction sites (hits) in a monolithic detector. In assessing the performance of a multiple-hit estimator over that of a conventional one-hit estimator, we consider a few different detector and readout configurations of a 50-mm-wide square LSO block. For this study, we use simulated data from SCOUT, a Monte-Carlo tool for photon tracking and modeling scintillation-camera output. With this tool, we determine estimate bias and variance for a multiple-hit estimator and compare these with similar metrics for a conventional ML estimator, which assumes full energy deposition in one hit. We also examine the effect of event filtering on these metrics; for this purpose, we use a likelihood threshold to reject signals that are not likely to have been produced under the assumed likelihood model. Depending on detector design, we observe a 1–12% improvement of intrinsic resolution for a 1-or-2-hit estimator as compared with a 1-hit estimator. We also observe improved differentiation of photopeak events using a 1-or-2-hit estimator as compared with the 1-hit estimator; more than 6% of photopeak events that were rejected by likelihood filtering for the 1-hit estimator were accurately identified as photo peak events and positioned without loss of resolution by a 1-or-2-hit estimator. PMID:23238325

  2. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  3. Double sided circuit board and a method for its manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Lindenmeyer, Carl W.

    1989-07-04

    Conductance between the sides of a large double sided printed circuit board is provided using a method which eliminates the need for chemical immersion or photographic exposure of the entire large board. A plurality of through-holes are drilled or punched in a substratum according to the desired pattern, conductive laminae are made to adhere to both sides of the substratum covering the holes and the laminae are pressed together and permanently joined within the holes, providing conductive paths.

  4. Completed double layer boundary element method for periodic suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.-J.; Phan-Thien, N.; Zheng, R.

    In this paper, a traction-based boundary element method is formulated and implemented for periodic suspensions. Hydrodynamic interaction of particles at infinity is handled by O'Brien's method (1979), which is suitably modified for the adjoint double layer using the mean field values of the traction and the background flow. After a deflation of the extreme eigenvalue -1 of the adjoint double layer operator, an iterative solution strategy is implemented, which solves for the traction field on the surfaces of a group of near-by particles sequentially. Ewald's summation technique is employed, by expressing the adjoint double layer kernel in two sums, one converges rapidly in real space, and the other, in the reciprocal Fourier space. The implementation is tested on a periodic suspension of spheres and spheroids in simple and elongated face-centred cubic arrays, and proved to be very accurate when compared to established results. New results for the intrinsic viscosities of periodic suspensions of cubes and spheroids from moderate to high volume fractions are reported. Based on the numerical data for suspensions of spheroids, a simple modification of the constitutive equation of Hinch and Leal (1972), which was derived for dilute suspension of spheroids, is reported, allowing the constitutive equation to reasonably fit the numerical data at moderate to high concentrations.

  5. A method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Chen; Xiao-Hui, Ling; Zhi-Hong, Chen; Qian-Guang, Li; Hao, Lv; Hua-Qing, Yu; Xu-Nong, Yi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams. A step phase introduced by a spatial light modulator (SLM) first makes the incident laser beam have a nodal cycle. This phase is dynamic in nature because it depends on the optical length. Then a Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) optical element is used to manipulate the local polarization of the optical field by modulating the geometric phase. The experimental results show that this scheme can effectively create double-ring-shaped vector beams. It provides much greater flexibility to manipulate the phase and polarization by simultaneously modulating the dynamic and the geometric phases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547017), the Hubei Engineering University Research Foundation, China (Grant No. z2014001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFB578).

  6. New approaches for efficient solution of hitting set problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Vatan, Farrokh

    2004-01-01

    A new method for solving the hitting set problem is proposed. This method is based on the mapping of the problem onto an integer programming optimization problem. this new approach provides an algorithm with much better performance compare to the algorithms for the hitting set problem that currently are used for solving the diagnosis problem.

  7. Hurricane Iris Hits Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Iris hit the small Central American country of Belize around midnight on October 8, 2001. At the time, Iris was the strongest Atlantic hurricane of the season, with sustained winds up to 225 kilometers per hour (140 mph). The hurricane caused severe damage-destroying homes, flooding streets, and leveling trees-in coastal towns south of Belize City. In addition, a boat of American recreational scuba divers docked along the coast was capsized by the storm, leaving 20 of the 28 passengers missing. Within hours the winds had subsided to only 56 kph (35 mph), a modest tropical depression, but Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras were still expecting heavy rains. The above image is a combination of visible and thermal infrared data (for clouds) acquired by a NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-8) on October 8, 2001, at 2:45 p.m., and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (for the color of the ground). The three-dimensional view is from the south-southeast (north is towards the upper left). Belize is off the image to the left. Image courtesy Marit Jentoft-Nilsen, NASA GSFC Visualization Analysis Lab

  8. New Methods for Improved Double Circular-Arc Helical Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Lu, Jian

    1997-01-01

    The authors have extended the application of double circular-arc helical gears for internal gear drives. The geometry of the pinion and gear tooth surfaces has been determined. The influence of errors of alignment on the transmission errors and the shift of the bearing contact have been investigated. Application of a predesigned parabolic function for the reduction of transmission errors was proposed. Methods of grinding of the pinion-gear tooth surfaces by a disk-shaped tool and a grinding worm were proposed.

  9. Analysis of Double Ring Resonators using Method of Equating Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaf, Shahana

    Optical ring resonators have the potential to be integral parts of large scale photonic circuits. My thesis theoretically analyzes parallel coupled double ring resonators (DRRs) in detail. The analysis is performed using the method of equating fields (MEF) which provides an in depth understanding about the transmitted and reflected light paths in the structure. Equations for the transmitted and reflected fields are derived; these equations allow for unequal ring lengths and coupling coefficients. Sanity checks including comparison with previously studied structures are performed in the final chapter in order to prove the correctness of the obtained results.

  10. Multiple-Hit Parameter Estimation in Monolithic Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Lewellen, Tom K.; Miyaoka, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We examine a maximum-a-posteriori method for estimating the primary interaction position of gamma rays with multiple interaction sites (hits) in a monolithic detector. In assessing the performance of a multiple-hit estimator over that of a conventional one-hit estimator, we consider a few different detector and readout configurations of a 50-mm-wide square cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate block. For this study, we use simulated data from SCOUT, a Monte-Carlo tool for photon tracking and modeling scintillation- camera output. With this tool, we determine estimate bias and variance for a multiple-hit estimator and compare these with similar metrics for a one-hit maximum-likelihood estimator, which assumes full energy deposition in one hit. We also examine the effect of event filtering on these metrics; for this purpose, we use a likelihood threshold to reject signals that are not likely to have been produced under the assumed likelihood model. Depending on detector design, we observe a 1%–12% improvement of intrinsic resolution for a 1-or-2-hit estimator as compared with a 1-hit estimator. We also observe improved differentiation of photopeak events using a 1-or-2-hit estimator as compared with the 1-hit estimator; more than 6% of photopeak events that were rejected by likelihood filtering for the 1-hit estimator were accurately identified as photopeak events and positioned without loss of resolution by a 1-or-2-hit estimator; for PET, this equates to at least a 12% improvement in coincidence-detection efficiency with likelihood filtering applied. PMID:23193231

  11. A double-correlation tremor-location method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ka Lok; Sgattoni, Giulia; Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Roberts, Roland; Gudmundsson, Olafur

    2016-12-01

    A double-correlation method is introduced to locate tremor sources based on stacks of complex, doubly-correlated tremor records of multiple triplets of seismographs back projected to hypothetical source locations in a geographic grid. Peaks in the resulting stack of moduli are inferred source locations. The stack of the moduli is a robust measure of energy radiated from a point source or point sources even when the velocity information is imprecise. Application to real data shows how double correlation focuses the source mapping compared to the common single correlation approach. Synthetic tests demonstrate the robustness of the method and its resolution limitations which are controlled by the station geometry, the finite frequency of the signal, the quality of the used velocity information and noise level. Both random noise and signal or noise correlated at time shifts that are inconsistent with the assumed velocity structure can be effectively suppressed. Assuming a surface-wave velocity, we can constrain the source location even if the surface-wave component does not dominate. The method can also in principle be used with body waves in three dimensions, although this requires more data and seismographs placed near the source for depth resolution.

  12. A double-correlation tremor-location method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ka Lok; Sgattoni, Giulia; Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Roberts, Roland; Gudmundsson, Olafur

    2017-02-01

    A double-correlation method is introduced to locate tremor sources based on stacks of complex, doubly-correlated tremor records of multiple triplets of seismographs back projected to hypothetical source locations in a geographic grid. Peaks in the resulting stack of moduli are inferred source locations. The stack of the moduli is a robust measure of energy radiated from a point source or point sources even when the velocity information is imprecise. Application to real data shows how double correlation focuses the source mapping compared to the common single correlation approach. Synthetic tests demonstrate the robustness of the method and its resolution limitations which are controlled by the station geometry, the finite frequency of the signal, the quality of the used velocity information and noise level. Both random noise and signal or noise correlated at time shifts that are inconsistent with the assumed velocity structure can be effectively suppressed. Assuming a surface wave velocity, we can constrain the source location even if the surface wave component does not dominate. The method can also in principle be used with body waves in 3-D, although this requires more data and seismographs placed near the source for depth resolution.

  13. Field evaluation of mercury vapor analytical methods: comparison of the "double amalgam method" and ISO 17733.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Mitsutoshi; Joeng, Jee Yeon; Ishihara, Nobuo; Serita, Fumio; Kohyama, Norihiko

    2006-04-01

    In this study, a gold amalgam method called the "Double amalgam method" was compared with the ISO 17733 method for mercury vapor analysis method. In terms of sensitivity and ease of operation, the amalgamation method is superior to the oxidation method. Two parallel samplings were carried out in this research at a button battery factory, where the mercury vapor level in the air was about 0.001 mg/m3 and at a fluorescent lamp factory, where the mercury vapor level was about 0.015 mg/m3. In the both cases, the measured values of the two showed good agreement with each other. As these two workplaces represent typical mercury levels in industries today, the double amalgam method is applicable to working environment measurement.

  14. Hg stable isotope analysis by the double-spike method.

    PubMed

    Mead, Chris; Johnson, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    Recent publications suggest great potential for analysis of Hg stable isotope abundances to elucidate sources and/or chemical processes that control the environmental impact of mercury. We have developed a new MC-ICP-MS method for analysis of mercury isotope ratios using the double-spike approach, in which a solution containing enriched (196)Hg and (204)Hg is mixed with samples and provides a means to correct for instrumental mass bias and most isotopic fractionation that may occur during sample preparation and introduction into the instrument. Large amounts of isotopic fractionation induced by sample preparation and introduction into the instrument (e.g., by batch reactors) are corrected for. This may greatly enhance various Hg pre-concentration methods by correcting for minor fractionation that may occur during preparation and removing the need to demonstrate 100% recovery. Current precision, when ratios are normalized to the daily average, is 0.06 per thousand, 0.06 per thousand, 0.05 per thousand, and 0.05 per thousand (2sigma) for (202)Hg/(198)Hg, (201)Hg/(198)Hg, (200)Hg/(198)Hg, and (199)Hg/(198)Hg, respectively. This is slightly better than previously published methods. Additionally, this precision was attained despite the presence of large amounts of other Hg isotopes (e.g., 5.0% atom percent (198)Hg) in the spike solution; substantially better precision could be achieved if purer (196)Hg were used.

  15. Subgroup conflicts? Try the psychodramatic "double triad method".

    PubMed

    Verhofstadt-Denève, Leni M F

    2012-04-01

    The present article suggests the application of a psychodramatic action method for tackling subgroup conflicts in which the direct dialogue between representatives of two opposing subgroups is prepared step by step through an indirect dialogue strategy within two triads, a strategy known as the Double Triad Method (DTM). In order to achieve integration in the group as a whole, it is important that all the members of both subgroups participate actively during the entire process. The first part of the article briefly explores the theoretical background, with a special emphasis on the Phenomenological-Dialectical Personality Model (Phe-Di PModel). In the second part, the DTM procedure is systematically described through its five action stages, each accompanied with 1) a spatial representation of the consecutive actions, 2) some illustrative statements for each stage, and 3) a theoretical interpretation of the dialectically involved personality dimensions in both protagonists. The article concludes with a discussion and suggestions for more extensive applications of the DTM method, including the question of its relationships to Agazarian's functional subgrouping, psychodrama, and sociodrama.

  16. Lubrication approximation in completed double layer boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, S.; Phan-Thien, N.; Fan, X.-J.

    This paper reports on the results of the numerical simulation of the motion of solid spherical particles in shear Stokes flows. Using the completed double layer boundary element method (CDLBEM) via distributed computing under Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), the effective viscosity of suspension has been calculated for a finite number of spheres in a cubic array, or in a random configuration. In the simulation presented here, the short range interactions via lubrication forces are also taken into account, via the range completer in the formulation, whenever the gap between two neighbouring particles is closer than a critical gap. The results for particles in a simple cubic array agree with the results of Nunan and Keller (1984) and Stoksian Dynamics of Brady etal. (1988). To evaluate the lubrication forces between particles in a random configuration, a critical gap of 0.2 of particle's radius is suggested and the results are tested against the experimental data of Thomas (1965) and empirical equation of Krieger-Dougherty (Krieger, 1972). Finally, the quasi-steady trajectories are obtained for time-varying configuration of 125 particles.

  17. Extended operator expansion method for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Kadowaki, O.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Muto, K.; Oda, T.

    1995-03-01

    Reliable calculations of nuclear matrix elements are a prerequisite for the determination of the effective neutrino mass and other particle physics parameters from neutrinoless double beta decay. Here, the operator expansion method is improved by including Coulomb, tensor and central interactions simultaneously. Furthermore, the formalism of the OEM is extended to those matrix elements necessary to extract the right-handed parameters < λ > and < η > from 0 νββ decay. OEM includes the dependence of the nuclear matrix elements on the intermediate states implicitly and can therefore be understood as a step beyond the closure approximation. Numerical studies are carried out for the isotope76Ge combining the OEM expressions with ground-state wave functions calculated within a proton-neutron quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (pn-QRPA) model. The influence and relative importance of central, tensor and Coulomb interactions is investigated. Within the OEM, contributions from the Coulomb force are found to be negligible in 0 νββ decay, while the tensor force leads to a moderate change of the results, of the order of (10 30)%, giving a better agreement between sets of calculations which employ different NN-interactions. Generally, results of the OEM+QRPA calculation are similar to previous calculations of 0 νββ decay matrix elements, indicating that 0 νββ decay is not sensitive to model approximations and might therefore be more accurately calculated than the strongly suppressed 2 νββ decay matrix elements.

  18. 42 CFR 495.344 - Approval of the State Medicaid HIT plan, the HIT PAPD and update, the HIT IAPD and update, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PAPD and update, the HIT IAPD and update, and the annual HIT IAPD. 495.344 Section 495.344 Public... and update, the HIT IAPD and update, and the annual HIT IAPD. HHS will not approve the State Medicaid HIT plan, HIT PAPD and update, HIT-IAPD and update, or annual IAPD if any of these documents do...

  19. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  20. Redoublement lexical, procede intensif (Lexical Doubling, Intensive Method).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Kenneth E. M.

    1983-01-01

    An often-neglected aspect of daily language is syllable doubling or repetition, as in infant language ("nounou"), onomatopoeia ("ronron"), interjections or responses ("oui oui"), names ("Mimi"), or military slang ("coco" for "commandant"). The mechanisms and semantic functions of this phenomenon are outlined, drawing on examples from French…

  1. Hitting Time Asymptotics for Hard-Core Interactions on Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, F. R.; Zocca, A.; Borst, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the hard-core model with Metropolis transition probabilities on finite grid graphs and investigate the asymptotic behavior of the first hitting time between its two maximum-occupancy configurations in the low-temperature regime. In particular, we show how the order-of-magnitude of this first hitting time depends on the grid sizes and on the boundary conditions by means of a novel combinatorial method. Our analysis also proves the asymptotic exponentiality of the scaled hitting time and yields the mixing time of the process in the low-temperature limit as side-result. In order to derive these results, we extended the model-independent framework in Manzo et al. (J Stat Phys 115(1/2):591-642, 2004) for first hitting times to allow for a more general initial state and target subset.

  2. Robust Hitting with Dynamics Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masahito; Yamawaki, Tasuku

    The present paper proposes the trajectory planning based on “the dynamics shaping” for a redundant robotic arm to hit a target robustly toward the desired direction, of which the concept is to shape the robot dynamics appropriately by changing its posture in order to achieve the robust motion. The positional error of the end-effector caused by unknown disturbances converges onto near the singular vector corresponding to its maximum singular value of the output controllability matrix of the robotic arm. Therefore, if we can control the direction of the singular vector by applying the dynamics shaping, we will be able to control the direction of the positional error of the end-effector caused by unknown disturbances. We propose a novel trajectory planning based on the dynamics shaping and verify numerically and experimentally that the robotic arm can robustly hit the target toward the desired direction with a simple open-loop control system even though the disturbance is applied.

  3. Interferometric Methods of Measuring Refractive Indices and Double-Refraction of Fibres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, A. A.; El-Kader, H. I. Abd

    1986-01-01

    Presents two methods used to measure the refractive indices and double-refraction of fibers. Experiments are described, with one involving the use of Pluta microscope in the double-beam interference technique, the other employing the multiple-beam technique. Immersion liquids are discussed that can be used in the experiments. (TW)

  4. Double Cross-Validation in Multiple Regression: A Method of Estimating the Stability of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, R. Kevin

    In multiple regression analysis, where resulting predictive equation effectiveness is subject to shrinkage, it is especially important to evaluate result replicability. Double cross-validation is an empirical method by which an estimate of invariance or stability can be obtained from research data. A procedure for double cross-validation is…

  5. Inverse scattering method and soliton double solution family for the general symplectic gravity model

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yajun

    2008-08-15

    A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  6. The Rock that Hit New York

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, Roger Allen; Keksis, August Lawrence

    2016-10-03

    On January 12, 1975, a rock seemed to fall from the sky over New York State’s Schoharie County hitting the tractor of a local farmer, who was “preparing his fields for spring planting.” As the farmer later described the event to a reporter from the UFO INVESTIGATOR, the object glanced off the tractor, fell to the ground, and melted its way through a patch of ice that was two and one half inches thick. The farmer, Leonard Tillapaugh, called the county sheriff, Harvey Stoddard, who recovered the rock, noting that it “was still warm.” Why and how a sample of the rock came to Los Alamos is not known. However, it captivated a wide Laboratory audience, was subjected to rigorous testing and evaluation. Los Alamos used the scientific method in the manner promoted by Hynek. Did Los Alamos solve the mystery of the rock’s origin? Not definitively. Although the exact origin could not be determined, it was shown conclusively that the rock was not from outer space. With that said, the saga of Rock that hit New York came to an end. Nothing more was said or written about it. The principals involved have long since passed from the scene. The NICAP ceased operations in 1980. And, the rock, itself, has disappeared.

  7. Toward the equivalence of the HIT and HIT 25 in community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Francis, J R

    1991-06-01

    In a study by the first author wherein 102 community-residing older adults were administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT), data collected were analyzed regarding the equivalence of the HIT and the HIT 25. Although alpha coefficients and split-half correlations were low when single-response-per-card data were analyzed, corrected Spearman-Brown coefficients were more supportive of the use of the HIT 25 with older adults. These data suggest that although a shortened form of the HIT may be useful with aged persons, research exploring the substantive bases for creating a shortened version of the HIT is nevertheless necessary.

  8. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II) - a drug-associated autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Götz

    2009-11-01

    Autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease characterised by isolated persistent thrombocytopenia and normal megakaryopoiesis. This definition also applies to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II), a frequent side effect of heparin treatment. In HIT II, the immunogen is a coagulation active complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4). By now, diagnostics of HIT II is often material and time consuming. Three groups of patients were investigated for HIT II antibodies (HIT II-AB): 54 hospitalised stroke patients, 87 hospitalised cardiac patients, and 71 patients on chronic haemodialysis, all treated with heparin. Furthermore, 100 healthy volunteers were investigated. For detection of HIT II-AB the innovative whole blood test PADA-HIT (PADA: platelet adhesion assay) was used. PADA-HIT quantifies the interaction of IgG antibodies with FcgammaIIA receptors by comparing the activation state of platelets in citrated and heparinised whole blood. The occurrence of HIT II-AB in blood was very high with 44 % of stroke patients, 69% of cardiac patients and 38% of haemodialysis patients compared to only 15% of healthy volunteers. This demonstrates a high incidence and a rapid onset of HIT II-AB in patients being acutely treated with heparin. HIT II is one of the most frequent and severe autoimmune diseases bearing a great thrombosis risk. PADA-HIT represents an innovative diagnostic method for detection of autoimmune antibodies of IgG type that are directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin-complex. By early and fast diagnostics and appropriate treatment severe complications of HIT II can be prevented.

  9. Printability beyond the limits: Alternative double printing method for inkjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    For artists wishing to print onto heavy weight coated and uncoated papers, the opportunity to improve colour density and saturation is always desirable. The paper presents research into methods for mixing and printing colours using the latest multi-primary inkjet printing system. The objective is to investigate the colour printability of the system printing on a fine art paper. The cellular Yule-Nielsen modified spectral Neugebauer model is employed to characterise the printing process. And the preliminary experiment result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Applications of Biophysics in High-Throughput Screening Hit Validation.

    PubMed

    Genick, Christine Clougherty; Barlier, Danielle; Monna, Dominique; Brunner, Reto; Bé, Céline; Scheufler, Clemens; Ottl, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    For approximately a decade, biophysical methods have been used to validate positive hits selected from high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns with the goal to verify binding interactions using label-free assays. By applying label-free readouts, screen artifacts created by compound interference and fluorescence are discovered, enabling further characterization of the hits for their target specificity and selectivity. The use of several biophysical methods to extract this type of high-content information is required to prevent the promotion of false positives to the next level of hit validation and to select the best candidates for further chemical optimization. The typical technologies applied in this arena include dynamic light scattering, turbidometry, resonance waveguide, surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning fluorimetry, mass spectrometry, and others. Each technology can provide different types of information to enable the characterization of the binding interaction. Thus, these technologies can be incorporated in a hit-validation strategy not only according to the profile of chemical matter that is desired by the medicinal chemists, but also in a manner that is in agreement with the target protein's amenability to the screening format. Here, we present the results of screening strategies using biophysics with the objective to evaluate the approaches, discuss the advantages and challenges, and summarize the benefits in reference to lead discovery. In summary, the biophysics screens presented here demonstrated various hit rates from a list of ~2000 preselected, IC50-validated hits from HTS (an IC50 is the inhibitor concentration at which 50% inhibition of activity is observed). There are several lessons learned from these biophysical screens, which will be discussed in this article.

  11. Developing Health Information Technology (HIT) Programs and HIT Curriculum: The Southern Polytechnic State University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chi; Reichgelt, Han; Rutherfoord, Rebecca H.; Wang, Andy Ju An

    2014-01-01

    Health Information Technology (HIT) professionals are in increasing demand as healthcare providers need help in the adoption and meaningful use of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems while the HIT industry needs workforce skilled in HIT and EHR development. To respond to this increasing demand, the School of Computing and Software Engineering…

  12. The double-assignment method for the exponential chaotic tabu search in quadratic assignment problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Kazuaki; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is one of the NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. An exponential chaotic tabu search using a 2-opt algorithm driven by chaotic neuro-dynamics has been proposed as one heuristic method for solving QAPs. In this paper we first propose a new local search, the double-assignment method, suitable for the exponential chaotic tabu search, which adopts features of the Lin-Kernighan algorithm. We then introduce chaotic neuro-dynamics into the double-assignment method to propose a novel exponential chaotic tabu search. We further improve the proposed exponential chaotic tabu search with the double-assignment method by enhancing the effect of chaotic neuro-dynamics.

  13. Hitting Is Contagious: Experience and Action Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L.

    2011-01-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing…

  14. Direct-space methods in phase extension and phase refinement. IV. The double-histogram method.

    PubMed

    Refaat, L S; Tate, C; Woolfson, M M

    1996-03-01

    In the conventional histogram-matching technique for phase extension and refinement for proteins a simple one-to-one transformation is made in the protein region to modify calculated density so that it will have some target histogram in addition to solvent flattening. This work describes an investigation where the density modification takes into account not only the current calculated density at a grid point but also some characteristic of the environment of the grid point within some distance R. This characteristic can be one of the local maximum density, the local minimum density or the local variance of density. The grid points are divided into ten groups, each containing the same number of grid points, for ten different ranges of value of the local characteristic. The ten groups are modified to give different histograms, each corresponding to that obtained under the same circumstances from a structure similar to the one under investigation. This process is referred to as the double-histogram matching method. Other processes which have been investigated are the weighting of structure factors when calculating maps with estimated phases and also the use of a factor to dampen the change of density and so control the refinement process. Two protein structures were used in numerical trials, RNApl [Bezborodova, Ermekbaeva, Shlyapnikov, Polyakov & Bezborodov (1988). Biokhimiya, 53, 965-973] and 2-Zn insulin [Baker, Blundell, Cutfield, Cutfield, Dodson, Dodson, Hodgkin, Hubbard, lsaacs, Reynolds, Sakabe, Sakabe & Vijayan (1988). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 319, 456--469]. Comparison of the proposed procedures with the normal histogram-matching technique without structure-factor weighting or damping gives mean phase errors reduced by up to 10 degrees with map correlation coefficients improved by as much as 0.14. Compared to the normal histogram used with weighting of structure factors and damping, the improvement due to the use of the double-histogram method is

  15. Fabrication of double layer optical tissue phantom by spin coating method: mimicking epidermal and dermal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Bae, Yunjin; Bae, Youngwoo; Kang, Heesung; Lee, Kyoung-Joung; Jung, Byungjo

    2013-02-01

    Methodologies to fabricate a solid optical tissue phantom (OTP) mimicking epidermal thin-layer have been developed for in vitro human skin experiment. However, there are cumbersome and time-consuming efforts in fabrication process such as a custom-made casting and calculation of solvent volume before curing process. In a previous study, we introduced a new methodology based on spin coating method (SCM) which is utilized to fabricate a thin-layer OTP analogous to epidermal thickness. In this study, a double layer solid OTP which has epidermal and dermal layers was fabricated to mimic the morphological and optical similarity of human tissue. The structural characteristic and optical properties of fabricated double layer OTP were measured using optical coherence tomography and inverse adding doubling algorithms, respectively. It is expected that the new methodology based on the SCM may be usefully used in the fabrication of double layer OTP.

  16. Method based on the double sideband technique for the dynamic tracking of micrometric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Claudio; Lizana, Angel; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Digital holography (DH) methods are of interest in a large number of applications. Recently, the double sideband (DSB) technique was proposed, which is a DH based method that, by using double filtering, provides reconstructed images without distortions and is free of twin images by using an in-line configuration. In this work, we implement a method for the investigation of the mobility of particles based on the DSB technique. Particle holographic images obtained using the DSB method are processed with digital picture recognition methods, allowing us to accurately track the spatial position of particles. The dynamic nature of the method is achieved experimentally by using a spatial light modulator. The suitability of the proposed tracking method is validated by determining the trajectory and velocity described by glass microspheres in movement.

  17. 42 CFR 495.340 - As-needed HIT PAPD update and as-needed HIT IAPD update requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false As-needed HIT PAPD update and as-needed HIT IAPD update requirements. 495.340 Section 495.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...-needed HIT PAPD update and as-needed HIT IAPD update requirements. Each State must submit a HIT...

  18. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Rasha M.; Maher, Hadir M.

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  19. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Rasha M; Maher, Hadir M

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  20. A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.

    2017-03-01

    A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response

  1. The Effect of Three Methods of Supporting the Double Bass on Muscle Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Allan

    1984-01-01

    Using different methods of holding the double bass, college students performed Beethoven's Symphony No. 9. Audio recordings of performance were rated. Muscle tension readings from the left arm, right arm, upper back, and lower back were taken, using electromyography. Results suggest nonsignificant differences in both performance quality and muscle…

  2. Error analysis of mixed finite element methods for wave propagation in double negative metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jichun

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we develop both semi-discrete and fully discrete mixed finite element methods for modeling wave propagation in three-dimensional double negative metamaterials. Optimal error estimates are proved for Nedelec spaces under the assumption of smooth solutions. To our best knowledge, this is the first error analysis obtained for Maxwell's equations when metamaterials are involved.

  3. Amplification methods bias metagenomic libraries of uncultured single-stranded and double-stranded DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-11-01

    Investigation of viruses in the environment often requires the amplification of viral DNA before sequencing of viral metagenomes. In this study, two of the most widely used amplification methods, the linker amplified shotgun library (LASL) and multiple displacement amplification (MDA) methods, were applied to a sample from the seawater surface. Viral DNA was extracted from viruses concentrated by tangential flow filtration and amplified by these two methods. 454 pyrosequencing was used to read the metagenomic sequences from different libraries. The resulting taxonomic classifications of the viruses, their functional assignments, and assembly patterns differed substantially depending on the amplification method. Only double-stranded DNA viruses were retrieved from the LASL, whereas most sequences in the MDA library were from single-stranded DNA viruses, and double-stranded DNA viral sequences were minorities. Thus, the two amplification methods reveal different aspects of viral diversity.

  4. Optical spectrosopy of HiTS supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Forster, F.; Smith, C.; Vivas, K.; Pignata, G.; Olivares, F.; Hamuy, M.; Martin, J. San; Maureira, J. C.; Cabrera, G.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Bufano, F.; de Jaeger, T.; Hsiao, E.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.

    2015-04-01

    We report optical wavelength spectroscopy obtained using the Goodman instrument mounted on the SOAR at CTIO on UT 2015-03-30, for two supernovae discovered by HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #7289, #7290).

  5. Mining Preferred Traversal Paths with HITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jieh-Shan; Lin, Ying-Lin; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    Web usage mining can discover useful information hidden in web logs data. However, many previous algorithms do not consider the structure of web pages, but regard all web pages with the same importance. This paper utilizes HITS values and PNT preferences as measures to mine users' preferred traversal paths. Wë structure mining uses HITS (hypertext induced topic selection) to rank web pages. PNT (preferred navigation tree) is an algorithm that finds users' preferred navigation paths. This paper introduces the Preferred Navigation Tree with HITS (PNTH) algorithm, which is an extension of PNT. This algorithm uses the concept of PNT and takes into account the relationships among web pages using HITS algorithm. This algorithm is suitable for E-commerce applications such as improving web site design and web server performance.

  6. More Older Women Hitting the Bottle Hard

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164321.html More Older Women Hitting the Bottle Hard Study found dramatic jump ... March 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- More older American women than ever are drinking -- and drinking hard, a ...

  7. Mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra, a novel spectrophotometric method for analysis of ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Said A.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of ternary mixtures without previous separation, showing significant advantages over conventional methods. The new method is based on mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was evaluated by determination of model ternary mixture and by the determination of Amlodipine (AML), Aliskiren (ALI) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in laboratory prepared mixtures and in a commercial pharmaceutical preparation. For proper presentation of the advantages and applicability of the new method, a comparative study was established between the new mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra (MCDD) and two similar methods used for analysis of ternary mixtures, namely mean centering (MC) and double divisor of ratio spectra-derivative spectrophotometry (DDRS-DS). The method was also compared with a reported one for analysis of the pharmaceutical preparation. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits.

  8. Mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra, a novel spectrophotometric method for analysis of ternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Said A; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2016-01-15

    A novel spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of ternary mixtures without previous separation, showing significant advantages over conventional methods. The new method is based on mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was evaluated by determination of model ternary mixture and by the determination of Amlodipine (AML), Aliskiren (ALI) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in laboratory prepared mixtures and in a commercial pharmaceutical preparation. For proper presentation of the advantages and applicability of the new method, a comparative study was established between the new mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra (MCDD) and two similar methods used for analysis of ternary mixtures, namely mean centering (MC) and double divisor of ratio spectra-derivative spectrophotometry (DDRS-DS). The method was also compared with a reported one for analysis of the pharmaceutical preparation. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits.

  9. Double Fourier Harmonic Balance Method for Nonlinear Oscillators by Means of Bessel Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-16

    Double Fourier harmonic balance method for nonlinear oscillators by means of Bessel series T.C. Lipscombe∗1 and C.E. Mungan†2 1Catholic University of... harmonic balance method consists in expanding the displacement of an oscillator as a Fourier cosine series in time. A key modification is proposed here, in...than the exact value. Even better, the predicted frequency for the V-ramp case turns out to be exact. Keywords: Fourier expansion, harmonic balance

  10. A planar lens in LiNbO3 produced by the double proton exchange method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. A.; Gan'shin, V. A.; Kvasha, M. Iu.; Korkishko, Iu. N.; Fedotov, S. M.

    1989-08-01

    Experiments are reported in which a waveguide lens in lithium niobate was produced by the method of double proton-lithium exchange. In this process, the formation of a Ti:LiNbO3 light waveguide is replaced by the formation of an H:LiNbO3 waveguide of identical parameters. The performance characteristics of the waveguide lenses fabricated by the method proposed here are as good as those of TIPE lenses.

  11. Optimal morphological hit-or-miss filtering of gray-level images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Edward R.

    1993-05-01

    The binary hit-or-miss transform is applied to filter digital gray-scale signals. This is accomplished by applying a union of hit-or-miss transforms to an observed signal's umbra and then taking the surface of the filtered umbra as the estimate of the ideal signal. The hit-or-miss union is constructed to provide the optimal mean-absolute-error filter for both the ideal signal and its umbra. The method is developed in detail for thinning hit-or-miss filters and applies at once to the dual thickening filters. It requires the output of the umbra filter to be an umbra, which in general is not true. A key aspect of the paper is the complete characterization of umbra-preserving union-of-hit-or-miss thinning and thickening filters. Taken together, the mean-absolute-error theory and the umbra-preservation characterization provide a full characterization of binary hit-or-miss filtering as applied to digital gray-scale signals. The theory is at once applicable to hit-or-miss filtering of digital gray-scale signals via the three- dimensional binary hit-or-miss transform.

  12. Double freeform surfaces design for laser beam shaping with Monge-Ampère equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Rengmao; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a method for designing double freeform surfaces to simultaneously control the intensity distribution and phase profile of the laser beam. Based on Snell’s law, the conservation law of energy and the constraint imposed on the optical path length between the input and output wavefronts, the double surfaces design is converted into an elliptic Monge-Ampère (MA) equation with a nonlinear boundary problem. A generalized approach is introduced to find the numerical solution of the design model. Two different layouts of the beam shaping system are introduced and detailed comparisons are also made between the two layouts. Design examples are given and the results indicate that good matching is achieved by the MA method with more than 98% of the energy efficiency. The MA method proposed in this paper provides a reasonably good means for laser beam shaping.

  13. Application of magnetic printing method to hard-disk media with double recording layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Kuboki, Yoshiyuki; Ajishi, Yoshifumi; Saito, Akira

    2003-05-01

    The magnetic printing method, which can duplicate soft magnetic patterns containing digital information such as servosignals formed on a master disk onto recording media, enables signals to be written to hard-disk media having high coercivities above 6000 Oe. We propose the application of the magnetic printing method to a hard-disk medium having double recording layers, one layer of which has high coercivity and is to be printed with digital information. This double recording layer medium is a hard-disk medium that has a magnetic read-only-memory (MROM) layer. In this study, we demonstrated a method for printing to this medium, which has MROM, and discussed the magnetic properties and recording performances of this medium.

  14. A joint sparse representation-based method for double-trial evoked potentials estimation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nannan; Liu, Haikuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Hanbing

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to solving an evoked potentials estimating problem. Generally, the evoked potentials in two consecutive trials obtained by repeated identical stimuli of the nerves are extremely similar. In order to trace evoked potentials, we propose a joint sparse representation-based double-trial evoked potentials estimation method, taking full advantage of this similarity. The estimation process is performed in three stages: first, according to the similarity of evoked potentials and the randomness of a spontaneous electroencephalogram, the two consecutive observations of evoked potentials are considered as superpositions of the common component and the unique components; second, making use of their characteristics, the two sparse dictionaries are constructed; and finally, we apply the joint sparse representation method in order to extract the common component of double-trial observations, instead of the evoked potential in each trial. A series of experiments carried out on simulated and human test responses confirmed the superior performance of our method.

  15. Two-Particle Coulomb Green Function Method with Projected Potential: Application to He Double Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, Luca; Colle, Renato

    2009-08-01

    A new method to compute fully differential double photoionization cross sections of atoms has been devised and fully developed for two-electron systems. The method exploits the Green function for two noninteracting electrons in the field of a nuclear charge to infer the effects of the residual potential projected on a set of L2-basis functions. Test calculations on helium at 100 eV excess energy indicate that, as long as the relevant part of the interaction potential is accounted for, the fully differential cross sections calculated in acceleration and velocity gauges converge in absolute value and reproduce measured angular distributions with a tunable accuracy. Generalization of the method to treat double photoionization of many-electron atoms is sketched.

  16. Two-particle coulomb Green function method with projected potential: application to He double photoionization.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Luca; Colle, Renato

    2009-12-31

    A new method to compute fully differential double photoionization cross sections of atoms has been devised and fully developed for two-electron systems. The method exploits the Green function for two noninteracting electrons in the field of a nuclear charge to infer the effects of the residual potential projected on a set of L(2)-basis functions. Test calculations on helium at 100 eV excess energy indicate that, as long as the relevant part of the interaction potential is accounted for, the fully differential cross sections calculated in acceleration and velocity gauges converge in absolute value and reproduce measured angular distributions with a tunable accuracy. Generalization of the method to treat double photoionization of many-electron atoms is sketched.

  17. Novel Microdilution Method to Assess Double and Triple Antibiotic Combination Therapy In Vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Azizi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro microdilution method was developed to assess double and triple combinations of antibiotics. Five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, amikacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin, and imipenem were tested against 10 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Each isolate was tested against ten double and nine triple combinations of the antibiotics. A 96-well plate was used to test three antibiotics, each one alone and in double and triple combinations against each isolate. The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations in combination were determined with respect to the most potent antibiotic. An Interaction Code (IC) was generated for each combination, where a numerical value was designated based on the 2-fold increase or decrease in the MICs with respect to the most potent antibiotic. The results of the combinations were verified by time-kill assay at constant concentrations of the antibiotics and in a chemostat. Only 13% of the double combinations were synergistic, whereas 5% showed antagonism. Forty-three percent of the triple combinations were synergistic with no antagonism observed, and 100% synergism was observed in combination of ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ceftazidime. The presented protocol is simple and fast and can help the clinicians in the early selection of the effective antibiotic therapy for treatment of severe infections.

  18. HIT: time to end behavioral health discrimination.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2012-10-01

    While the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, provided $20.6 billion for incentive payments to support the adoption and meaningful use of health information technology (HIT), behavioral health organizations were not eligible to receive facility payments. The consequences of excluding behavioral health from HIT incentive payments are found in the results of the "HIT Adoption and Meaningful Use Readiness in Community Behavioral Health" survey. The survey found that only 2% of community behavioral health organizations are able to meet federal meaningful use (MU) requirements-compare this to the 27% of Federally Qualified Health Centers and 20% of hospitals that already meet some level of MU requirements. Behavioral health organizations, serving more than eight million adults, children, and families with mental illnesses and addiction disorders, are ready and eager to adopt HIT to meet the goals of better healthcare, better health, and lower costs. But reaching these goals may prove impossible unless behavioral health achieves "parity" within healthcare and receives resources for the adoption of HIT.

  19. Optical Diagnostics on HIT-SI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Christopher; Jarboe, Thomas; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Interferometry and Thomson Scattering are implemented on the HIT-SI3 (Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3) device to provide time resolved measurements of electron density and spatially resolved measurements of electron temperature, respectively. HIT-SI3 is a modification of the original HIT-SI apparatus that uses three injectors instead of two. The scientific aim of HIT-SI3 is to develop a deeper understanding of how injector behavior and interactions influence current drive and spheromak stability. The interferometer system makes use of an intermediate frequency between two parallel 184.3 μm Far-Infrared (FIR) laser cavities which are optically pumped by a CO2 laser. The phase shift in this beat frequency due to the plasma index of refraction is used to calculate the line-integrated electron density. To measure the electron temperature, Thomson Scattered light from a 20 J (1 GW pulse) Ruby laser off of free electrons in the HIT-SI3 plasma is measured simultaneously at four locations across the spheromak (nominally 23 cm minor radius). Polychromators bin the collected light into 3 spectral bands to detect the relative level of scattering. Work supported by the D.O.E.

  20. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, N.; Hansen, D. C.; Lühr, A.; Thomsen, B.; Petersen, J. B.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The "-A" fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD-HIT to a heavy ion dose optimization algorithm to provide MC-optimized treatment plans that include radiobiology. Methods: SHIELD-HIT12A is written in FORTRAN and carefully retains platform independence. A powerful scoring engine is implemented scoring relevant quantities such as dose and track-average LET. It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms. We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More information about SHIELD-HIT12A and a demo version can be found on http://www.shieldhit.org.

  1. Double tracer autoradiographic method for sequential evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Kinuya, K.; Terada, H.; Sumiya, H.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Hisada, K.; Maeda, T. )

    1989-01-01

    A new double tracer autoradiographic method for the sequential evaluation of altered regional cerebral perfusion in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two tracers, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and N-isopropyl-({sup 125}I)p-iodoamphetamine. This method is validated in the assessment of brovincamine effects on regional cerebral perfusion in an experimental model of chronic brain ischemia in the rat. The drug enhanced perfusion recovery in low-flow areas, selectively in surrounding areas of infarction. The results suggest that this technique is of potential use in the study of neuropharmacological effects applied during the experiment.

  2. A Double-difference Earthquake location algorithm: Method and application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldhauser, F.; Ellsworth, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed an efficient method to determine high-resolution hypocenter locations over large distances. The location method incorporates ordinary absolute travel-time measurements and/or cross-correlation P-and S-wave differential travel-time measurements. Residuals between observed and theoretical travel-time differences (or double-differences) are minimized for pairs of earthquakes at each station while linking together all observed event-station pairs. A least-squares solution is found by iteratively adjusting the vector difference between hypocentral pairs. The double-difference algorithm minimizes errors due to unmodeled velocity structure without the use of station corrections. Because catalog and cross-correlation data are combined into one system of equations, interevent distances within multiplets are determined to the accuracy of the cross-correlation data, while the relative locations between multiplets and uncorrelated events are simultaneously determined to the accuracy of the absolute travel-time data. Statistical resampling methods are used to estimate data accuracy and location errors. Uncertainties in double-difference locations are improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to catalog locations. The algorithm is tested, and its performance is demonstrated on two clusters of earthquakes located on the northern Hayward fault, California. There it colapses the diffuse catalog locations into sharp images of seismicity and reveals horizontal lineations of hypocenter that define the narrow regions on the fault where stress is released by brittle failure.

  3. High resolution image reconstruction method for a double-plane PET system with changeable spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Zhou, Wei; Li, Lin; Wei, Long; Yin, Peng-Fei; Shang, Lei-Min; Yun, Ming-Kai; Lu, Zhen-Rui; Huang, Xian-Chao

    2016-05-01

    Breast-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques have been developed in recent years. Their capacities to detect millimeter-sized breast tumors have been the subject of many studies. Some of them have been confirmed with good results in clinical applications. With regard to biopsy application, a double-plane detector arrangement is practicable, as it offers the convenience of breast immobilization. However, the serious blurring effect of the double-plane PET, with changeable spacing for different breast sizes, should be studied. We investigated a high resolution reconstruction method applicable for a double-plane PET. The distance between the detector planes is changeable. Geometric and blurring components were calculated in real-time for different detector distances, and accurate geometric sensitivity was obtained with a new tube area model. Resolution recovery was achieved by estimating blurring effects derived from simulated single gamma response information. The results showed that the new geometric modeling gave a more finite and smooth sensitivity weight in the double-plane PET. The blurring component yielded contrast recovery levels that could not be reached without blurring modeling, and improved visual recovery of the smallest spheres and better delineation of the structures in the reconstructed images were achieved with the blurring component. Statistical noise had lower variance at the voxel level with blurring modeling at matched resolution, compared to without blurring modeling. In distance-changeable double-plane PET, finite resolution modeling during reconstruction achieved resolution recovery, without noise amplification. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Project of The Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-EW-N06)

  4. EDL configuration on a dissimilarly charged protrusion array via double Fourier series and perturbation method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Hwa; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn; Kuo, Yung-Chih; Liu, Bo-Tau

    2011-11-01

    In this study, through the extension of an one-dimensional, dissimilarly charged protrusions surface model set up in our previous work, a novel dissimilarly charged protrusion array (DCPA) model immersed in an electrolyte solution, which could simulate realistically both the surface morphology and the surface charged condition profoundly concerned on a biological cell membrane, or on the surface of a micro-scale, modified particle used in biomedical engineering and water treatment, is proposed. Considering the condition of small protrusions, the electrical potential field due to the electrical double layer (EDL) on DCPA model is solved semi-analytically using both the double Fourier series and the perturbation method. The analysis from the numerical result reveals that, a small, dissimilarly charged protrusion can lead to a steep variation in the local EDL configuration, especially compared with that in the condition when the charged surface is taken roughly as a flat surface using a lumped, mean surface charge density.

  5. Double images encryption method with resistance against the specific attack based on an asymmetric algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2012-05-21

    A double-image encryption technique that based on an asymmetric algorithm is proposed. In this method, the encryption process is different from the decryption and the encrypting keys are also different from the decrypting keys. In the nonlinear encryption process, the images are encoded into an amplitude cyphertext, and two phase-only masks (POMs) generated based on phase truncation are kept as keys for decryption. By using the classical double random phase encoding (DRPE) system, the primary images can be collected by an intensity detector that located at the output plane. Three random POMs that applied in the asymmetric encryption can be safely applied as public keys. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed protocol.

  6. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  7. Single-Mach and double-Mach reflection - Its representation in Ernst Mach's historical soot method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehl, P.

    In 1875 Ernst Mach discovered the effect of irregular interaction of shock waves, the so-called single Mach reflection (SMR), which for symmetric geometry is characterized by two triple points. He recorded their two trajectories on a soot-covered glass plate. Appearing as two mirror-symmetric V-branches, they form the well-known Mach soot funnel. Combining this soot method with the schlieren technique facilitates the interpretation of soot-recorded interaction phenomena as well as allows to resolve the soot removal mechanism in time. Increasing the dynamic recording range of the soot layer in terms of reflected shock pressures even renders visualization of double-Mach reflection (DMR) which, in the case of symmetric shock interaction, is characterized by a second concentric, external 'double-Mach funnel'. At transition of DMR to SMR it merges into the ordinary 'single-Mach funnel'.

  8. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  9. Hitting Diamonds and Growing Cacti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Samuel; Joret, Gwenaël; Pietropaoli, Ugo

    We consider the following NP-hard problem: in a weighted graph, find a minimum cost set of vertices whose removal leaves a graph in which no two cycles share an edge. We obtain a constant-factor approximation algorithm, based on the primal-dual method. Moreover, we show that the integrality gap of the natural LP relaxation of the problem is Θ(logn), where n denotes the number of vertices in the graph.

  10. Statistical properties and pre-hit dynamics of price limit hits in the Chinese stock markets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders' short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners.

  11. Statistical Properties and Pre-Hit Dynamics of Price Limit Hits in the Chinese Stock Markets

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders’ short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners. PMID:25874716

  12. Precise timing when hitting falling balls

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  13. Arabidopsis HIT4, a regulator involved in heat-triggered reorganization of chromatin and release of transcriptional gene silencing, relocates from chromocenters to the nucleolus in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Chin; Wu, Jia-Rong; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Wu, Shaw-Jye

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis HIT4 is known to mediate heat-induced decondensation of chromocenters and release from transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) with no change in the level of DNA methylation. It is unclear whether HIT4 and MOM1, a well-known DNA methylation-independent transcriptional silencer, have overlapping regulatory functions. A hit4-1/mom1 double mutant strain was generated. Its nuclear morphology and TGS state were compared with those of wild-type, hit4-1, and mom1 plants. Fluorescent protein tagging was employed to track the fates of HIT4, hit4-1 and MOM1 in vivo under heat stress. HIT4- and MOM1-mediated TGS were distinguishable. Both HIT4 and MOM1 were localized normally to chromocenters. Under heat stress, HIT4 relocated to the nucleolus, whereas MOM1 dispersed with the chromocenters. hit4-1 was able to relocate to the nucleolus under heat stress, but its relocation was insufficient to trigger the decompaction of chromocenters. The hypersensitivity to heat associated with the impaired reactivation of TGS in hit4-1 was not alleviated by mom1-induced release from TGS. HIT4 delineates a novel and MOM1-independent TGS regulation pathway. The involvement of a currently unidentified component that links HIT4 relocation and the large-scale reorganization of chromatin, and which is essential for heat tolerance in plants is hypothesized.

  14. Double hypernuclei experiment with hybrid emulsion method (J-PARC E07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawa, Hiroyuki; J-APRC E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Double hypernuclei are important probes to study the system with strangeness -2. In order to search for double hypernuclei, an upgrade experiment is planned at J-PARC K1.8 beam line. In the experiment, the KURAMA spectrometer system will detect Ξ- production in the (K- ,K+) reaction on a diamond target. SSDs located the upstream and the downstream of emulsion plates will record Ξ- tracks which flight toward emulsion plates precisely. Tracks in SSDs and emulsion will be automatically connected by a hybrid method. Discoveries of more than 10 new double hypernuclear species are expected, which enable us to discuss binding energy in terms of mass number dependence. On the other hand, we will also observe X rays from Ξ- atoms with a Germanium detector array installed close to the emulsion by tagging Ξ-stopped events. This will be the first measurement in the world and give information on the Ξ-potential shape at the nuclear surface region. Emulsion production has been completely done and a test experiment for some detectors of KURAMA spectrometer was carried out. In this talk, physics motivation and current status of the J-PARC E07 experiment will be reported.

  15. Cognitive orientations in marathon running and "hitting the wall"

    PubMed Central

    Stevinson, C. D.; Biddle, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether runners' cognitions during a marathon are related to "hitting the wall". To test a new and more comprehensive system for classifying cognition of marathon runners. METHODS: Non-elite runners (n = 66) completed a questionnaire after finishing the 1996 London marathon. The runners were recruited through the charity SPARKS for whom they were raising money by running in the race. RESULTS: Most runners reported that during the race their thoughts were internally associative, with internally dissociative thoughts being the least prevalent. Runners who "hit the wall" used more internal dissociation than other runners, indicating that it is a hazardous strategy, probably because sensory feedback is blocked. However, internal association was related to an earlier onset of "the wall", suggesting that too much attention on physical symptoms may magnify them, thereby exaggerating any discomfort. External dissociation was related to a later onset, probably because it may provide a degree of distraction but keeps attention on the race. CONCLUSIONS: "Hitting the wall" for recreational non-elite marathon runners is associated with their thought patterns during the race. In particular, "the wall" is associated with internal dissociation. 




 PMID:9773172

  16. Second-order perturbation corrections to singles and doubles coupled-cluster methods: General theory and application to the valence optimized doubles model

    SciTech Connect

    Gwaltney, Steven R.; Sherrill, C. David; Head-Gordon, Martin; Krylov, Anna I.

    2000-09-01

    We present a general perturbative method for correcting a singles and doubles coupled-cluster energy. The coupled-cluster wave function is used to define a similarity-transformed Hamiltonian, which is partitioned into a zeroth-order part that the reference problem solves exactly plus a first-order perturbation. Standard perturbation theory through second-order provides the leading correction. Applied to the valence optimized doubles (VOD) approximation to the full-valence complete active space self-consistent field method, the second-order correction, which we call (2), captures dynamical correlation effects through external single, double, and semi-internal triple and quadruple substitutions. A factorization approximation reduces the cost of the quadruple substitutions to only sixth order in the size of the molecule. A series of numerical tests are presented showing that VOD(2) is stable and well-behaved provided that the VOD reference is also stable. The second-order correction is also general to standard unwindowed coupled-cluster energies such as the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method itself, and the equations presented here fully define the corresponding CCSD(2) energy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  17. 76 FR 25355 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Recommendations AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., clinical operations, implementation, and privacy and security. HIT Standards Committee's Schedule for the... information technology standards, implementation specifications, and/or certification criteria. Once the...

  18. Double-Ended Surface Walking Method for Pathway Building and Transition State Location of Complex Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Shang, Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2013-12-10

    Toward the activity prediction with large-scale computations, here a double-ended surface walking (DESW) method is developed for connecting two minima on a potential energy surface (PES) and locating the associated transition state (TS) using only the first derivatives. The method operates two images starting from the initial and the final states, respectively, to walk in a stepwise manner toward each other. The surface walking involves repeated bias potential addition and local relaxation with the constrained Broyden dimer method to correct the walking direction. We apply the method to a model PES, a large set of gas phase Baker reactions, and complex surface catalytic reactions, which demonstrates that the DESW method can establish a low energy pathway linking two minima even without iterative optimization of the pathway, from which the TS can be located readily. By comparing the efficiency of the new method with the existing methods, we show that the DESW method is much less computationally demanding and is applicable for reactions with complex PESs. We hope that the DESW method may be integrated with the PES sampling methods for automated reaction prediction.

  19. Post-hit dynamics of price limit hits in the Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yue; Li, Ming-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are useful to cool off traders short-term trading mania on individual stocks. The price dynamics approaching the limit boards are known as the magnet effect. However, the price dynamics after opening price limit hits are not well investigated. Here, we provide a detailed analysis on the price dynamics after the hits of up-limit or down-limit is open based on all A-share stocks traded in the Chinese stock markets. A "W" shape is found in the expected return, which reveals high probability of a continuous price limit hit on the following day. We also find that price dynamics after opening limit hits are dependent on the market trends. The time span of continuously hitting the price limit is found to an influence factor of the expected profit after the limit hit is open. Our analysis provides a better understanding of the price dynamics around the limit boards and contributes potential practical values for investors.

  20. Rapid, simple method of preparing rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Theil, K W; McCloskey, C M; Saif, L J; Redman, D R; Bohl, E H; Hancock, D D; Kohler, E M; Moorhead, P D

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for extracting rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) directly from fecal and intestinal specimens collected from calves and pigs is described. This procedure provides a rapid, simple, reproducible method of obtaining rotaviral double-stranded RNA preparations suitable for electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels. The rotaviral genome electrophoretic migration pattern produced by double-stranded RNA extracted directly from a specimen by this procedure was qualitatively identical to the electrophoretic migration pattern obtained with double-stranded RNA extracted from purified rotavirus derived from the same specimen. Direct extraction of specimens containing porcine rotavirus-like virus by this procedure gave preparations that had electrophoretic migration patterns similar, but not identical, to the characteristic electrophoretic migration pattern of the rotaviral genome. Sufficient rotaviral double-stranded RNA could be extracted from 6 ml of fecal or intestinal specimen by this procedure to permit 15 or more electrophoretic assays. Images PMID:6270190

  1. Computing Principal Eigenvectors of Large Web Graphs: Algorithms and Accelerations Related to PageRank and HITS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasinghe, Iranga

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates and develops a few acceleration techniques for the search engine algorithms used in PageRank and HITS computations. PageRank and HITS methods are two highly successful applications of modern Linear Algebra in computer science and engineering. They constitute the essential technologies accounted for the immense growth and…

  2. Could the novel ‘double-hole’ technique be an alternative for the inflow occlusion method?

    PubMed Central

    Bozok, Sahin; Gokhan, Ilhan; Izmir,, Kazdal; Berkan, Ozpak; Ismail, Yurekli; Mert, Kestelli; Serdar, Bayrak

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Inflow occlusion on beating heart and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques have been proposed for the removal of foreign material, such as stents, catheters and mass lesions, from cardiac chambers. However, both techniques are not devoid of disadvantages and complications. In this article, we define an alternative, novel ‘double-hole’ technique, which is based on opening the right atrium without cardiopulmonary bypass . Methods Bovine hearts were obtained from a local supermarket. Two purse-string sutures were placed in the right atrium using 2-0 braided, non-absorbable polyester suture material, one close to the auricle, and the other close to the interatrial septum. The guidewire of a haemodialysis catheter was inserted through the superior vena cava into the right atrium and passed all the way through the right ventricle. Results We suggest that the double-hole technique may be useful, especially in revision cases with adhesions. Further research should be performed to document the efficacy and safety of this method. Conclusion We are aware that further extensive research is necessary to investigate the utility of this novel technique in contemporary cardiovascular surgery. We believe the doublehole technique has the potential to become a safe, practical and effective measure in the future. PMID:27078129

  3. Double hexagonal graphene ring synthesized using a growth-etching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinyang; Xu, Yangyang; Cai, Hongbing; Zuo, Chuandong; Huang, Zhigao; Lin, Limei; Guo, Xiaomin; Chen, Zhendong; Lai, Fachun

    2016-07-01

    Precisely controlling the layer number, stacking order, edge configuration, shape and structure of graphene is extremely challenging but highly desirable in scientific research. In this report, a new concept named the growth-etching method has been explored to synthesize a graphene ring using the chemical vapor deposition process. The graphene ring is a hexagonal structure, which contains a hexagonal exterior edge and a hexagonal hole in the centre region. The most important concept introduced here is that the oxide nanoparticle derived from annealing is found to play a dual role. Firstly, it acts as a nucleation site to grow the hexagonal graphene domain and then it works as a defect for etching to form a hole. The evolution process of the graphene ring with the etching time was carefully studied. In addition, a double hexagonal graphene ring was successfully synthesized for the first time by repeating the growth-etching process, which not only confirms the validity and repeatability of the method developed here but may also be further extended to grow unique graphene nanostructures with three, four, or even tens of graphene rings. Finally, a schematic model was drawn to illustrate how the double hexagonal graphene ring is generated and propagated. The results shown here may provide valuable guidance for the design and growth of unique nanostructures of graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

  4. Mumps Cases Hit 10-Year High in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162676.html Mumps Cases Hit 10-Year High in U.S. Contagious ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mumps cases have hit a 10-year high in ...

  5. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  6. Universal Hitting Time Statistics for Integrable Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Marklof, Jens; Strömbergsson, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The perceived randomness in the time evolution of "chaotic" dynamical systems can be characterized by universal probabilistic limit laws, which do not depend on the fine features of the individual system. One important example is the Poisson law for the times at which a particle with random initial data hits a small set. This was proved in various settings for dynamical systems with strong mixing properties. The key result of the present study is that, despite the absence of mixing, the hitting times of integrable flows also satisfy universal limit laws which are, however, not Poisson. We describe the limit distributions for "generic" integrable flows and a natural class of target sets, and illustrate our findings with two examples: the dynamics in central force fields and ellipse billiards. The convergence of the hitting time process follows from a new equidistribution theorem in the space of lattices, which is of independent interest. Its proof exploits Ratner's measure classification theorem for unipotent flows, and extends earlier work of Elkies and McMullen.

  7. [Determination of double bonds in olive and sunflower oils by ozonize method].

    PubMed

    Evteeva, N M

    2007-01-01

    Kinetics of spending double bonds of tocotherol and accumulation of peroxides during oxidation of olive and sunflower oils were investigated. Date on spending double bonds during oxidation of commercial oils were measured for the first time.

  8. DSMC calculations for the double ellipse. [direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; Price, Joseph M.; Celenligil, M. Cevdet

    1990-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method involves the simultaneous computation of the trajectories of thousands of simulated molecules in simulated physical space. Rarefied flow about the double ellipse for test case 6.4.1 has been calculated with the DSMC method of Bird. The gas is assumed to be nonreacting nitrogen flowing at a 30 degree incidence with respect to the body axis, and for the surface boundary conditions, the wall is assumed to be diffuse with full thermal accommodation and at a constant wall temperature of 620 K. A parametric study is presented that considers the effect of variations of computational domain, gas model, cell size, and freestream density on surface quantities.

  9. Simulation of electric double-layer capacitors: evaluation of constant potential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David; Asta, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Atomistic simulations can play an important role in understanding electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) at a molecular level. In such simulations, typically the electrode surface is modeled using fixed surface charges, which ignores the charge fluctuation induced by local fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work we evaluate an explicit treatment of charges, namely constant potential method (CPM)[1], in which the electrode charges are dynamically updated to maintain constant electrode potential. We employ a model system with a graphite electrode and a LiClO4/acetonitrile electrolyte, examined as a function of electrode potential differences. Using various molecular and macroscopic properties as metrics, we compare CPM simulations on this system to results using fixed surface charges. Specifically, results for predicted capacity, electric potential gradient and solvent density profile are identical between the two methods; However, ion density profiles and solvation structure yield significantly different results.

  10. Use of finite element analysis to optimize probe design for double sensor method-based thermometer.

    PubMed

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-08-01

    Body temperature is an essential vital sign for assessing physiological functions. The double sensor method-based thermometer is a promising technology that may be applicable to body temperature monitoring in daily life. It continuously estimates deep tissue temperature from the intact skin surface. Despite its considerable potential for monitoring body temperature, its key design features have not been investigated. In this study, we considered four design factors: the cover material, insulator material, insulator radius, and insulator height. We also evaluated their effects on the performance of the double sensor thermometer in terms of accuracy, initial waiting time, and the ability to track changes in body temperature. The probe material and size influenced the accuracy and initial waiting time. Finite element analysis revealed that four thermometers of different sizes composed of an aluminum cover and foam insulator provided high accuracy (<0.1°C) under various ambient temperatures and blood perfusion rates: R=20mm, H=5mm; R=15mm, H=10mm; R=20mm, H=10mm; and R=15mm, H=15mm. The initial waiting time was approximately 10min with almost the same traceability of temperature change. Our findings may provide thermometer manufacturers with new insights into probe design and help them fabricate thermometers optimized for specific applications.

  11. Simple Method of Counterclockwise Isthmus Conduction Block by Comparing Double Potentials and Flutter Cycle Length

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Kwon, Keun-Sang; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Kang-Hyu; Lee, Sang Rok; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Won-Ho; Ko, Jae-Ki; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Kim, You-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Local wide split double potentials are used as a parameter to determine complete conduction block during cavotricuspid isthmus ablation in patients with isthmus dependent atrial flutter. However, delayed slow conduction in that region can sometimes be very difficult to differentiate from complete block. Flutter cycle length (FCL) can be used to confirm isthmus conduction block, because FCL is a measure of conduction time around the tricuspid annulus (TA). This study was designed to determine which degree of splitting of the local electrograms is adequate to confirm complete isthmus block, using FCL as a reference. Subjects and Methods Cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation was performed in fifty consecutive patients. The interval between the pacing stimulus on the lateral side of the CTI and the first component of the double potentials on the block line (SD1) corresponded to the counterclockwise conduction time. The interval between the pacing stimulus and second component (SD2) represented the clockwise conduction time to the contralateral side of the ablation line. SD1 and SD2 were measured before and after complete isthmus block. Results An SD1+SD2 reaching 90% of the FCL identified the counterclockwise isthmus conduction block with 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusion If the sum of SD1 and SD2 following isthmus ablation was close to the FCL, complete conduction block was predicted with high diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value for at least counterclockwise conduction. PMID:20049138

  12. Comparing Regional Seismic Location Results Using Kriged Travel Time Correction Surfaces and Double-Difference Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnaud, M. L.; Velasco, A. A.; Steck, L. K.

    2001-12-01

    The use of kriged two-dimensional travel time correction surfaces improves the location of regional seismic events using a sparse network. For more closely-spaced regional events (approximately 150 km), using travel time correction surfaces does not always demonstrate a distinct improvement in relative locations. A new location program HYPODD [Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000] uses a double-difference location algorithm with events correlated based on travel times. While this algorithm has been tested on local events with a fairly dense seismic network, it has not been tested with regional networks that have large station-event distances. We will compare locations defined using two-dimensional travel time correction surfaces with those from the double-difference method [Flores et al., this issue]. We will utilize a data set of approximately 142 events for a region around the Mw=7.5 Tibet event of 08NOV1997, with manually-picked P and S arrivals as well as global catalog arrivals having a station-event distance ranging from 5.5 to over 30 degrees. The Tibet event provides a unique ground truth test due to the presence of a related surface rupture identified by Inferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) [Peltzer et al., 1999] and the determination of the Tibet event as associated with a vertical strike/slip fault [Velasco et al., 2000]. We will test which method produces relocations that better align with this surface rupture. In addition, a small (5 km) secondary rupture was identified with the main rupture, but with no associated seismic event. We will also test whether each method relocates any events near to this secondary rupture.

  13. Calculating the reflected radiation error between turbine blades and vanes based on double contour integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chi; Li, Dong; Gao, Shan; Daniel, Ketui

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamic) simulation and experimental results for the reflected radiation error from turbine vanes when measuring turbine blade's temperature using a pyrometer. In the paper, an accurate reflection model based on discrete irregular surfaces is established. Double contour integral method is used to calculate view factor between the irregular surfaces. Calculated reflected radiation error was found to change with relative position between blades and vanes as temperature distribution of vanes and blades was simulated using CFD. Simulation results indicated that when the vanes suction surface temperature ranged from 860 K to 1060 K and the blades pressure surface average temperature is 805 K, pyrometer measurement error can reach up to 6.35%. Experimental results show that the maximum pyrometer absolute error of three different targets on the blade decreases from 6.52%, 4.15% and 1.35% to 0.89%, 0.82% and 0.69% respectively after error correction.

  14. Nonlinear free vibrations of curved double walled carbon nanotubes using differential quadrature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigeroglu, Ender; Samandari, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied in this study. Nonlinearities considered are due to large deflection of carbon nanotubes (geometric nonlinearity) and nonlinear interlayer van der Waals forces between inner and outer tubes. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized to discretize the partial differential equations of motion in spatial domain, which resulted in a nonlinear set of algebraic equations of motion. The effect of nonlinearities, different end conditions, initial curvature, and stiffness of the surrounding elastic medium, and vibrational modes on the nonlinear free vibration of DWCNTs is studied. Results show that it is possible to detect different vibration modes occurring at a single vibration frequency when CNTs vibrate in the out-of-phase vibration mode. Moreover, it is observed that boundary conditions have significant effect on the nonlinear natural frequencies of the DWCNT including multiple solutions.

  15. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  16. Equation-of-motion coupled cluster method for high spin double electron attachment calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Musiał, Monika Lupa, Łukasz; Kucharski, Stanisław A.

    2014-03-21

    The new formulation of the equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled cluster (CC) approach applicable to the calculations of the double electron attachment (DEA) states for the high spin components is proposed. The new EOM equations are derived for the high spin triplet and quintet states. In both cases the new equations are easier to solve but the substantial simplification is observed in the case of quintets. Out of 21 diagrammatic terms contributing to the standard DEA-EOM-CCSDT equations for the R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} amplitudes only four terms survive contributing to the R{sub 3} part. The implemented method has been applied to the calculations of the excited states (singlets, triplets, and quintets) energies of the carbon and silicon atoms and potential energy curves for selected states of the Na{sub 2} (triplets) and B{sub 2} (quintets) molecules.

  17. Study of acoustic field modulation in the regenerator by double loudspeakers method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lihua; Xie, Xiujuan; Li, Qing

    2011-11-01

    A model to modulate acoustic field in a regenerator of a thermoacoustic system by the double loudspeakers method is presented in this paper. The equations are derived for acoustic field modulation. They represent the relations among acoustic field (complex pressure p(0), complex velocity u(0), and acoustic impedance Z(0)), driving parameters of loudspeakers (voltage amplitude and its phase difference), and operating parameters involved in a matrix H (frequency, temperature of regenerator). The range of acoustic field is adjustable and limited by the maximal driving voltages of loudspeakers according to driving parameters. The range is simulated and analyzed in the amplitude-phase and complex coordinate planes for a given or variable H. The simulated results indicate that the range has its intrinsic characteristics. The expected acoustic field in a regenerator can be obtained feasibly by the modulation.

  18. A double-observer method for reducing bias in faecal pellet surveys of forest ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, K.J.; Manly, B.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Faecal surveys are used widely to study variations in abundance and distribution of forest-dwelling mammals when direct enumeration is not feasible. The utility of faecal indices of abundance is limited, however, by observational bias and variation in faecal disappearance rates that obscure their relationship to population size. We developed methods to reduce variability in faecal surveys and improve reliability of faecal indices. 2. We used double-observer transect sampling to estimate observational bias of faecal surveys of Roosevelt elk Cervus elaphus roosevelti and Columbian black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We also modelled differences in counts of faecal groups obtained from paired cleared and uncleared transect segments as a means to adjust standing crop faecal counts for a standard accumulation interval and to reduce bias resulting from variable decay rates. 3. Estimated detection probabilities of faecal groups ranged from < 0.2-1.0 depending upon the observer, whether the faecal group was from elk or deer, faecal group size, distance of the faecal group from the sampling transect, ground vegetation cover, and the interaction between faecal group size and distance from the transect. 4. Models of plot-clearing effects indicated that standing crop counts of deer faecal groups required 34% reduction on flat terrain and 53% reduction on sloping terrain to represent faeces accumulated over a standard 100-day interval, whereas counts of elk faecal groups required 0% and 46% reductions on flat and sloping terrain, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Double-observer transect sampling provides a cost-effective means of reducing observational bias and variation in faecal decay rates that obscure the interpretation of faecal indices of large mammal abundance. Given the variation we observed in observational bias of faecal surveys and persistence of faeces, we emphasize the need for future

  19. Dimensional measurement of micro parts with high aspect ratio in HIT-UOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hong; Cui, Jiwen; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Zhao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Haoran; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-11-01

    Micro parts with high aspect ratios have been widely used in different fields including aerospace and defense industries, while the dimensional measurement of these micro parts becomes a challenge in the field of precision measurement and instrument. To deal with this contradiction, several probes for the micro parts precision measurement have been proposed by researchers in Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrument (UOI), Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). In this paper, optical fiber probes with structures of spherical coupling(SC) with double optical fibers, micro focal-length collimation (MFL-collimation) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are described in detail. After introducing the sensing principles, both advantages and disadvantages of these probes are analyzed respectively. In order to improve the performances of these probes, several approaches are proposed. A two-dimensional orthogonal path arrangement is propounded to enhance the dimensional measurement ability of MFL-collimation probes, while a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on differential method is used to improve the accuracy and dynamic characteristics of the FBG probes. The experiments for these special structural fiber probes are given with a focus on the characteristics of these probes, and engineering applications will also be presented to prove the availability of them. In order to improve the accuracy and the instantaneity of the engineering applications, several techniques are used in probe integration. The effectiveness of these fiber probes were therefore verified through both the analysis and experiments.

  20. ISS Double-Gimbaled CMG Subsystem Simulation Using the Agile Development Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inampudi, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach in simulating a cluster of 4 Control Moment Gyros (CMG) on the International Space Station (ISS) using a common sense approach (the agile development method) for concurrent mathematical modeling and simulation of the CMG subsystem. This simulation is part of Training systems for the 21st Century simulator which will provide training for crew members, instructors, and flight controllers. The basic idea of how the CMGs on the space station are used for its non-propulsive attitude control is briefly explained to set up the context for simulating a CMG subsystem. Next different reference frames and the detailed equations of motion (EOM) for multiple double-gimbal variable-speed control moment gyroscopes (DGVs) are presented. Fixing some of the terms in the EOM becomes the special case EOM for ISS's double-gimbaled fixed speed CMGs. CMG simulation development using the agile development method is presented in which customer's requirements and solutions evolve through iterative analysis, design, coding, unit testing and acceptance testing. At the end of the iteration a set of features implemented in that iteration are demonstrated to the flight controllers thus creating a short feedback loop and helping in creating adaptive development cycles. The unified modeling language (UML) tool is used in illustrating the user stories, class designs and sequence diagrams. This incremental development approach of mathematical modeling and simulating the CMG subsystem involved the development team and the customer early on, thus improving the quality of the working CMG system in each iteration and helping the team to accurately predict the cost, schedule and delivery of the software.

  1. Method for colorimetric detection of double-stranded nucleic acid using leuco triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Sano, Sotaro; Takahashi, Koji; Jikihara, Takaaki

    2015-03-15

    Because loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can amplify substantial amounts of DNA under isothermal conditions, its applications for simple genetic testing have attracted considerable attention. A positive LAMP reaction is indicated by the turbidity caused by by-products or by the color change after adding a metallochromic indicator to the reaction solution, but these methods have certain limitations. Leuco crystal violet (LCV), a colorless dye obtained after sodium sulfite treatment of crystal violet (CV), was used as a new colorimetric method for detecting LAMP. LCV is reconverted into CV through contact with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Therefore, the positive reaction of LAMP is indicated by color change from colorless to violet. The assay is sensitive enough to detect LAMP products, with a detection limit of 7.1 ng/μl for dsDNA. It is also highly selective to dsDNA, and interference with single-stranded DNA and deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) is not observed. LCV facilitates direct colorimetric detection of the main product rather than a by-product of the LAMP reaction; therefore, this method can be used under various reaction conditions such as those with added pyrophosphatase in solution. This colorimetric LAMP detection method using LCV is useful for point-of-care genetic testing given its simplicity.

  2. Estimate of the trigger inefficiency due to extra hits in H1 and H2, using clean Chi(2) events

    SciTech Connect

    Mussa, R.; /INFN, Turin /Turin U.

    1992-07-01

    An accurate study of the inefficiency of the trigger selection criterium based on the multiplicity of hits in the two hodoscopes has been done using {chi}{sub 2} events take during the 1991 run, selected requiring that both electron tracks were associated to a Cherenkov hit (so that no multiplicity requirement at trigger level was asked), and a {chi}{sup 2} probability for the kinematic fit bigger than 0.01. In a table it is shown the number of events found for different multiplicities in the two hodoscopes. They have 554/1819 = 30.5 {+-} 1.3% of the events with extra-hits in the two hodoscopes, and they can think of 3 possible sources for this effect: (1) accidental {delta} rays due to the interactions of the beam halo inside or against the walls of the beam pipe give an extra activity on H1 that should be uncorrelated to the hits due to real tracks; (2) {delta} rays at large angles emitted by the electrons interacting with the inner layers of the detector, so that they expect extra-hits close to the real tracks; and (3) the conversion of the {delta} inside the beam pipe and in the inner detectors can give an extra-hit in H2 or H1 and H2: this also doubles the number of sources of {delta} rays, so that a big number of these events have 4 H2 firing.

  3. Double error shrinkage method for identifying protein binding sites observed by tiling arrays with limited replication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchul; Bekiranov, Stefan; Lee, Jae K.; Park, Taesung

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: ChIP–chip has been widely used for various genome-wide biological investigations. Given the small number of replicates (typically two to three) per biological sample, methods of analysis that control the variance are desirable but in short supply. We propose a double error shrinkage (DES) method by using moving average statistics based on local-pooled error estimates which effectively control both heterogeneous error variances and correlation structures of an extremely large number of individual probes on tiling arrays. Results: Applying DES to ChIP–chip tiling array study for discovering genome-wide protein-binding sites, we identified 8400 target regions that include highly likely TFIID binding sites. About 33% of these were well matched with the known transcription starting sites on the DBTSS library, while many other newly identified sites have a high chance to be real binding sites based on a high positive predictive value of DES. We also showed the superior performance of DES compared with other commonly used methods for detecting actual protein binding sites. Contact: tspark@snu.ac.kr; jaeklee@virginia.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19667080

  4. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian B.; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark

    2014-11-14

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO{sub 4}-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of “inner-sphere adsorbed” Li{sup +} ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li{sup +} ions to the electrode surface.

  5. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenxing; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian B

    2014-11-14

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO4-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of "inner-sphere adsorbed" Li(+) ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li(+) ions to the electrode surface.

  6. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian B.

    2014-11-01

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO4-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of "inner-sphere adsorbed" Li+ ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li+ ions to the electrode surface.

  7. A novel method to get methotrexatum/layered double hydroxides intercalation compounds and their release properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fenglin; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Shuping

    2013-08-01

    In this context, the methotrexatum/layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) intercalation compounds have been synthesized by a mechanochemical-hydrothermal method, which involves a grinding process and subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The influence of R (molar ratio of Mg2+ to Al3+ to MTX) values on the structure and morphology of the intercalation compounds and their release properties were investigated systematically. The resulting compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. All the results indicate that R value has significant influence on the intercalation of MTX anions into LDH interlayer and the optimal R value is 2:1:0.5. Furthermore, four dissolution-diffusion kinetic models were used to fit the in vitro release of MTX from LDH layers. The release process can be divided into two stages: firstly surface diffusion and secondly intraparticle diffusion. The study also revealed that the properties of the intercalation compounds is comparable to that obtained from standard methods such as co-precipitation method, but with time, solvent and energy saving.

  8. Enrollment Forecasting with Double Exponential Smoothing: Two Methods for Objective Weight Factor Selection. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Don E.

    The merits of double exponential smoothing are discussed relative to other types of pattern-based enrollment forecasting methods. The difficulties associated with selecting an appropriate weight factor are discussed, and their potential effects on prediction results are illustrated. Two methods for objectively selecting the "best" weight…

  9. 77 FR 23250 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Recommendations AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., and privacy and security. Other groups are convened to address specific issues as needed, such as the... recommendations received from the HIT Policy Committee regarding health information technology...

  10. Development of ultra-precision micro-cavity measurement technique in HIT-UOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiwen; Li, Lei; Tan, Jiubin

    2010-08-01

    Micro cavities with high aspect ratio are widely used in different fields including aerospace and defense industries with the development of manufacturing technology. So how to measure the dimension of these cavities has become one of the major research subjects in the field of measurement and instrument. This paper describes some activities of the precision micro cavity measurement technique in Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrument (UOI), Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). The key issue of micro cavity measurement in UOI is called touch-trigger measurement method. The first scheme is double optical fiber coupling, in which light coming from the incident optical fiber is transmitted in the reversal direction via the optical fiber coupling into the effluent optical fiber, the lateral displacement of the touch-trigger sensor is transformed into the deflexion of light coming out from the effluent optical fiber, and the deflexion is transformed into an image signal by the object lens and CCD capturing system. And the second scheme is micro focal-length collimation, in which a fiber stem with a ball mounted on its end is used as a probe and a small segment of it is used as a cylindrical lens to collimate a point light source and image it to a camera, the deflection of the fiber stem can be inferred from the change in image acquired by the camera with ultrahigh displacement sensitivity. Experiments for these activities will be given with a focus on the measurement results and repeatability uncertainty.

  11. Simple hydraulic conductivity estimation by the Kalman filtered double constraint method.

    PubMed

    El-Rawy, M A; Batelaan, O; Zijl, W

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the Kalman Filtered Double Constraint Method (DCM-KF) as a technique to estimate the hydraulic conductivities in the grid blocks of a groundwater flow model. The DCM is based on two forward runs with the same initial grid block conductivities, but with alternating flux-head conditions specified on parts of the boundary and the wells. These two runs are defined as: (1) the flux run, with specified fluxes (recharge and well abstractions), and (2) the head run, with specified heads (measured in piezometers). Conductivities are then estimated as the initial conductivities multiplied by the fluxes obtained from the flux run and divided by the fluxes obtained from the head run. The DCM is easy to implement in combination with existing models (e.g., MODFLOW). Sufficiently accurate conductivities are obtained after a few iterations. Because of errors in the specified head-flux couples, repeated estimation under varying hydrological conditions results in different conductivities. A time-independent estimate of the conductivities and their inaccuracy can be obtained by a simple linear KF with modest computational requirements. For the Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium, the DCM-KF yields sufficiently accurate calibrated conductivities. The method also results in distinguishing regions where the head-flux observations influence the calibration from areas where it is not able to influence the hydraulic conductivity.

  12. A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR STUDYING SUPER-EDDINGTON MASS TRANSFER IN DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Marcello, Dominic C.; Tohline, Joel E. E-mail: tohline@phys.lsu.edu

    2012-04-01

    We present a numerical method for the study of double white dwarf (DWD) binary systems at the onset of super-Eddington mass transfer. We incorporate the physics of ideal inviscid hydrodynamical flow, Newtonian self-gravity, and radiation transport on a three-dimensional uniformly rotating cylindrical Eulerian grid. Care has been taken to conserve the key physical quantities such as angular momentum and energy. Our new method conserves total energy to a higher degree of accuracy than other codes that are presently being used to model mass transfer in DWD systems. We present the results of verification tests and simulate the first 20 + orbits of a binary system of mass ratio q 0.7 at the onset of dynamically unstable direct impact mass transfer. The mass transfer rate quickly exceeds the critical Eddington limit by many orders of magnitude, and thus we are unable to model a trans-Eddington phase. It appears that radiation pressure does not significantly affect the accretion flow in the highly super-Eddington regime. An optically thick common envelope forms around the binary within a few orbits. Although this envelope quickly exceeds the spatial domain of the computational grid, the fraction of the common envelope that exceeds zero gravitational binding energy is extremely small, suggesting that radiation-driven mass loss is insignificant in this regime. It remains to be seen whether simulations that capture the trans-Eddington phase of such flows will lead to the same conclusion or show that substantial material gets expelled.

  13. Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Fred; Dean, Karen; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Harr, Kendal; Healy, Kate; Horak, Katherine; Link, Jane; Shriner, Susan; Bursian, Steven; Dorr, Brian

    2017-03-24

    Oral and external dosing methods replicating field exposure were developed using the double crested cormorant (DCCO) to test the toxicity of artificially weathered Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil. The majority of previous oil dosing studies conducted on wild-caught birds used gavage methods to dose birds with oil and determine toxicity. However, rapid gut transit time of gavaged oil likely reduces oil absorption. In the present studies, dosing relied on injection of oil into live feeder fish for oral dosing of these piscivorous birds, or applying oil to body contour feathers resulting in transdermal oil exposure and oral exposure through preening. Both oral and external oil dosing studies identified oil-related toxicity endpoints associated with oxidative stress such as hemolytic anemia, liver and kidney damage, and immuno-modulation or compromise. External oil application allowed for controlled study of thermoregulatory stress as well. Infrared thermal images indicated significantly greater surface temperatures and heat loss in treated birds following external oil applications; however, measurements collected by coelomically implanted temperature transmitters showed that internal body temperatures were stable over the course of the study period. Birds exposed to oil externally consumed more fish than control birds, indicating metabolic compensation for thermal stress. Conversely, birds orally dosed with oil experienced hypothermia and consumed less fish compared to control birds.

  14. Determination of optical properties in dental restorative biomaterials using the inverse-adding-doubling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Rubiño, Manuel; Pérez, María. M.

    2013-11-01

    Light propagation in biological media is characterized by the absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the scattering phase function, the refractive index, and the surface conditions (roughness). By means of the inverse-adding-doubling (IAD) method, transmittance and reflectance measurements lead to the determination of the absorption coefficient and the reduced scattering coefficient. The additional measurement of the phase function performed by goniometry allows the separation of the reduced scattering coefficient into the scattering coefficient and the scattering anisotropy factor. The majority of techniques, such as the one utilized in this work, involve the use of integrating spheres to measure total transmission and reflection. We have employed an integrating sphere setup to measure the total transmittance and reflectance of dental biomaterials used in restorative dentistry. Dental biomaterials are meant to replace dental tissues, such as enamel and dentine, in irreversibly diseased teeth. In previous works we performed goniometric measurements in order to evaluate the scattering anisotropy factor for these kinds of materials. In the present work we have used the IAD method to combine the measurements performed using the integrating sphere setup with the results of the previous goniometric measurements. The aim was to optically characterize the dental biomaterials analyzed, since whole studies to assess the appropriate material properties are required in medical applications. In this context, complete optical characterizations play an important role in achieving the fulfillment of optimal quality and the final success of dental biomaterials used in restorative dentistry.

  15. Phase transfer and point-spread function of the human eye determined by a new asymmetric double-pass method.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Losada, M A

    1995-11-01

    A recent study has shown that the double-pass method provides a good estimate of the ocular modulation transfer function (MTF) but that it does not yield the phase transfer function (PTF) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195 (1995)]. Therefore, one cannot recover the true retinal point-spread function (PSF). We present a modification of the double-pass method to overcome this problem. The key is to break the symmetry between the two passes. By using an unexpanded Gaussian input beam, we produce a diffraction-limited PSF for the first passes. Then, by using a large exit pupil, we get an aberrated PSF for the second pass. The double-pass aerial image is the cross correlation of both PSF's, so that the Fourier transform of such an aerial image directly provides the true retinal PTF, up to the cutoff frequency of the effective (small), diffraction-limited entrance pupil. The resulting double-pass aerial image is a blurred version of the true retinal PSF. Thus it shows the effect not only of even symmetric aberrations but also of odd and irregular aberrations such as coma. We have explored two different ways to retrieve the true retinal PSF: (a) deblurring of the aerial image and (b) PSF reconstruction combining PTF data with conventional double-pass MTF. We present promising initial results with both artificial and real eyes.

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

  17. Hit-and-run planetary collisions.

    PubMed

    Asphaug, Erik; Agnor, Craig B; Williams, Quentin

    2006-01-12

    Terrestrial planet formation is believed to have concluded in our Solar System with about 10 million to 100 million years of giant impacts, where hundreds of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos acquired random velocities through gravitational encounters and resonances with one another and with Jupiter. This led to planet-crossing orbits and collisions that produced the four terrestrial planets, the Moon and asteroids. But here we show that colliding planets do not simply merge, as is commonly assumed. In many cases, the smaller planet escapes from the collision highly deformed, spun up, depressurized from equilibrium, stripped of its outer layers, and sometimes pulled apart into a chain of diverse objects. Remnants of these 'hit-and-run' collisions are predicted to be common among remnant planet-forming populations, and thus to be relevant to asteroid formation and meteorite petrogenesis.

  18. Symmetrized complex amplitudes for He double photoionization from the time-dependent close coupling and exterior complex scaling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, D.A.; Colgan, J.; Martin, F.; McCurdy, C.W.; Pindzola, M.S.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-06-01

    Symmetrized complex amplitudes for the double photoionization of helium are computed by the time-dependent close-coupling and exterior complex scaling methods, and it is demonstrated that both methods are capable of the direct calculation of these amplitudes. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other and in very good agreement with results of other ab initio methods and experiment.

  19. A Facile Method to Fabricate Double Gyroid as A Polymer Template for Nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Here, we suggest a facile method to acquire double gyroid (DG) phase from the self-assembly of chiral block copolymers (BCPs*), polystyrene- b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA). A wide region for the formation of DG can be found in the phase diagram of the BCPs*, suggesting that helical phase (H*) from the self-assembly of BCPs* can serve as a stepping stone for the formation of the DG due to an easy path for order-order transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional (network) structure. Moreover, the order-order transition from metastable H* to stable DG can be expedited by blending the PS-PLLA with compatible entity. Moreover, PS-PLLA blends are prepared by using styrene oligomer (S) to fine-tune the morphologies of the blends at which the molecular weight ratio of the S and compatible PS block (r) is less than 0.1. Owing to the use of the low-molecular-weight oligomer, the increase of BCP chain mobility in the blends significantly reduces the transformation time for the order-order transition from H* to DG. Consequently, nanoporous gyroid SiO2 can be fabricated using hydrolyzed PS-PLLA blends as a template for sol-gel reaction followed by removal of the PS matrix.

  20. Relative clock estimation method between two LEO satellites with a double-difference solution constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhong; Gu, Defeng; Ju, Bing; Lai, Yuwang; Yi, Dongyun

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating the relative clocks between two spaceborne global positioning system (GPS) receivers based on the single-difference (SD) observations is investigated in this paper. Especially, the advantages of introducing a double-difference (DD) solution constraint, including the orbits and ambiguities, are discussed with the simulated data and the real data of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. The theoretical accuracy analysis shows that the accuracy of the relative clocks is improved and the edge effects are eliminated with a DD solution constraint. The simulations indicate a potential accuracy improvement of at least 30% of the relative clocks with the constraint. Furthermore, one month's real data is processed and the overlapping data arcs are used to validate the accuracy of the relative clock solutions. The average overlapping root mean square (RMS) of the relative clock solutions is approximate 99 ps and 31 ps without and with the DD solution constraint, respectively. Moreover, the jumps of the day boundaries are weakened evidently by adding the DD solution constraint. This paper demonstrates that the accuracy and stability of the estimated relative clocks between two low earth orbit (LEO) satellites from SD observations are improved obviously with the DD solution constraint.

  1. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  2. Application of the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method to the precision positioning device using combined piezo-VCM actuator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yung-Tien; Fung, Rong-Fong; Wang, Chun-Chao

    2007-02-01

    In this research, the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method was used as design and analysis methods for a high-precision positioning device using the combined piezo-voice-coil motor (VCM) actuator. An experimental investigation into the effects of two input signals and three control factors were carried out to determine the optimum parametric configuration of the positioning device. The double-dynamic Taguchi method, which permits optimization of several control factors concurrently, is particularly suitable for optimizing the performance of a positioning device with multiple actuators. In this study, matrix experiments were conducted with L9(3(4)) orthogonal arrays (OAs). The two most critical processes for the optimization of positioning device are the identification of the nonlinear ideal function and the combination of the double-dynamic signal factors for the ideal function's response. The driving voltage of the VCM and the waveform amplitude of the PZT actuator are combined into a single quality characteristic to evaluate the positioning response. The application of the double-dynamic Taguchi method, with dynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and L9(3(4)) OAs, reduced the number of necessary experiments. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to set the optimum parameters based on the high-precision positioning process.

  3. Sparse constrained wavelet-based double-difference seismic tomography method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H.; Zhang, H.

    2013-12-01

    resolution matrix simultaneously. We have successfully incorporated the methods of wavelet transform, sparse constraint, and general cross validation into the double-difference tomography code tomoDD. We have applied the new code to both synthetic and real data sets. Compared with the original tomoDD code, the new code can resolve the model contrasts more clearly and is also data adaptive.

  4. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA's) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 - April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  5. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  6. A Two-Hit Model of Autism: Adolescence as the Second Hit

    PubMed Central

    Picci, Giorgia; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence brings dramatic changes in behavior and neural organization. Unfortunately, for some 30% of individuals with autism, there is marked decline in adaptive functioning during adolescence. We propose a two-hit model of autism. First, early perturbations in neural development function as a “first hit” that sets up a neural system that is “built to fail” in the face of a second hit. Second, the confluence of pubertal hormones, neural reorganization, and increasing social demands during adolescence provides the “second hit” that interferes with the ability to transition into adult social roles and levels of adaptive functioning. In support of this model, we review evidence about adolescent-specific neural and behavioral development in autism. We conclude with predictions and recommendations for empirical investigation about several domains in which developmental trajectories for individuals with autism may be uniquely deterred in adolescence. PMID:26609500

  7. Schrödinger method as N-body double and UV completion of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, Cora; Kopp, Michael; Haugg, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    We investigate large-scale structure formation of collisionless dark matter in the phase space description based on the Vlasov (or collisionless Boltzmann) equation whose nonlinearity is induced solely by gravitational interaction according to the Poisson equation. Determining the time evolution of density and peculiar velocity demands solving the full Vlasov hierarchy for the moments of the phase space distribution function. In the presence of long-range interaction no consistent truncation of the hierarchy is known apart from the pressureless fluid (dust) model, which is incapable of describing virialization due to the occurrence of shell-crossing singularities and the inability to generate vorticity and higher cumulants like velocity dispersion. Our goal is to find a simple ansatz for the phase space distribution function that approximates the full Vlasov distribution function without pathologies in a controlled way and therefore can serve as theoretical N-body double and as a replacement for the dust model. We argue that the coarse-grained Wigner probability distribution obtained from a wave function fulfilling the Schrödinger-Poisson equation (SPE) is the sought-after function. We show that its evolution equation approximates the Vlasov equation and therefore also the dust fluid equations before shell crossing, but cures the shell-crossing singularities and is able to describe regions of multistreaming and virialization. This feature was already employed in cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation by Widrow and Kaiser (1993). The coarse-grained Wigner ansatz allows us to calculate all higher moments from density and velocity analytically, thereby incorporating nonzero higher cumulants in a self-consistent manner. On this basis we are able to show that the Schrödinger method automatically closes the corresponding hierarchy such that it suffices to solve the SPE in order to directly determine density and velocity and all higher cumulants.

  8. The impact of the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) computerized alert on provider behaviors and patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Jason S; Reissman, Stan H; Cohen, Hillel W; Billett, Henny H

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to measure the effect of an electronic heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) alert on provider ordering behaviors and on patient outcomes. Materials and Methods A pop-up alert was created for providers when an individual's platelet values had decreased by 50% or to <100 000/mm3 in the setting of recent heparin exposure. The authors retrospectively compared inpatients admitted between January 24, 2008 and August 24, 2008 to a control group admitted 1 year prior to the HIT alert. The primary outcome was a change in HIT antibody testing. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of incidence of HIT antibody positivity, percentage of patients started on a direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI), length of stay and overall mortality. Results There were 1006 and 1081 patients in the control and intervention groups, respectively. There was a 33% relative increase in HIT antibody test orders (p=0.01), and 33% more of these tests were ordered the first day after the criteria were met when a pop-up alert was given (p=0.03). Heparin was discontinued in 25% more patients in the alerted group (p=0.01), and more direct thrombin inhibitors were ordered for them (p=0.03). The number who tested HIT antibody-positive did not differ, however, between the two groups (p=0.99). The length of stay and mortality were similar in both groups. Conclusions The HIT alert significantly impacted provider behaviors. However, the alert did not result in more cases of HIT being detected or an improvement in overall mortality. Our findings do not support implementation of a computerized HIT alert. PMID:21712374

  9. First Plasma Results from the HIT-SI Spheromak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, P. E.; Hamp, W. T.; Izzo, V. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Redd, A. J.; Smith, R. J.

    2003-10-01

    HIT-SI is the newest device in the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) program. HIT-SI is a ``bow tie'' spheromak formed and sustained by Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) current drive. SIHI injects helicity at a nearly constant rate with no open field lines intersecting the boundary. (T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Technology 36) (1), p. 85, 1999 HIT-SI has been designed with a bow tie geometry to achieve stable high-β (>10%) spheromak equilibria. (U. Shumlak and T. R. Jarboe, Phys. Plasmas 7) (7), p. 2959, 2000 Diagnostics currently include surface magnetic probes and flux loops, visible light imaging, H-alpha line radiation monitors, voltage measurements across insulating breaks, injector current Rogowski coils, and injector flux loops. HIT-SI is currently operating in parallel with experiments on HIT-II. At the conclusion of HIT-II operations, HIT-SI will inherit a multi-point Thomson Scattering system, a scanning two-chord FIR interferometer, and other advanced diagnostics, as well as more power supplies to extend the discharge duration. Results are presented which characterize injector operation and possible evidence for spheromak formation.

  10. Improved Curveball Hitting through the Enhancement of Visual Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Kurt; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs, to improve the hitting of curveballs by five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of marked than unmarked balls. (Author/DB)

  11. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  12. Object Rotation Effects on the Timing of a Hitting Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mark A.; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Davids, Keith

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigated how perturbing optical information affects the guidance of an unfolding hitting action. Using monocular and binocular vision, six participants were required to hit a rectangular foam object, released from two different heights, under four different approach conditions, two with object rotation (to perturb…

  13. Single vs. double layer suturing method repair of the urethral plate in the rabbit model of hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are different methods of urethroplasty in hypospadias. The present study aimed to compare the repair of the urethral plate by single vs. double layer suturing. Material and methods Fifteen male rabbits were assigned to the control, single layer, and double layer urethral plate suturing groups (n = 5). Experimental hypospadias was induced in the second and third groups and the urethral plates were sutured. After two weeks, the penis was dissected out and underwent histopathological processing. Stereological studies were applied to obtain quantitative histological data regarding the structure of the urethra and the related part of the corpus spongiosum. Results Volume density of the urethral epithelium (the fraction of unit volume of the urethra occupied by its epithelium) was higher in the single layer suturing group when compared to the double layer or control groups (p <0.01). Additionally, the volume density of the urethral lumen (the fraction of the corpus spongiosum that is occupied by the urethral lumen) in the single versus the double layer suturing groups was respectively 2.4 and 2 folds higher than that in the control group (p <0.01). Besides, the volume density of the lumen was significantly higher in the single layer suturing when compared to the double layer suturing group (p <0.01). However, no significant difference was observed among the study groups regarding the volume density of the collagen and vessels in the incised site of the penis which implied that the fraction of the urethra and surrounding corpus spongiosum was occupied by collagen and vessels. Conclusions Urethral plate repair by the single layer suturing method could be accompanied by higher epithelialization and wider lumen in the rabbit model of hypospadias. PMID:28127462

  14. Solution structure of the zinc finger HIT domain in protein FON

    PubMed Central

    He, Fahu; Umehara, Takashi; Tsuda, Kengo; Inoue, Makoto; Kigawa, Takanori; Matsuda, Takayoshi; Yabuki, Takashi; Aoki, Masaaki; Seki, Eiko; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Tanaka, Akiko; Sugano, Sumio; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The zinc finger HIT domain is a sequence motif found in many proteins, including thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 3 (TRIP-3), which is possibly involved in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Novel zinc finger motifs are suggested to play important roles in gene regulation and chromatin remodeling. Here, we determined the high-resolution solution structure of the zinc finger HIT domain in ZNHIT2 (protein FON) from Homo sapiens, by an NMR method based on 567 upper distance limits derived from NOE intensities measured in three-dimensional NOESY spectra. The structure yielded a backbone RMSD to the mean coordinates of 0.19 Å for the structured residues 12–48. The fold consists of two consecutive antiparallel β-sheets and two short C-terminal helices packed against the second β-sheet, and binds two zinc ions. Both zinc ions are coordinated tetrahedrally via a CCCC-CCHC motif to the ligand residues of the zf-HIT domain in an interleaved manner. The tertiary structure of the zinc finger HIT domain closely resembles the folds of the B-box, RING finger, and PHD domains with a cross-brace zinc coordination mode, but is distinct from them. The unique three-dimensional structure of the zinc finger HIT domain revealed a novel zinc-binding fold, as a new member of the treble clef domain family. On the basis of the structural data, we discuss the possible functional roles of the zinc finger HIT domain. PMID:17656577

  15. Development of a Double Glass Mounting Method Using Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) and its Evaluation for Permanent Mounting of Small Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    ZAHABIUN, Farzaneh; SADJJADI, Seyed Mahmoud; ESFANDIARI, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Permanent slide preparation of nematodes especially small ones is time consuming, difficult and they become scarious margins. Regarding this problem, a modified double glass mounting method was developed and compared with classic method. Methods: A total of 209 nematode samples from human and animal origin were fixed and stained with Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) followed by double glass mounting and classic dehydration method using Canada balsam as their mounting media. The slides were evaluated in different dates and times, more than four years. Different photos were made with different magnification during the evaluation time. Results: The double glass mounting method was stable during this time and comparable with classic method. There were no changes in morphologic structures of nematodes using double glass mounting method with well-defined and clear differentiation between different organs of nematodes in this method. Conclusion: Using this method is cost effective and fast for mounting of small nematodes comparing to classic method. PMID:26811729

  16. The danger signal plus DNA damage two-hit hypothesis for chronic inflammation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to originate from the activation of innate immunity by a danger signal (first hit), although this mechanism does not readily explain why the inflammation becomes chronic. Here, we propose a two-hit hypothesis explaining why inflammation becomes chronic in patients with COPD. A more severe degree of inflammation exists in the lungs of patients who develop COPD than in the lungs of healthy smokers, and the large amounts of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species released from inflammatory cells are likely to induce DNA double-strand breaks (second hit) in the airways and pulmonary alveolar cells, causing apoptosis and cell senescence. The DNA damage response and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) are also likely to be activated, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These pro-inflammatory cytokines further stimulate inflammatory cell infiltration, intensifying cell senescence and SASP through a positive-feedback mechanism. This vicious cycle, characterised by mutually reinforcing inflammation and DNA damage, may cause the inflammation in COPD patients to become chronic. Our hypothesis helps explain why COPD tends to occur in the elderly, why the inflammation worsens progressively, why inflammation continues even after smoking cessation, and why COPD is associated with lung cancer.

  17. Implicit Hitting Set Problems and Multi-genome Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Richard M.

    Let U be a finite set and S a family of subsets of U. Define a hitting set as a subset of U that intersects every element of S. The optimal hitting set problem is: given a positive weight for each element of U, find a hitting set of minimum total weight. This problem is equivalent to the classic weighted set cover problem.We consider the optimal hitting set problem in the case where the set system S is not explicitly given, but there is an oracle that will supply members of S satisfying certain conditions; for example, we might ask the oracle for a minimum-cardinality set in S that is disjoint from a given set Q. The problems of finding a minimum feedback arc set or minimum feedback vertex set in a digraph are examples of implicit hitting set problems. Our interest is in the number of oracle queries required to find an optimal hitting set. After presenting some generic algorithms for this problem we focus on our computational experience with an implicit hitting set problem related to multi-genome alignment in genomics. This is joint work with Erick Moreno Centeno.

  18. Optimization of the Magnetic Recovery of Hits from One-Bead-One-Compound Library Screens.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Kimberly; Ndungu, J M; Clark, Lorraine F; Kodadek, Thomas

    2015-09-14

    On-bead screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries is a useful procedure for the identification of protein ligands. An important aspect of this experiment is the method by which beads that bind the target protein are separated from those that do not. Ideally, such a method would be rapid and convenient and result in the isolation of 100% of the "hits" with no false positives (beads that display compounds that are not good ligands for the target). We introduced a technique in which beads that have bound a labeled target protein can be magnetized, thus allowing their convenient isolation ( Astle et al. Chem. Biol. 2010 , 17 , 38 - 45 ). However, recent work in our laboratory and others has shown that magnetic hit recovery can result in the isolation of large numbers of false positives and has also suggested that many true hit beads are missed. In this study, we employ a well-defined model system to examine the efficiency of various magnetic hit isolation protocols. We show that the choice of reagents and the particular operations employed are critical for optimal results.

  19. High-field double-pancake superconducting coils and a method of winding

    DOEpatents

    Materna, Peter A.

    1985-01-01

    A double-pancake coil having first and second pancakes may comprise a plurality of conductor means, each conductor means having a different grade and having one or more conductors, wherein each pancake of said double-pancake coil is comprised of inner and outer turns; wherein said inner turns are comprised of at least one of said conductor means wound about an axis and nested within one another; wherein said outer turns are comprised of said inner conductor means and at least one other conductor means co-wound about said inner turns and nested within one another; wherein each of said conductor means is wound along said axis from said first pancake to said second pancake at a different turn.

  20. High-field double-pancake superconducting coils and a method of winding

    DOEpatents

    Materna, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A double-pancake coil having first and second pancakes may comprise a plurality of conductor means, each conductor means having a different grade and having one or more conductors, wherein each pancake of said double-pancake coil is comprised of inner and outer turns; wherein said inner turns are comprised of at least one of said conductor means wound about an axis and nested within one another; wherein said outer turns are comprised of said inner conductor means and at least one other conductor means co-wound about said inner turns and nested within one another; wherein each of said conductor means is wound along said axis from said first pancake to said second pancake at a different turn.

  1. Double-Staining Method for Differentiation of Morphological Changes and Membrane Integrity of Campylobacter coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jose L.; Mascellaro, Salvatore; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Javier

    2002-01-01

    We developed a double-staining procedure involving NanoOrange dye (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.) and membrane integrity stains (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit; Molecular Probes) to show the morphological and membrane integrity changes of Campylobacter coli cells during growth. The conversion from a spiral to a coccoid morphology via intermediary forms and the membrane integrity changes of the C. coli cells can be detected with the double-staining procedure. Our data indicate that young or actively growing cells are mainly spiral shaped (green-stained cells), but older cells undergo a degenerative change to coccoid forms (red-stained cells). Club-shaped transition cell forms were observed with NanoOrange stain. Chlorinated drinking water affected the viability but not the morphology of C. coli cells. PMID:12324366

  2. Geometric Hitting Set for Segments of Few Orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Fekete, Sandor P.; Huang, Kan; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.; Parekh, Ojas D.; Phillips, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-13

    Here we study several natural instances of the geometric hitting set problem for input consisting of sets of line segments (and rays, lines) having a small number of distinct slopes. These problems model path monitoring (e.g., on road networks) using the fewest sensors (the \\hitting points"). We give approximation algorithms for cases including (i) lines of 3 slopes in the plane, (ii) vertical lines and horizontal segments, (iii) pairs of horizontal/vertical segments. Lastly, we give hardness and hardness of approximation results for these problems. We prove that the hitting set problem for vertical lines and horizontal rays is polynomially solvable.

  3. Comparing two methods of plastination and glycerin preservation to study skeletal system after Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Setayesh M.; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Rabiei, Abbas A.; Hanaei, Mahsa S.; Rashidi, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastination is a new method of preserving tissue samples for a long time. This study aimed to compare the new plastination technique with the conventional preservative method in glycerin for fetus skeleton tissues and young rats dyed by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 groups of 1-day, 3-day, 12-day and mature rats were selected and, after being anesthetized and slaughtered, their skin was completely removed. In Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining method, first the samples were fixed in 95% ethanol and then their cartilages were dyed by 0.225% Alcian blue solution; after that, they were cleared in 1% KOH. Then, the bones were dyed in 0.003% Alizarin red solution and finally the tissue was decolorized in 95% ethanol. In each group, half of the samples were preserved by the conventional method in a glycerin container and the other half were plastinated. Results: In the present study, the samples preserved by plastination technique were dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible. Quality of coloring had an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Transparency of the plastinated samples had also an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Therefore, skeletal tissue of younger rats had higher quality and transparency in both preservation methods (glycerin and plastination). Conclusion: This study showed that plastination technique was an appropriate method in comparison with glycerin preservation, which conserved skeletal tissue of fetus and young rats colored by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. And the final result was that plastination technique can generate dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible samples. PMID:23930264

  4. Grid-based methods for diatomic quantum scattering problems III: Double photoionization of molecular hydrogen in prolate spheroidal coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Liang; McCurdy, Bill; Rescigno, Tom

    2010-06-10

    Our previously developed finite-element/ discrete variable representation in prolate spheroidal coordinates is extended to two-electron systems with a study of double ionization of H$_2$ with fixed-nuclei. Particular attention is paid to the development of fast and accurate methods for treating the electron-electron interaction. The use of exterior complex scaling in the implementation offers a simple way of enforcing Coulomb boundary conditions for the electronic double continuum. While the angular distributions calculated in this study are found to be completely consistent with our earlier treatments that employed single-center expansions in spherical coordinates, we find that the magnitude of the integrated cross sections are sensitive to small changes in the initial-state wave function. The present formulation offers significant advantages with respect to convergence and efficiency and opens the way to calculations on more complicated diatomic targets.

  5. HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licatalosi, Donny D.; Mele, Aldo; Fak, John J.; Ule, Jernej; Kayikci, Melis; Chi, Sung Wook; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Blume, John E.; Wang, Xuning; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2008-11-01

    Protein-RNA interactions have critical roles in all aspects of gene expression. However, applying biochemical methods to understand such interactions in living tissues has been challenging. Here we develop a genome-wide means of mapping protein-RNA binding sites in vivo, by high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). HITS-CLIP analysis of the neuron-specific splicing factor Nova revealed extremely reproducible RNA-binding maps in multiple mouse brains. These maps provide genome-wide in vivo biochemical footprints confirming the previous prediction that the position of Nova binding determines the outcome of alternative splicing; moreover, they are sufficiently powerful to predict Nova action de novo. HITS-CLIP revealed a large number of Nova-RNA interactions in 3' untranslated regions, leading to the discovery that Nova regulates alternative polyadenylation in the brain. HITS-CLIP, therefore, provides a robust, unbiased means to identify functional protein-RNA interactions in vivo.

  6. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite Hits an Anomalous Zone in the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is "strange" because it hits an area in the Urals where anomalous events are observed: shining skies, light balls, UFOs, electrphonic bolids. The area tectonically occurs at the intersection of two fold belts: Urals and Timan.

  7. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC Advisory follows reports of ... border with Mexico, because five cases of local Zika infection have been reported there, U.S. health officials ...

  8. Semi-monolithic cavity for external resonant frequency doubling and method of performing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of an optical cavity for use in a laser, in a frequency doubling external cavity, or any other type of nonlinear optical device, can be simplified by providing the nonlinear crystal in combination with a surrounding glass having an index of refraction substantially equal to that of the nonlinear crystal. The closed optical path in this cavity is formed in the surrounding glass and through the nonlinear crystal which lies in one of the optical segments of the light path. The light is transmitted through interfaces between the surrounding glass in the nonlinear crystal through interfaces which are formed at the Brewster-angle to minimize or eliminate reflection.

  9. Linearized electro-optic racetrack modulator based on double injection method in silicon.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Roei Aviram; Amrani, Ofer; Ruschin, Shlomo

    2015-02-09

    Racetrack-based modulator of increased linearity for optical links is presented and analyzed. The modulator is referred to as FLAME - Finer Linearity Amplitude Modulation Element. Linearity is improved via the introduction of a Double Injection approach. Large spurious-free-dynamic-range (SFDR) of 132dB·Hz(4/5) can thus be theoretically obtained. The FLAME is studied for silicon platform and requires small footprint size (100 × 50µm2) and low operation voltage, 2.5V. This makes the FLAME an appealing candidate for large scale integration in RF photonics.

  10. A method for double-labeling sputum cells for p53 and cytokeratin

    SciTech Connect

    Neft, R.E.; Tierney, L.A.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques may enhance the usefulness of sputum cytology as a screening tool for lung cancer. These techniques may also be useful in detecting and following the early progression of disease from metaplasia to dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and finally to invasive carcinoma. Longitudinal information on the evolution of these malignant changes in the respiratory epithelium can be gained by prospective study of populations at high risk for lung cancer. This work is significant because double-labeling of cells in sputum with p53 and cytokeratin antibodies facilitates rapid screening of p53 positive neoplastic and preneoplastic lung cells by brightfield and fluorescence microscopy.

  11. Superfast Cosmic Jet "Hits the Wall"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    -288. The jet travelled quickly until its advance suddenly was stopped and the endpoint of the jet became brighter than the core. "This fast-moving material obviously hit something," Hjellming said. What did it it hit? "Probably a mixture of external material plus material from a previous jet ejection." Further studies of the collision could yield new information about the physics of cosmic jets. Such jets are believed to be powered by black holes into which material is being drawn. The exact mechanism by which the black hole's gravitational energy accelerates particles to nearly the speed of light is not well understood. There is even dispute about the types of particles ejected. Competing models call for either a mixture of electrons and protons or a mixture of electrons and positrons. Because protons are more than 1,800 times more massive than electrons or positrons (the positively-charged antiparticle of the electron), the electron-proton mixture would be much more massive than the electron-positron pair. Thus, an electron-proton jet is called a heavy jet and an electron-positron jet is called a light jet. A light jet would be much more easily slowed or stopped by tenuous interstellar material than a heavy jet, so the collision of XTE J1748-288's jet may indicate that it is a light jet. "There's still a lot more work to do before anyone can conclude that, but the collision offers the possibility of answering the light-heavy jet question," Hjellming said. A 1998 VLA study by John Wardle of Brandeis University and his colleagues indicated that the jet of a distant quasar is a light, electron-positron jet. Though the black holes in quasars are supermassive, usually millions of times more massive than the Sun, the physics of jet production in them is thought to be similar to the physics of jet production by smaller black holes, only a few times more massive than the sun, such as the one possibly in XTE J1748-288. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy

  12. A noniterative asymmetric triple excitation correction for the density-fitted coupled-cluster singles and doubles method: Preliminary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Uǧur

    2016-04-01

    An efficient implementation of the asymmetric triples correction for the coupled-cluster singles and doubles [ΛCCSD(T)] method [S. A. Kucharski and R. J. Bartlett, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5243 (1998); T. D. Crawford and J. F. Stanton, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 70, 601 (1998)] with the density-fitting [DF-ΛCCSD(T)] approach is presented. The computational time for the DF-ΛCCSD(T) method is compared with that of ΛCCSD(T). Our results demonstrate that the DF-ΛCCSD(T) method provide substantially lower computational costs than ΛCCSD(T). Further application results show that the ΛCCSD(T) and DF-ΛCCSD(T) methods are very beneficial for the study of single bond breaking problems as well as noncovalent interactions and transition states. We conclude that ΛCCSD(T) and DF-ΛCCSD(T) are very promising for the study of challenging chemical systems, where the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples method fails.

  13. A Novel Method for Calculation of Strain Energy Release Rate of Asymmetric Double Cantilever Laminated Composite Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Zeinedini, A.

    2014-06-01

    In this research, a novel data reduction method for calculation of the strain energy release rate ( SERR) of asymmetric double cantilever beams ( ADCB) is presented. For this purpose the elastic beam theory ( EBT) is modified and the new method is called as the modified elastic beam theory ( MEBT). Also, the ADCB specimens are modeled using ABAQUS/Standard software. Then, the initiation of delamination of ADCB specimens is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique ( VCCT). Furthermore, magnitudes of the SERR for different samples are also calculated by an available data reduction method, called modified beam theory ( MBT). Using the hand lay-up method, different laminated composite samples are manufactured by E-glass/epoxy unidirectional plies. In order to measure the SERR, all samples are tested using an experimental setup. The results determined by the new data reduction method ( MEBT) show good agreements with the results of the VCCT and the MBT.

  14. Thomson Scattering Measurements on HIT-SI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, C. J.; Morgan, K. D.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    A multi-point Thomson Scattering diagnostic has been implemented on HIT-SI3 (Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3) to measure electron temperature. The HIT-SI3 experiment is a modification of the original HIT-SI apparatus that uses three injectors instead of two. This modification alters the configuration of magnetic fields and thus the plasma behavior in the device. The scientific aim of HIT-SI3 is to develop a deeper understanding of how injector behavior and interactions influence current drive and plasma performance in the spheromak. The Thomson Scattering system includes a 20 J (1 GW pulse) Ruby laser that provides the incident beam, and collection optics that are installed such that measurements can be taken at four spatial locations in HIT-SI3 plasmas. For each measurement point, a 3-channel polychromator is used to detect the relative level of scattering. These measurements allow for the presence of temperature gradients in the spheromak to be investigated. Preliminary HIT-SI3 temperature data are presented and can be compared to predictions from computational models. Work supported by the D.O.E.

  15. iSeq: A New Double-Barcode Method for Detecting Dynamic Genetic Interactions in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Mia; Sherlock, Gavin; Levy, Sasha F.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic screens for genetic interactions are a cornerstone of both network and systems biology. However, most screens have been limited to characterizing interaction networks in a single environment. Moving beyond this static view of the cell requires a major technological advance to increase the throughput and ease of replication in these assays. Here, we introduce iSeq—a platform to build large double barcode libraries and rapidly assay genetic interactions across environments. We use iSeq in yeast to measure fitness in three conditions of nearly 400 clonal strains, representing 45 possible single or double gene deletions, including multiple replicate strains per genotype. We show that iSeq fitness and interaction scores are highly reproducible for the same clonal strain across replicate cultures. However, consistent with previous work, we find that replicates with the same putative genotype have highly variable genetic interaction scores. By whole-genome sequencing 102 of our strains, we find that segregating variation and de novo mutations, including aneuploidy, occur frequently during strain construction, and can have large effects on genetic interaction scores. Additionally, we uncover several new environment-dependent genetic interactions, suggesting that barcode-based genetic interaction assays have the potential to significantly expand our knowledge of genetic interaction networks. PMID:27821633

  16. Organic double layer element driven by triboelectric nanogenerator: Study of carrier behavior by non-contact optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-02-01

    By using optical electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) technique, we studied carrier behavior caused by contact electrification (CE) in an organic double-layer element. This double-layer sample was half suspended in the open air, where one electrode (anode or cathode) was connected with a Cu foil for electrification while the other electrode was floated. Results showed two distinct carrier behaviors, depending on the (anode or cathode) connections to the Cu foil, and these carrier behaviors were analyzed based on the Maxwell-Wagner model. The double-layer sample works as a simple solar cell device. The photovoltaic effect and CE process have been proved to be two paralleled effects without strong interaction with each other, while photoconductivity changing in the sample can enhance the relaxation of CE induced charges. By probing the carrier behavior in this half-suspended device, the EFISHG technique has been demonstrated to be an effective non-contact method for clarifying the CE effect on related energy harvesting devices and electronics devices. Meanwhile, the related physical analysis in this letter is also useful for elucidating the fundamental characteristic of hybrid energy system based on solar cell and triboelectric nanogenerator.

  17. 'That's OK. He's a guy': a mixed-methods study of gender double-standards for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Richard O; McDonnell, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Although drinking and drunkenness have traditionally been considered masculine behaviours, young women's alcohol consumption has increased in recent years. This mixed methods study was conducted to examine the extent to which young people endorse gender double-standards for alcohol use--i.e., less acceptance of drinking and drunkenness in women than men--and how these influence men's and women's alcohol consumption. A sample of 731 English university students completed an online survey of gender role attitudes, beliefs about the gendered nature of alcohol use and recent alcohol consumption. Sixteen participants were then purposively selected for individual interviews: eight women and men with the most egalitarian gender role beliefs, and eight women and men with the least egalitarian beliefs. The two sets of data revealed that although there were few sex differences in actual levels of drinking or drunkenness, gender double-standards for alcohol use persist: beer drinking, binge drinking and public drunkenness tended to be perceived as masculine, and even the most egalitarian respondents were more judgemental of women's drinking. Participants modified their drinking style so as to maintain a desired gender identity. Although gender double-standards could be a focus of interventions to encourage moderate drinking, such approaches could reinforce gender inequalities.

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  19. Normalization method of highly forward-peaked scattering phase function using the double exponential formula for radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Hoshi, Yoko; Watanabe, Masao

    2016-12-01

    Numerical calculation of photon migration in biological tissue using the radiative transfer equation (RTE) has attracted great interests in biomedical optics and imaging. Because biological tissue is a highly forward-peaked scattering medium, a normalization of scattering phase function in the RTE is crucial. This paper proposes a simple way of normalizing the phase function by the double exponential formula, which is heuristically modified from the original one. The proposed method is validated by the agreement between the numerical solution of the RTE with the proposed method and analytical solution of the RTE for the case of a highly forward-peaked scattering medium, while the numerical solutions with conventional normalization methods disagree with the analytical solution. This result suggests the proposed method is accurate in numerical calculation of the RTE.

  20. Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

  1. An investigation into the mechanics of double-sided incremental forming using finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Newell; Zhang, Zixuan; Ren, Huaqing; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Double-Sided Incremental Forming (DSIF) is a developing sheet metal manufacturing process that has gained a lot of attention in recent years due to its inherent flexibility, low-overhead cost, and die-less nature. However, it can be challenging to define the tool gap so as to achieve a desired pressure through the sheet thickness since one must first predict sheet thinning. In this investigation, a novel part design is proposed which varies in-plane curvature as a function of depth. A finite element model for DSIF is developed and the strain histories in various regions are extracted. It was concluded that if the supporting tool loses contact with the sheet, localized necking can occur prior to part failure. Additionally, part geometry can have significant effects on the tool contact area which, consequently, affects the evolution of strain.

  2. Standardizing the double-observer survey method for estimating mountain ungulate prey of the endangered snow leopard.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Mishra, Charudutt

    2012-07-01

    Mountain ungulates around the world have been threatened by illegal hunting, habitat modification, increased livestock grazing, disease and development. Mountain ungulates play an important functional role in grasslands as primary consumers and as prey for wild carnivores, and monitoring of their populations is important for conservation purposes. However, most of the several currently available methods of estimating wild ungulate abundance are either difficult to implement or too expensive for mountainous terrain. A rigorous method of sampling ungulate abundance in mountainous areas that can allow for some measure of sampling error is therefore much needed. To this end, we used a combination of field data and computer simulations to test the critical assumptions associated with double-observer technique based on capture-recapture theory. The technique was modified and adapted to estimate the populations of bharal (Pseudois nayaur) and ibex (Capra sibirica) at five different sites. Conducting the two double-observer surveys simultaneously led to underestimation of the population by 15%. We therefore recommend separating the surveys in space or time. The overall detection probability for the two observers was 0.74 and 0.79. Our surveys estimated mountain ungulate populations (± 95% confidence interval) of 735 (± 44), 580 (± 46), 509 (± 53), 184 (± 40) and 30 (± 14) individuals at the five sites, respectively. A detection probability of 0.75 was found to be sufficient to detect a change of 20% in populations of >420 individuals. Based on these results, we believe that this method is sufficiently precise for scientific and conservation purposes and therefore recommend the use of the double-observer approach (with the two surveys separated in time or space) for the estimation and monitoring of mountain ungulate populations.

  3. Common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) method for double-nuclear MR signal excitation and reception at ultrahigh fields.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zhentian; Wang, Chunsheng; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2011-11-01

    Double-tuned radio-frequency (RF) coils for heteronuclear mangentic resonance (MR) require sufficient electromagnetic isolation between the two resonators operating at two Larmor frequencies and independent tuning in order to attain highly efficient signal acquisition at each frequency. In this work, a novel method for double-tuned coil design at 7T based on the concept of common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) was developed and tested. Common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) currents exist within two coupled parallel transmission lines, e.g., microstrip lines, yielding two different current distributions. The electromagnetic (EM) fields of the CM and DM are orthogonal to each other, and thus, the two modes are intrinsically EM decoupled. The modes can be tuned independently to desired frequencies, thus satisfying the requirement of dual-frequency MR applications. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed CMDM technique, CMDM surface coils and volume coils using microstrip transmission line for (1)H and (13)C MRI/MRSI were designed, constructed, and tested at 7T. Bench test results showed that the isolations between the two frequency channels of the CMDM surface coil and volume coil were better than -30 and -25 dB, respectively. High quality MR phantom images were also obtained using the CMDM coils. The performance of the CMDM technique was validated through a comparison with the conventional two-pole design method at 7T. The proposed CMDM technique can be also implemented by using other coil techniques such as lumped element method, and can be applied to designing double-tuned parallel imaging coil arrays. Furthermore, if the two resonant modes of a CMDM coil were tuned to the same frequency, the CMDM coil becomes a quadrature coil due to the intrinsic orthogonal field distribution of CM and DM.

  4. Double electrochemical covalent coupling method based on click chemistry and diazonium chemistry for the fabrication of sensitive amperometric immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Honglan; Li, Min; Zhang, Rui; Dong, Manman; Ling, Chen

    2013-08-20

    A double electrochemical covalent coupling method based on click chemistry and diazonium chemistry for the fabrication of sensitive amperometric immunosensor was developed. As a proof-of-concept, a designed alkyne functionalized human IgG was used as a capture antibody and a HRP-labeled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used as signal antibody for the determination of the anti-human IgG using the sandwich model. The immunosensor was fabricated by electrochemically grafting a phenylazide on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode, and then, by coupling the alkyne functionalized human IgG with the phenylazide group through an electro-click chemistry in the presence of Cu(II). The amperometric measurement for the determination of the anti-human IgG was performed after the fabricated immunosensor was incubated with the target anti-human IgG and then with the HRP-labeled anti-goat IgG at -0.25V in 0.10M PBS (pH 7.0) containing 0.1mM hydroquinone and 2.0mM H2O2. The results showed that the increased current was linear with the logarithm of the concentration of the anti-human IgG in the range from 1.0×10(-10)g mL(-1) to 1.0×10(-8)g mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3×10(-11)g mL(-1). Furthermore, the feasibility of the double electrochemical covalent coupling method proposed in this work for fabricating the amperometric immunosensor array was explored. This work demonstrates that the double electrochemical covalent coupling method is a promising approach for the fabrication of the immunosensor and immunosensor array.

  5. [Comparison of two types of double-lined simulated landfill leakage detection based on high voltage DC method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Nai, Chang-Xin; Dong, Lu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Two types of double high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners landfill that clay or geogrid was added between the two HDPE liners. The general resistance of the second mode is 15% larger than the general resistance of the first mode in the primary HDPE liner detection, and 20% larger than that of the first one in the secondary HDPE liner detection. High voltage DC method can accomplish the leakage detection and location of these two types of landfill and the error of leakage location is less than 10cm when electrode space is 1m.

  6. Surface Magnetics on the HIT-SI Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, J. S.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Smith, R. J.; Stewart, B. T.

    2008-11-01

    An array of 96 surface magnetic probes sensitive to the poloidal and toroidal B field are embedded in the HIT-SI spheromak equilibrium flux conserver, a 12.7mm thick chromium copper alloy shell with an L/R time of 100ms. An extensive calibration campaign has been completed to correct for the frequency dependent attenuation of the magnetic field by the shell and provide plasma edge field measurements over a 10Hz-200kHz bandwidth. The system is expected to provide several important results: 1) A measurement of the non-Taylor part of the equilibrium which may reveal details of the small scale, high frequency magnetic relaxation process. 2) A measurement of the MHD mode amplitudes and evolution in the equilibrium region. 3) Provide insight into injector effects which are important for future injector designs. Comparison of experimental vector field results to computational simulations will explore the dominant physics involved in steady inductive helicity injection current drive. Analysis, progress and methods will be presented.

  7. Investigation of Crack Growth Process in Dense Hydroxyapatite Using the Double Torsion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaqqa, C.; Chevalier, J.; Saâdaoui, M.; Fantozzi, G.

    In this work, double torsion tests were performed to investigate slow crack growth behavior of dense hydroxyapatite materials. Crack rate, V, versus stress intensity factor, K I , laws were obtained for different environments and processing conditions. Stress assisted corrosion by water molecules in oxide ceramics is generally responsible for slow crack growth. The different propagation stages obtained here could be analyzed in relation to this process. The presence of a threshold defining a safety range of use was also observed. Hydroxyapatite ceramics appear to be very sensitive to slow crack growth, crack propagation occurring even at very low K I . This can be explained by the fact that their contain hydroxyl groups (HAP: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), favoring water adsorption on the crack surface and thus a strong decrease of surface energy in the presence of water. This study demonstrates that processing conditions must be carefully controlled, specially sintering temperature, which plays a key role on V-K I laws. Sintering at 50°C above or below the optimal temperature, for example, may shift the V-K I law towards very low stress intensity factors. The influence of ageing is finally discussed.

  8. A double-index method to classify Kuroshio intrusion paths in the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhida; Liu, Hailong; Hu, Jianyu; Lin, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    A double index (DI), which is made up of two sub-indices, is proposed to describe the spatial patterns of the Kuroshio intrusion and mesoscale eddies west to the Luzon Strait, based on satellite altimeter data. The area-integrated negative and positive geostrophic vorticities are defined as the Kuroshio warm eddy index (KWI) and the Kuroshio cold eddy index (KCI), respectively. Three typical spatial patterns are identified by the DI: the Kuroshio warm eddy path (KWEP), the Kuroshio cold eddy path (KCEP), and the leaking path. The primary features of the DI and three patterns are further investigated and compared with previous indices. The effects of the integrated area and the algorithm of the integration are investigated in detail. In general, the DI can overcome the problem of previously used indices in which the positive and negative geostrophic vorticities cancel each other out. Thus, the proportions of missing and misjudged events are greatly reduced using the DI. The DI, as compared with previously used indices, can better distinguish the paths of the Kuroshio intrusion and can be used for further research.

  9. Double-salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) HPLC method for estimation of temozolomide from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jain, Darshana; Athawale, Rajani; Bajaj, Amrita; Shrikhande, Shruti

    2014-11-01

    The role of temozolomide (TMZ) in treatment of high grade gliomas, melanomas and other malignancies is being defined by the current clinical developmental trials. Temozolomide belongs to the group of alkylating agents and is prescribed to patients suffering from most aggressive forms of brain tumors. The estimation techniques for temozolomide from the extracted plasma or biological samples includes high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MKEC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). These methods suffer from disadvantages like low resolution, low sensitivity, low recovery or cost involvement. An analytical method possessing capacity to estimate low quantities of TMZ in plasma samples with high extraction efficiency (%) and high resolution with cost effectiveness needs to be developed. Cost effective, robust and low plasma component interfering HPLC method using salting out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) technique was developed and validated for estimation of drug from plasma samples. The extraction efficiency (%) with conventional LLE technique with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile was found to be 5.99±2.45, 45.39±4.56, 46.04±1.14 and 46.23±3.67 respectively. Extraction efficiency (%) improved with SALLE where sodium chloride was used as an electrolyte and was found to be 6.80±5.56, 52.01±3.13, 62.69±2.11 and 69.20±1.18 with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile as organic solvent. Upon utilization of two salts for extraction (double salting liquid-liquid extraction) the extraction efficiency (%) was further improved and was twice of LLE. It was found that double salting liquid-liquid extraction technique yielded extraction efficiency (%) of 11.71±5.66, 55.62±3.44, 77.28±2.89 and 87.75±0.89. Hence a method based on double SALLE was developed for quantification of TMZ demonstrating linearity in the range of

  10. Variable-cell double-ended surface walking method for fast transition state location of solid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2015-10-13

    To identify the low energy pathway for solid-to-solid phase transition has been a great challenge in physics and material science. This work develops a new theoretical method, namely, variable-cell double-ended surface walking (VC-DESW) to locate the transition state (TS) and deduce the pathway in solid phase transition. Inherited from the DESW method ( J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013 , 9 , 5745 ) for molecular systems, the VC-DESW method implements an efficient mechanism to couple the lattice and atom degrees of freedom. The method features with fast pseudopathway building and accurate TS location for solid phase transition systems without requiring expensive Hessian computation and iterative pathway optimization. A generalized coordinate, consisting of the lattice vectors and the scaled atomic coordinates, is designed for describing the crystal potential energy surface (PES), which is able to capture the anisotropic behavior in phase transition. By comparing with the existing method for solid phase transition in different systems, we show that the VC-DESW method can be much more efficient for finding the TS in crystal phase transition. With the combination of the recently developed unbiased stochastic surface walking pathway sampling method, the VC-DESW is further utilized to resolve the lowest energy pathway of SiO2 α-quartz to quartz-II phase transition from many likely reaction pathways. These new methods provide a powerful platform for understanding and predicting the solid phase transition mechanism and kinetics.

  11. MSHAM: a multi-hit sample and hold multiplexer

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.

    1980-10-01

    The MSHAM is a single-width CAMAC module intended to be used for dE/dx or Z-position measurements, with a density of 16 analog channels. It is designed to record up to four hits/event per channel but the design can be easily adapted to eight hits. The charge collection time interval allowed per hit is externally controlled in the range of 50 to 500 ns, according to the requirements of the experiment. Besides the electrical performance of the MSHAM, i.e., linearity, noise, cross-talk, etc., the goal was to design mutli-function circuits and high density packaging in order to achieve low cost per channel.

  12. Improved curveball hitting through the enhancement of visual cues.

    PubMed

    Osborne, K; Rudrud, E; Zezoney, F

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs to improve the hitting of curveballs. Five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates served as subjects. Behavior change was assessed through an alternating treatments design involving unmarked balls and two treatment conditions that included baseballs with 1/4-in. and 1/8-in. orange stripes marking the seams of the baseballs. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of marked than unmarked balls. These results suggest that the addition of visual cues may be a significant and beneficial technique to enhance hitting performance. Further research is suggested regarding the training procedures, effect of feedback, rate of fading cues, generalization to live pitching, and generalization to other types of pitches.

  13. Interfacial width in polymer bilayer films prepared by double-spin-coating and flotation methods.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshihisa; Atarashi, Hironori; Hino, Masahiro; Nagamura, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji

    2009-09-01

    A spin-coating method with the aid of selective solvents has been used to construct multilayer structures for organic devices under the assumption that the solvents do not invade a preformed structure. To confirm the assumption, we examined the interfacial width (lambda(i)) of model polymer bilayers, composed of polystyrene and perdeuterated poly(methyl methacrylate), prepared by spin-coating and flotation methods. Neutron reflectivity measurements revealed that the lambda(i) value was larger for the spin-coating method than for the flotation method. These results cast doubt on the validity of the assumption. This knowledge should be kept in mind when this method is applied to construct multilayer structures.

  14. Interval Throwing and Hitting Programs in Baseball: Biomechanics and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Bishop, Meghan E; Baker, Dylan; West, Robin V

    2016-01-01

    Baseball injuries from throwing and hitting generally occur as a consequence of the repetitive and high-energy motions inherent to the sport. Biomechanical studies have contributed to understanding the pathomechanics leading to injury and to the development of rehabilitation programs. Interval-based throwing and hitting programs are designed to return an athlete to competition through a gradual progression of sport-specific exercises. Proper warm-up and strict adherence to the program allows the athlete to return as quickly and safely as possible.

  15. Sleeping beauties in psychology: comparisons of "hits" and "missed signals" in psychological journals.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lydia L

    2005-05-01

    Scientific publications tend to be forgotten quickly. A few works, however, are still cited 100 years and more after their publication. The author used bibliometric methods to compare "hits" (works noticed by the scientific community soon after their publication) with "missed signals" (works that went unnoticed until much later) by investigating 2 psychological journals founded in the 1890s: Zeitschrift für Psychologie and Psychological Review. All articles that were published in either of these journals up to 1920 and cited more than 25 times in the Web of Science up to the year 2000 were considered for inclusion in the analysis. It emerged that hits corresponded more closely to the focus of scientific attention at the time of the publications than missed signals.

  16. Variation in number of hits for complex searches in Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Bramer, Wichor Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Objective Google Scholar is often used to search for medical literature. Numbers of results reported by Google Scholar outperform the numbers reported by traditional databases. How reliable are these numbers? Why are often not all available 1,000 references shown? Methods For several complex search strategies used in systematic review projects, the number of citations and the total number of versions were calculated. Several search strategies were followed over a two-year period, registering fluctuations in reported search results. Results Changes in numbers of reported search results varied enormously between search strategies and dates. Theories for calculations of the reported and shown number of hits were not proved. Conclusions The number of hits reported in Google Scholar is an unreliable measure. Therefore, its repeatability is problematic, at least when equal results are needed. PMID:27076802

  17. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-11-15

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  18. Rapid recovery of polycrystalline silicon from kerf loss slurry using double-layer organic solvent sedimentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Peng-fei; Guo, Jing; Zhuang, Yan-xin; Li, Feng; Tu, Gan-feng

    2013-10-01

    The rapid development of photovoltaic (PV) industries has led to a shortage of silicon feedstock. However, more than 40% silicon goes into slurry wastes due to the kerf loss in the wafer slicing process. To effectively recycle polycrystalline silicon from the kerf loss slurry, an innovative double-layer organic solvent sedimentation process was presented in the paper. The sedimentation velocities of Si and SiC particles in some organic solvents were investigated. Considering the polarity, viscosity, and density of solvents, the chloroepoxy propane and carbon tetrachloride were selected to separate Si and SiC particles. It is found that Si and SiC particles in the slurry waste can be successfully separated by the double-layer organic solvent sedimentation method, which can greatly reduce the sedimentation time and improve the purity of obtained Si-rich and SiC-rich powders. The obtained Si-rich powders consist of 95.04% Si, and the cast Si ingot has 99.06% Si.

  19. A PCR-Based Method to Construct Lentiviral Vector Expressing Double Tough Decoy for miRNA Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Liu, Nian; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Peng, Wenda; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    DNA vector-encoded Tough Decoy (TuD) miRNA inhibitor is attracting increased attention due to its high efficiency in miRNA suppression. The current methods used to construct TuD vectors are based on synthesizing long oligonucleotides (~90 mer), which have been costly and problematic because of mutations during synthesis. In this study, we report a PCR-based method for the generation of double Tough Decoy (dTuD) vector in which only two sets of shorter oligonucleotides (< 60 mer) were used. Different approaches were employed to test the inhibitory potency of dTuDs. We demonstrated that dTuD is the most efficient method in miRNA inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Using this method, a mini dTuD library against 88 human miRNAs was constructed and used for a high-throughput screening (HTS) of AP-1 pathway-related miRNAs. Seven miRNAs (miR-18b-5p, -101-3p, -148b-3p, -130b-3p, -186-3p, -187-3p and -1324) were identified as candidates involved in AP-1 pathway regulation. This novel method allows for an accurate and cost-effective generation of dTuD miRNA inhibitor, providing a powerful tool for efficient miRNA suppression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26624995

  20. Quality Improvement Method using Double Error Correction in Burst Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naosuke; Tomiyama, Shigenori; Tanaka, Kimio

    Recently, it has a tendency to reduce an error correction and flow control in order to realize a high speed transmission in a burst transmission systems such as ATM network, IP (Internet Protocol) network, frame relay and so on. Therefore a degradation of network quality, an information loss caused by buffer overflow and decrease of average bit error rate, are occurred, especially for high speed information such as high definition television signals, it is necessary to improve these degradations. This paper proposes one of the typical reconstruction methods of lost information and an improvement of average bit error rate. In order to analyse the degradation phenomena, the Gilbert model is introduced for burst errors and the Fluid flow model for buffer overflow. This method is applied to ATM network which mainly transmit a video signals and it makes clear that proposed method is useful for high speed transmission.

  1. A method for polycrystalline silicon delineation applicable to a double-diffused MOS transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halsor, J. L.; Lin, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Method is simple and eliminates requirement for unreliable special etchants. Structure is graded in resistivity to prevent punch-through and has very narrow channel length to increase frequency response. Contacts are on top to permit planar integrated circuit structure. Polycrystalline shield will prevent creation of inversion layer in isolated region.

  2. Sorting of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes According to Their Outer Wall Electronic Type via a Gel Permeation Method.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katherine E; Pfohl, Moritz; Tune, Daniel D; Hennrich, Frank; Dehm, Simone; Chakradhanula, Venkata Sai K; Kübel, Christian; Krupke, Ralph; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2015-04-28

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of the gel permeation technique to the sorting of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) according to their outer wall electronic type. Our method uses Sephacryl S-200 gel and yields sorted fractions of DWCNTs with impurities removed and highly enriched in nanotubes with either metallic (M) or semiconducting (S) outer walls. The prepared fractions are fully characterized using optical absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, and the entire procedure is monitored in real time using process Raman analysis. The sorted DWCNTs are then integrated into single nanotube field effect transistors, allowing detailed electronic measurement of the transconductance properties of the four unique inner@outer wall combinations of S@S, S@M, M@S, and M@M.

  3. 42 CFR 495.342 - Annual HIT IAPD requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual HIT IAPD requirements. 495.342 Section 495.342 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  4. Dealing with Hitting and Aggression in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifer, Steffen

    1996-01-01

    Notes that while hitting-aggressive behavior is probably the greatest single behavior concern of teachers, children can be taught appropriate behavior for the classroom. Offers tips for dealing with: roughhousing; existing problems; grabbing toys; and war games, guns, or violent play. Suggests allowing children the choice of an alternative…

  5. Appreciating an Old Favorite: Sousa's All-Time Hit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Outryve, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents John Philip Sousa's all time hit, "The Stars and Stripes Forever". It is one of the most recognizable pieces of American music. Wherever John Philip Sousa and his band appeared, this march was likely to be played. According to American poet and educator Eli Siegel (1902-78), who first articulated the…

  6. Madoff Debacle Hits Colleges and Raises Questions about Trustee Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Several colleges and universities lost millions in the alleged $50-billion Ponzi scheme run by the Wall Street trader Bernard L. Madoff. The losses include institutions' endowment holdings in hedge funds that were invested with Madoff as well as hits taken by supporting foundations and donors. Several foundations that have been active in higher…

  7. A Two-Step Double Filter Method to Extract Open Water Surfaces from Landsat ETM+ Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijing; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, lakes and temporal ponds play a significant role in agriculture and livelihood of local communities as well as in ecology. Monitoring the changes of these open water bodies allows to draw conclusions on water use as well as climatic impacts and can assist in the formulation of a sustainable resource management strategy. The simultaneous monitoring of larger numbers of water bodies with respect to their stage and area is feasible with the aid of remote sensing. Here the monitoring of lake surface areas is discussed. Landsat TM and ETM+ images provide a medium resolution of 30m, and offer an easily available data source to monitor the long term changes of water surfaces in arid and semi-arid regions. In the past great effort was put into developing simple indices to extract water surfaces from satellite images. However, there is a common problem in achieving accurate results with these indices: How to select a threshold value for water pixels without introducing excessive subjective judgment. The threshold value would also have to vary with location, land features and seasons, allowing for inherent uncertainty. A new method was developed using Landsat ETM+ imaginary (30 meter resolution) to extract open water surfaces. This method uses the Normalized Difference of Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the basis for an objective way of selecting threshold values of Modified Normalized Difference of Water Index (MNDWI) and Stress Degree Days (SDD), which were used as a combined filter to extract open water surfaces. We choose two study areas to verify the method. One study area is in Northeast China, where bigger lakes, smaller muddy ponds and wetlands are interspersed with agricultural land and salt crusts. The other one is Kafue Flats in Zambia, where seasonal floods of the Zambezi River create seasonal wetlands in addition to the more permanent water ponds and river channels. For both sites digital globe images of 0.5 meter resolution are available

  8. 2D double interaction method for modeling small particles contaminating microstructures located on substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albella, P.; Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.; González, F.

    2007-07-01

    An interaction model developed in previous research [de la Peña JL, González F, Saiz JM, Moreno F, Valle PJ. Sizing particles on substrates. A general method for oblique incidence. J Appl Phys 1999; 85:432] is extended to the study of two-scaled systems consisting of particles located on larger structures. Far-field scattering patterns produced by these systems can be obtained by coherent addition of different electromagnetic contributions, each one obtained from an independent isolated particle calculation. Results are performed on a 2D scheme, where they can be easily compared with those given by an exact method. This analysis shows some features of the scattering patterns that can be obtained with high reliability. Research on this kind of systems can be applied to 3D situations like particle substrate contamination and particle particle contamination.

  9. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. Probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations.

  10. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  11. Estimation of the effective phase function of bulk diffusing materials with the inverse adding-doubling method.

    PubMed

    Leyre, Sven; Meuret, Youri; Durinck, Guy; Hofkens, Johan; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of optical simulations including bulk diffusors is heavily dependent on the accuracy of the bulk scattering properties. If no knowledge on the physical scattering effects is available, an iterative procedure is usually used to obtain the scattering properties, such as the inverse Monte Carlo method or the inverse adding-doubling (AD) method. In these methods, a predefined phase function with one free parameter is usually used to limit the number of free parameters. In this work, three predefined phase functions (Henyey-Greenstein, two-term Henyey-Greenstein, and Gegenbauer kernel (GK) phase function) are implemented in the inverse AD method to determine the optical properties of two strongly diffusing materials: low-density polyethylene and TiO₂ particles. Using the presented approach, an estimation of the effective phase function was made. It was found that the use of the GK phase function resulted in the best agreement between calculated and experimental transmittance, reflectance, and scattered radiant intensity distribution for the LDPE sample. For the TiO₂ sample, a good agreement was obtained with both the two-term Henyey-Greenstein and the GK phase function.

  12. Drift chamber electronics with multi-hit capability for time and current division measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manarin, A.; Pregernig, L.; Rabany, M.; Saban, R.; Vismara, G.

    1983-11-01

    Drift chambers have been installed for luminosity measurements in intersection 5 of the SPS accelerator working in p overlinep colliding mode. The required electronics is described. The system is able to process up to 16 hits per wire with a double pulse resolution of 40 ns; drift time and current division, with 1.25 ns and 1.6% resolution respectively, are recorded. Transconductance preamplifiers and discriminators are directly mounted on the chamber; 160 m of twisted-pair cable bring the signals to the digitizer unit. Coarse time is measured using RAM techniques, while fine time is obtained by means of a microstrip delay associated with a 100 K ECL priority encoder. Current division used a single 50 MHz Flash ADC which allows 26 dB dynamic range with 6 bit resolution. First operational results are reported.

  13. Hit identification and optimization in virtual screening: practical recommendations based on a critical literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E; Hevener, Kirk E

    2013-09-12

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses, and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, druglike, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported, and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies that presented hit optimization was performed. These data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, definition of hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria.

  14. Hit Identification and Optimization in Virtual Screening: Practical Recommendations Based Upon a Critical Literature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B.; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E.; Hevener, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, drug-like, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies which presented hit optimization was performed. This data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, defining hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria. PMID:23688234

  15. Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibition (2P2I)-Oriented Chemical Library Accelerates Hit Discovery.

    PubMed

    Milhas, Sabine; Raux, Brigitt; Betzi, Stéphane; Derviaux, Carine; Roche, Philippe; Restouin, Audrey; Basse, Marie-Jeanne; Rebuffet, Etienne; Lugari, Adrien; Badol, Marion; Kashyap, Rudra; Lissitzky, Jean-Claude; Eydoux, Cécilia; Hamon, Véronique; Gourdel, Marie-Edith; Combes, Sébastien; Zimmermann, Pascale; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Roux, Thomas; Rogers, Catherine; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan; Trinquet, Eric; Collette, Yves; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Morelli, Xavier

    2016-08-19

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represent an enormous source of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. We and others have recently pinpointed key rules that will help in identifying the next generation of innovative drugs to tackle this challenging class of targets within the next decade. We used these rules to design an oriented chemical library corresponding to a set of diverse "PPI-like" modulators with cores identified as privileged structures in therapeutics. In this work, we purchased the resulting 1664 structurally diverse compounds and evaluated them on a series of representative protein-protein interfaces with distinct "druggability" potential using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) technology. For certain PPI classes, analysis of the hit rates revealed up to 100 enrichment factors compared with nonoriented chemical libraries. This observation correlates with the predicted "druggability" of the targets. A specific focus on selectivity profiles, the three-dimensional (3D) molecular modes of action resolved by X-ray crystallography, and the biological activities of identified hits targeting the well-defined "druggable" bromodomains of the bromo and extraterminal (BET) family are presented as a proof-of-concept. Overall, our present study illustrates the potency of machine learning-based oriented chemical libraries to accelerate the identification of hits targeting PPIs. A generalization of this method to a larger set of compounds will accelerate the discovery of original and potent probes for this challenging class of targets.

  16. Engineering and Design of the Steady Inductive Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--SI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, P. E.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.; Shumlak, U.

    1999-11-01

    HIT/SIHI/>Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) is an inductive helicity injection method that injects helicity at a nearly constant rate, without open field lines, and without removing any helicity or magnetic energy from the plasma.(T.R. Jarboe, Fusion Technology, 36) (1), p. 85, 1999 SIHI directly produces a rotating magnetic field structure, and in the frame of the rotating field the current profile is nearly time independent. The Steady Inductive Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--SI) is a spheromak designed to implement SIHI so that the current profile in the rotating frame is optimized. The geometry of HIT--SI will be presented, including the manufacturing techniques and metallurgical processes planned for construction of the close-fitting flux conserver. The flux conserver is made of aged chromium copper with 80% the conductivity of pure copper. The detailed electrical insulation requirements in the helicity injector design lead to a complex o-ring seal and a plasma-sprayed alumina insulation coating. This has prompted the construction of an o-ring prototype test fixture having the main features of the o-ring design and the alumina coating. The design and evaluation of this fixture will also be presented with vacuum and voltage test results.

  17. Relationships between Parents' Use of Corporal Punishment and Their Children's Endorsement of Spanking and Hitting Other Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the intergenerational cycle of violence, the present study examined the relationship between parental approval and children's approval of corporal punishment (CP) and the subsequent relationship between children's CP experience and preference for hitting to resolve interpersonal conflict. Method: Participants consisted of…

  18. Accuracy of effective dose estimation in personal dosimetry: a comparison between single-badge and double-badge methods and the MOSFET method.

    PubMed

    Januzis, Natalie; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Toncheva, Greta; Lowry, Carolyn; Miller, Michael J; Smith, Tony P; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: (1) to measure the transmission properties of various lead shielding materials, (2) to benchmark the accuracy of commercial film badge readings, and (3) to compare the accuracy of effective dose (ED) conversion factors (CF) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission methods to the MOSFET method. The transmission properties of lead aprons and the accuracy of film badges were studied using an ion chamber and monitor. ED was determined using an adult male anthropomorphic phantom that was loaded with 20 diagnostic MOSFET detectors and scanned with a whole body CT protocol at 80, 100, and 120 kVp. One commercial film badge was placed at the collar and one at the waist. Individual organ doses and waist badge readings were corrected for lead apron attenuation. ED was computed using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors, and ED CFs were calculated by taking the ratio of ED and badge reading. The measured single badge CFs were 0.01 (±14.9%), 0.02 (±9.49%), and 0.04 (±15.7%) for 80, 100, and 120 kVp, respectively. Current regulatory ED CF for the single badge method is 0.3; for the double-badge system, they are 0.04 (collar) and 1.5 (under lead apron at the waist). The double-badge system provides a better coefficient for the collar at 0.04; however, exposure readings under the apron are usually negligible to zero. Based on these findings, the authors recommend the use of ED CF of 0.01 for the single badge system from 80 kVp (effective energy 50.4 keV) data.

  19. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  20. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  1. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  2. The Double Solid Reactant Method for modeling the release of trace elements from dissolving solid phases: I. Outline and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accornero, Marina; Marini, Luigi

    2008-10-01

    A Double Solid Reactant Method was elaborated from a suggestion of Marini (Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide: Thermodynamics, kinetics, and reaction path modeling. Developments in Geochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007) to simulate the release of trace elements during the progressive dissolution of solid phases. The method is based on the definition, for each dissolving solid, of both an entity whose thermodynamic and kinetic properties are known (either a pure mineral or a solid mixture) and a special reactant, that is, a material of known stoichiometry and unknown thermodynamic and kinetic properties. The special reactant is utilised to take into account the concentrations of trace elements in the dissolving solid phase. In this communication, the influence of several trace elements on the Δ G f o, Δ G r o and log K of the minerals considered by Lelli et al. (Environ Geol, 2007) and Accornero and Marini (Geobasi, 2007a; Proceedings of IMWA symposium, Cagliari, 27 31 May 2007b) was evaluated assuming ideal mixing in the solid state. These effects were found to be negligible for albite and the leucite latitic glass, limited for muscovites and chlorites, and slightly more important for apatites. These influences become progressively higher with increasing concentration of trace elements in these minerals. Based on these deviations in thermodynamic parameters, special reactants should not include oxide components with molar fractions higher than 0.003.

  3. How the method of synthesis governs the local and global structure of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pushparaj, Suraj Shiv Charan; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa; Lipton, Andrew S.; Rees, Gregory; Hanna, John V.; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-11-10

    A series of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O with A = NO3-, Cl- or CO3] were prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods, which allowed for a detailed investigation on how synthesis parameters such as pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment influence the local and global structure of the LDH product. Information about sample composition, purity, defects and other structural aspects of the LDH products were obtained from powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and elemental analysis, as well as solid state 1H, 27Al and 67Zn NMR spectroscopy. Our results show that the urea method results in LDHs, which on the global scale are highly crystalline LDHs, whereas solid state NMR shows the different local environments indicating local disorder most likely linked to the presence of Al-rich phases. However, these Alrich phases are not detected by global range techniques, as they either defects within the LDH particles or separate phase(s) associated with LDHs. In contrast, samples prepared by coprecipitation especially synthesized under careful pH control and subsequently hydrothermal treated have high local order and good crystallinity (particle size). Our results show that both molecular level and macroscopic techniques are needed to assess the composition of LDHs, as the conventional PXRD and TEM analysis of LDHs failed to identify the many structural defects and/or amorphous phases.

  4. A Novel Method for Characterizing Fatigue Delamination Growth Under Mode I Using the Double Cantilever Beam Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Nelson; Murri, G.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to obtain Mode I delamination growth rate from a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen. In the proposed method, Unidirectional (UD) DCB specimens are tested in fatigue at different initial maximum energy release rates levels. The growth rate data obtained in the first increments of crack growth at each maximum energy release rate level are used to generate a Paris Law equation, which characterizes delamination growth rate without fiber-bridging, and can also be used to determine a delamination onset curve. The remaining delamination growth rate data from each test are used to determine a modified Paris law, which characterizes the delamination growth rate in a DCB specimen, explicitly accounting for fiber-bridging. The proposed expression captures well the scatter in experimental data obtained using the DCB specimens, suggesting its adequacy. The Paris Law characterizing delamination growth rate without fiber-bridging predicts higher delamination growth rates for the same maximum energy release rate applied, leading to a conservative estimate for delamination growth. This is particularly relevant, since in generic ply interfaces, fiber-bridging is less predominant than in UD DCB specimens. Failing to account for fiber-bridging in UD DCB specimens may underestimate the delamination growth rate, yielding non-conservative predictions.

  5. An improved method for constructing and selectively silanizing double-barreled, neutral liquid-carrier, ion-selective microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Deveau, Jason S.T.; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    We describe an improved, efficient and reliable method for the vapour-phase silanization of multi-barreled, ion-selective microelectrodes of which the silanized barrel(s) are to be filled with neutral liquid ion-exchanger (LIX). The technique employs a metal manifold to exclusively and simultaneously deliver dimethyldichlorosilane to only the ion-selective barrels of several multi-barreled microelectrodes. Compared to previously published methods the technique requires fewer procedural steps, less handling of individual microelectrodes, improved reproducibility of silanization of the selected microelectrode barrels and employs standard borosilicate tubing rather than the less-conventional theta-type glass. The electrodes remain stable for up to 3 weeks after the silanization procedure. The efficacy of a double-barreled electrode containing a proton ionophore in the ion-selective barrel is demonstrated in situ in the leaf apoplasm of pea (Pisum) and sunflower (Helianthus). Individual leaves were penetrated to depth of ~150 μm through the abaxial surface. Microelectrode readings remained stable after multiple impalements without the need for a stabilizing PVC matrix. PMID:16136222

  6. Analytical model for random dopant fluctuation in double-gate MOSFET in the subthreshold region using macroscopic modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Hyeon; Yun, Ilgu

    2016-12-01

    An analytical model is proposed for the random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a symmetric double-gate metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect-transistor (DG MOSFET) in the subthreshold region. Unintended impurity dopants cannot be absolutely prevented during the device fabrication; hence, it is important to analytically model the fluctuations in the electrical characteristics caused by these impurity dopants. Therefore, a macroscopic modeling method is applied to represent the impurity dopants in DG MOSFETs. With this method, the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation is separated into a basic analytical DG MOSFET model with channel doping concentration NA and an impurity-dopant-related term with local doping concentration NRD confined in a specific rectangular area. To solve the second term, the manually solvable 2D Green's function for DG MOSFETs is used. Through calculation of the channel potential (ϕ(x, y)), the variations in the drive current (IDS) and threshold voltage (Vth) are extracted from the analytical model. All results from the analytical model for an impurity dopant in a DG MOSFET are examined by comparisons with the commercially available 2D numerical simulation results, with respect to various oxide thicknesses (tox), channel lengths (L), and location of impurity dopants.

  7. A fusion of the closed-shell coupled cluster singles and doubles method and valence-bond theory for bond breaking.

    PubMed

    Small, David W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-09-21

    Closed-shell coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is among the most important of electronic-structure methods. However, it fails qualitatively when applied to molecular systems with more than two strongly correlated electrons, such as those with stretched or broken covalent bonds. We show that it is possible to modify the doubles amplitudes to obtain a closed-shell CCSD method that retains the computational cost and desirable features of standard closed-shell CCSD, e.g., correct spin symmetry, size extensivity, orbital invariance, etc., but produces greatly improved energies upon bond dissociation of multiple electron pairs; indeed, under certain conditions the dissociation energies are exact.

  8. Evidence of closed flux during CHI formation of a spherical tokamak in the HIT-II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Raman, R.; Redd, A. J.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Smith, R. J.

    2007-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - II (HIT-II) experiment has demonstrated current drive by transformer action (OH), Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and combinations of both. The electron temperature and density profiles of plasmas in HIT-II are measured by multi-point Thomson scattering (MPTS), and magnetic equilibria are reconstructed with EFIT. Internal probing of relaxed CHI discharges shows significant poloidal flux amplification. EFIT reconstructions of relaxed CHI discharges indicate significant closed flux, and poloidal flux increase in time. CHI initiated OH plasmas generate closed flux during the purely CHI startup. Temperature profiles of purely CHI plasmas do not match open flux models. When CHI is added to an ohmic plasma, the edge temperature drops by 75%, and the edge density doubles, while the core plasma properties remain similar to OH only discharges, indicating a transport barrier. The simplest explanation of the data is the formation and sustainment of closed flux during CHI current drive. The limitations on HIT-II CHI discharges are discussed, suggesting refinements to future experiments.

  9. Double calibration: an accurate, reliable and easy-to-use method for 3D scapular motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Brochard, Sylvain; Lempereur, Mathieu; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

    2011-02-24

    The most recent non-invasive methods for the recording of scapular motion are based on an acromion marker (AM) set and a single calibration (SC) of the scapula in a resting position. However, this method fails to accurately measure scapular kinematics above 90° of arm elevation, due to soft tissue artifacts of the skin and muscles covering the acromion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, and inter-trial and inter-session repeatability of a double calibration method (DC) in comparison with SC. The SC and DC data were measured with an optoelectronic system during arm flexion and abduction at different angles of elevation (0-180°). They were compared with palpation of the scapula using a scapula locator. DC data was not significantly different from palpation for 5/6 axes of rotation tested (Y, X, and Z in abduction and flexion), where as SC showed significant differences for 5/6 axes. The root mean square errors ranged from 2.96° to 4.48° for DC and from 6° to 9.19° for SC. The inter-trial repeatability was good to excellent for SC and DC. The inter-session repeatability was moderate to excellent for SC and moderate to good for DC. Coupling AM and DC is an easy-to-use method, which yields accurate and reliable measurements of scapular kinematics for the complete range of arm motion. It can be applied to the measurement of shoulder motion in many fields (sports, orthopaedics, and rehabilitation), especially when large ranges of arm motion are required.

  10. Reconstruction of the esophagojejunostomy by double stapling method using EEA™ OrVil™ in laparoscopic total gastrectomy and proximal gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the method of anastomosis based on double stapling technique (hereinafter, DST) using a trans-oral anvil delivery system (EEATM OrVilTM) for reconstructing the esophagus and lifted jejunum following laparoscopic total gastrectomy or proximal gastric resection. As a basic technique, laparoscopic total gastrectomy employed Roux-en-Y reconstruction, laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy employed double tract reconstruction, and end-to-side anastomosis was used for the cut-off stump of the esophagus and lifted jejunum. We used EEATM OrVilTM as a device that permitted mechanical purse-string suture similarly to conventional EEA, and endo-Surgitie. After the gastric lymph node dissection, the esophagus was cut off using an automated stapler. EEATM OrVilTM was orally and slowly inserted from the valve tip, and a small hole was created at the tip of the obliquely cut-off stump with scissors to let the valve tip pass through. Yarn was cut to disconnect the anvil from a tube and the anvil head was retained in the esophagus. The end-Surgitie was inserted at the right subcostal margin, and after the looped-shaped thread was wrapped around the esophageal stump opening, assisting Maryland forceps inserted at the left subcostal and left abdomen were used to grasp the left and right esophageal stump. The surgeon inserted anvil grasping forceps into the right abdomen, and after grasping the esophagus with the forceps, tightened the end Surgitie, thereby completing the purse-string suture on the esophageal stump. The main unit of the automated stapler was inserted from the cut-off stump of the lifted jejunum, and a trocar was made to pass through. To prevent dropout of the small intestines from the automated stapler, the automated stapler and the lifted jejunum were fastened with silk thread, the abdomen was again inflated, and the lifted jejunum was led into the abdominal cavity. When it was confirmed that the automated stapler and center rod were made completely linear

  11. UN study reports Asian economic crisis has hit women's health.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-02-13

    A UN Population Fund report, "Southeast Asian Populations in Crisis," revealed that the economic crisis in Southeastern Asia has had a disproportionately adverse effect on the health of women and girls. This has occurred because the industries employing women have been hardest hit and because governments have reduced spending on health care and female education. Thailand, for example, has reduced its AIDS budget by 25% even as increasing numbers of women are pushed into the sex trade by economic necessity. Reproductive health services for adolescents have been hit just as shrinking family budgets are forcing adolescents to drop out of school. The report's authors are calling for a more detailed look at the situation.

  12. 75 FR 32472 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS... Information Technology (ONC). Name of Committee: HIT Standards Committee. General Function of the...

  13. Repeat Head Hits May Not Put NFL Players at Risk of Motor Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163670.html Repeat Head Hits May Not Put NFL Players at Risk ... 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Repeated hits to the head may not doom NFL players to suffer movement ...

  14. Transient coaxial helicity injection for solenoid-free plasma startup in HIT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R; Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.

    2007-02-15

    The favorable properties of the spherical torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. Methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. In steady state tokamaks, the central solenoid can be dispensed with if suitable methods for initiating the plasma current are on hand. Coaxial helicity injection (CHI) is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma current startup in STs and tokamaks. Experiments on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-II) machine at the University of Washington [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Technol. 15, 7 (1989)] have demonstrated the capability of a new method, referred to as transient CHI, to produce a high quality closed-flux equilibrium that has been successfully coupled to induction demonstrating that this new plasma current startup method is compatible with the conventional inductive method. This paper presents physics requirements for implementing this method in STs and tokamaks and supporting experimental results from the HIT-II device.

  15. Gemcitabine induced cardiomyopathy: a case of multiple hit cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Donya; Matos, Jason; Chang, James Ducksoon

    2017-02-01

    Gemcitabine is a commonly used antineoplastic agent used to treat a variety of cancers with rarely reported cardiac side effects. We describe a case of a 67-year-old woman with follicular lymphoma who experienced a rarely reported side effect of gemcitabine: cardiomyopathy. This case highlights a multiple hit mechanism of myocyte damage that may occur following the use of multiple cardio-toxic agents despite their administration in doses not associated with cardiotoxicity.

  16. Improved Low-Cost Multi-Hit Transparent Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    MD Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069 ABSTRACT Operation Iraqi Freedom has clearly demonstrated the criticality of transparent armor in...Motyka at ARL) A polymer backing acts as a spall shield and holds fractured armor in place. Interlayer between polycarbonate and ceramics is...Hsieh, Gary A. Gilde U.S. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD IMPROVED LOW-COST MULTI-HIT TRANSPARENT ARMOR Distribution A

  17. A support vector machines approach for virtual screening of active compounds of single and multiple mechanisms from large libraries at an improved hit-rate and enrichment factor.

    PubMed

    Han, L Y; Ma, X H; Lin, H H; Jia, J; Zhu, F; Xue, Y; Li, Z R; Cao, Z W; Ji, Z L; Chen, Y Z

    2008-06-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) and other machine-learning (ML) methods have been explored as ligand-based virtual screening (VS) tools for facilitating lead discovery. While exhibiting good hit selection performance, in screening large compound libraries, these methods tend to produce lower hit-rate than those of the best performing VS tools, partly because their training-sets contain limited spectrum of inactive compounds. We tested whether the performance of SVM can be improved by using training-sets of diverse inactive compounds. In retrospective database screening of active compounds of single mechanism (HIV protease inhibitors, DHFR inhibitors, dopamine antagonists) and multiple mechanisms (CNS active agents) from large libraries of 2.986 million compounds, the yields, hit-rates, and enrichment factors of our SVM models are 52.4-78.0%, 4.7-73.8%, and 214-10,543, respectively, compared to those of 62-95%, 0.65-35%, and 20-1200 by structure-based VS and 55-81%, 0.2-0.7%, and 110-795 by other ligand-based VS tools in screening libraries of >or=1 million compounds. The hit-rates are comparable and the enrichment factors are substantially better than the best results of other VS tools. 24.3-87.6% of the predicted hits are outside the known hit families. SVM appears to be potentially useful for facilitating lead discovery in VS of large compound libraries.

  18. COPD: A stepwise or a hit hard approach?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A J; Reis, A; Marçal, N; Pinto, P; Bárbara, C

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines differ slightly on the recommendations for treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients, and although there are some undisputed recommendations, there is still debate regarding the management of COPD. One of the hindrances to deciding which therapeutic approach to choose is late diagnosis or misdiagnosis of COPD. After a proper diagnosis is achieved and severity assessed, the choice between a stepwise or "hit hard" approach has to be made. For GOLD A patients the stepwise approach is recommended, whilst for B, C and D patients this remains debatable. Moreover, in patients for whom inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended, a step-up or "hit hard" approach with triple therapy will depend on the patient's characteristics and, for patients who are being over-treated with ICS, ICS withdrawal should be performed, in order to optimize therapy and reduce excessive medications. This paper discusses and proposes stepwise, "hit hard", step-up and ICS withdrawal therapeutic approaches for COPD patients based on their GOLD group. We conclude that all approaches have benefits, and only a careful patient selection will determine which approach is better, and which patients will benefit the most from each approach.

  19. Effective progression of nuclear magnetic resonance-detected fragment hits.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Hugh L; Wyss, Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become increasingly popular over the last decade as an alternate lead generation tool to HTS approaches. Several compounds have now progressed into the clinic which originated from a fragment-based approach, demonstrating the utility of this emerging field. While fragment hit identification has become much more routine and may involve different screening approaches, the efficient progression of fragment hits into quality lead series may still present a major bottleneck for the broadly successful application of FBDD. In our laboratory, we have extensive experience in fragment-based NMR screening (SbN) and the subsequent iterative progression of fragment hits using structure-assisted chemistry. To maximize impact, we have applied this approach strategically to early- and high-priority targets, and those struggling for leads. Its application has yielded a clinical candidate for BACE1 and lead series in about one third of the SbN/FBDD projects. In this chapter, we will give an overview of our strategy and focus our discussion on NMR-based FBDD approaches.

  20. Concomitant achondroplasia and Chiari II malformation: A double-hit at the cervicomedullary junction

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Al-Wala; Aleck, Kyrieckos A; Bhardwaj, Ratan D

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of a neonate with concurrent Chiari II malformation and achondroplasia. Although rare, both these conditions contribute to several deleterious anatomical changes at the cervicomedullary junction and thus predispose to acute hydrocephalus. Although our patient was initially asymptomatic, hydrocephalus ensued several weeks after birth and required cerebral spinal fluid diversion. We discuss the potential links between the two conditions, the pathophysiology, and the important clinical implications for the management of the increased risk of hydrocephalus. PMID:25405196

  1. Homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions of double layered viscoelastic nanoplates based on nonlocal theory and extended Melnikov method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yi-Ze; Li, Feng-Ming

    2015-06-15

    The nonlinear dynamical equations are established for the double layered viscoelastic nanoplates (DLNP) subjected to in-plane excitation based on the nonlocal theory and von Kármán large deformation theory. The extended high dimensional homoclinic Melnikov method is employed to study the homoclinic phenomena and chaotic motions for the parametrically excited DLNP system. The criteria for the homoclinic transverse intersection for both the asynchronous and synchronous buckling cases are proposed. Lyapunov exponents and phase portraits are obtained to verify the Melnikov-type analysis. The influences of structural parameters on the transverse homoclinic orbits and homoclinic bifurcation sets are discussed for the two buckling cases. Some novel phenomena are observed in the investigation. It should be noticed that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions is quite remarkable. Hence, the small scale effect should be taken into account for homoclinic and chaotic analysis for nanostructures. It is significant that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic phenomena for the asynchronous buckling case is quite different from that for the synchronous buckling case. Moreover, due to the van der Walls interaction between the layers, the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions for high order mode is rather tiny under the asynchronous buckling condition.

  2. Self-consistent double-hybrid density-functional theory using the optimized-effective-potential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiga, Szymon; Franck, Odile; Mussard, Bastien; Buksztel, Adam; Grabowski, Ireneusz; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an orbital-optimized double-hybrid (DH) scheme using the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method. The orbitals are optimized using a local potential corresponding to the complete exchange-correlation energy expression including the second-order Møller-Plesset correlation contribution. We have implemented a one-parameter version of this OEP-based self-consistent DH scheme using the BLYP density-functional approximation and compared it to the corresponding non-self-consistent DH scheme for calculations on a few closed-shell atoms and molecules. While the OEP-based self-consistency does not provide any improvement for the calculations of ground-state total energies and ionization potentials, it does improve the accuracy of electron affinities and restores the meaning of the LUMO orbital energy as being connected to a neutral excitation energy. Moreover, the OEP-based self-consistent DH scheme provides reasonably accurate exchange-correlation potentials and correlated densities.

  3. Electrode Mass Balancing as an Inexpensive and Simple Method to Increase the Capacitance of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Andres, Britta; Engström, Ann-Christine; Blomquist, Nicklas; Forsberg, Sven; Dahlström, Christina; Olin, Håkan

    Symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) have equal masses of the same active material in both electrodes. However, having equal electrode masses may prevent the EDLC to have the largest possible specific capacitance if the sizes of the hydrated anions and cations in the electrolyte differ because the electrodes and the electrolyte may not be completely utilized. Here we demonstrate how this issue can be resolved by mass balancing. If the electrode masses are adjusted according to the size of the ions, one can easily increase an EDLC's specific capacitance. To that end, we performed galvanostatic cycling to measure the capacitances of symmetric EDLCs with different electrode mass ratios using four aqueous electrolytes- Na2SO4, H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH (all with a concentration of 1 M)-and compared these to the theoretical optimal electrode mass ratio that we calculated using the sizes of the hydrated ions. Both the theoretical and experimental values revealed lower-than-1 optimal electrode ratios for all electrolytes except KOH. The largest increase in capacitance was obtained for EDLCs with NaOH as electrolyte. Specifically, we demonstrate an increase of the specific capacitance by 8.6% by adjusting the electrode mass ratio from 1 to 0.86. Our findings demonstrate that electrode mass balancing is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the capacitance of EDLCs. Furthermore, our results imply that one can reduce the amount of unused material in EDLCs and thus decrease their weight, volume and cost.

  4. Teachers' Perspectives on Hitting Back in School: Between Inexcusable Violence and Self-Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Israeli schools expressly forbid a student to hit back after being attacked. In semistructured interviews, 71 Israeli educators were asked for their views on the hitting-back tactic. The interviews compared their attitude toward hitting back as teachers with their take on the matter as parents. The results, analyzed using grounded theory, show…

  5. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include... Medicaid Information Technology Architecture (MITA) principles as described in the Medicaid...

  6. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include... Medicaid Information Technology Architecture (MITA) principles as described in the Medicaid...

  7. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include... Medicaid Information Technology Architecture (MITA) principles as described in the Medicaid...

  8. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include... Medicaid Information Technology Architecture (MITA) principles as described in the Medicaid...

  9. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include... Medicaid Information Technology Architecture (MITA) principles as described in the Medicaid...

  10. Searching for Dual AGNs in Galaxy Mergers: Understanding Double-Peaked [O III] and Ultra Hard X-rays as Selection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurk, Rosalie C.; Max, Claire E.; Medling, Anne; Shields, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    When galaxies merge, gas accretes onto both central supermassive black holes. Thus, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O III] or of ultra hard X-rays have been proposed as techniques to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O III] emitting AGNs from SDSS DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared (IR) camera NIRC2, we showed that 30% of double-peaked [O III] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3' radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up these spatially-double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and Gemini GMOS and with long-slit spectroscopy from Keck NIRSPEC and Shane Kast Double Spectrograph. We find double-peaked emitters are caused sometimes by dual AGN and sometimes by outflows or narrow line kinematics. We also performed Chandra X-ray ACIS-S observations on 12 double-peaked candidate dual AGNs. Using our observations and 8 archival observations, we compare the distribution of X-ray photons to our spatially double near-IR images, measure X-ray luminosities and hardness ratios, and estimate column densities. By assessing what fraction of double-peaked emission line SDSS AGNs are true dual AGNs, we can better determine whether double-peaked [O III] is an efficient dual AGN indicator and constrain the statistics of dual AGNs. A second technique to find dual AGN is the detection of ultra hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. We use CARMA observations to measure and map the CO(1-0) present in nearby ultra-hard X-ray Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) merging with either a quiescent companion

  11. A double-lyophilization method for the preparation of CS/GO-COOH scaffold and its application in blood detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Lei; Li, Jianchao; Tai, Jun; Su, Haisheng; Zhang, Jing; Xi, Yuan; Fan, Yubo

    2016-10-10

    The accumulation of uremic toxins in blood might induce chronic renal failure (CRF). The incidence of CRF was as high as 10%. The traditional therapy for CRF was hemodialysis, which was more effective to remove small molecules, such as urea and creatinine. However, this detoxification method ignored the tissue functional adaption due to the retention of macromolecule uremic toxins. To solve this problem, this paper developed a new kind of chitosan/carboxyl graphite oxide (CS/GO-COOH) scaffold via a double-lyophilization method. Then, this synthetic scaffold was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, hydrophilic test, mechanical property, and in vitro detoxification test. Covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding were formed, indicating the strong interactions between CS and GO-COOH. There were interconnected networks in the synthesized scaffold. The mechanical test suggested that the GO-2500 scaffold had excellent mechanical strength, which was 7.41 ± 0.82 MPa with 25% shrink. What is more, GO-2500 could totally rebound within 1s, after compressed to 90% shrink. The rates of GO-2500 were 1587 ± 60 and 246 ± 10% according to the water uptake and retention data, respectively. Furthermore, the detoxification of GO-2500 to urea, creatinine, VB12, and β2-m were 67.59 ± 2.31, 39.67 ± 2.95, 31.51 ± 2.62, and 83.82 ± 7.76 mg/g, respectively. The resulting CS/GO-COOH scaffold held great potential for the detoxification of uremic toxins.

  12. Video observation in HIT development: lessons learned on benefits and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experience shows that the precondition for the development of successful health information technologies is a thorough insight into clinical work practice. In contemporary clinical work practice, clinical work and health information technology are integrated, and part of the practice is tacit. When work practice becomes routine, it slips to the background of the conscious awareness and becomes difficult to recognize without the context to support recall. This means that it is difficult to capture with traditional ethnographic research methods or in usability laboratories or clinical set ups. Observation by the use of the video technique within healthcare settings has proven to be capable of providing a thorough insight into the complex clinical work practice and its context - including parts of the tacit practice. The objective of this paper is 1) to argue for the video observation technique to inform and improve health-information-technology development and 2) to share insights and lessons learned on benefits and challenges when using the video observation technique within healthcare settings. Methods A multiple case study including nine case studies conducted by DaCHI researchers 2004–2011 using audio-visual, non-participant video observation for data collection within different healthcare settings. Results In HIT development, video observation is beneficial for 1) informing and improving system design 2) studying changes in work practice 3) identifying new potentials and 4) documenting current work practices. Conclusions The video observation technique used within healthcare settings is superior to other ethnographic research methods when it comes to disclosing the complexity in clinical work practice. The insights gained are far more realistic compared to traditional ethnographic studies or usability studies and studies in clinical set ups. Besides, the data generated through video recordings provide a solid basis for dialog between the health care

  13. A new virus discovered by immunocapture of double-stranded RNA, a rapid method for virus enrichment in metagenomic studies.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Arnaud G; Ross, Howard A; Hobson-Peters, Jody; O'Brien, Caitlin A; Warren, Ben; MacDiarmid, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies enable the rapid identification of viral infection of diseased organisms. However, despite a consistent decrease in sequencing costs, it is difficult to justify their use in large-scale surveys without a virus sequence enrichment technique. As the majority of plant viruses have an RNA genome, a common approach is to extract the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) replicative form, to enrich the replicating virus genetic material over the host background. The traditional dsRNA extraction is time-consuming and labour-intensive. We present an alternative method to enrich dsRNA from plant extracts using anti-dsRNA monoclonal antibodies in a pull-down assay. The extracted dsRNA can be amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. In our study, we have selected three distinct plant hosts: Māori potato (Solanum tuberosum), rengarenga (Arthropodium cirratum) and broadleaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius) representing a cultivated crop, a New Zealand-native ornamental plant and a weed, respectively. Of the sequence data obtained, 31-74% of the reads were of viral origin, and we identified five viruses including Potato virus Y and Potato virus S in potato; Turnip mosaic virus in rengarenga (a new host record); and in the dock sample Cherry leaf roll virus and a novel virus belonging to the genus Macluravirus. We believe that this new assay represents a significant opportunity to upscale virus ecology studies from environmental, primary industry and/or medical samples.

  14. Electrode Mass Balancing as an Inexpensive and Simple Method to Increase the Capacitance of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Britta; Engström, Ann-Christine; Blomquist, Nicklas; Forsberg, Sven; Dahlström, Christina; Olin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) have equal masses of the same active material in both electrodes. However, having equal electrode masses may prevent the EDLC to have the largest possible specific capacitance if the sizes of the hydrated anions and cations in the electrolyte differ because the electrodes and the electrolyte may not be completely utilized. Here we demonstrate how this issue can be resolved by mass balancing. If the electrode masses are adjusted according to the size of the ions, one can easily increase an EDLC’s specific capacitance. To that end, we performed galvanostatic cycling to measure the capacitances of symmetric EDLCs with different electrode mass ratios using four aqueous electrolytes— Na2SO4, H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH (all with a concentration of 1 M)—and compared these to the theoretical optimal electrode mass ratio that we calculated using the sizes of the hydrated ions. Both the theoretical and experimental values revealed lower-than-1 optimal electrode ratios for all electrolytes except KOH. The largest increase in capacitance was obtained for EDLCs with NaOH as electrolyte. Specifically, we demonstrate an increase of the specific capacitance by 8.6% by adjusting the electrode mass ratio from 1 to 0.86. Our findings demonstrate that electrode mass balancing is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the capacitance of EDLCs. Furthermore, our results imply that one can reduce the amount of unused material in EDLCs and thus decrease their weight, volume and cost. PMID:27658253

  15. Estimated Radiation on Mars, Hits per Cell Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This global map of Mars shows estimates for amounts of high-energy-particle cosmic radiation reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

    The estimates are based on cosmic-radiation measurements made on the way to Mars by the Mars radiation environment experiment, an instrument on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, plus information about Mars' surface elevations from the laser altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The areas of Mars expected to have least radiation are where elevation is lowest, because those areas have more atmosphere above them to block out some of the radiation. Earth's thick atmosphere shields us from most cosmic radiation, but Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than Earth does.

    Colors in the map refer to the estimated average number of times per year each cell nucleus in a human there would be hit by a high-energy cosmic ray particle. The range is generally from two hits (color-coded green), a moderate risk level, to eight hits (coded red), a high risk level.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor missions for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. The Mars radiation environment experiment was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for Odyssey, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Hit-and-Run” Transformation by Adenovirus Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nevels, Michael; Täuber, Birgitt; Spruss, Thilo; Wolf, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    According to classical concepts of viral oncogenesis, the persistence of virus-specific oncogenes is required to maintain the transformed cellular phenotype. In contrast, the “hit-and-run” hypothesis claims that viruses can mediate cellular transformation through an initial “hit,” while maintenance of the transformed state is compatible with the loss (“run”) of viral molecules. It is well established that the adenovirus E1A and E1B gene products can cooperatively transform primary human and rodent cells to a tumorigenic phenotype and that these cells permanently express the viral oncogenes. Additionally, recent studies have shown that the adenovirus E4 region encodes two novel oncoproteins, the products of E4orf6 and E4orf3, which cooperate with the viral E1A proteins to transform primary rat cells in an E1B-like fashion. Unexpectedly, however, cells transformed by E1A and either E4orf6 or E4orf3 fail to express the viral E4 gene products, and only a subset contain E1A proteins. In fact, the majority of these cells lack E4- and E1A-specific DNA sequences, indicating that transformation occurred through a hit-and-run mechanism. We provide evidence that the unusual transforming activities of the adenoviral oncoproteins may be due to their mutagenic potential. Our results strongly support the possibility that even tumors that lack any detectable virus-specific molecules can be of viral origin, which could have a significant impact on the use of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy. PMID:11238835

  17. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  18. CEBPA-double-mutated acute myeloid leukemia displays a unique phenotypic profile: a reliable screening method and insight into biological features.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Francesco; Ponziani, Vanessa; Bencini, Sara; Bonetti, Maria Ida; Benelli, Matteo; Cutini, Ilaria; Gianfaldoni, Giacomo; Scappini, Barbara; Pancani, Fabiana; Piccini, Matteo; Rondelli, Tommaso; Caporale, Roberto; Gelli, Anna Maria Grazia; Peruzzi, Benedetta; Chiarini, Marco; Borlenghi, Erika; Spinelli, Orietta; Giupponi, Damiano; Zanghì, Pamela; Bassan, Renato; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bosi, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (CEBPA) occur in 5-10% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia. CEBPA-double-mutated cases usually bear biallelic N- and C-terminal mutations and are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Identification of CEBPA mutants is challenging because of the variety of mutations, intrinsic characteristics of the gene and technical issues. Several screening methods (fragment-length analysis, gene expression array) have been proposed especially for large-scale clinical use; although efficient, they are limited by specific concerns. We investigated the phenotypic profile of blast and maturing bone marrow cell compartments at diagnosis in 251 cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this cohort, 16 (6.4%) patients had two CEBPA mutations, whereas ten (4.0%) had a single mutation. First, we highlighted that the CEBPA-double-mutated subset displays recurrent phenotypic abnormalities in all cell compartments. By mutational analysis after cell sorting, we demonstrated that this common phenotypic signature depends on CEBPA-double-mutated multi-lineage involvement. From a multidimensional study of phenotypic data, we developed a classifier including ten core and widely available parameters. The selected markers on blasts (CD34, CD117, CD7, CD15, CD65), neutrophil (SSC, CD64), monocytic (CD14, CD64) and erythroid (CD117) compartments were able to cluster CEBPA-double-mutated cases. In a validation set of 259 AML cases from three independent centers, our classifier showed excellent performance with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We have, therefore, established a reliable screening method, based upon multidimensional analysis of widely available phenotypic parameters. This method provides early results and is suitable for large-scale detection of CEBPA-double-mutated status, allowing gene sequencing to be focused in selected cases.

  19. Microwave-assisted melt reaction method for the intercalation of carboxylic acid anions into layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Roberto; Leonelli, Cristina; Villa, Carla; Priarone, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acid anions intercalated layered double hydroxides are currently gaining increasing interest due to their potential applications in pharmaceutical field for controlled drug release in novel tunable drug delivery systems. In this work different aliphatic carboxylic acid anions were intercalated into the interlayers of commercial as well as synthetically prepared layered double hydroxides, through a novel microwave mediated melt reaction approach. The volumetric nature of microwave dielectric heating was exploited in order to rapidly heat the intimate mixture of the lamellar inorganic precursor and the appropriate organic acid, at the melting temperature of the particular mono- or dicarboxylic acid used, reaching the intercalation in approximately two hours treatment.

  20. Mapping of change in cerebral glucose utilization using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, K. |; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Evans, A.C.; Gjedde, A.

    1996-12-01

    The authors developed a method for mapping the change in cerebral glucose utilization at two different physiological states using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method. They studied young normal subjects without (baseline-baseline group, n = 5) and with (baseline-stimulation group, n = 5) vibrotactile stimulation of the fingertips of the right hand. Dynamic scans were performed using positron emission tomography (PET) following an initial dose (the first session, 0--30 min) and an additional dose (the second session, 30--60 min). The parametric images of the net clearance of FDG from blood to brain (K*), unidirectional blood-to-brain clearance (K*{sub 1}) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMR{sub glc}) of the two sessions were generated. The averaged subtraction (second minus first session) and t-statistic images were generated, which were rendered into Talairach`s sterotaxic coordinates and merged with the averaged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. In the baseline-baseline group, regional K*, K*{sub 1}, and CMR{sub glc} in the first and second sessions were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.953, 0.935, and 0.951, respectively, n = 340). In the baseline-stimulation group, significant increases in these estimates were obtained in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) (from 3.43 {+-} 0.78 to 4.02 {+-} 1.01 ml/100 g/min for K*, 7.85 {+-} 1.88 to 9.09 {+-} 1.71 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 28.0 {+-} 5.9 to 32.3 {+-} 5.5 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}), while there were no significant changes in the ipsilateral SI (from 3.45 {+-} 0.84 to 3.39 {+-} 0.72 ml/100 g/min for K*, 8.17 {+-} 2.33 to 8.37 {+-} 1.75 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 29.5 {+-} 8.1 to 29.1 {+-} 8.2 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}). Significant increases in K* and CMR{sub glc} in the contralateral SI were clearly demonstrated in the t-statistic image.

  1. [Mg/Al layered double hydroxides prepared by microwave-assisted co-precipitation method for the removal of bromate].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiong; Li, Huan

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al LDHs) were prepared by the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method and the conventional co-precipitation method. The samples were labeled as Mg/Al LDHs-MW and Mg/Al LDHs-H, respectively. Mg/Al LDHs were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The results showed that the application of microwave in the preparation process promoted the formation of smaller pore diameter and higher crystallinity particles. The pore size and particle size of Mg/Al LDHs-MW were 41.13 nm and 427.08 nm, respectively. Batch experiments were investigated to evaluate the effect of dosage, initial pH and regeneration frequencies for bromate removal. The conclusion showed that the process of bromate removal on Mg/Al LDHs could be described by the pseudo-second kinetic model. The Langmuir isotherm well described the experimental data, and the Mg/Al LDHs-MW has a stronger adsorption capacity while the maximum adsorption capacity (q(0)) of Mg/Al LDHs-MW for bromate was 321.26 microg x g(-1) which was larger than the q(0) (288.74 microg x g(-1)) of Mg/Al LDHs-H. For the continuous fixed-bed column, model simulations using the Thomas model showed that the experimental data obtained at three different columns packed with Mg/Al LDHs-MW were able to predict breakthrough curves. Simulating the maximum adsorption capacity of adsorption column for bromate removal was 288.81 microg x g(-1). When the bed depth was 10 cm, inlet concentration was 800 microg x L(-1) and flow rate was 4.0 mL x min, the correlation coefficient of model was 0.92, indicating that the experimental data was described well by the Thomas model.

  2. Enrichment of virtual hits by progressive shape-matching and docking.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; He, Ningning; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Sukjoon

    2012-02-01

    The main applications of virtual chemical screening include the selection of a minimal receptor-relevant subset of a chemical library with a maximal chemical diversity. We have previously reported that the combination of ligand-centric and receptor-centric virtual screening methods may provide a compromise between computational time and accuracy during the hit enrichment process. In the present work, we propose a "progressive distributed docking" method that improves the virtual screening process using an iterative combination of shape-matching and docking steps. Known ligands with low docking scores were used as initial 3D templates for the shape comparisons with the chemical library. Next, new compounds with good template shape matches and low receptor docking scores were selected for the next round of shape searching and docking. The present iterative virtual screening process was tested for enriching peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and phosphoinositide 3-kinase relevant compounds from a selected subset of the chemical libraries. It was demonstrated that the iterative combination improved the lead-hopping practice by improving the chemical diversity in the selected list of virtual hits.

  3. HITS-CLIP: panoramic views of protein-RNA regulation in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The study of gene regulation in cells has recently begun to shift from a period dominated by the study of transcription factor-DNA interactions to a new focus on RNA regulation. This was sparked by the still-emerging recognition of the central role for RNA in cellular complexity emanating from the RNA World hypothesis, and has been facilitated by technologic advances, in particular high throughput RNA sequencing and crosslinking methods (RNA-Seq, CLIP, and HITS-CLIP). This article will place these advances in context, and, focusing on CLIP, will explain the method, what it can be used for, and how to approach using it. Examples of the successes, limitations and future of the technique will be discussed. Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP), coupled with high throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP), has caught the attention of the RNA community as a means of achieving a new depth of understanding about how protein-RNA complexes interactions regulate gene expression in living cells1–4. This review will describe the context in which CLIP was developed, and provide an up-to-date review of its uses in developing genome-wide maps of RNA-protein interactions and, more recently, microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. The uses, limitations, and future of CLIP will be discussed. PMID:21935890

  4. 3D MHD Simulations of Injector Coupling and Current Drive in HIT-SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Chris; Marklin, George; Jarboe, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    A new non-linear reduced MHD code has been developed using the PSI-TET framework, which is capable of modeling the full HIT-SI geometry with consistent boundary conditions for the insulator coated flux conserver. The PSI-TET framework provides general mechanics supporting the development of multi-physics simulation using high order finite methods with a tetrahedral spatial discretization. Using these capabilities an implementation of reduced Hall-MHD was developed where temperature and density are assumed to be uniform and constant, reducing the full MHD equations to the momentum and induction equations. A Nedelec vector basis set is used for the magnetic field, which preserves the divergence free property of the induction equation, and a scalar Lagrange basis is used for each component of the velocity. The equation system is advanced using a time centered implicit scheme, which is solved using a multi-grid preconditioned Newton-Krylov method. Results will be presented focusing on internal injector dynamics and coupling to the Spheromak region. Comparison between this code and experimental data as well as existing NIMROD simulations of HIT-SI, which model the injector operation with boundary conditions on an axisymmetric grid, will also be shown. Work supported by DOE.

  5. Improving the hit-to-lead process: data-driven assessment of drug-like and lead-like screening hits.

    PubMed

    Wunberg, Tobias; Hendrix, Martin; Hillisch, Alexander; Lobell, Mario; Meier, Heinrich; Schmeck, Carsten; Wild, Hanno; Hinzen, Berthold

    2006-02-01

    Drug-like and lead-like hits derived from HTS campaigns provide good starting points for lead optimization. However, too strong emphasis on potency as hit-selection parameter might hamper the success of such projects. A detailed absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology (ADME-Tox) profiling is needed to help identify hits with a minimum number of (known) liabilities. This is particularly true for drug-like hits. Herein, we describe how to break down large numbers of screening hits and we provide a comprehensive overview of the strengths and weaknesses for each structural class. The overall profile (e.g. ligand efficiency, selectivity and ADME-Tox) is the distinctive feature that will define the priority for follow-up.

  6. Applying the new HIT results to tokamak and solar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas; Sutherland, Derek; Hossack, Aaron; Nelson, Brian; Morgan, Kyle; Chris, Hansen; Benedett, Thomas; Everson, Chris; Penna, James

    2016-10-01

    Understanding sustainment of stable equilibria with helicity injection in HIT-SI has led to a simple picture of several tokamak features. Perturbations cause a viscous-like force on the current that flattens the λ profile, which sustains and stabilizes the equilibrium. An explanation of the mechanism is based on two properties of stable, ideal, two-fluid, magnetized plasma. First, the electron fluid is frozen to magnetic fields and, therefore, current flow is also magnetic field flow. Second, for a stable equilibrium the structure perpendicular to the flux surface resists deformation. Thus toroidal current is from electrons frozen in nested, rotating resilient flux surfaces. Only symmetric flux surfaces allow free differential current flow. Perturbations cause interference of the flux surfaces. Thus, perturbations cause forces that oppose differential electron rotation and forced differential flow produces a symmetrizing force against perturbations and instability. This mechanism can explain the level of field error that spoils tokamak performance and the rate of poloidal flux loss in argon-induced disruptions in DIII-D. This new understanding has led to an explanation of the source of the solar magnetic fields and the power source for the chromosphere, solar wind and corona. Please place in spheromak and FRC section with other HIT posters.

  7. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  8. Double checking: a second look

    PubMed Central

    Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: ‘How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?’ Method This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi‐structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Results Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time‐consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand‐alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in‐family approach, and resilience. Conclusion(s) Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. PMID:26568537

  9. [Diagnosis and treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) based on its atypical immunological features].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shigeki; Maeda, Takuma

    2016-03-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic side effect of heparin therapy caused by HIT antibodies, i.e., anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin IgG with platelet-activating properties. For serological diagnosis, antigen immunoassays are commonly used worldwide. However, such assays do not indicate their platelet-activating properties, leading to low specificity for the HIT diagnosis. Therefore, over-diagnosis is currently the most serious problem associated with HIT. The detection of platelet-activating antibodies using a washed platelet activation assay is crucial for appropriate HIT diagnosis. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIT include it having several clinical features atypical for an immune-mediated disease. Heparin-naïve patients can develop IgG antibodies as early as day 4, as in a secondary immune response. Evidence for an anamnestic response on heparin re-exposure is lacking. In addition, HIT antibodies are relatively short-lived, unlike those in a secondary immune response. These lines of evidence suggest that the mechanisms underlying HIT antibody formation may be compatible with a non-T cell-dependent immune reaction. These atypical clinical and serological features should be carefully considered while endeavoring to accurately diagnose HIT, which leads to appropriate therapies such as immediate administration of an alternative anticoagulant to prevent thromboembolic events and re-administration of heparin during surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass when HIT antibodies are no longer detectable.

  10. The use of the adding-doubling method for the optical optimization of planar luminescent down shifting layers for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Leyre, Sven; Cappelle, Jan; Durinck, Guy; Abass, Aimi; Hofkens, Johan; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-05-05

    To enhance the efficiency of solar cells, a luminescent down shifting layer can be applied in order to adapt the solar spectrum to the spectral internal quantum efficiency of the semiconductor. Optimization of such luminescent down shifting layers benefits from quick and direct evaluation methods. In this paper, the potential of the adding-doubling method is investigated to simulate the optical behavior of an encapsulated solar cell including a planar luminescent down shifting layer. The results of the adding-doubling method are compared with traditional Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations. The average relative deviation is found to be less than 1.5% for the absorptance in the active layer and the reflectance from the encapsulated cell, while the computation time can be decreased with a factor 52. Furthermore, the adding-doubling method is adopted to investigate the suitability of the SrB4O7:5%Sm2 + ,5%Eu2 + phosphor as a luminescent down shifting material in combination with a Copper Indium Gallium Selenide solar cell. A maximum increase of 9.0% in the short-circuit current can be expected if precautions are taken to reduce the scattering by matching the refractive index of host material to the phosphor particles. To be useful as luminescent down shifting material, the minimal value of the quantum yield of the phosphor is determined to be 0.64.

  11. Comparison of inguinal hernia repairs performed with lichtenstein, rutkow-robbins, and gilbert double layer graft methods.

    PubMed

    Karaca, A Serdar; Ersoy, Omer Faik; Ozkan, Namik; Yerdel, Mehmet Ali

    2015-02-01

    Tension-free repairs are performed commonly in inguinal hernia operations. The objective of the present study is to compare the outcomes of three different tension-free repair methods known as Lichtenstein, Rutkow-Robbins, and Gilbert double layer. One-hundred and fifty patients diagnosed with inguinal hernia were randomly split into three groups. The comparisons across groups were carried out in terms of operation length, postoperative pain, femoral vein flow velocity, early and late complications, recurrence rates, length of hospital stay, time required to return to work, and cost analysis. No difference was found between the groups regarding age, gender, type and classification of hernia, postoperative pain, and late complications (p > 0.05). Operation length was 53.70 ± 12.32 min in the Lichtenstein group, 44.29 ± 12.37 min in the Rutkow-Robbins group, and 45.21 ± 14.36 min in the Gilbert group (p < 0.05). Mean preoperative and postoperative femoral vein flow velocity values were 13.88 ± 2.237 and 13.42 ± 2.239 cm/s for Lichtenstein group, 12.64 ± 2.98 and 12.16 ± 2.736 cm/s for Rutkow-Robbins group, and 16.02 ± 3.19 and 15.52 ± 3.358 cm/s for the Gilbert group, respectively. Statistical difference was found between all the groups (p < 0.001). However, no difference was determined between the groups regarding the decrease rates (p = 0.977). Among early complications, hematoma was observed in one (2 %) patient of Lichtenstein group, five (10 %) patients of Rutkow-Robbins group, and three (6 %) patients of Gilbert group (p = 0.033). Cost analysis produced the following results for Lichtenstein, Rutkow-Robbins, and Gilbert groups: US $157.94 ± 50.05, $481.57 ± 11.32, and $501.51 ± 73.59, respectively (p < 0.001). Lichtenstein operation was found to be more advantageous compared with the other techniques in terms of cost analysis as well as having unaffected femoral blood

  12. Utility of Redundant Combinatorial Libraries in Distinguishing High and Low Quality Screening Hits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Large one-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries can be constructed relatively easily by solid-phase split and pool synthesis. The use of resins with hydrophilic surfaces, such as TentaGel, allows the beads to be used directly in screens for compounds that bind selectively to labeled proteins, nucleic acids, or other biomolecules. However, we have found that this method, while useful, has a high false positive rate. In other words, beads that are scored as hits often display compounds that prove to be poor ligands for the target of interest when they are resynthesized and carried through validation trials. This results in a significant waste of time and resources in cases where putative hits cannot be validated without resynthesis. Here, we report that this problem can be largely eliminated through the use of redundant OBOC libraries, where more than one bead displaying the same compound is present in the screen. We show that compounds isolated more than once are likely to be high quality ligands for the target of interest, whereas compounds isolated only once have a much higher likelihood of being poor ligands. While the use of redundant libraries does limit the number of unique compounds that can be screened at one time in this format, the overall savings in time, effort, and materials makes this a more efficient route to the isolation of useful ligands for biomolecules. PMID:24749624

  13. Generalized amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm attack on 'double images encryption method with resistance against the special attack based on an asymmetric algorithm'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenggong; He, Wenqi; Cai, Zewei; Peng, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    A generalized amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm (GAPRA) attack on `double images encryption method with resistance against the special attack based on an asymmetric algorithm' (DIEM) is presented in this paper. The analysis shows that the DIEM is a cascaded cryptosystem, which consist of a joint transform correlator architecture and a phasetruncated Fourier transform scheme. A GAPRA attack is proposed and the potential risk of the cascaded cryptosystems is discussed. By using our method, an attacker could crack high-quality results of the plaintexts. A set of simulation results demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Antibodies associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) inhibit activated protein C generation: new insights into the prothrombotic nature of HIT

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Sriram; Rauova, Lubica; Zhai, Li; Hayes, Vincent; Amirikian, Karine; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Bougie, Daniel W.; Aster, Richard H.; Cines, Douglas B.; Poncz, Mortimer

    2011-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by antibodies that recognize complexes between platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin or glycosaminoglycan side chains. These antibodies can lead to a limb- and life-threatening prothrombotic state. We now show that HIT antibodies are able to inhibit generation of activated protein C (aPC) by thrombin/thrombomodulin (IIa/TM) in the presence of PF4. Tetrameric PF4 potentiates aPC generation by formation of complexes with chondroitin sulfate (CS) on TM. Formation of these complexes occurs at a specific molar ratio of PF4 to glycosaminoglycan. This observation and the finding that the effect of heparin on aPC generation depends on the concentration of PF4 suggest similarity between PF4/CS complexes and those that bind HIT antibodies. HIT antibodies reduced the ability of PF4 to augment aPC formation. Cationic protamine sulfate, which forms similar complexes with heparin, also enhanced aPC generation, but its activity was not blocked by HIT antibodies. Our studies provide evidence that complexes formed between PF4 and TM's CS may play a physiologic role in potentiating aPC generation. Recognition of these complexes by HIT antibodies reverses the PF4-dependent enhancement in aPC generation and may contribute to the prothrombotic nature of HIT. PMID:21772054

  15. Voltage—clamp analysis of the early current in frog skeletal muscle fibre using the double sucrose-gap method

    PubMed Central

    Ildefonse, Michèle; Rougier, Oger

    1972-01-01

    1. The early membrane currents in skeletal muscle fibres have been studied with the double sucrose-gap method, according to the experimental procedure used for the study of the giant axon of the squid. 2. The earliest observable current is a capacitative transient. An equivalent circuit with two capacity-resistance systems can account for such a current. The components of the electrical circuit are estimated from the records. 3. The capacitative transient current is followed by an initial current, the time and voltage dependence of which are analogous to those of nerve fibres. During this phase of current, the membrane behaves like a sodium electrode for modifications of the external sodium concentration. 4. Using tetrodotoxin, a specific inhibitor of the sodium permeability, it is possible to separate two current components, (i) a transient component, suppressed by tetrodotoxin, which reflects the modifications, with time and voltage, of the membrane permeability towards sodium ions; the larger the depolarization, the shorter the time to reach peak current. This current is inward for depolarizations (V) of about +30 mV to about +130 mV (VNa). There was some variation in these values between individual fibres. Beyond VNa, the current is outward. This current shows a small rectification — inward going — for high depolarizations which is comparable to the behaviour of the Ranvier node membrane. (ii) A quasi-instantaneous outward component, only voltage dependent. The current—voltage relation of this current shows an outward going rectification for high depolarizations. This current can be considered as a `leak' current, in which chloride ions could play an important role. 5. A sodium tail current is observed when the imposed potential fall occurs during the time course of the initial current. It corresponds to the deactivation of the sodium current previously activated. Because of the large contemporary capacitative currents, it is difficult to measure

  16. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    Under a contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., PNNL has performed a review of the NDE technology and methods for examination of the concrete dome structure of Hanford’s double-shell tanks. The objective was to provide a matrix of methodologies that could be evaluated based on applicability, ease of deployment, and results that could provide information that could be used in the ongoing structural analysis of the tank dome. PNNL performed a technology evaluation with the objective of providing a critical literature review for all applicable technologies based on constraints provided by CH2M HILL. These constraints were not mandatory, but were desired. These constraints included performing the evaluation without removing any soil from the top of the tank, or if necessary, requesting that the hole diameter needed to gain access to evaluate the top of the tank structure to be no greater than approximately 12-in. in diameter. PNNL did not address the details of statistical sampling requirements as they depend on an unspecified risk tolerance. PNNL considered these during the technology evaluation and have reported the results in the remainder of this document. Many of the basic approaches to concrete inspection that were reviewed in previous efforts are still in use. These include electromagnetic, acoustic, radiographic, etc. The primary improvements in these tools have focused on providing quantitative image reconstruction, thus providing inspectors and analysts with three-dimensional data sets that allow for operator visualization of relevant abnormalities and analytical integration into structural performance models. Available instruments, such as radar used for bridge deck inspections, rely on post-processing algorithms and do not provide real-time visualization. Commercially available equipment only provides qualitative indications of relative concrete damage. It cannot be used as direct input for structural analysis to assess fitness for use and if

  17. Ozone hits low levels over Antarctica, U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.

    1993-10-04

    This year's Antarctic ozone hole is as deep as any ever observed and is approaching the record geographical extent of 1992, according to preliminary satellite data. In addition, both groundbased and satellite observations indicate that ozone concentrations over the U.S. hit record lows earlier this year. For more than a decade, almost all the ozone at certain altitudes over Antarctica has been destroyed as the Sun returns to the polar region in September. This dramatic photochemical depletion, catalyzed by chlorine and bromine from man-made compounds, reaches its nadir in early October. Ozone levels return to near normal later in the season, when the circular pattern of winds that isolates air over Antarctica breaks down, and ozone-rich air pours in from the north.

  18. Imidazolopiperazines: hit to lead optimization of new antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Nagle, Advait; Kuhen, Kelli; Gagaring, Kerstin; Borboa, Rachel; Francek, Caroline; Chen, Zhong; Plouffe, David; Goh, Anne; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Wu, Jeanette; Ang, Hui Qing; Zeng, Peiting; Kang, Min Low; Tan, William; Tan, Maria; Ye, Nicole; Lin, Xuena; Caldwell, Christopher; Ek, Jared; Skolnik, Suzanne; Liu, Fenghua; Wang, Jianling; Chang, Jonathan; Li, Chun; Hollenbeck, Thomas; Tuntland, Tove; Isbell, John; Fischli, Christoph; Brun, Reto; Rottmann, Matthias; Dartois, Veronique; Keller, Thomas; Diagana, Thierry; Winzeler, Elizabeth; Glynne, Richard; Tully, David C; Chatterjee, Arnab K

    2011-07-28

    Starting from a hit series from a GNF compound library collection and based on a cell-based proliferation assay of Plasmodium falciparum, a novel imidazolopiperazine scaffold was optimized. SAR for this series of compounds is discussed, focusing on optimization of cellular potency against wild-type and drug resistant parasites and improvement of physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The lead compounds in this series showed good potencies in vitro and decent oral exposure levels in vivo. In a Plasmodium berghei mouse infection model, one lead compound lowered the parasitemia level by 99.4% after administration of 100 mg/kg single oral dose and prolonged mice survival by an average of 17.0 days. The lead compounds were also well-tolerated in the preliminary in vitro toxicity studies and represents an interesting lead for drug development.

  19. Building markets: Most recycling markets hit bottom in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    For most recycling markets, 1993 was the year prices hit bottom. However, in the final weeks of 1993, recyclers saw slight, but much appreciated, price increases for most commodities. Overall in 1993, glass, plastics, and steel markets remained relatively stable, with some price fluctuations, while markets for paper and aluminum weakened. The paper recycling industry suffered from weak but volatile markets for all grades of secondary fiber, despite and explosion of new deinking facilities, and a host of voluntary recycled-content purchasing agreements. In a move that some recyclers say may be a needed shot in the arm for paper markets, Clinton signed an Executive Order in October 1993 requiring federal agencies to purchase printing and writing paper containing 20% post-consumer material by the end of 1994 and 30% post-consumer content by the end of 1998. Many recyclers are hoping that this will serve as a model for state and local governments.

  20. Inflammation and the Two-Hit Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Feigenson, Keith A.; Kusnecov, Alex W.; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The high societal and individual cost of schizophrenia necessitates finding better, more effective treatment, diagnosis, and prevention strategies. One of the obstacles in this endeavor is the diverse set of etiologies that comprises schizophrenia. A substantial body of evidence has grown over the last few decades to suggest that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome with overlapping symptoms and etiologies. At the same time, an increasing number of clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have shown links between schizophrenia and inflammatory conditions. In this review, we analyze the literature on inflammation and schizophrenia, with a particular focus on comorbidity, biomarkers, and environmental insults. We then identify several mechanisms by which inflammation could influence the development of schizophrenia via the two-hit hypothesis. Lastly, we note the relevance of these findings to clinical applications in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24247023

  1. Anxiety vulnerability in women: a two-hit hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Beck, Kevin D

    2014-09-01

    Females are twice as likely to develop an anxiety disorder compared to males, and thus, are believed to possess an innate vulnerability that increases their susceptibility to develop an anxiety disorder. However, studies using aversive learning paradigms to model anxiety disorders in humans and animals have revealed contradictory results. While females exhibit the ability to rapidly acquire stimulus-response associations, which may result from a greater attentional bias towards threat, females are also capable to readily extinguish these associations. Thus, there is little evidence to suggest that the female sex represents a vulnerability factor of anxiety, per se. However, if females are to possess a second vulnerability factor that increases the inflexibility of stimulus-response associations, then an anxiety disorder may be more likely to develop. Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a vulnerability factor associated with the formation of inflexible stimulus-response associations. In this "two hit" model of anxiety vulnerability, females possessing a BI temperament will rapidly acquire stimulus-response associations that are resistant to extinction, resulting in the development of an anxiety disorder. In this review we explore evidence for a "two-hit" hypothesis underlying anxiety vulnerability in females. We explore the literature for evidence of a sex difference in attentional bias towards threat that may lead to the facilitated acquisition of stimulus-response associations in females. We also provide evidence that BI is associated with inflexible stimulus-response association formation. We conclude with data generated from our laboratory that highlights the additive effect of the female sex and behavioral inhibition vulnerabilities using a model behavior for anxiety disorder-susceptibility, active avoidance.

  2. Validation of the Impact of Health Information Technology (I-HIT) Scale: an international collaborative.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Patricia C; Hurley, Ann C; Brown, Suzanne; Carr, Robyn; Cashen, Margaret; Collins, Rita; Cook, Robyn; Currie, Leanne; Docherty, Charles; Ensio, Anneli; Foster, Joanne; Hardiker, Nicholas R; Honey, Michelle L L; Killalea, Rosaleen; Murphy, Judy; Saranto, Kaija; Sensmeier, Joyce; Weaver, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Healthcare Information Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Nursing Informatics Community developed a survey to measure the impact of health information technology (HIT), the I-HIT Scale, on the role of nurses and interdisciplinary communication in hospital settings. In 2007, nursing informatics colleagues from Australia, England, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States formed a research collaborative to validate the I-HIT across countries. All teams have completed construct and face validation in their countries. Five out of six teams have initiated reliability testing by practicing nurses. This paper reports the international collaborative's validation of the I-HIT Scale completed to date.

  3. 76 FR 14975 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  4. 76 FR 46297 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... issues related to their specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards,...

  5. A Facile Method to Prepare Double-Layer Isoporous Hollow Fiber Membrane by In Situ Hydrogen Bond Formation in the Spinning Line.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nazia; Koll, Joachim; Radjabian, Maryam; Abetz, Clarissa; Abetz, Volker

    2016-03-01

    A double-layer hollow fiber is fabricated where an isoporous surface of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) is fixed on a support layer by co-extrusion. Due to the sulfonation of the support layer material, delamination of the two layers is suppressed without increasing the number of subsequent processing steps for isoporous composite membrane formation. Electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy images unveil the existence of a high sulfur concentration in the interfacial region by which in-process H-bond formation between the layers is evidenced. For the very first time, our study reports a facile method to fabricate a sturdy isoporous double-layer hollow fiber.

  6. Validation of a rapid DNA process with the RapidHIT(®) ID system using GlobalFiler(®) Express chemistry, a platform optimized for decentralized testing environments.

    PubMed

    Salceda, Susana; Barican, Arnaldo; Buscaino, Jacklyn; Goldman, Bruce; Klevenberg, Jim; Kuhn, Melissa; Lehto, Dennis; Lin, Frank; Nguyen, Phong; Park, Charles; Pearson, Francesca; Pittaro, Rick; Salodkar, Sayali; Schueren, Robert; Smith, Corey; Troup, Charles; Tsou, Dean; Vangbo, Mattias; Wunderle, Justus; King, David

    2017-05-01

    The RapidHIT(®) ID is a fully automated sample-to-answer system for short tandem repeat (STR)-based human identification. The RapidHIT ID has been optimized for use in decentralized environments and processes presumed single source DNA samples, generating Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)-compatible DNA profiles in less than 90min. The system is easy to use, requiring less than one minute of hands-on time. Profiles are reviewed using centralized linking software, RapidLINK™ (IntegenX, Pleasanton, CA), a software tool designed to collate DNA profiles from single or multiple RapidHIT ID systems at different geographic locations. The RapidHIT ID has been designed to employ GlobalFiler(®) Express and AmpFLSTR(®) NGMSElect™, Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA) STR chemistries. The Developmental Validation studies were performed using GlobalFiler(®) Express with single source reference samples according to Scientific Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods guidelines. These results show that multiple RapidHIT ID systems networked with RapidLINK software form a highly reliable system for wide-scale deployment in locations such as police booking stations and border crossings enabling real-time testing of arrestees, potential human trafficking victims, and other instances where rapid turnaround is essential.

  7. Study of Method for Designing the Power and the Capacitance of Fuel Cells and Electric Double-Layer Capacitors of Hybrid Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Kondo, Keiichiro

    A hybrid railway traction system with fuel cells (FCs) and electric double layer-capacitors (EDLCs) is discussed in this paper. This system can save FC costs and absorb the regenerative energy. A method for designing FCs and EDLCs on the basis of the output power and capacitance, respectively, has not been reported, even though their design is one of the most important technical issues encountered in the design of hybrid railway vehicles. Such design method is presented along with a train load profile and an energy management strategy. The design results obtained using the proposed method are verified by performing numerical simulations of a running train. These results reveal that the proposed method for designing the EDLCs and FCs on the basis of the capacitance and power, respectively, and by using a method for controlling the EDLC voltage is sufficiently effective in designing efficient EDLCs and FCs of hybrid railway traction systems.

  8. Hit-Validation Methodologies for Ligands Isolated from DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Gunther; Li, Yizhou; Rieder, Ulrike; Mattarella, Martin; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2017-01-09

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are large collections of compounds linked to DNA fragments, serving as amplifiable barcodes, which can be screened on target proteins of interest. In typical DECL selections, preferential binders are identified by high-throughput DNA sequencing, by comparing their frequency before and after the affinity capture step. Hits identified in this procedure need to be confirmed, by resynthesis and by performing affinity measurements. In this article we present new methods based on hybridization of oligonucleotide conjugates with fluorescently labeled complementary oligonucleotides; these facilitate the determination of affinity constants and kinetic dissociation constants. The experimental procedures were demonstrated with acetazolamide, a binder to carbonic anhydrase IX with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The detection of binding events was compatible not only with fluorescence polarization methodologies, but also with Alphascreen technology and with microscale thermophoresis.

  9. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-15

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro. - Highlights: • We intercalated chlorogenic into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide by ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods. • The two methods gave nanocomposites

  10. Visual Illusions and the Control of Ball Placement in Goal-Directed Hitting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caljouw, Simone R.; Van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2010-01-01

    When hitting, kicking, or throwing balls at targets, online control in the target area is impossible. We assumed this lack of late corrections in the target area would induce an effect of a single-winged Muller-Lyer illusion on ball placement. After extensive practice in hitting balls to different landing locations, participants (N = 9) had to hit…

  11. 77 FR 15760 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT... Federal Health IT Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy...

  12. 76 FR 22396 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT... Federal Health IT Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy...

  13. 76 FR 70455 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT... Federal Health IT Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy...

  14. 76 FR 50734 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT... Federal Health IT Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy...

  15. 78 FR 66267 - Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake... establishing a safety zone upon the navigable waters of the Colorado River in support of the HITS Triathlon... Series; Colorado River, Lake Havasu City, AZ. (a) Location. The safety zone includes the waters in...

  16. 75 FR 21630 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access only. Name of Committees: HIT Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Policy, Strategic Plan, Adoption... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT...

  17. 76 FR 79684 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to the National Coordinator on a policy... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the...

  18. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho de; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Silva, Marlei Gomes da; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2005-11-01

    Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR) and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 AIDS inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  19. Emerging double helical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-08-21

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  20. Removing cosmic-ray hits from CCD images in real-time mode by means of an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waniak, Wacław

    2006-06-01

    A feed-forward artificial neural network has been implemented to the problem of removing cosmic-ray hits (CRH) from CCD images. The results of a number of tests demonstrate the effectiveness of this method especially for undersampled stellar profiles. The problem of optimal and low price preparing of training data, which could enable real-time or at least fast post-processing filtering out of CRH is discussed. The training and test ensembles were composed of a number of synthetic stellar profiles involving different S/N ratios and CRH images taken from real data. Certain aspects of the network’s architecture and its training efficiency for different modes of the back-propagation procedure as well as for the pre-process normalization of data have been examined. It is shown that for training set composed of stellar images and CRH at a ratio of 1:2 recognition can reach 99% in the case of stars and 96% for CRH. To determine the extent to which the cognition power of a network trained using an ensemble of circular symmetric stellar profiles of a given radius can be generalised the test data included stellar profiles of different radii, as well as elongated profiles. The goal was to mimic temporal changes in seeing as well as such problems as image defocusing, the lack of isoplanatism and improper sideral tracking of a telescope. The experiments provided us with the conclusion that for S/N > 10 excellent classification property is maintained in cases where the change in the radius of a circular profile is up to 30%, as well as for elongated profiles where the longest dimension is almost double that of the shortest one. Moreover, the generalization capability has been investigated for test images of synthetic pairs of overlapping stars with different distances between components. Almost 99% recognition efficiency was achieved even if the separation was nearly three times the radius of the stellar profile, a case when two stars could be analyzed by appropriate software

  1. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt

  2. PageRank, HITS and a unified framework for link analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Husbands, Parry; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2001-10-01

    Two popular webpage ranking algorithms are HITS and PageRank. HITS emphasizes mutual reinforcement between authority and hub webpages, while PageRank emphasizes hyperlink weight normalization and web surfing based on random walk models. We systematically generalize/combine these concepts into a unified framework. The ranking framework contains a large algorithm space; HITS and PageRank are two extreme ends in this space. We study several normalized ranking algorithms which are intermediate between HITS and PageRank, and obtain closed-form solutions. We show that, to first order approximation, all ranking algorithms in this framework, including PageRank and HITS, lead to same ranking which is highly correlated with ranking by indegree. These results support the notion that in web resource ranking indegree and outdegree are of fundamental importance. Rankings of webgraphs of different sizes and queries are presented to illustrate our analysis.

  3. The Missing Mantle Paradox, and the Statistical Argument for Repeated Hit and Run Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E.; Reufer, A.

    2015-10-01

    Mercury's formation can be explained by a giant impact. However, a direct hit blasting off the mantle [1] leaves debris stranded in orbitabout the Sun,to be re-accumulated back onto Mercury. A hit and run collision [2] provides a cleaner solution, and in most cases,much lower levels of shock and potentially greater retention of volatiles. However, hit and run is usually followed by subsequent re-collision, and ultimate accretion; an embryo's survival after being a hit and run projectile is unlikely in any single instance. Most of the original planetary embryoshave been accreted by Earth and Venus; unaccreted planets are lucky. Here we show that the surviving terrestrial planet population is likely to have about as many hit and run survivors, as it is to have untouched survivors. That is, the differences between Mercury and Mars can be explained in a statistical manner as a consequence of accretionary attrition. We consider applications to asteroids, meteorites and exoplanets.

  4. Reactions of organoaluminum compounds with acetylene as a method for the synthesis of aliphatic derivatives with a z-disubstituted double bond

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, N.I.; Kuchin, A.V.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1985-11-01

    This paper develops a method for the synthesis of aliphatic compounds with a Z-disubstituted double bond, which are important synthons for the preparation of such natural products as insect pheromones, aromatic principles, etc. In the carbalumination reaction of acetylene Z-alkenyldialkylaluminums are formed selectively. A-Alkenyldialkylaluminums are highly reactive and can readily be converted into Z-allyl alcohols and their ethers, and into Z-iodovinyl derivatives. By the reactions of vinyl organoaluminum compounds with the complex CH/sub 3/COClhaAlCl/sub 3/ E-conjugated ketones were obtained.

  5. Stochastic, weighted hit size theory of cellular radiobiological action

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    A stochastic theory that appears to account well for the observed responses of cell populations exposed in radiation fields of different qualities and for different durations of exposure is described. The theory appears to explain well most cellular radiobiological phenomena observed in at least autonomous cell systems, argues for the use of fluence rate (phi) instead of absorbed dose for quantification of the amount of radiation involved in low level radiation exposure. With or without invoking the cell sensitivity function, the conceptual improvement would be substantial. The approach suggested also shows that the absorbed dose-cell response functions currently employed do not reflect the spectrum of cell sensitivities to increasing cell doses of a single agent, nor can RBE represent the potency ratio for different agents that can produce similar quantal responses. Thus, for accurate comparison of cell sensitivities among different cells in the same individual, or between the cells in different kinds of individuals, it is necessary to quantify cell sensitivity in terms of the hit size weighting or cell sensitivity function introduced here. Similarly, this function should be employed to evaluate the relative potency of radiation and other radiomimetic chemical or physical agents.

  6. The "first hit" toward alcohol reinforcement: role of ethanol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Israel, Yedy; Quintanilla, María Elena; Karahanian, Eduardo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2015-05-01

    This review analyzes literature that describes the behavioral effects of 2 metabolites of ethanol (EtOH): acetaldehyde and salsolinol (a condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine) generated in the brain. These metabolites are self-administered into specific brain areas by animals, showing strong reinforcing effects. A wealth of evidence shows that EtOH, a drug consumed to attain millimolar concentrations, generates brain metabolites that are reinforcing at micromolar and nanomolar concentrations. Salsolinol administration leads to marked increases in voluntary EtOH intake, an effect inhibited by mu-opioid receptor blockers. In animals that have ingested EtOH chronically, the maintenance of alcohol intake is no longer influenced by EtOH metabolites, as intake is taken over by other brain systems. However, after EtOH withdrawal brain acetaldehyde has a major role in promoting binge-like drinking in the condition known as the "alcohol deprivation effect"; a condition seen in animals that have ingested alcohol chronically, are deprived of EtOH for extended periods, and are allowed EtOH re-access. The review also analyzes the behavioral effects of acetate, a metabolite that enters the brain and is responsible for motor incoordination at low doses of EtOH. Also discussed are the paradoxical effects of systemic acetaldehyde. Overall, evidence strongly suggests that brain-generated EtOH metabolites play a major role in the early ("first-hit") development of alcohol reinforcement and in the generation of relapse-like drinking.

  7. Rapid calculation of diffuse reflectance from a multilayered model by combination of the white Monte Carlo and adding-doubling methods

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kenichiro; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    To rapidly derive a result for diffuse reflectance from a multilayered model that is equivalent to that of a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS), we propose a combination of a layered white MCS and the adding-doubling method. For slabs with various scattering coefficients assuming a certain anisotropy factor and without absorption, we calculate the transition matrices for light flow with respect to the incident and exit angles. From this series of precalculated transition matrices, we can calculate the transition matrices for the multilayered model with the specific anisotropy factor. The relative errors of the results of this method compared to a conventional MCS were less than 1%. We successfully used this method to estimate the chromophore concentration from the reflectance spectrum of a numerical model of skin and in vivo human skin tissue. PMID:25426319

  8. A double-blind evaluation of the activity of an anti-cellulite product containing retinol, caffeine, and ruscogenine by a combination of several non-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Bertin, C; Zunino, H; Pittet, J C; Beau, P; Pineau, P; Massonneau, M; Robert, C; Hopkins, J

    2001-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 46 healthy female volunteers in order to test an anti-cellulite product containing retinol, caffeine and ruscogenine. An evaluation of different parameters related to cellulite appearance, i.e., the skin macrorelief, the dermal and hypodermal structures, the skin mechanical characteristics, and the cutaneous flowmetry was assessed using several non-invasive methods. This combination of different evaluation methods resulted in the demonstration of significant activity of the anti-cellulite product versus baseline and showed its superiority versus the placebo in skin macrorelief (decrease of the "orange peel" effect) and an increase in cutaneous microcirculation. By using a combination of methods, it was possible to detail the activity of an anti-cellulite product and to show superiority of the product in comparison with the placebo.

  9. NEACRP standard problem exercise on criticality codes for dissolving fissile oxides in acids: A reference method for treating the fuel double heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, A.; Smith, H.J. . Div. d'Etudes et de Developpement des Reacteurs); Whitesides, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The value of international comparison studies by the OECD-NEA Criticality Working Group has again been demonstrated by this study. Computational methods that had been commonly used for criticality safety calculations and which were shown to be valid for systems for which experimental data existed, were demonstrated to be inadequate when extrapolated to some simulated actual situations. The major source of dispersion in the results in international criticality benchmark calculations on problems treating a fuel double heterogeneity is shown to be the incorrect evaluation of effective resonance cross sections for 238U. A reference calculational method is proposed and used to evaluate theoretically the errors created by various standard methods of calculating the effects of self-shielding of resonance cross sections. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  11. Preparation of Nickel-Aluminum-Containing Layered Double Hydroxide Films by Secondary (Seeded) Growth Method and Their Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fazhi; Guo, Li; Xu, Sailong; Zhang, Rong

    2015-06-23

    Thin films of nickel-aluminum-containing layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) have been prepared on nickel foil and nickel foam substrates by secondary (seeded) growth of NiAl-LDH seed layer. The preparation procedure consists of deposition of LDH seeds from a colloidal suspension on the substrate by dip coating, followed by hydrothermal treatment of the nanocrystals to form the LDH film. The secondary grown film is found to provide a higher crystallinity and more uniform composition of metal cations in the film layer than the in situ grown film on seed-free substrate under identical hydrothermal conditions. A systematic investigation of the film evolution process reveals that the crystallite growth rate is relatively fast for the secondary grown film because of the presence of LDH nanocrystal seeds. Electrochemical performance of the resulting NiAl-LDH films as positive electrode material was further assessed as an example of their practical applications. The secondary grown film electrode delivers improved recharge-discharge capacity and cycling stability compared with that of the in situ grown film, which can be explained by the existence of a unique microstructure of the former. Our findings show an example for the effective fabrication of LDH film with controllable microstructure and enhanced application performance through a secondary (seeded) growth procedure.

  12. Shock sensitivity of a double-base propellant as a function of age, processing method, and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.

    2017-01-01

    Shock sensitivity of a double-base propellant (nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose with smaller quantities of other ingredients) was compared for fresh and aged samples. Because the available amount of propellant was less than that needed for extrusion, most samples were pressed. The large-scale gap test (LSGT) was consistent for 240-g samples of fresh propellant whether extruded as one piece or 6-mm pieces pressed together directly into the confinement tube. The latter had the same density but with microscopic gaps between pieces and nitrocellulose fibers randomly oriented instead of being aligned with the extrusion axis. In a further reduction of the amount of required propellant, 11-g samples pressed from 3-mm pieces had the same critical shock pressure in the Insensitive High Explosive gap test (IHEGT), which has a LSGT donor and replicates its confinement. There was just enough propellant aged for 13 and 16 years to press several IHEGT samples each. The critical shock pressure was somewhat lower for aged propellant. These results demonstrate how smaller tests can mimic results in larger ones upon proper consideration of shock, detonation, and material science.

  13. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-02-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index.

  14. The effective encapsulation of a hydrophobic lipid-insoluble drug in solid lipid nanoparticles using a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Nabi-Meibodi, Mohsen; Vatanara, Alireza; Najafabadi, Abdolhossein Rouholamini; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Ramezani, Vahid; Gilani, Kambiz; Etemadzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2013-12-01

    Raloxifene HCl (RH), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is indicated for the prophylaxis or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. RH shows extremely poor bioavailability due to limited solubility and an extensive intestinal/hepatic first-pass metabolism. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are valuable carriers that can enhance drug bioavailability. However, in the case of RH, the encapsulation of the drug in SLNs remains a challenge because of its poor solubility in both water and lipids. In this study, a series of RH-containing SLNs (RH-SLNs) were generated using a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation (DESE) method. Briefly, RH with various drug/lipid ratios was solubilized in the inner core of a double emulsion using different water/organic solvent mixtures. Our best formulation was achieved with the formation of negatively charged nanoparticles, 180nm in diameter, with an encapsulation and loading efficiency of 85% and 4.5%, respectively. It also showed a Fickian mechanism of the drug release in the basic dissolution media. Thermal analysis revealed a distinct decrease in the crystallinity of lipids and RH in comparison with the unprocessed materials. The results of a cell viability assay also showed a better antiproliferative effect of the drug-loaded SLNs versus the free drug solution. Thus, these results indicated that the modified DESE method could be proposed for the effective encapsulation of RH in SLNs with appropriate physicochemical and biological properties.

  15. Hit-and-run trophallaxis of small hive beetles.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter; Naef, Jan; Crailsheim, Karl; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2015-12-01

    Some parasites of social insects are able to exploit the exchange of food between nestmates via trophallaxis, because they are chemically disguised as nestmates. However, a few parasites succeed in trophallactic solicitation although they are attacked by workers. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The small hive beetle (=SHB), Aethina tumida, is such a parasite of honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies and is able to induce trophallaxis. Here, we investigate whether SHB trophallactic solicitation is innate and affected by sex and experience. We quantified characteristics of the trophallactic solicitation in SHBs from laboratory-reared individuals that were either bee-naïve or had 5 days experience. The data clearly show that SHB trophallactic solicitation is innate and further suggest that it can be influenced by both experience and sex. Inexperienced SHB males begged more often than any of the other groups had longer breaks than their experienced counterparts and a longer soliciting duration than both experienced SHB males and females, suggesting that they start rather slowly and gain more from experience. Successful experienced females and males were not significantly different from each other in relation to successful trophallactic interactions, but had a significantly shorter soliciting duration compared to all other groups, except successful inexperienced females. Trophallactic solicitation success, feeding duration and begging duration were not significantly affected by either SHB sex or experience, supporting the notion that these behaviors are important for survival in host colonies. Overall, success seems to be governed by quality rather than quantity of interactions, thereby probably limiting both SHB energy investment and chance of injury (<1%). Trophallactic solicitation by SHBs is a singular example for an alternative strategy to exploit insect societies without requiring chemical disguise. Hit-and-run trophallaxis is an attractive test

  16. 'Hit by the wind' and temperature-shift panic among Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon; Hinton, Susan; Pham, Thang; Chau, Ha; Tran, Minh

    2003-09-01

    Surveying 60 Vietnamese patients with either current or past post-traumatic stress disorder, this article aims to phenomenologically characterize the syndrome of 'hit by the wind' in a multidimensional manner. This includes determining the patient conceptualization of the disorder, profiling 'hit by the wind' episodes suffered by patients in the previous month, and presenting case vignettes. Eighteen of the 60 patients (30%) suffered at least one episode of 'hit by the wind' in the last month; all 18 patients had at least one episode of 'hit by the wind' in the last month that met panic attack criteria. For the 18 patients, 33 episodes of'hit by the wind' that met panic attack criteria were experienced in the previous month. For these 33 episodes, the most frequently reported DSM-IV panic attack symptoms were chills (100%; 33/33) and dizziness (88%; 29/33). Flashbacks played a role in the 'hit by the wind' episodes for 5 of the 18 patients (28%). In the discussion, a model of how the syndrome of 'hit by the wind' generates panic is adduced; also, possible Chinese origins of the disorder are discussed.

  17. Helicopter In-Flight Tracking System (HITS) for the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martone, Patrick; Tucker, George; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) is sponsoring deployment and testing of the Helicopter In-flight Tracking System (HITS) in a portion of the Gulf of Mexico offshore area. Using multilateration principles, HITS determines the location and altitude of all transponder-equipped aircraft without requiring changes to current Mode A, C or S avionics. HITS tracks both rotary and fixed-wing aircraft operating in the 8,500 sq. mi. coverage region. The minimum coverage altitude of 100 ft. is beneficial for petroleum industry, allowing helicopters to be tracked onto the pad of most derricks. In addition to multilateration, HITS provides surveillance reports for aircraft equipped for Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), a new surveillance system under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is supporting NASA in managing HITS installation and operation, and in evaluating the system's effectiveness. Senses Corporation is supplying, installing and maintaining the HITS ground system. Project activities are being coordinated with the FAA and local helicopter operators. Flight-testing in the Gulf will begin in early 2002. This paper describes the HITS project - specifically, the system equipment (architecture, remote sensors, central processing system at Intracoastal City, LA, and communications) and its performance (accuracy, coverage, and reliability). The paper also presents preliminary results of flight tests.

  18. Loss of HITS (FAM107B) expression in cancers of multiple organs: tissue microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideo; Koizumi, Keita; Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Yoshitake, Yoshino; Yonekura, Hideto; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Umehara, Hisanori; Ueno, Soichiro; Minamoto, Toshinari; Motoo, Yoshiharu

    2012-10-01

    Family with sequence similarity 107 (FAM107) proteins consist of two subtypes, FAM107A and FAM107B in mammals, possessing a conserved N-terminal domain of unknown function. Recently we found that FAM107B, an 18 kDa nuclear protein, is expressed in a broad range of tissues and is downregulated in gastrointestinal cancer. Because FAM107B expression is amplified by heat-shock stimulation, we designated it heat shock-inducible tumor small protein (HITS). Although data related to FAM107A as a candidate tumor suppressor have been accumulated, little biological information is available for HITS. In the present study, we examined HITS expression using immunohistochemistry with tissue microarrays and performed detailed statistical analyses. By screening a high-density multiple organ tumor and normal tissue microarray, HITS expression was decreased in tumor tissues of the breast, thyroid, testis and uterine cervix as well as the stomach and colon. Further analysis of tissue microarrays of individual organs showed that loss of HITS expression in cancer tissues was statistically significant and commonly observed in distinct organs in a histological type-specific manner. The HITS expression intensity was inversely correlated with the primary tumor size in breast and thyroid cancers. In addition, effects of tetracycline-inducible HITS expression on tumor growth were investigated in vivo. Forced expression of HITS inhibited tumor xenograft proliferation, compared with the mock-treated tumor xenograft model. These results show that loss of HITS expression is a common phenomenon observed in cancers of distinct organs and involved in tumor development and proliferation.

  19. Growth of(Fe xMg 1 - x) 2SiO 4 single crystals by the double pass floating zone method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tse-Lun; Markgraf, Steven A.; Higuchi, Mikio; Dieckmann, Ru¨diger

    1996-12-01

    Good quality olivine single crystals,(Fe xMg 1 - x) 2SiO 4, have been successfully grown by the floating zone method using an image furnace. The double pass floating zone method was utilized to grow crystals with uniform composition along the growth axis. Chemical analyses by electron microprobe confirmed that the crystals were homogeneous in composition along the growth direction over the entire length of the boule. The primary crystal defects observed were bubbles. Precipitates, such as iron oxide and silica-rich phases were only occasionally found in iron-rich olivine crystals. An after-heater, either active or passive, was placed just below the freezing interface to control the interface shape and reduce the thermal gradient, enabling the growth of crack-free single crystals.

  20. Precision treatment of single and double multiphoton ionization of He atoms by strong laser fields: Time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method in internal coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Heslar, John; Chu, Shih-I.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a new computational method for accurate and efficient numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two-electron atoms. Our approach is full-dimensional and makes use of the internal coordinates of the electrons in the plane defined by the electrons and the nucleus (r1, r2, and θ12) as well as Euler angles which determine the orientation of the plane in space. The internal coordinates can be optimally discretized by means of the generalized pseudospectral method while the Euler angles appear through the basis set functions with the definite total angular momentum and its projections. The results of the single and double ionization of the helium atom by strong 800 nm laser fields will be presented. The accurate time-dependent electron density obtained can be used for testing and improvement of various approximate exchange-correlation functionals of the time-dependent density functional theory.

  1. Double fiber probe with a single fiber Bragg grating based on the capillary-driven self-assembly fabrication method for dimensional measurement of micro parts.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiwen; Feng, Kunpeng; Hu, Yang; Li, Junying; Dang, Hong; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-12-28

    Focusing on the ultra-precision dimensional measurement of parts with micro-scale dimensions and high aspect ratios, a two-dimensional double fiber probe with a single fiber Bragg grating (DS-FBG probe) is investigated in detail in this paper. The theoretical analysis of the sensing principle is verified by spectrum simulations of the DS-FBG probe with a modified transfer matrix method using the strain distribution within the DS-FBG probe. The fabrication process and physical principle of the capillary-driven self-assembly of double fibers in the UV adhesive with a low viscosity are demonstrated. Experimental results indicate that resolutions of 30 nm in radial direction and 15 nm in axial direction can be achieved, and the short-term displacement drifts within 90 seconds are 28.0 nm in radial direction and 7.9 nm in axial direction, and the long-term displacement drifts within 1 hour are 61.3 nm in radial direction and 17.3 nm in axial direction. The repeatability of the probing system can reach 60 nm and the measurement result of a standard nozzle is 300.49 μm with a standard deviation of 20 nm.

  2. Optical properties of double layer thin films zinc oxide doping aluminum (ZnO/Al) were deposited on glass substrates by sol gel method spray coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Anes; Sutanto, Heri; Marito Siagian, Sinta

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of double layer of ZnO/Al has succeeded in deposition on a glass substrate using sol-gel method and spray coating techniques. Variations of doping Al as much as 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. ZnO precursor synthesized using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(COOCH3)2.2H2O), isopropanol ((CH3)2CHOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) were stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 45 minutes. ZnO precursor get homogeneous and then added of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate predetermined doping concentration and stirred again for 15 minutes. Deposition solution is done by the spray on a glass substrate and then heated at a temperature of 450°C. A layer of ZnO/Al deposited over the ZnO to produce a thin layer of a double layer. Optical properties layer of ZnO/Al characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Based on data from UV-Vis absorbance was determined the value of the energy band gap. Pure and dopped layers has different energy due the Al dopping. For pure ZnO layer has energy band gap of 3.347 eV and decreased to 3.09 eV for ZnO layer with Al dopant.

  3. Visualisation of Microglia with the use of Immunohistochemical Double Staining Method for CD-68 and Iba-1 of Cerebral Tissue Samples in Cases of Brain Contusions.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Belakaposka-Srpanova, Viktorija; Bitoljanu, Natasa; Cakar, Ljupco; Cakar, Zdravko; Rosoklija, Gorazd

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years it has been confirmed that the main component of the immune response in an injury of the nerve cell comes from microglia and macrophages. The main challenge in the field of microglia research is to detect the different stages of cellular activation by visualization of the cell morphology. The existing visualization techniques are based on surface molecules expression in resting and activated microglia cells. For visualization of the microglial cells and their functional state we used double labeling method for cd-68 and iba1 in brain contusions with different survival time. Microglia are stained brown with Iba-1, whereas microglia impregnated with black, grainy color, represents activated microglia stained with CD 68. We had significantly positive results, and we were able to observe changes in the morphology of the microglia that correlated with the survival time. Using double labeling with Iba-1 and cd68 we were able to determine their physiological state based on the morphology and immunoreactivity.

  4. New treatment method for boron in aqueous solutions using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-08-15

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO3(-) (NO3 · Mg - Al LDHs) and with Cl(-) (Cl · Mg - Al LDHs) were found to take up boron from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) in solution with NO3(-) and Cl(-) intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Using three times the stoichiometric quantity of NO3 · Mg-Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 1.9 mg L(-1) in 120 min. Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Cl · Mg - Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 5.6 mg L(-1) in 120 min. It must be emphasized that, in both cases, the residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan (10 mg L(-1)). The rate-determining step of B removal by the NO3 · Mg - Al and Cl · Mg - Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH)4(-) with intercalated NO3(-) and Cl(-). The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of B by NO3 · Mg - Al LDH and Cl · Mg - Al LDH followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6 mmol g(-1) and 1.7, respectively, for NO3 · Mg - Al LDH, and 3.8 mmol g(-1) and 0.7, respectively, for Cl · Mg-Al LDH. The B(OH)4(-) in B(OH)4 · Mg - Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo anion exchange with NO3(-) and Cl(-) in solution. The NO3 · Mg - Al and Cl · Mg - Al LDHs obtained after this regeneration treatment were able to remove B from aqueous solutions, indicating the possibility of recycling NO3 · Mg - Al and Cl · Mg - Al LDHs for B removal.

  5. Illustration of SSMD, z score, SSMD*, z* score, and t statistic for hit selection in RNAi high-throughput screens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Hit selection is the ultimate goal in many high-throughput screens. Various analytic methods are available for this purpose. Some commonly used ones are z score, z* score, strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD), SSMD*, and t statistic. It is critical to know how to use them correctly because the misusage of them can readily produce misleading results. Here, the author presents basic concepts, elaborates their commonality and difference, describes some common misusage that people should avoid, and uses simulated simple examples to illustrate how to use them correctly.

  6. Nonlinear transient response analysis for double walls with a porous material supported by nonlinear springs using FEM and MSKE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takao; Hozumi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Yuta; Tobita, Kazuhiro; Kurosawa, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we newly propose a fast computation method for the nonlinear transient responses including coupling between nonlinear springs and sound proof structures having porous materials using FEM. In this method, we extend our numerical method named as Modal Strain and Kinetic Method (i.e. MSKE method proposed previously by Yamaguchi who is one of the authors) from linear damping analysis to nonlinear dynamic analysis. We assume that the restoring force of the spring has cubic nonlinearity and linear hysteresis damping. To calculate damping properties for soundproof structures including elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous body, displacement vectors as common unknown variable are solved under coupled condition. The damped sound fields in the porous materials are defined by complex effective density and complex bulk modulus. The discrete equations in physical coordinate for this system are transformed into nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinates corresponding to linear natural modes. Further, using MSKE method, modal damping can be derived approximately under coupled conditions between hysteresis damping of viscoelastic materials, damping of the springs and damping due to flow resistance in porous materials. The modal damping is used for the nonlinear differential equation to compute nonlinear transient responses.

  7. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  8. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

  9. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  10. 75 FR 33811 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces...

  11. 75 FR 21629 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  12. 75 FR 3905 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  13. 75 FR 65486 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  14. 75 FR 57025 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  15. 75 FR 29762 - HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... health information technology infrastructure that permits the electronic exchange and use of...

  16. 75 FR 3906 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that permits the...

  17. 76 FR 9782 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS ] ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... and Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING...

  18. Indoor Tanning: a Big Financial Hit to U.S. Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indoor Tanning: A Big Financial Hit to U.S. Health Care Skin cancers from UV light in devices totalled $ ... tanning are estimated to have cost the U.S. health care system hundreds of millions of dollars in 2015, ...

  19. 7 in 10 U.S. Workplaces Hit by Opioid Abuse: Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164032.html 7 in 10 U.S. Workplaces Hit by Opioid Abuse: Survey Poll ... 06/08/2017) By Robert Preidt Friday, March 10, 2017 FRIDAY, March 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Prescription ...

  20. 76 FR 28784 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the following public meetings during June 2011: June 1st Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  1. 76 FR 39107 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the following public meetings during July 2011: July 8th Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  2. 76 FR 22398 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the following public meetings during May 2011: May 5th Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  3. General principles and methods for routine automated microRNA in situ hybridization and double labeling with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, U; Keirstead, N; Wolujczyk, A; Odin, M; Albassam, M; Garrido, R

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences on target messenger RNA transcripts. Changes in the expression levels of specific miRNAs have been associated with a variety of disease conditions. We developed a reliable and high throughput in situ hybridization (ISH) method and optimized tissue fixation conditions for formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. ISH methods were automated to visualize four miRNAs: miRNA-145 (smooth muscle cells), miRNA-126 (endothelial cells), miRNA-21 (neoplastic cells) and U6 small nuclear RNA (nuclear marker) using locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes and the Discovery Ultra Ventana(™) platform. The FFPE tissue sections were pretreated with protease 3, hybridized with probe concentrations of ≤ 25 nM; signal was detected using an enhanced, polymer-based detection method. The ISH signal was stronger and more uniform for tissue samples fixed for ≥ 48 h. To investigate the specificity of the method, we developed an automated dual ISH for miRNA-145 coupled with immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, which confirmed the specific distribution of miRNA-145 to smooth muscle cells. These methods may be used routinely for exploratory studies of biomarker development, sample screening and understanding the role of miRNA in the pathophysiology of specific diseases.

  4. A Non-Destructive Culturing and Cell Sorting Method for Cardiomyocytes and Neurons Using a Double Alginate Layer

    PubMed Central

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Hayashi, Masahito; Hattori, Akihiro; Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture. PMID:22870332

  5. NDE evaluation of the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of a 2205 duplex stainless steel using thermoelectric power and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, N.; Carreón, H.; Ruiz, A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a nondestructive technique to assess rapidly and with confidence the degree of sensitization (DOS) in duplex stainless steel (DSS). In this investigation, we present the use of thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements as nondestructive method for the determination of DOS in isothermally aged 2205 DSS at 700°C for different aging times. The DOS of the aged samples was first established by performing the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) test. The microstructural evolution was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicate that TEP coefficient is sensitive to gradual microstructural changes produced by thermal aging and can be used to monitor IGC sensitization of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

  6. An efficient formulation and implementation of the analytic energy gradient method to the single and double excitation coupled-cluster wave function - Application to Cl2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rendell, Alistair P.; Lee, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    The analytic energy gradient for the single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD) wave function has been reformulated and implemented in a new set of programs. The reformulated set of gradient equations have a smaller computational cost than any previously published. The iterative solution of the linear equations and the construction of the effective density matrices are fully vectorized, being based on matrix multiplications. The new method has been used to investigate the Cl2O2 molecule, which has recently been postulated as an important intermediate in the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. In addition to reporting computational timings, the CCSD equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and relative energetics of three isomers of Cl2O2 are presented.

  7. Direct visualization method of the atomic structure of light and heavy atoms with double-detector C{sub s}-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kotaka, Yasutoshi

    2012-09-24

    The advent of C{sub s}-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has advanced the observation of atomic structures in materials and nanotechnology devices. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF)-STEM using an annular detector visualizes heavy elements as bright spots at atomic resolution that can be observed with the Z-contrast technique. In this study, the atomic column of light elements is directly observed as bright spots by middle-angle bright-field (MABF)-STEM imaging. Therefore, a double-detector STEM imaging method was developed, exploiting the advantage of both MABF-STEM and HAADF-STEM to maximum, which consists of multiple exposures of simultaneously observed MABF- and HAADF-STEM images in red-green-blue color.

  8. Teaching the Double Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various methods for teaching the double layer in electrochemistry courses. Topics addressed include measuring change in absolute potential difference (PD) at interphase, conventional electrode potential scale, analyzing absolute PD, metal-metal and overlap electron PDs, accumulation of material at interphase, thermodynamics of electrified…

  9. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  10. On the accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System used in football helmets.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; Dau, Nathan; King, Albert I; McCarthy, Joe

    2013-09-03

    On-field measurement of head impacts has relied on the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System, which uses helmet mounted accelerometers to determine linear and angular head accelerations. HIT is used in youth and collegiate football to assess the frequency and severity of helmet impacts. This paper evaluates the accuracy of HIT for individual head impacts. Most HIT validations used a medium helmet on a Hybrid III head. However, the appropriate helmet is large based on the Hybrid III head circumference (58 cm) and manufacturer's fitting instructions. An instrumented skull cap was used to measure the pressure between the head of football players (n=63) and their helmet. The average pressure with a large helmet on the Hybrid III was comparable to the average pressure from helmets used by players. A medium helmet on the Hybrid III produced average pressures greater than the 99th percentile volunteer pressure level. Linear impactor tests were conducted using a large and medium helmet on the Hybrid III. Testing was conducted by two independent laboratories. HIT data were compared to data from the Hybrid III equipped with a 3-2-2-2 accelerometer array. The absolute and root mean square error (RMSE) for HIT were computed for each impact (n=90). Fifty-five percent (n=49) had an absolute error greater than 15% while the RMSE was 59.1% for peak linear acceleration.

  11. The impact of Health Information Technology (I-HIT) Scale: the Australian results.

    PubMed

    Cook, Robyn; Foster, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    One of role of the nurse in the clinical setting is that of co-ordinating communication across the healthcare team. On a daily basis nurses interact with the person receiving care, their family members, and multiple care providers thus placing the nurse in the central position with access to a vast array of information on the person. Through this nurses have historically functioned as "information repositories". With the advent of Health Information Technology (HIT) tools there is a potential that HIT could impact interdisciplinary communication, practice efficiency and effectiveness, relationships and workflow in acute care settings [1][3]. In 2005, the HIMSS Nursing Informatics Community developed the I-HIT Scale to measure the impact of HIT on the nursing role and interdisciplinary communication in USA hospitals. In 2007, nursing informatics colleagues from Australia, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland and the USA formed a research collaborative to validate the I-HIT in six additional countries. This paper will discuss the background, methodology, results and implications from the Australian I-HIT survey of over 1,100 nurses. The results are currently being analyzed and will be presented at the conference.

  12. Are Stripes Beneficial? Dazzle Camouflage Influences Perceived Speed and Hit Rates

    PubMed Central

    von Helversen, Bettina; Schooler, Lael J.; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal—i.e., parallel to movement direction–and vertical–i.e., perpendicular to movement direction) affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup. PMID:23637795

  13. [Method of double feedback from EEG oscillators of the patient for correction of stress-induced functional disorders].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar', A T

    2008-01-01

    Method of correction of human stress-induced functional disorders is proposed which is based on two feedback contours from narrow-band EEG oscillators of the patient. The first one is a usual biofeedback contour in which the feedback signals from the narrow-band EEG oscillator are consciously perceived by the patient and serve him as a guide for voluntary reduction/activation of these EEG components. The second one is an additional contour of resonance stimulation which helps a subject to overcome the difficulties of conscious control of feedback signals. In this contour the parameters of audio-visual stimulation are automatically tuned to the frequency of the dominant narrow-band EEG oscillator of the patient (from the same or other EEG frequency range) to reach its resonance activation. Scientific basis of the method is provided, the results of its experimental testing are presented.

  14. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  15. Synthesis of layered double hydroxides containing Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+ and Al3+ layer cations by co-precipitation methods-A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiss, Frederick L.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2016-10-01

    Co-precipitation is a common method for the preparation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and related materials. This review article is aimed at providing newcomers to the field with some examples of the types of co-precipitation reactions that have been reported previously and to briefly investigate some of the properties of the products of these reactions. Due to the sheer volume of literature on the subject, the authors have had to limit this article to the synthesis of Mg/Al, Zn/Al and Ca/Al LDHs by co-precipitation and directly related methods. LDHs have been synthesised from various reagents including metal salts, oxides and hydroxides. Co-precipitation is also useful for the direct synthesis of LDHs with a wide range of interlayer anions and various bases have been successfully employed to prepare LDHs. Examples of other synthesis techniques including the urea method, hydrothermal synthesis and various mechanochemical methods that are undoubtedly related to co-precipitation have also been included in this review. The effect of post synthesis hydrothermal has also been summarised.

  16. Roughness distribution of multiple hit and long surface diffusion length noise reduced discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disrattakit, P.; Chanphana, R.; Chatraphorn, P.

    2016-11-01

    Conventionally, the universality class of a discrete growth model is identified via the scaling of interface width. This method requires large-scale simulations to minimize finite-size effects on the results. The multiple hit noise reduction techniques (m > 1 NRT) and the long surface diffusion length noise reduction techniques (ℓ > 1 NRT) have been used to promote the asymptotic behaviors of the growth models. Lately, an alternative method involving comparison of roughness distribution in the steady state has been proposed. In this work, the roughness distribution of the (2 +1)-dimensional Das Sarma-Tamborenea (DT), Wolf-Villain (WV), and Larger Curvature (LC) models, with and without NRTs, are calculated in order to investigate effects of the NRTs on the roughness distribution. Additionally, effective growth exponents of the noise reduced (2 +1)-dimensional DT, WV and LC models are also calculated. Our results indicate that the NRTs affect the interface width both in the growth and the saturation regimes. In the steady state, the NRTs do not seem to have any impact on the roughness distribution of the DT model, but it significantly changes the roughness distribution of the WV and LC models to the normal distribution curves.

  17. A double-spike method for K-Ar measurement: A technique for high precision in situ dating on Mars and other planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, K. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Asimow, P. D.; Jacobson, N. S.; Cartwright, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    A new method for K-Ar dating using a double isotope dilution technique is proposed and demonstrated. The method is designed to eliminate known difficulties facing in situ dating on planetary surfaces, especially instrument complexity and power availability. It may also have applicability in some terrestrial dating applications. Key to the method is the use of a solid tracer spike enriched in both 39Ar and 41K. When mixed with lithium borate flux in a Knudsen effusion cell, this tracer spike and a sample to be dated can be successfully fused and degassed of Ar at <1000 °C. The evolved 40Ar∗/39Ar ratio can be measured to high precision using noble gas mass spectrometry. After argon measurement the sample melt is heated to a slightly higher temperature (˜1030 °C) to volatilize potassium, and the evolved 39K/41K ratio measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Combined with the known composition of the tracer spike, these two ratios define the K-Ar age using a single sample aliquot and without the need for extreme temperature or a mass determination. In principle the method can be implemented using a single mass spectrometer. Experiments indicate that quantitative extraction of argon from a basalt sample occurs at a sufficiently low temperature that potassium loss in this step is unimportant. Similarly, potassium isotope ratios measured in the Knudsen apparatus indicate good sample-spike equilibration and acceptably small isotopic fractionation. When applied to a flood basalt from the Viluy Traps, Siberia, a K-Ar age of 351 ± 19 Ma was obtained, a result within 1% of the independently known age. For practical reasons this measurement was made on two separate mass spectrometers, but a scheme for combining the measurements in a single analytical instrument is described. Because both parent and daughter are determined by isotope dilution, the precision on K-Ar ages obtained by the double isotope dilution method should routinely approach that of a pair of

  18. Enantioselective Michael additions of nitromethane by a catalytic double activation method using chiral lewis Acid and achiral amine catalysts.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kennosuke; Kanemasa, Shuji

    2002-11-13

    Reactions of nitromethane with 1-(2-alkenoyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazoles can be effectively catalyzed by R,R-DBFOX/Ph.Ni(ClO4)2.3H2O and achiral amine bases, each in a catalytic loading of 10 mol %, to give 1-(3-substituted 4-nitrobutanoyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazoles in high chemical yields. Excellent enantioselectivities up to 98% ee have been achieved. The nitro moiety can be easily reduced on Raney nickel at atmospheric pressure, followed by concurrent cyclization, to give enantiomers of 4-substituted 2-pyrrolidinone derivatives after usual workup. This method can be successfully applied to a short step synthesis of (R)-(-)-rolipram.

  19. Trans-ethnic follow-up of breast cancer GWAS hits using the preferential linkage disequilibrium approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qianqian; Shepherd, Lori; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Yao, Song; Liu, Qian; Hu, Qiang; Haddad, Stephen A.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Liu, Song; Haiman, Christopher A.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2016-01-01

    Leveraging population-distinct linkage equilibrium (LD) patterns, trans-ethnic follow-up of variants discovered from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has proved to be useful in facilitating the identification of bona fide causal variants. We previously developed the preferential LD approach, a novel method that successfully identified causal variants driving the GWAS signals within European-descent populations even when the causal variants were only weakly linked with the GWAS-discovered variants. To evaluate the performance of our approach in a trans-ethnic setting, we applied it to follow up breast cancer GWAS hits identified mostly from populations of European ancestry in African Americans (AA). We evaluated 74 breast cancer GWAS variants in 8,315 AA women from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. Only 27% of them were associated with breast cancer risk at significance level α=0.05, suggesting race-specificity of the identified breast cancer risk loci. We followed up on those replicated GWAS hits in the AMBER consortium utilizing the preferential LD approach, to search for causal variants or better breast cancer markers from the 1000 Genomes variant catalog. Our approach identified stronger breast cancer markers for 80% of the GWAS hits with at least nominal breast cancer association, and in 81% of these cases, the marker identified was among the top 10 of all 1000 Genomes variants in the corresponding locus. The results support trans-ethnic application of the preferential LD approach in search for candidate causal variants, and may have implications for future genetic research of breast cancer in AA women. PMID:27825120

  20. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    PubMed

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed.

  1. [Titration comparative study of TOPINA Tablets in patients with localization related epilepsy: double-blind comparative study by rapid and slow titration methods].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Sunao; Inoue, Yushi; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Kato, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    To compare the tolerability and efficacy of two titration methods (rapid and slow titration) for TOPINA Tablets with different dosages and periods of escalation, a double-blind comparative study was conducted in patients with localization-related epilepsy. A total of 183 patients were randomized to either rapid titration (initial dosage 100 mg/day increased by 100-200 mg at weekly intervals) or to slow titration (initial dosage 50 mg/day increased in 50 mg/day increments at weekly intervals). TOPINA Tablets were administered for 12 weeks to the maximum dosage of 400 mg/day. The incident of adverse events leading to treatment interruptions or withdrawals was 18.9% in rapid titration and 14.8% in slow titration, with no statistical significance (p = 0.554). The incident of adverse events and adverse reactions of slow titration was slightly lower than that of rapid titration. The common adverse events and adverse reactions reported in the two titration methods were comparable and were well tolerated. On the other hand, the efficacy of slow titration, percent reduction in seizure rate and responder rate, was comparable with that of rapid titration. In conclusion, there were no significant differences of therapeutic response to TOPINA Tablets between the two titration methods.

  2. Synthesis of organo cobalt-aluminum layered double hydroxide via a novel single-step self-assembling method and its use as flame retardant nanofiller in PP.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Yi; Das, Amit; Costa, Francis Reny; Leuteritz, Andreas; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Wagenknecht, Udo; Heinrich, Gert

    2010-09-07

    Synthesis of polypropylene/organo-layered double hydroxide (PP/OLDH) has been carried out based on self-assembled organocobalt-aluminum LDH (O-CoAl-LDH). The novel method of synthesizing self-assembled CoAl-LDH and its characterization have also been reported in details. This method is proven to be very efficient way of producing OLDH in a single step with homogeneous composition and structure. As flame-retardant nanofiller, O-CoAl-LDH shows significant decrease in heat release rate (HRR), the total heat release (THR) and the heat release capacity (HRC) of the PP composites, though the thermal stability of the compounds decreases slightly compared to the base polymer. Morphological analyses show that the LDH particles are dispersed in PP matrix in a partially exfoliated form. The activation energy calculation based on the Kissinger method reveals that O-CoAl-LDH has a positive effect on the activation energy of thermal decomposition of PP. However, in the presence of this filler, decomposition of the composites starts at an earlier stage than that of pure PP.

  3. From experimental design to validated hits a comprehensive walk-through of fragment lead identification using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Anthony M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and characterization of fragment binding requires the use of technologies with extreme sensitivity to observe the binding interactions of low-affinity and low-molecular weight compounds to proteins. A number of methods have emerged capable of providing fragment hits to project teams including, but certainly not limited to, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR-based biosensors are sufficiently sensitive and high throughput to provide complete fragment screens on libraries of several thousand compounds in just a few weeks per target. Biosensors provide quantitative binding information for ranking fragments by affinity and ligand efficiency and can support ongoing quantitative structure-activity efforts during fragment hit-to-lead development. The combination of speed and binding quantitation makes SPR a valuable technology in pharmaceutical fragment-based drug discovery and development. Successful implementation of SPR biosensors in fragment efforts requires specialized methods for instrument preparation, assay development, primary compound handling, primary screening, confirmation testing, and data analysis. In this chapter, each of these topics is discussed in detail with general best practices for maintaining the highest throughput while maximizing data quality.

  4. Fragment-Based Whole Cell Screen Delivers Hits against M. tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Wilfried; Lim, Jia Jie; Yeo, Si Ying; Ramanujulu, Pondy M; Dymock, Brian W; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reactive multi-target 'fragment drugs' represent critical components of current tuberculosis regimens. These compounds, such as pyrazinamide, are old synthetic antimycobacterials that are activated inside Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and are smaller than the usual drug-like, single-target molecules. Based on the success of small 'dirty' drugs in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, we suggested previously that fragment-based whole cell screens should be introduced in our current antimycobacterial drug discovery efforts. Here, we carried out such a screen and characterized bactericidal activity, selectivity and spectrum of hits we obtained. A library of 1725 fragments was tested at a single concentration for growth inhibitory activity against M. bovis BCG as screening strain and 38 of 116 primary hits were confirmed in dose response analyses to be active against virulent M. tuberculosis. Bacterial kill experiments showed that most hits displayed bactericidal activity at their minimal inhibitory concentration. Cytotoxicity assays established that a large proportion of hits displayed a favorable selectivity index for mammalian cells. Importantly, one third of M. tuberculosis active fragments were also active against M. abscessus and M. avium, two emerging non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, opening the opportunity to develop broad spectrum antimycobacterials. Activity determination against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) showed only a small overlap indicating a generally narrow spectrum of these novel antimicrobial hits for mycobacteria. In conclusion, we carried out the first fragment-based whole cell screen against bacteria and identified a substantial number of hits with excellent physicochemical properties and dual activity against M. tuberculosis and NTM pathogens

  5. Ship detection in satellite imagery using rank-order greyscale hit-or-miss transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Neal R; Porter, Reid B; Theiler, James

    2010-01-01

    Ship detection from satellite imagery is something that has great utility in various communities. Knowing where ships are and their types provides useful intelligence information. However, detecting and recognizing ships is a difficult problem. Existing techniques suffer from too many false-alarms. We describe approaches we have taken in trying to build ship detection algorithms that have reduced false alarms. Our approach uses a version of the grayscale morphological Hit-or-Miss transform. While this is well known and used in its standard form, we use a version in which we use a rank-order selection for the dilation and erosion parts of the transform, instead of the standard maximum and minimum operators. This provides some slack in the fitting that the algorithm employs and provides a method for tuning the algorithm's performance for particular detection problems. We describe our algorithms, show the effect of the rank-order parameter on the algorithm's performance and illustrate the use of this approach for real ship detection problems with panchromatic satellite imagery.

  6. HITTING THE BULL'S-EYE IN GROUNDWATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the commonly-used groundwater sampling techniques and procedures have resulted from methods developed for water supply investigations. These methods have persisted, even though the monitoring goals may have changed from water supply development to contaminant source and ...

  7. Effective desynchronization by means of double-pulse phase resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    A double-pulse stimulation technique is presented here for the first time which makes it possible to effectively desynchronize a synchronized cluster of globally coupled phase oscillators in the presence of noise. The first, stronger pulse of the double pulse restarts the cluster independently of its initial dynamic state. The second, weaker pulse desynchronizes the cluster by hitting it in a vulnerable state. After the desynchronization the cluster tends to resynchronize since the incoherent state is unstable. Nevertheless, repeated administration of double pulses blocks the cluster's resynchronization. This approach can directly be applied to real data. Accordingly, a demand-controlled deep-brain double-pulse stimulation technique is suggested for the therapy of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease or essential tremor.

  8. Outstanding performance of configuration interaction singles and doubles using exact exchange Kohn-Sham orbitals in real-space numerical grid method.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaechang; Choi, Sunghwan; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2016-12-14

    To assess the performance of multi-configuration methods using exact exchange Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals, we implemented configuration interaction singles and doubles (CISD) in a real-space numerical grid code. We obtained KS orbitals with the exchange-only optimized effective potential under the Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) approximation. Thanks to the distinctive features of KLI orbitals against Hartree-Fock (HF), such as bound virtual orbitals with compact shapes and orbital energy gaps similar to excitation energies; KLI-CISD for small molecules shows much faster convergence as a function of simulation box size and active space (i.e., the number of virtual orbitals) than HF-CISD. The former also gives more accurate excitation energies with a few dominant configurations than the latter, even with many more configurations. The systematic control of basis set errors is straightforward in grid bases. Therefore, grid-based multi-configuration methods using exact exchange KS orbitals provide a promising new way to make accurate electronic structure calculations.

  9. Complex-scaled equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with single and double substitutions for autoionizing excited states: Theory, implementation, and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Zuev, Dmitry; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.

    2013-03-28

    Theory and implementation of complex-scaled variant of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for excitation energies with single and double substitutions (EOM-EE-CCSD) is presented. The complex-scaling formalism extends the EOM-EE-CCSD model to resonance states, i.e., excited states that are metastable with respect to electron ejection. The method is applied to Feshbach resonances in atomic systems (He, H{sup -}, and Be). The dependence of the results on one-electron basis set is quantified and analyzed. Energy decomposition and wave function analysis reveal that the origin of the dependence is in electron correlation, which is essential for the lifetime of Feshbach resonances. It is found that one-electron basis should be sufficiently flexible to describe radial and angular electron correlation in a balanced fashion and at different values of the scaling parameter, {theta}. Standard basis sets that are optimized for not-complex-scaled calculations ({theta} = 0) are not sufficiently flexible to describe the {theta}-dependence of the wave functions even when heavily augmented by additional sets.

  10. Outstanding performance of configuration interaction singles and doubles using exact exchange Kohn-Sham orbitals in real-space numerical grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaechang; Choi, Sunghwan; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2016-12-01

    To assess the performance of multi-configuration methods using exact exchange Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals, we implemented configuration interaction singles and doubles (CISD) in a real-space numerical grid code. We obtained KS orbitals with the exchange-only optimized effective potential under the Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) approximation. Thanks to the distinctive features of KLI orbitals against Hartree-Fock (HF), such as bound virtual orbitals with compact shapes and orbital energy gaps similar to excitation energies; KLI-CISD for small molecules shows much faster convergence as a function of simulation box size and active space (i.e., the number of virtual orbitals) than HF-CISD. The former also gives more accurate excitation energies with a few dominant configurations than the latter, even with many more configurations. The systematic control of basis set errors is straightforward in grid bases. Therefore, grid-based multi-configuration methods using exact exchange KS orbitals provide a promising new way to make accurate electronic structure calculations.

  11. Complex-scaled equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with single and double substitutions for autoionizing excited states: theory, implementation, and examples.

    PubMed

    Bravaya, Ksenia B; Zuev, Dmitry; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I

    2013-03-28

    Theory and implementation of complex-scaled variant of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for excitation energies with single and double substitutions (EOM-EE-CCSD) is presented. The complex-scaling formalism extends the EOM-EE-CCSD model to resonance states, i.e., excited states that are metastable with respect to electron ejection. The method is applied to Feshbach resonances in atomic systems (He, H(-), and Be). The dependence of the results on one-electron basis set is quantified and analyzed. Energy decomposition and wave function analysis reveal that the origin of the dependence is in electron correlation, which is essential for the lifetime of Feshbach resonances. It is found that one-electron basis should be sufficiently flexible to describe radial and angular electron correlation in a balanced fashion and at different values of the scaling parameter, θ. Standard basis sets that are optimized for not-complex-scaled calculations (θ = 0) are not sufficiently flexible to describe the θ-dependence of the wave functions even when heavily augmented by additional sets.

  12. Period-doubling bifurcation in two-stage power factor correction converters using the method of incremental harmonic balance and Floquet theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fa-Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Ma, Xi-Kui

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, period-doubling bifurcation in a two-stage power factor correction converter is analyzed by using the method of incremental harmonic balance (IHB) and Floquet theory. A two-stage power factor correction converter typically employs a cascade configuration of a pre-regulator boost power factor correction converter with average current mode control to achieve a near unity power factor and a tightly regulated post-regulator DC—DC Buck converter with voltage feedback control to regulate the output voltage. Based on the assumption that the tightly regulated post-regulator DC—DC Buck converter is represented as a constant power sink and some other assumptions, the simplified model of the two-stage power factor correction converter is derived and its approximate periodic solution is calculated by the method of IHB. And then, the stability of the system is investigated by using Floquet theory and the stable boundaries are presented on the selected parameter spaces. Finally, some experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  13. Gorlin syndrome with an ovarian leiomyoma associated with a PTCH1 second hit.

    PubMed

    Akizawa, Yoshika; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Ryo; Nagata, Reiko; Aoki, Ryoko; Ishitani, Ken; Nagashima, Yoji; Matsui, Hideo; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-04-01

    We describe a Gorlin syndrome (GS) case with two different second hit mutations of PTCH1, one in a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and the other in an ovarian leiomyoma. GS is a rare genetic condition manifesting as multiple basal cell nevi associated with other features such as medulloblastomas, skeletal abnormalities, and ovarian fibromas. A 21-year-old Japanese woman with a history of two KCOTs was diagnosed with GS according to clinical criteria. A PTCH1 mutation, c.1427del T, was detected in peripheral blood. A novel PTCH1 mutation, c.264_265insAATA, had been found in the maxillary KCOT as a second hit mutation. More recently, the ovarian tumor was detected during a gynecological examination. Laparoscopic adnexectomy was performed, and the pathological diagnosis of the ovarian tumor was leiomyoma. Interestingly, another novel mutation, loss of heterozygosity spanning from 9q22.32 to 9q31.2, including PTCH1 and 89 other genes, was detected in this ovarian tumor, providing evidence of a second hit mutation. This is the first report describing a GS-associated ovarian tumor carrying a second hit in the PTCH1 region. We anticipate that accumulation of more cases will clarify the importance of second hit mutations in ovarian tumor formation in GS.

  14. Atomic features of an autoantigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Greene, Mark I; Cines, Douglas B

    2016-07-01

    Autoantigen development is poorly understood at the atomic level. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an autoimmune thrombotic disorder caused by antibodies to an antigen composed of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin or cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In solution, PF4 exists as an equilibrium among monomers, dimers and tetramers. Structural studies of these interacting components helped delineate a multi-step process involved in the pathogenesis of HIT. First, heparin binds to the 'closed' end of the PF4 tetramer and stabilizes its conformation; exposing the 'open' end. Second, PF4 arrays along heparin/GAG chains, which approximate tetramers, form large antigenic complexes that enhance antibody avidity. Third, pathogenic HIT antibodies bind to the 'open' end of stabilized PF4 tetramers to form an IgG/PF4/heparin ternary immune complex and also to propagate the formation of 'ultralarge immune complexes' (ULCs) that contain multiple IgG antibodies. Fourth, ULCs signal through FcγRIIA receptors, activating platelets and monocytes directly and generating thrombin, which transactivates hematopoietic and endothelial cells. A non-pathogenic anti-PF4 antibody prevents tetramer formation, binding of pathogenic antibody, platelet activation and thrombosis, providing a new approach to manage HIT. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIT may lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutics for this autoimmune disease.

  15. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  16. The Double Hierarchy Method. A parallel 3D contact method for the interaction of spherical particles with rigid FE boundaries using the DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasusana, Miquel; Irazábal, Joaquín; Oñate, Eugenio; Carbonell, Josep Maria

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a new methodology for the treatment of the contact interaction between rigid boundaries and spherical discrete elements (DE). Rigid body parts are present in most of large-scale simulations. The surfaces of the rigid parts are commonly meshed with a finite element-like (FE) discretization. The contact detection and calculation between those DE and the discretized boundaries is not straightforward and has been addressed by different approaches. The algorithm presented in this paper considers the contact of the DEs with the geometric primitives of a FE mesh, i.e. facet, edge or vertex. To do so, the original hierarchical method presented by Horner et al. (J Eng Mech 127(10):1027-1032, 2001) is extended with a new insight leading to a robust, fast and accurate 3D contact algorithm which is fully parallelizable. The implementation of the method has been developed in order to deal ideally with triangles and quadrilaterals. If the boundaries are discretized with another type of geometries, the method can be easily extended to higher order planar convex polyhedra. A detailed description of the procedure followed to treat a wide range of cases is presented. The description of the developed algorithm and its validation is verified with several practical examples. The parallelization capabilities and the obtained performance are presented with the study of an industrial application example.

  17. Detecting non-orthology in the COGs database and other approaches grouping orthologs using genome-specific best hits

    PubMed Central

    Dessimoz, Christophe; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Roth, Alexander C. J.; Gonnet, Gaston H.

    2006-01-01

    Correct orthology assignment is a critical prerequisite of numerous comparative genomics procedures, such as function prediction, construction of phylogenetic species trees and genome rearrangement analysis. We present an algorithm for the detection of non-orthologs that arise by mistake in current orthology classification methods based on genome-specific best hits, such as the COGs database. The algorithm works with pairwise distance estimates, rather than computationally expensive and error-prone tree-building methods. The accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated through verification of the distribution of predicted cases, case-by-case phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with predictions from other projects using independent methods. Our results show that a very significant fraction of the COG groups include non-orthologs: using conservative parameters, the algorithm detects non-orthology in a third of all COG groups. Consequently, sequence analysis sensitive to correct orthology assignments will greatly benefit from these findings. PMID:16835308

  18. Target immobilization as a strategy for NMR-based fragment screening: comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for fragment hit identification.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Retra, Kim; Figaroa, Francis; Hollander, Johan G; Ab, Eiso; Heetebrij, Robert J; Irth, Hubertus; Siegal, Gregg

    2010-09-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the first stage of the process be optimized. Here the authors compare the 3 most commonly used methods for hit discovery in FBDD: high concentration screening (HCS), solution ligand-observed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). They selected the commonly used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and the proprietary target immobilized NMR screening (TINS) as representative of the array of possible NMR methods. Using a target typical of FBDD campaigns, the authors find that HCS and TINS are the most sensitive to weak interactions. They also find a good correlation between TINS and STD for tighter binding ligands, but the ability of STD to detect ligands with affinity weaker than 1 mM K(D) is limited. Similarly, they find that SPR detection is most suited to ligands that bind with K(D) better than 1 mM. However, the good correlation between SPR and potency in a bioassay makes this a good method for hit validation and characterization studies.

  19. Visual illusions and the control of ball placement in goal-directed hitting.

    PubMed

    Caljouw, Simone R; Van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J R

    2010-12-01

    When hitting kicking, or throwing balls at targets, online control in the target area is impossible. We assumed this lack of late corrections in the target area would induce an effect of a single-winged Müller-Lyer illusion on ball placement. After extensive practice in hitting balls to different landing locations, participants (N = 9) had to hit a ball to a distant target specified by the vertex of a single-winged Müller-Lyer configuration. Impact velocity was not significantly "tricked" by the pictorial illusion, suggesting that, even when late corrections in the target area are absent, some motor behaviors are not susceptible to the influence of the visual environment surrounding the target.

  20. Stochastic dynamics and the predictability of big hits in online videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotto, José M.; Kantz, Holger; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2017-03-01

    The competition for the attention of users is a central element of the Internet. Crucial issues are the origin and predictability of big hits, the few items that capture a big portion of the total attention. We address these issues analyzing 106 time series of videos' views from YouTube. We find that the average gain of views is linearly proportional to the number of views a video already has, in agreement with usual rich-get-richer mechanisms and Gibrat's law, but this fails to explain the prevalence of big hits. The reason is that the fluctuations around the average views are themselves heavy tailed. Based on these empirical observations, we propose a stochastic differential equation with Lévy noise as a model of the dynamics of videos. We show how this model is substantially better in estimating the probability of an ordinary item becoming a big hit, which is considerably underestimated in the traditional proportional-growth models.

  1. Hitting the Fast Ball and Shaggin' Flies: a Physicist Considers Batting and Fielding in Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Robert

    2003-03-01

    I describe some of the information processing that batters and fielders use to hit and field in baseball. The decision to hit the fast ball must be made using information from the first 15 feet of the ball's travel and the batter might as well not scan the last half of the flight. The procedures an outfielder uses to field a fly ball, adopted instinctively by 9 year old Little Leaguers, follows from mechanisms designed for the tracking of prey by predator and the avoidance of predators by prey. To this we add the utility of the acoustics of the bat-ball collision for balls hit directly at outfielders, and strategies for the avoidance of errors on ground balls to infielders.

  2. A New Double Digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR Method for Simultaneous Bacteria DNA-Typing and Confirmation of Species: An Acinetobacter sp. Model

    PubMed Central

    Stojowska, Karolina; Krawczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a new ddLMS PCR (double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR) method based on restriction site polymorphism upstream from the specific target sequence for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of bacterial strains. The ddLMS PCR combines a simple PCR used for species or genus identification and the LM PCR strategy for strain differentiation. The bacterial identification is confirmed in the form of the PCR product(s), while the length of the PCR product makes it possible to differentiate between bacterial strains. If there is a single copy of the target sequence within genomic DNA, one specific PCR product is created (simplex ddLMS PCR), whereas for multiple copies of the gene the fingerprinting patterns can be obtained (multiplex ddLMS PCR). The described ddLMS PCR method is designed for rapid and specific strain differentiation in medical and microbiological studies. In comparison to other LM PCR it has substantial advantages: enables specific species' DNA-typing without the need for pure bacterial culture selection, is not sensitive to contamination with other cells or genomic DNA, and gives univocal “band-based” results, which are easy to interpret. The utility of ddLMS PCR was shown for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, the genetically closely related and phenotypically similar species and also important nosocomial pathogens, for which currently, there are no recommended methods for screening, typing and identification. In this article two models are proposed: 3′ recA-ddLMS PCR-MaeII/RsaI for Acb complex interspecific typing and 5′ rrn-ddLMS PCR-HindIII/ApaI for Acinetobacter baumannii intraspecific typing. ddLMS PCR allows not only for DNA-typing but also for confirmation of species in one reaction. Also, practical guidelines for designing a diagnostic test based on ddLMS PCR for genotyping different species of bacteria are provided. PMID:25522278

  3. Theory of nonmonotonic double layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.

    1987-12-01

    A simple graphic method of solving the Vlasov--Poisson system associated with nonlinear eigenvalue conditions for arbitrary potential structures is presented. A general analytic formulation for nonmonotonic double layers is presented and illustrated with some particular closed form solutions. This class of double layers satisfies the time stationary Vlasov--Poisson system while requiring a Sagdeev potential, which is a double-valued function of the physical potential. It follows that any distribution function having a density representation as any integer or noninteger power series of potential can never satisfy the nonmonotonic double-layer boundary conditions. A Korteweg--de Vries-like equation is found showing a relationship among the speed of the nonmonotonic double layer, its scale length, and its degree of asymmetry.

  4. Evaluation of a new nanoparticle-based lateral-flow immunoassay for the exclusion of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

    PubMed

    Sachs, Ulrich J; von Hesberg, Jakob; Santoso, Sentot; Bein, Gregor; Bakchoul, Tamam

    2011-12-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse complication of heparin caused by HIT antibodies (abs) that recognise platelet factor 4-heparin (PF4/hep) complexes. Several laboratory tests are available for the confirmation and/or refutation of HIT. A reliable and rapid single-sample test is still pending. It was the objective of this study to evaluate a new lateral-flow immunoassay based on nanoparticle technology. A cohort of 452 surgical and medical patients suspected of having HIT was evaluated. All samples were tested in two IgG-specific ELISAs, in a particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA) and in a newly developed lateral-flow immunoassay (LFI-HIT) as well as in a functional test (HIPA). Clinical pre-test probability was determined using 4T's score. Platelet-activating antibodies were present in 34/452 patients, all of whom had intermediate to high clinical probability. PF4/hep abs were detected in 79, 87, 86, and 63 sera using the four different immunoassays. The negative predictive values (NPV) were 100% for both ELISA tests and LFI-HIT but only 99.2% for PaGIA. There were less false positives (n=29) in the LFI-HIT compared to any other test. Additionally, significantly less time was required to perform LFI-HIT than to perform the other immunoassays. In conclusion, a newly developed lateral-flow assay, LFI-HIT, was capable of identifying all HIT patients in a cohort in a short period of time. Beside an NPV of 100%, the rate of false-positive signals is significantly lower with LFI-HIT than with other immunoassay(s). These performance characteristics suggest a high potency in reducing the risk and costs in patients suspected of having HIT.

  5. Synthesis, kinetics and photocatalytic study of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs obtained by a green chemistry method using an extract of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals aqueous extract (PERA) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. Its kinetics study and photocatalytic activity were also evaluated. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with 9.66% w/v, 7.25% w/v, and 4.20% w/v PERA as both reducing-stabilizing agent. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼0.5 and 1.4nm. A comparative study was done to determine which concentration was the best reducing-stabilizing agent, and we found out that "ultra-small" nanoparticles (0.5-1.1nm) were obtained with 9.66% w/v of PERA. The size of the Ag-NPs depends on the concentration of PERA and Ag(I). The reaction of formation of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs, proved to be first order for metallic precursor (silver) and second order for reducing-stabilizing agent (PERA). The Ag-NPs showed photocatalytic activity, in degradation of commercial dye with an efficiency of 95%.

  6. Synthesis of self-assembled layered double hydroxides/carbon composites by in situ solvothermal method and their application in capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jinbo; Wang, Jun; Song, Yanchao; Li, Zhanshuang; Gao, Zan; Mann, Tom; Zhang, Milin

    2012-12-15

    Nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides/carbon (Ni-Al LDHs/C) composites have been successfully fabricated via a facile in situ water-ethanol system. LDHs nanosheets could highly disperse on the surface of colloidal carbonaceous spheres through the interfacial electrostatic force. Ni-Al LDHs/C composite electrode prepared at 50% ethanol system exhibits the highest capacitance of 1064 F g{sup -1} at a current of 2.5 A g{sup -1}, leading to a significant improvement in relation to each individual counterpart (3.5 and 463 F g{sup -1} for carbon and Ni-Al LDHs at 2.5 A g{sup -1}, respectively). And a possible mechanism was proposed for the formation of the composites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Al LDHs/C composites have been self-assembled by an in situ solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible growth mechanism to explain the composite is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Al LDHs/C composites display better electrochemical performance.

  7. Model-free kinetic analysis of Sr2FeMoO6 re-crystallization process used for double-perovskite monocrystals grown by Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartha, Cristina; Plapcianu, Carmen; Palade, Petru; Vizman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis routes for polycrystalline bulk Sr2FeMoO6 (SFMO), offer various possibilities, but in all the cases it is difficult to obtain a single phase of this compound. A new challenge in the field is to achieve mono-crystals using different growing routes and the Bridgman method represents one of them. In order to establish the optimal conditions of mono-crystals growing process, a complex thermal investigation of bulk double perovskite has been performed. Differential thermal analysis investigation in argon inert atmosphere, starting from room temperature up to 1650°C provided information about melting and re-crystallization temperature range. Both, the activation energy of Sr2FeMoO6 re-crystallization process and the re-crystallization mechanism were comparatively analyzed by two free-model estimations (Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis). The resulted data are very important in order to set up the heating program of Bridgman furnace.

  8. Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    2000-08-01

    A method of making a double layer capacitior includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two arts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  9. Quality by design case study 1: Design of 5-fluorouracil loaded lipid nanoparticles by the W/O/W double emulsion - Solvent evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Amasya, Gulin; Badilli, Ulya; Aksu, Buket; Tarimci, Nilufer

    2016-03-10

    With Quality by Design (QbD), a systematic approach involving design and development of all production processes to achieve the final product with a predetermined quality, you work within a design space that determines the critical formulation and process parameters. Verification of the quality of the final product is no longer necessary. In the current study, the QbD approach was used in the preparation of lipid nanoparticle formulations to improve skin penetration of 5-Fluorouracil, a widely-used compound for treating non-melanoma skin cancer. 5-Fluorouracil-loaded lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the W/O/W double emulsion - solvent evaporation method. Artificial neural network software was used to evaluate the data obtained from the lipid nanoparticle formulations, to establish the design space, and to optimize the formulations. Two different artificial neural network models were developed. The limit values of the design space of the inputs and outputs obtained by both models were found to be within the knowledge space. The optimal formulations recommended by the models were prepared and the critical quality attributes belonging to those formulations were assigned. The experimental results remained within the design space limit values. Consequently, optimal formulations with the critical quality attributes determined to achieve the Quality Target Product Profile were successfully obtained within the design space by following the QbD steps.

  10. A modified double-emulsion method for the preparation of daunorubicin-loaded polymeric nanoparticle with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Qiu, Zhiye; Wang, Shenqi; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Shengmin

    2010-12-01

    The encapsulation of hydrophilic drug in polymeric nanoparticles with high loading remains a challenge due to the rapid penetration of the drug to the external aqueous phase. In order to improve the encapsulation efficiency of daunorubicin (DNR) in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) nanoparticles, we fabricated a series of DNR-loaded nanoparticles using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method, which introduced a partially water-soluble organic solvent into the particle formation. The influence of various preparation parameters was investigated systematically, such as the ratio of organic solvent, the type of surfactant, the type of polymers and the molecular weight. Results showed that regular spherical PLGA nanoparticles with diameters of 200-300 nm could be produced with a remarkably high DNR encapsulation efficiency (>80%) and loading (6.5% (w/w)). Upon encapsulation, the sustained release of DNR could be controlled over 2 weeks. The results of FT-IR and DSC analysis indicated that the encapsulated DNR in polymeric nanoparticles was inclusion, not absorption. Furthermore, optimized DNR/PLGA nanoparticles showed a significant enhancement of cellular uptake, higher cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells compared with free DNR. These results were potentially useful for the nanoparticle formulation of hydrophilic chemotherapeutic drugs that require efficient delivery to cancer cells as well as sustained release at the specific site.

  11. Fe(II)-Al(III) layered double hydroxides prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method for the reduction of bromate.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun; Wu, Xiuqiong; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yang; Tang, Wangwang; Zeng, Guangming; Peng, Bo

    2013-04-15

    Bromate is recognized as an oxyhalide disinfection byproduct in drinking water. In this paper, Fe(II)-Al(III) layered double hydroxides (Fe-Al LDHs) prepared by the ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method were used for the reduction of bromate in solution. The Fe-Al LDHs particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ultrasound irradiation assistance promoted the formation of the hydrotalcite-like phase and then improved the removal efficiency of bromate. In addition, the effects of solid-to-solution ratio, contact time, initial bromate concentration, initial pH, coexisting anions on the bromate removal were investigated. The results showed the bromate with an initial concentration of 1.56 μmol/L could be completely removed from solution by Fe-Al LDHs within 120 min. When the initial bromate concentration was 7.81 μmol/L, the Fe-Al LDHs with irradiation time of 30 min exhibited the optimum removal efficiency and the bromate removal capacity (qe) was 6.80 μmol/g. In addition, the appearance of sulfate and production of bromide were observed simultaneously in this process, which suggested that ion-exchange between sulfate and bromate, and the reduction of bromate to bromide by Fe(2+) were the main mechanisms responsible for the bromate removal by Fe-Al LDHs.

  12. Synthesis of highly efficient flame retardant high-density polyethylene nanocomposites with inorgano-layered double hydroxides as nanofiller using solvent mixing method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanshan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Junya; Huang, Liang; Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; He, Qingliang; Xing, Zipeng; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-04-09

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer nanocomposites containing Zn2Al-X (X= CO3(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles with different loadings from 10 to 40 wt % were synthesized using a modified solvent mixing method. Synthesized LDH nanofillers and the corresponding nanocomposites were carefully characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, etc. The thermal stability and flame retardancy behavior were investigated using a thermo gravimetric analyzer and microscale combustion calorimeter. Comparing to neat HDPE, the thermal stability of nanocomposites was significantly enhanced. With the addition of 15 wt % Zn2Al-Cl LDH, the 50% weight loss temperature was increased by 67 °C. After adding LDHs, the flame retardant performance was significantly improved as well. With 40 wt % of LDH loading, the peak heat release rate was reduced by 24%, 41%, 48%, and 54% for HDPE/Zn2Al-Cl, HDPE/Zn2Al-CO3, HDPE/Zn2Al-NO3, and HDPE/Zn2Al-SO4, respectively. We also noticed that different interlayer anions could result in different rheological properties and the influence on storage and loss moduli follows the order of SO4(2-) > NO3(-) > CO3(2-) > Cl(-). Another important finding of this work is that the influence of anions on flame retardancy follows the exact same order on rheological properties.

  13. On hitting children: a review of corporal punishment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Knox, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Research has clearly demonstrated associations between corporal punishment of children and maladaptive behavior patterns such as aggression and delinquency. Hitting children is an act of violence and a clear violation of children's human rights. In this article, the position of the United States on corporal punishment of children is discussed. Professional and international progress on ending corporal punishment is explained, and the relationship between corporal punishment and child abuse is discussed. An appeal is made for prevention efforts such as parent education and removal of social sanctions for hitting children that may hold significant promise for preventing child maltreatment.

  14. Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Vazquez, M. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Atwell, W.; Kim, M.; Capala, J.

    One outstanding question to be addressed in assessing the risk of exposure to space travelers from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) outside the geomagnetosphere is to ascertain the effects of single heavy-ion hits on cells in critical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step toward this end, it is important to determine how many ``hits'' might be received by a neural cell in several critical CNS areas during an extended mission outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Critical sites in the CNS: the macula, and an interior brain point (typical of the genu, thalamus, hippocampus and nucleus basalis of Meynert) were chosen for the calculation of hit frequencies from galactic cosmic rays for a mission to Mars during solar minimum (i.e., at maximum cosmic-ray intensity). The shielding at a given position inside the body was obtained using the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, and a radiation transport code which includes nuclear fragmentation was used to calculate yearly fluences at the point of interest. Since the final Mars spacecraft shielding configuration has not yet been determined, we considered the minimum amount of aluminum required for pressure vessel-wall requirements in the living quarters of a spacecraft, and a typical duty area as a pressure vessel plus necessary equipment. The conclusions are: (1) variation of the position of the ``target site'' within the head plays only a small role in varying hit frequencies; (2) the average number of hits depends linearly on the cross section of the critical portion of the cell assumed in the calculation; (3) for a three-year mission to Mars at solar minimum (i.e., assuming the 1977 spectrum of galactic cosmic rays), 2% or 13% of the ``critical sites'' of cells in the CNS would be directly hit at least once by iron ions, depending on whether 60 mum^2 or 471 mum^2 is assumed as the critical cross sectional area; and (4) roughly 6 million out of some 43 million hippocampal cells and 55

  15. Outlier and target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery: a comparison of traditional and percentage occupancy hit or miss transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew; Marshall, Stephen; Gray, Alison

    2016-05-01

    The use of aerial hyperspectral imagery for the purpose of remote sensing is a rapidly growing research area. Currently, targets are generally detected by looking for distinct spectral features of the objects under surveillance. For example, a camouflaged vehicle, deliberately designed to blend into background trees and grass in the visible spectrum, can be revealed using spectral features in the near-infrared spectrum. This work aims to develop improved target detection methods, using a two-stage approach, firstly by development of a physics-based atmospheric correction algorithm to convert radiance into re ectance hyperspectral image data and secondly by use of improved outlier detection techniques. In this paper the use of the Percentage Occupancy Hit or Miss Transform is explored to provide an automated method for target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery.

  16. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  17. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  18. [Effects of anti-androgens on sexual function. Double-blind comparative studies on allylestrenol and chlormadinone acetate. Part II: Self-assessment questionnaire method].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Sato, Y; Suzuki, R; Tanda, H; Kato, S; Mori, K; Matsumoto, H; Maki, A; Kadono, M

    1990-02-01

    Allylestrenol (ALE) and chlormadinone acetate (CMA) were administered to patients with prostatomegaly by the double-blind method, and a self-assessment questionnaire method developed by the authors was used to study the influence of these two antiandrogens on their sexual function. Each test drug was orally administered to 58 patients, in a daily dosage of 50 mg for 12 consecutive weeks. The questionnaires consisted of 6 categories each consisting of 5 questions, or 30 questions in total. The 6 categories were "sexual desire," "erectile capacity" and "ejaculation," which relate to the sexual function, and "living environment (including the frequency of sex)," "dysuria" and "dummy (personality)." Each question was graded into 0-10 points, and each patient was requested to circle the number which best described his status. The scores were compiled and statistically analyzed. Many patients were senile. Evaluable answers were obtained for 99 (85.3%) of the 116 patients. Factor analysis based on the preadministration scores confirmed the contents of the questionnaires to be appropriate for the objectives of the present study. Multiple regression analysis revealed a high correlation between the self-assessment scores and objective data (nocturnal penile tumescence values; NPT values) when dropout cases due to a decrease in the sexual function and non-replying cases were excluded. The self-assessment questionnaire method was concluded to be as useful an objective test method as the NPT measurement for examining the sexual function. Aggravation of the "frequency of urination during night" was conspicuous in the CMA group, and there was a significant difference (p less than 0.05) in this parameter between the two groups. Except for this parameter, dysuria was improved in both administration groups, and there was no significant difference in the efficacy of the two drugs. Both drugs tended to suppress overall sexual function, but the suppression was less severe in the ALE

  19. System for solving diagnosis and hitting set problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis problem arises when a system's actual behavior contradicts the expected behavior, thereby exhibiting symptoms (a collection of conflict sets). System diagnosis is then the task of identifying faulty components that are responsible for anomalous behavior. To solve the diagnosis problem, the present invention describes a method for finding the minimal set of faulty components (minimal diagnosis set) that explain the conflict sets. The method includes acts of creating a matrix of the collection of conflict sets, and then creating nodes from the matrix such that each node is a node in a search tree. A determination is made as to whether each node is a leaf node or has any children nodes. If any given node has children nodes, then the node is split until all nodes are leaf nodes. Information gathered from the leaf nodes is used to determine the minimal diagnosis set.

  20. Hits per trial: Basic analysis of binomial data

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents simple statistical methods for analyzing binomial data, such as the number of failures in some number of demands. It gives point estimates, confidence intervals, and Bayesian intervals for the failure probability. It shows how to compare subsets of the data, both graphically and by statistical tests, and how to look for trends in time. It presents a compound model when the failure probability varies randomly. Examples and SAS programs are given.

  1. Entanglement purification with double selection

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    2009-10-15

    We investigate an entanglement purification protocol with double-selection process, which works under imperfect local operations. Compared with the usual protocol with single selection, this double-selection method has higher noise thresholds for the local operations and quantum communication channels and achieves higher fidelity of purified states. It also provides a yield comparable to that of the usual protocol with single selection. We discuss on general grounds how some of the errors which are introduced by local operations are left as intrinsically undetectable. The undetectable errors place a general upper bound on the purification fidelity. The double selection is a simple method to remove all the detectable errors in the first order, so that the upper bound on the fidelity is achieved in the low-noise regime. The double selection is further applied to purification of multipartite entanglement such as two-colorable graph states.

  2. LncRNA-HIT Functions as an Epigenetic Regulator of Chondrogenesis through Its Recruitment of p100/CBP Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Hanqian L.; Quinn, Jeffrey J.; Yang, Yul W.; Thornburg, Chelsea K.; Chang, Howard Y.; Stadler, H. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression profiling in E 11 mouse embryos identified high expression of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), LNCRNA-HIT in the undifferentiated limb mesenchyme, gut, and developing genital tubercle. In the limb mesenchyme, LncRNA-HIT was found to be retained in the nucleus, forming a complex with p100 and CBP. Analysis of the genome-wide distribution of LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes by ChIRP-seq revealed LncRNA-HIT associated peaks at multiple loci in the murine genome. Ontological analysis of the genes contacted by LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes indicate a primary role for these loci in chondrogenic differentiation. Functional analysis using siRNA-mediated reductions in LncRNA-HIT or p100 transcripts revealed a significant decrease in expression of many of the LncRNA-HIT-associated loci. LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments also impacted the ability of the limb mesenchyme to form cartilage, reducing mesenchymal cell condensation and the formation of cartilage nodules. Mechanistically the LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments impacted pro-chondrogenic gene expression by reducing H3K27ac or p100 activity, confirming that LncRNA-HIT is essential for chondrogenic differentiation in the limb mesenchyme. Taken together, these findings reveal a fundamental epigenetic mechanism functioning during early limb development, using LncRNA-HIT and its associated proteins to promote the expression of multiple genes whose products are necessary for the formation of cartilage. PMID:26633036

  3. Optimization of a pyrazole hit from FBDD into a novel series of indazoles as ketohexokinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuqing; Song, Fengbing; Kuo, Gee-Hong; Xiang, Amy; Gibbs, Alan C.; Abad, Marta C.; Sun, Weimei; Kuo, Lawrence C.; Sui, Zhihua

    2013-11-20

    A series of indazoles have been discovered as KHK inhibitors from a pyrazole hit identified through fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). The optimization process guided by both X-ray crystallography and solution activity resulted in lead-like compounds with good pharmaceutical properties.

  4. Sub-concussive hit characteristics predict deviant brain metabolism in football athletes.

    PubMed

    Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Dydak, Ulrike; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and helmet telemetry were used to monitor the neural metabolic response to repetitive head collisions in 25 high school American football athletes. Specific hit characteristics were determined highly predictive of metabolic alterations, suggesting that sub-concussive blows can produce biochemical changes and potentially lead to neurological problems.

  5. 75 FR 62399 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ..., implementation specifications, and/or certification criteria. Once the HIT Standards Committee is informed of... certification criteria are currently available to meet the priority area; (2) an assessment of where gaps exist... timeline, which may also account for NIST testing where appropriate, and include dates when the...

  6. Data-Based Interval Hitting Program for Female College Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy; Hunter-Giordano, Airelle; Axe, Michael; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Context: Interval sports programs are a critical rehabilitation element when preparing the injured athlete for a return to preinjury activities. There is currently no published interval hitting program to guide a return to unrestricted play for the volleyball athlete. Therefore, data-based, position-specific overhead hitting programs that control for intensity, time, and number of ball strikes were developed for female college volleyball players. Evidence Acquisition: Records from a single Division I varsity women’s volleyball team were examined for all matches during 7 consecutive years of team play. Data were collected for number of hitting and service attempts per game for each position and the number of games per match. Results: Per game, middle hitters averaged 4.51 attacks and 2.77 service attempts; right-side hitters, 3.58 attacks and 1.26 service attempts; outside hitters, 6.37 attacks and 3.44 service attempts; and setters and defensive specialists, 0.17 attacks and 1.78 service attempts. Conclusion: The interval hitting program can provide rehabilitation specialists with a data-based approach that may facilitate a return to play and minimize the risk of reinjury for volleyball athletes. PMID:23015917

  7. Rich-Poor Income Gap Hits 40-Year High As Poverty Rate Stalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    On September 26, 1990, the Census Bureau released its 1989 figures on poverty and income which showed that no significant progress was made in reducing poverty in 1989, and that gaps between rich and poor and between the wealthy and the middle class hit their widest points in more than 40 years. Although 1989 marked the seventh year of economic…

  8. 76 FR 22397 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ..., from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m./Eastern Time. Location: Renaissance Dupont Circle Hotel, 1143 New Hampshire Ave... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy...

  9. 75 FR 29762 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  10. 75 FR 51819 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This... Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of...

  11. 75 FR 51818 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings... of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to...

  12. 75 FR 29761 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  13. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee:...

  14. 75 FR 65486 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  15. 75 FR 51819 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice... Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via...

  16. 75 FR 57027 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  17. 75 FR 5595 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  18. 75 FR 36657 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  19. 75 FR 21629 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee... committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting... adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that permits the electronic...

  20. 75 FR 8954 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)....

  1. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee:...

  2. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  3. 75 FR 57026 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  4. 75 FR 57276 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a... information technology infrastructure that permits the electronic exchange and use of health information as...

  5. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  6. 75 FR 21628 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)....

  7. 75 FR 65636 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  8. 75 FR 8953 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee... committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting... and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that permits the...

  9. 75 FR 5595 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  10. 75 FR 17744 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee... technology infrastructure that permits the electronic exchange and use of health information as is consistent..., Office of Programs and Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  11. 76 FR 9784 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  12. 75 FR 51820 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This... Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of...

  13. 75 FR 29761 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  14. Data Independent Acquisition analysis in ProHits 4.0.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guomin; Knight, James D R; Zhang, Jian Ping; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Jian; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Larsen, Brett; Tyers, Mike; Raught, Brian; Bandeira, Nuno; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Choi, Hyungwon; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2016-10-21

    Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a powerful technique for the identification and quantification of physical interactions. AP-MS requires careful experimental design, appropriate control selection and quantitative workflows to successfully identify bona fide interactors amongst a large background of contaminants. We previously introduced ProHits, a Laboratory Information Management System for interaction proteomics, which tracks all samples in a mass spectrometry facility, initiates database searches and provides visualization tools for spectral counting-based AP-MS approaches. More recently, we implemented Significance Analysis of INTeractome (SAINT) within ProHits to provide scoring of interactions based on spectral counts. Here, we provide an update to ProHits to support Data Independent Acquisition (DIA) with identification software (DIA-Umpire and MSPLIT-DIA), quantification tools (through DIA-Umpire, or externally via targeted extraction), and assessment of quantitative enrichment (through mapDIA) and scoring of interactions (through SAINT-intensity). With additional improvements, notably support of the iProphet pipeline, facilitated deposition into ProteomeXchange repositories and enhanced export and viewing functions, ProHits 4.0 offers a comprehensive suite of tools to facilitate affinity proteomics studies.

  15. As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

  16. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Corpus Christi Bayfront area...

  17. 76 FR 70455 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure...

  18. 76 FR 50734 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure...

  19. Visits, Hits, Caching and Counting on the World Wide Web: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthon, Pierre; Pitt, Leyland; Prendergast, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Although web browser caching speeds up retrieval, reduces network traffic, and decreases the load on servers and browser's computers, an unintended consequence for marketing research is that Web servers undercount hits. This article explores counting problems, caching, proxy servers, trawler software and presents a series of correction factors…

  20. Pigeons, unlike humans, do not prefer near hits in a slot-machine-like task.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Inês; Case, Jacob P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2017-02-20

    Slot machines are among the most popular forms of commercial gambling, and the high frequency of losses that come close to winning - near hits - in this game appears to contribute to its popularity. In the present experiment we tested if pigeons, similarly to humans, prefer an alternative that provides near-hit outcomes in a slot-machine-like task. The pigeons received series of three stimuli, one every two seconds: if the three stimuli matched, food was delivered (a win); if they did not match, food was not delivered (a loss). We gave pigeons a choice between two options that provided food with the same probability but they differed in the sequence of stimuli on loss trials. For the near-hit alternative the non-matching stimulus was the third one (defined as a near hit). For the clear-loss alternative the non-matching stimulus was the second one. We found that the pigeons preferred the clear-loss alternative, that is, they preferred to be given information about the outcome sooner. This result is consistent with prior research on suboptimal choice with pigeons that emphasizes the role of information in choice but is inconsistent with the results of research with humans.

  1. Development of the PRE-HIT instrument: patient readiness to engage in health information technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Technology-based aids for lifestyle change are becoming more prevalent for chronic conditions. Important “digital divides” remain, as well as concerns about privacy, data security, and lack of motivation. Researchers need a way to characterize participants’ readiness to use health technologies. To address this need, we created an instrument to measure patient readiness to engage with health technologies among adult patients with chronic conditions. Methods Initial focus groups to determine domains, followed by item development and refinement, and exploratory factor analysis to determine final items and factor structure. The development sample included 200 patients with chronic conditions from 6 family medicine clinics. From 98 potential items, 53 best candidate items were examined using exploratory factor analysis. Pearson’s Correlation for Test/Retest reliability at 3 months. Results The final instrument had 28 items that sorted into 8 factors with associated Cronbach’s alpha: 1) Health Information Need (0.84), 2) Computer/Internet Experience (0.87), 3) Computer Anxiety (0.82), 4) Preferred Mode of Interaction (0.73), 5) Relationship with Doctor (0.65), 6) Cell Phone Expertise (0.75), 7) Internet Privacy (0.71), and 8) No News is Good News (0.57). Test-retest reliability for the 8 subscales ranged from (0.60 to 0.85). Conclusion The Patient Readiness to Engage in Health Internet Technology (PRE-HIT) instrument has good psychometric properties and will be an aid to researchers investigating technology-based health interventions. Future work will examine predictive validity. PMID:24472182

  2. Process and formulation variables of pregabalin microspheres prepared by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method and their clinical application by animal modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Ebru; Comoglu, Tansel; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Dogan, Murat; Comoglu, Selcuk; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75 mg twice daily or 50 mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600 mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00 ± 0.72 and 69.70 ± 0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95 ± 1.21 and 93.05 ± 1.42%; and mean particle size were

  3. Electron density distribution in BaPb{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 3} superconducting oxides studied by double nuclear magnetic resonance methods

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, Yu. V. Ogloblichev, V. V.; Arapova, I. Yu.; Sadykov, A. V.; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Verkhovskii, S. V.

    2011-11-15

    The effect of charge disorder on the formation of an inhomogeneous state of the electron system in the conduction band in BaPb{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 3} superconducting oxides is investigated experimentally by NMR methods. The NMR spectra of {sup 17}O are measured systematically, and the contributions from {sup 17}O atoms with different cation nearest surroundings are identified. It is found that microscopic regions with an elevated spin density of charge carriers are formed within two coordination spheres near antimony ions. Nuclei of the superconducting phase of the oxide (regions with an elevated antimony concentration) microscopically distributed over the sample are detected in compounds with x = 0.25 and 0.33. Experiments in which a double resonance signal of the spin echo of {sup 17}O-{sup 207}Pb and {sup 17}O-{sup 121}Sb are measured in the metal phase of BaPb{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 3} oxides are carried out for the first time. The constants of indirect heteronuclear spin-spin {sup 17}O-{sup 207}Pb interaction are determined as functions of the local Knight shift {sub 207}Ks. The estimates of the constants of the indirect interaction between the nuclei of the nearest neighbors (O-Pb and Pb-Pb atoms) and analysis of evolution of the NMR spectra of {sup 17}O upon a change in the antimony concentration are convincing evidence in favor of the development of a microscopically inhomogeneous state of the electron system in the metal phase of BaPb{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 3} oxides.

  4. A comparative evaluation of treatment methods for bile duct stones after hepaticojejunostomy between percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy and peroral, short double-balloon enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Kato, Hironari; Yabe, Shuntaro; Mizukawa, Sho; Seki, Hiroyuki; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bile duct stones after hepaticojejunostomy are considered a troublesome adverse event. Although percutaneous transhepatic procedures using a cholangioscopy is performed to treat these bile duct stones, a peroral endoscopic procedure using a short, double-balloon enteroscope (sDBE) is an alternative. This study aimed to compare the immediate and long-term outcomes of both treatments for bile duct stones in patients who underwent prior hepaticojejunostomy. Methods: Between October 2001 and May 2013, 40 consecutive patients were treated for bile duct stones after hepaticojejunostomy at a tertiary care hospital. Initial success with biliary access, biliary intervention-related technical success, clinical success, adverse events, hospitalization duration, and stone-free survival were retrospectively evaluated. Results: The initial success rates for biliary access were 100% (8/8) with percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) and 91% (29/32) with sDBE. In three patients in whom biliary access during initial sDBE failed, successful access with subsequent PTCS was achieved, and biliary intervention-related technical success and clinical success were eventually achieved in all 40 patients. The rate of adverse events was significantly lower with sDBE than with PTCS (10% versus 45%; p = 0.025). The median hospitalization duration for complete stone clearance was significantly shorter with sDBE than with PTCS (10 versus 35 days; p < 0.001). During the median 7.2 year or 3.1 year follow up, the probabilities of being stone-free at 1, 2, and 3 years were 100%, 73%, and 64% for PTCS and 85%, 65%, and 59% for sDBE, respectively (p = 0.919). Conclusions: sDBE was useful, with few adverse events and short hospitalization; therefore, experienced endoscopists can consider it as first-line treatment for bile duct stones in patients with prior hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:28286559

  5. Occurrence and significance of antibody to liver-specific membrane lipoprotein by double-antibody immunoprecipitation method in sera of patients with acute and chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Kakumu, S; Arakawa, Y; Goji, H; Kashio, T; Yata, K

    1979-04-01

    A double-antibody immunoprecipitation method was developed for detecting antibody to liver-specific membrane lipoprotein (anti-LSP) in sera of patients with various liver diseases and primary nonhepatic autoimmune diseases. Liver-specific membrane lipoprotein prepared from normal rat livers was labeled with 125I (chloramine-T) and monospecific antibody raised in rabbits. Cross-reactivity and absorption studies demonstrated that the assay used was highly specific. The frequency and titer of anti-LSP were similar for HBsAg-positive and -negative patients with both acute and chronic liver diseases. Patients with chronic active hepatitis had the highest frequenzy (25 of 44 cases, 57%) when compared with those with chronic persistent hepatitis (5 of 23 cases, 22%) and nonalcoholic cirrhosis (8 of 21 cases, 38%). Of the anti-LSP positive cases, the mean titer in patients with chronic active hepatitis tended to be the highest. In patients recovered from acute viral hepatitis, anti-LSP was transiently positive (7 of 20 cases, 35%) in the acute phase. In those who progressed to chronic hepatitis, a late rise as well as an early rise occurred in 6 of 10 patients before the diagnosis was made. Two of 6 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis had anti-LSP, but none of 41 patients with other nonviral liver diseases and none of 60 patients with primary nonhepatic autoimmune diseases. These data indicate that an autoimmune reaction directed against LSP can be initiated during the acute phase of viral hepatitis and it may persist in chronic hepatitis in both HBsAg-positive and -negative cases.

  6. Fabrication of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere(F-LM) By Two Steps Double-Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method and Characterization of Fucoxanthin before and after Microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Noviendri, Dedi; Jaswir, Irwandi; Taher, Muhammad; Mohamed, Farahidah; Salleh, Hamzah Mohd; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali; Octavianti, Fitri; Lestari, Widya; Hendri, Ridar; Ahmad, Hasna; Miyashita, Kazuo; Abdullah, Alias

    2016-08-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising approach in drug delivery to protect the drug from degradation and allow controlled release of the drug in the body. Fucoxanthin-loaded microsphere (F-LM) was fabricated by two step w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation method with poly (L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as carrier. The effect of four types of surfactants (PVA, Tween-20, Span-20 and SDS), homogenization speed, and concentration of PLGA polymer and surfactant (PVA), respectively, on particle size and morphology of F-LM were investigated. Among the surfactants tested, PVA showed the best results with smallest particle size (9.18 µm) and a smooth spherical surface. Increasing the homogenization speed resulted in a smaller mean F-LM particle size [d(0.50)] from 17.12 to 9.18 µm. Best particle size results and good morphology were attained at homogenization speed of 20 500 rpm. Meanwhile, increased PLGA concentration from 1.5 to 11.0 (% w/v) resulted in increased F-LM particle size. The mean particle size [d(0.5)] of F-LM increased from 3.93 to 11.88 µm. At 6.0 (% w/v) PLGA, F-LM showed the best structure and external morphology. Finally, increasing PVA concentration from 0.5 to 3.5 (% w/v) resulted in decreased particle size from 9.18 to 4.86 µm. Fucoxanthin characterization before and after microencapsulation was carried out to assess the success of the microencapsulation procedure. Thermo gravimetry analysis (TGA), glass transition (Tg) temperature of F-LM and fucoxanthin measured using DSC, ATR-FTIR and XRD indicated that fucoxanthin was successfully encapsulated into the PLGA matrix, while maintaining the structural and chemical integrity of fucoxanthin.

  7. Disturbance in hitting accuracy by professional and collegiate baseball players due to intentional change of target position.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Morohoshi, Jun; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated bat control of skilled baseball batters during tee batting, faced with an intentional change in target position. Twelve, skilled, male baseball players (M age = 24 yr., SD = 4) participated in the study. Participants were instructed to hit a baseball off a tee 0.8 m from the ground (Hitting condition), and also to deliberately swing just above the ball (Air Swing condition). The task for the participants was to perform, in alternate order, 15 swings at a real baseball on a stationary tee and 15 swings at an imaginary ball that was said to be on top of the real baseball. The participants were instructed to hit the ball toward center field just as they would hit in a game. While most participants could hit the real ball in the sweet area of the bat, only one participant did so in the Air Swing condition. Average distances from the center of the sweet area to ball center at the moment of ball-bat contact in the Air Swing condition (85 mm) were significantly greater than the distance in the Hitting condition (38 mm). The larger error in hitting an imaginary ball in the sweet area could be due to perceptual changes following the batter's altered focus, expectation of a lack of contact, and/or lack of feedback from the swing. It was suggested that baseball batters should be aware of the possible error in hitting accurately when they intentionally shifted the target.

  8. Methods Development for In Situ Laser-Ablation Pb and Sr Isotopic Analyses Using a Double-Focusing Single-Collector ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszka, A. J.; Neymark, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser-ablation (LA) ICPMS isotopic analyses of Pb and Sr in geological materials have mostly used multi-collector instruments equipped with Faraday-type detectors (e.g., [1-3]). The main limitation of this approach is that samples with relatively high concentrations of Pb and Sr are typically required. Here we present the development of analytical methods for the accurate and precise in situ measurement of Pb and Sr isotope ratios in relatively low-concentration samples using a laser ablation system (193-nm excimer laser) with a double-focusing single-collector (SC) ICPMS (Nu AttoMTM). Our methods build on published techniques [4-6] that used different LA-SC-ICPMS instrumentation to demonstrate the benefits of fast-scanning ion-counting measurements combined with flat-top peaks. We have paid special attention to the characterization and correction of instrumental artifacts using solutions of the NIST SRM981 Pb and SRM987 Sr standards in "wet plasma" mode. For Pb, this includes correcting for the interference of 204Hg on 204Pb, characterizing the effects of tails from thallium (at masses 203 and 205) on the Pb peaks, evaluating the stability of the instrumental mass bias, and maintaining linearity of the detector response over the full dynamic range. For Sr, this includes correcting for the interference of 86Kr on 86Sr and 87Rb on 87Sr, verifying the accuracy of an internal correction for instrumental mass bias, and calibrating the ion optics scanning parameters. LA-SC-ICPMS results for Pb and Sr isotopic measurements of international glass standards and newly developed in-house mineral and glass reference materials will be presented. [1] Davidson et al. (2001) EPSL 184, 427-442. [2] Ramos et al. (2004) Chem. Geol. 211, 135-158. [3] Simon et al. (2007) GCA 71, 2014-2035. [4] Jochum et al. (2005) IJMS 242, 281-289. [5] Jochum et al. (2006) JAAS 21, 666-675. [6] Jochum et al. (2009) JAAS 24, 1237-1243.

  9. Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

  10. Biomarkers in IgA nephropathy: relationship to pathogenetic hits

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Margaret Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Berthoux, Francois; Julian, Bruce A; Sanders, John T; Renfrow, Matthew B; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction IgA nephropathy, the most prevalent glomerular disease in the world, requires a renal biopsy for diagnosis. Reliable biomarkers are needed for the non-invasive diagnosis of this disease and to more fully delineate its natural history and risk for progression. Areas covered In this review, the authors examine serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and glycan-specific IgG and IgA autoantibodies that are integral to pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. They also explore biomarkers related to alternative and lectin pathways of complement activation and serum and urinary peptide biomarkers detected by mass spectrometric methods. The literature search included review of all publications having IgA nephropathy in the title that were cited in PubMed and Scopus over the past 10 years and a non-systematic review of abstracts published for the annual meetings of the American Society of Nephrology and the International Symposia on IgA Nephropathy. Expert opinion Serum Gd-IgA1 level and glycan-specific autoantibody levels are prime candidates to become diagnostic biomarkers for IgA nephropathy because of their central role in the earliest stages of disease pathogenesis. Assays for serum levels of complement proteins C3 and factor H are readily available in clinical practice and deserve continued study, either alone or in tandem with total serum IgA or serum Gd-IgA1 levels, as prognostic biomarkers for patients with IgA nephropathy. Urinary peptidomic data are also reviewed because this approach can successfully differentiate patients with IgA nephropathy from healthy controls and from patients with other forms of renal disease. PMID:24175678

  11. Prediction of the moments in advection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann method. II. Attenuation of the boundary layers via double-Λ bounce-back flux scheme.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Impact of the unphysical tangential advective-diffusion constraint of the bounce-back (BB) reflection on the impermeable solid surface is examined for the first four moments of concentration. Despite the number of recent improvements for the Neumann condition in the lattice Boltzmann method-advection-diffusion equation, the BB rule remains the only known local mass-conserving no-flux condition suitable for staircase porous geometry. We examine the closure relation of the BB rule in straight channel and cylindrical capillary analytically, and show that it excites the Knudsen-type boundary layers in the nonequilibrium solution for full-weight equilibrium stencil. Although the d2Q5 and d3Q7 coordinate schemes are sufficient for the modeling of isotropic diffusion, the full-weight stencils are appealing for their advanced stability, isotropy, anisotropy and anti-numerical-diffusion ability. The boundary layers are not covered by the Chapman-Enskog expansion around the expected equilibrium, but they accommodate the Chapman-Enskog expansion in the bulk with the closure relation of the bounce-back rule. We show that the induced boundary layers introduce first-order errors in two primary transport properties, namely, mean velocity (first moment) and molecular diffusion coefficient (second moment). As a side effect, the Taylor-dispersion coefficient (second moment), skewness (third moment), and kurtosis (fourth moment) deviate from their physical values and predictions of the fourth-order Chapman-Enskog analysis, even though the kurtosis error in pure diffusion does not depend on grid resolution. In two- and three-dimensional grid-aligned channels and open-tubular conduits, the errors of velocity and diffusion are proportional to the diagonal weight values of the corresponding equilibrium terms. The d2Q5 and d3Q7 schemes do not suffer from this deficiency in grid-aligned geometries but they cannot avoid it if the boundaries are not parallel to the coordinate lines. In order

  12. Prediction of the moments in advection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann method. II. Attenuation of the boundary layers via double-Λ bounce-back flux scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Impact of the unphysical tangential advective-diffusion constraint of the bounce-back (BB) reflection on the impermeable solid surface is examined for the first four moments of concentration. Despite the number of recent improvements for the Neumann condition in the lattice Boltzmann method-advection-diffusion equation, the BB rule remains the only known local mass-conserving no-flux condition suitable for staircase porous geometry. We examine the closure relation of the BB rule in straight channel and cylindrical capillary analytically, and show that it excites the Knudsen-type boundary layers in the nonequilibrium solution for full-weight equilibrium stencil. Although the d2Q5 and d3Q7 coordinate schemes are sufficient for the modeling of isotropic diffusion, the full-weight stencils are appealing for their advanced stability, isotropy, anisotropy and anti-numerical-diffusion ability. The boundary layers are not covered by the Chapman-Enskog expansion around the expected equilibrium, but they accommodate the Chapman-Enskog expansion in the bulk with the closure relation of the bounce-back rule. We show that the induced boundary layers introduce first-order errors in two primary transport properties, namely, mean velocity (first moment) and molecular diffusion coefficient (second moment). As a side effect, the Taylor-dispersion coefficient (second moment), skewness (third moment), and kurtosis (fourth moment) deviate from their physical values and predictions of the fourth-order Chapman-Enskog analysis, even though the kurtosis error in pure diffusion does not depend on grid resolution. In two- and three-dimensional grid-aligned channels and open-tubular conduits, the errors of velocity and diffusion are proportional to the diagonal weight values of the corresponding equilibrium terms. The d2Q5 and d3Q7 schemes do not suffer from this deficiency in grid-aligned geometries but they cannot avoid it if the boundaries are not parallel to the coordinate lines. In order

  13. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  14. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  15. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, J. E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2 dimensional particle in cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double layer electric field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic field alignment. The numerical simulations of spatially periodic two dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron beam excited electrostatic electron cyclotron waves and (ion beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers.

  16. A Study of Plasma Dynamics in HIT-SI using Ion Doppler Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossack, Aaron Clark

    The HIT-SI device is a unique experiment which uses inductive helicity injectors to form and sustain a spheromak plasma. The n = 1 symmetry of the injectors enables stable spheromak sustainment by imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD). The experiment is diagnosed with spectroscopy, interferometry, imaging, and internal and surface magnetic probes. Two methods of density reduction and control are presented. A helicon preionization source enables plasma breakdown and operations at densities an order of magnitude lower than previously possible. The system is critical for all operations at injector frequencies greater than 14.5 kHz and single-injector operations. Additionally, a high-speed piezoelectric gas injection valve was developed to enable dynamic injector fueling adjustable on a timescale of ~0.5 ms. The focus of this work is on results from an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) which was upgraded to multi-chord capability. Two coherent, linear fiber optic cables with small, wide-angle lenses simultaneously collect light from 30 - 40 chords. Additionally, biorthogonal decomposition is used as a novel filtering method for raw data. Impurity radiation measurements of high power plasmas show no toroidal flow associated with toroidal current and temperature evolution which rises during toroidal current ramp-up and falls during current sustainment. Coherent velocity fluctuations show rigid, oscillatory motion of the spheromak plasma driven by the helicity injectors. The coherent motion combined with a lack of magnetic instabilities indicates that the spheromak is stable. Comparisons with NIMROD and PSI-TET simulations show similar chord-averaged velocity oscillations but fail to show the observed coherent, rigid motion of the spheromak. Additionally, strong flows and reconnection events in simulations which are not observed in the experiment indicate that agreement may improve with higher viscosity. The measured C III temperatures lie between the two codes' estimates

  17. Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-SI) Spheromak Experiment with the NIMROD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Cihan

    A comparative study of 3-D pressureless resistive (single-fluid) magnetohydrodynamic (rMHD) and 3-D pressureless two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (2fl-MHD) models of the Helicity Injected Torus experiment (HIT-SI) is presented. HIT-SI is a spheromak current-drive experiment that uses two geometrically asymmetric helicity injectors to generate and sustain toroidal plasmas. The goal of the experiment is to demonstrate that steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI) is a viable method for driving and sustaining a magnetized plasma for the eventual purpose of electricity production with magnetic fusion power. The experiment has achieved sustainment of nearly 100 kA of plasma current for ˜1~ms. Fusion power plants are expected to sustain a burning plasma for many minutes to hours with more than 10~MA of plasma current. The purpose of project is to determine the validity of the single-fluid and two-fluid MHD models of HIT-SI. The comparable size of the collisionless ion skin depth to the diameter of the injectors and resistive skin depth predicates the importance of two-fluid effects. The simulations are run with NIMROD (non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics code with rotation-open discussion), an initial-value, 3-D extended MHD code. A constant and uniform plasma density and temperature are assumed. The helicity injectors are modeled as oscillating normal magnetic and parallel electric field boundary conditions. The simulations use parameters that closely match those of the experiment. The simulation output is compared to the formation time, plasma current, and internal and surface magnetic fields. Results of the study indicate 2fl-MHD shows quantitative agreement with the experiment while rMHD only captures the qualitative features. The validity of each model is assessed based on how accurately it reproduces the global quantities as well as the temporal and spatial dependence of the measured magnetic fields. 2fl-MHD produces the current amplification and formation time

  18. B-HIT - A Tool for Harvesting and Indexing Biodiversity Data.

    PubMed

    Kelbert, Patricia; Droege, Gabriele; Barker, Katharine; Braak, Kyle; Cawsey, E Margaret; Coddington, Jonathan; Robertson, Tim; Whitacre, Jamie; Güntsch, Anton

    2015-01-01

    With the rapidly growing number of data publishers, the process of harvesting and indexing information to offer advanced search and discovery becomes a critical bottleneck in globally distributed primary biodiversity data infrastructures. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) implemented a Harvesting and Indexing Toolkit (HIT), which largely automates data harvesting activities for hundreds of collection and observational data providers. The team of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem has extended this well-established system with a range of additional functions, including improved processing of multiple taxon identifications, the ability to represent associations between specimen and observation units, new data quality control and new reporting capabilities. The open source software B-HIT can be freely installed and used for setting up thematic networks serving the demands of particular user groups.

  19. "Hits" emerge through self-organized coordination in collective response of free agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2016-10-01

    Individuals in free societies frequently exhibit striking coordination when making independent decisions en masse. Examples include the regular appearance of hit products or memes with substantially higher popularity compared to their otherwise equivalent competitors or extreme polarization in public opinion. Such segregation of events manifests as bimodality in the distribution of collective choices. Here we quantify how apparently independent choices made by individuals result in a significantly polarized but stable distribution of success in the context of the box-office performance of movies and show that it is an emergent feature of a system of noninteracting agents who respond to sequentially arriving signals. The aggregate response exhibits extreme variability amplifying much smaller differences in individual cost of adoption. Due to self-organization of the competitive landscape, most events elicit only a muted response but a few stimulate widespread adoption, emerging as "hits".

  20. Linear energy transfer in water phantom within SHIELD-HIT transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, A.; Sobolevsky, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Buyukcizmeci, N.; Latysheva, L.; Ogul, R.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of irradiation in tissue is important in hadron therapy for the dose measurement and treatment planning. This biological effect is defined by an equivalent dose H which depends on the Linear Energy Transfer (LET). Usually, H can be expressed in terms of the absorbed dose D and the quality factor K of the radiation under consideration. In literature, various types of transport codes have been used for modeling and simulation of the interaction of the beams of protons and heavier ions with tissue-equivalent materials. In this presentation we used SHIELD-HIT code to simulate decomposition of the absorbed dose by LET in water for 16O beams. A more detailed description of capabilities of the SHIELD-HIT code can be found in the literature.

  1. Identification and structure solution of fragment hits against kinetoplastid N-myristoyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David A.; Wyatt, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei N-myristoyltransferase (TbNMT) is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Pyrazole sulfonamide (DDD85646), a potent inhibitor of TbNMT, has been identified in previous studies; however, poor central nervous system exposure restricts its use to the haemolymphatic form (stage 1) of the disease. In order to identify new chemical matter, a fragment screen was carried out by ligand-observed NMR spectroscopy, identifying hits that occupy the DDD85646 binding site. Crystal structures of hits from this assay have been obtained in complex with the closely related NMT from Leishmania major, providing a structural starting point for the evolution of novel chemical matter. PMID:25945713

  2. Hit and lead criteria in drug discovery for infectious diseases of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Kei; Burrows, Jeremy N; Duncan, Ken; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Kaneko, Takushi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Mowbray, Charles E; Schmatz, Dennis; Warner, Peter; Slingsby, B T

    2015-11-01

    Reducing the burden of infectious diseases that affect people in the developing world requires sustained collaborative drug discovery efforts. The quality of the chemical starting points for such projects is a key factor in improving the likelihood of clinical success, and so it is important to set clear go/no-go criteria for the progression of hit and lead compounds. With this in mind, the Japanese Global Health Innovative Technology (GHIT) Fund convened with experts from the Medicines for Malaria Venture, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and the TB Alliance, together with representatives from the Bill &Melinda Gates Foundation, to set disease-specific criteria for hits and leads for malaria, tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Here, we present the agreed criteria and discuss the underlying rationale.

  3. B-HIT - A Tool for Harvesting and Indexing Biodiversity Data

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Katharine; Braak, Kyle; Cawsey, E. Margaret; Coddington, Jonathan; Robertson, Tim; Whitacre, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    With the rapidly growing number of data publishers, the process of harvesting and indexing information to offer advanced search and discovery becomes a critical bottleneck in globally distributed primary biodiversity data infrastructures. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) implemented a Harvesting and Indexing Toolkit (HIT), which largely automates data harvesting activities for hundreds of collection and observational data providers. The team of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem has extended this well-established system with a range of additional functions, including improved processing of multiple taxon identifications, the ability to represent associations between specimen and observation units, new data quality control and new reporting capabilities. The open source software B-HIT can be freely installed and used for setting up thematic networks serving the demands of particular user groups. PMID:26544980

  4. Clinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS): learning about health information technology (HIT) in its context of use.

    PubMed

    Lichtner, Valentina; Cornford, Tony; Klecun, Ela

    2013-01-01

    Successful health information technology (HIT) implementations need to be informed on the context of use and on users' attitudes. To this end, we developed the CLinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS) instrument. CLICS reflects a socio-technical view of HIT adoption, and is designed to encompass all members of the clinical team. We used the survey in a large English hospital as part of its internal evaluation of the implementation of an electronic patient record system (EPR). The survey revealed extent and type of use of the EPR; how it related to and integrated with other existing systems; and people's views on its use, usability and emergent safety issues. Significantly, participants really appreciated 'being asked'. They also reminded us of the wider range of administrative roles engaged with EPR. This observation reveals pertinent questions as to our understanding of the boundaries between administrative tasks and clinical medicine - what we propose as the field of 'administrative medicine'.

  5. What Is the Best Launch Angle To Hit a Home Run?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David

    2010-04-01

    Your students will proudly raise their hands and answer, "45 degrees!" They are, however, answering a different question. It is true that in the absence of air resistance, for a given initial speed, the launch angle that maximizes the range is 45°. For a real homer, there are many complicating factors that make the question far more challenging to answer. Here is a partial list: 1. The initial speed off the bat is not fixed. Garvey's law, "The harder you hit it, the further it goes" is definitely at play; 2. Air resistance is a substantial influence on the flight of the ball. ; 3. The backspin on a well-hit ball creates lift due to the Magnus effect.2; 4. Atmospheric conditions such as humidity, temperature, air density, and the wind affect the motion as well.3; 5. Baseball parks are unique in size and shape. So, a home run in one park may not be a home run in another.

  6. Organizations disseminating health messages: the roles of organizational identification and HITs.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Keri K; Goins, Elizabeth S; Dailey, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Research into the dissemination of health information now includes more focus on how various organizations (e.g., beauty shops, schools, workplaces, and churches) and health information technologies (HITs) reach and affect audiences. One relational feature of organizations is identification--the feeling of belongingness. Our study explores how it influences audiences, especially in combination with HITs such as e-mail, websites, and social media. We use social identity theory to predict how organizational identification and social media might function in health communication. Using a 3 × 2 experimental design, we find that people's identification with a message source mediates the effect of social media on outcomes. These findings improve our understanding of when organizations might be most helpful for disseminating health information.

  7. "Hits" emerge through self-organized coordination in collective response of free agents.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2016-10-01

    Individuals in free societies frequently exhibit striking coordination when making independent decisions en masse. Examples include the regular appearance of hit products or memes with substantially higher popularity compared to their otherwise equivalent competitors or extreme polarization in public opinion. Such segregation of events manifests as bimodality in the distribution of collective choices. Here we quantify how apparently independent choices made by individuals result in a significantly polarized but stable distribution of success in the context of the box-office performance of movies and show that it is an emergent feature of a system of noninteracting agents who respond to sequentially arriving signals. The aggregate response exhibits extreme variability amplifying much smaller differences in individual cost of adoption. Due to self-organization of the competitive landscape, most events elicit only a muted response but a few stimulate widespread adoption, emerging as "hits".

  8. Validation of concussion risk curves for collegiate football players derived from HITS data.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Rowson, Steven; Daniel, Ray W; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    For several years, Virginia Tech and other schools have measured the frequency and severity of head impacts sustained by collegiate American football players in real time using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System of helmet-mounted accelerometers. In this study, data from 37,128 head impacts collected at Virginia Tech during games from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Peak head acceleration exceeded 100 g in 516 impacts, and the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) exceeded 200 in 468 impacts. Four instrumented players in the dataset sustained a concussion. These data were used to develop risk curves for concussion as a function of peak head acceleration and HIC. The validity of this biomechanical approach was assessed using epidemiological data on concussion incidence from other sources. Two specific aspects of concussion incidence were addressed: the variation by player position, and the frequency of repeat concussions. The HIT System data indicated that linemen sustained the highest overall number of head impacts, while skill positions sustained a higher number of more severe head impacts (peak acceleration > 100 g or HIC > 200). When weighted using injury risk curves, the HIT System data predicted a higher incidence of concussion in skill positions compared to linemen at rates that were in strong agreement with the epidemiological literature (Pearson's r = 0.72-0.87). The predicted rates of repeat concussions (21-39% over one season and 33-50% over five seasons) were somewhat higher than the ranges reported in the epidemiological literature. These analyses demonstrate that simple biomechanical parameters that can be measured by the HIT System possess a high level of power for predicting concussion.

  9. Preventive effects of minocycline in a neurodevelopmental two-hit model with relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Giovanoli, S; Engler, H; Engler, A; Richetto, J; Feldon, J; Riva, M A; Schedlowski, M; Meyer, U

    2016-04-05

    Maternal immune activation can increase the vulnerability of the offspring to develop neuroimmune and behavioral abnormalities in response to stress in puberty. In offspring of immune-challenged mothers, stress-induced inflammatory processes precede the adult onset of multiple behavioral dysfunctions. Here, we explored whether an early anti-inflammatory intervention during peripubertal stress exposure might prevent the subsequent emergence of adult behavioral pathology. We used an environmental two-hit model in mice, in which prenatal maternal administration of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) served as the first hit, and exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress during peripubertal maturation as the second hit. Using this model, we examined the effectiveness of the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline (MINO) given during stress exposure to block stress-induced inflammatory responses and to prevent subsequent behavioral abnormalities. We found that combined exposure to prenatal immune activation and peripubertal stress caused significant deficits in prepulse inhibition and increased sensitivity to the psychotomimetic drugs amphetamine and dizocilpine in adulthood. MINO treatment during stress exposure prevented the emergence of these behavioral dysfunctions. In addition, the pharmacological intervention blocked hippocampal and prefrontal microglia activation and interleukin-1β expression in offspring exposed to prenatal infection and peripubertal stress. Together, these findings demonstrate that presymptomatic MINO treatment can prevent the subsequent emergence of multiple behavioral abnormalities relevant to human neuropsychiatric disorders with onset in early adulthood, including schizophrenia. Our epidemiologically informed two-hit model may thus encourage attempts to explore the use of anti-inflammatory agents in the early course of brain disorders that are characterized by signs of central nervous system inflammation during development.

  10. Multiple NSAID-Induced Hits Injure the Small Intestine: Underlying Mechanisms and Novel Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) injury including jejunal/ileal mucosal ulceration, bleeding, and even perforation in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but they are distinct from those related to gastric injury. Based on recent insights from experimental models, including genetics and pharmacology in rodents typically exposed to diclofenac, indomethacin, or naproxen, we propose a multiple-hit pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy. The multiple hits start with an initial pharmacokinetic determinant caused by vectorial hepatobiliary excretion and delivery of glucuronidated NSAID or oxidative metabolite conjugates to the distal small intestinal lumen, where bacterial β-glucuronidase produces critical aglycones. The released aglycones are then taken up by enterocytes and further metabolized by intestinal cytochrome P450s to potentially reactive intermediates. The “first hit” is caused by the NSAID and/or oxidative metabolites that induce severe endoplasmic reticulum stress or mitochondrial stress and lead to cell death. The “second hit” is created by the significant subsequent inflammatory response that would follow such a first-hit injury. Based on these putative mechanisms, strategies have been developed to protect the enterocytes from being exposed to the parent NSAID and/or oxidative metabolites. Among these, a novel strategy already demonstrated in a murine model is the selective disruption of bacteria-specific β-glucuronidases with a novel small molecule inhibitor that does not harm the bacteria and that alleviates NSAID-induced enteropathy. Such mechanism-based strategies require further investigation but provide potential avenues for the alleviation of the GI toxicity caused by multiple NSAID hits. PMID:23091168

  11. Hitting the nursing faculty shortage head on: strategies to recruit, retain, and develop nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Harriet R; Greenberg, Martha J; Jaffe-Ruiz, Marilyn; Kaufman, Sophie Revillard; Cignarale, Stacie

    2015-01-01

    More than ever before, schools of nursing are challenged with finding qualified faculty to teach growing numbers of undergraduate and graduate students. Qualified applicants by the thousands are being turned away, in large part because of an insufficient pipeline of faculty. This article describes how one school hit the shortage head on by creating alternate models for employing and growing new faculty, and then instituting a variety of strategies to develop and keep them.

  12. Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Jun Hee; An, Yong-Hwi; Park, Kyung Tae; Kang, Kyung Min; Kang, Yeon June

    2014-11-01

    The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.

  13. Preventive effects of minocycline in a neurodevelopmental two-hit model with relevance to schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Giovanoli, S; Engler, H; Engler, A; Richetto, J; Feldon, J; Riva, M A; Schedlowski, M; Meyer, U

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activation can increase the vulnerability of the offspring to develop neuroimmune and behavioral abnormalities in response to stress in puberty. In offspring of immune-challenged mothers, stress-induced inflammatory processes precede the adult onset of multiple behavioral dysfunctions. Here, we explored whether an early anti-inflammatory intervention during peripubertal stress exposure might prevent the subsequent emergence of adult behavioral pathology. We used an environmental two-hit model in mice, in which prenatal maternal administration of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) served as the first hit, and exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress during peripubertal maturation as the second hit. Using this model, we examined the effectiveness of the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline (MINO) given during stress exposure to block stress-induced inflammatory responses and to prevent subsequent behavioral abnormalities. We found that combined exposure to prenatal immune activation and peripubertal stress caused significant deficits in prepulse inhibition and increased sensitivity to the psychotomimetic drugs amphetamine and dizocilpine in adulthood. MINO treatment during stress exposure prevented the emergence of these behavioral dysfunctions. In addition, the pharmacological intervention blocked hippocampal and prefrontal microglia activation and interleukin-1β expression in offspring exposed to prenatal infection and peripubertal stress. Together, these findings demonstrate that presymptomatic MINO treatment can prevent the subsequent emergence of multiple behavioral abnormalities relevant to human neuropsychiatric disorders with onset in early adulthood, including schizophrenia. Our epidemiologically informed two-hit model may thus encourage attempts to explore the use of anti-inflammatory agents in the early course of brain disorders that are characterized by signs of central nervous system inflammation during development. PMID:27045842

  14. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOEpatents

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  15. Guidance for horizontal image translation (HIT) of high definition stereoscopic video production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broberg, David K.

    2011-03-01

    Horizontal image translation (HIT) is an electronic process for shifting the left-eye and right-eye images horizontally as a way to alter the stereoscopic characteristics and alignment of 3D content after signals have been captured by stereoscopic cameras. When used cautiously and with full awareness of the impact on other interrelated aspects of the stereography, HIT is a valuable tool in the post production process as a means to modify stereoscopic content for more comfortable viewing. Most commonly it is used to alter the zero parallax setting (ZPS), to compensate for stereo window violations or to compensate for excessive positive or negative parallax in the source material. As more and more cinematic 3D content migrates to television distribution channels the use of this tool will likely expand. Without proper attention to certain guidelines the use of HIT can actually harm the 3D viewing experience. This paper provides guidance on the most effective use and describes some of the interrelationships and trade-offs. The paper recommends the adoption of the cinematic 2K video format as a 3D source master format for high definition television distribution of stereoscopic 3D video programming.

  16. Cosmic Ray Hits in the Central Nervous System at Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Vazquez, M. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Atwell, W.; Kin, M.-H. Y.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that a manned mission to Mars be launched at solar maximum rather than at solar minimum to minimize the radiation exposure to galactic cosmic rays. It is true that the number of hits from highly ionizing particles to critical regions in the brain will be less at solar maximum, and it is of interest to estimate how much less. We present here calculations for several sites within the brain from iron ions (z = 26) and from particles with charge, z, greater than or equal to 15. The same shielding configurations and sites in the brain used in an earlier paper for solar minimum are employed so that direct comparison of results between the two solar activity conditions can be made. A simple pressure-vessel wall and an equipment room onboard a spacecraft are chosen as shielding examples. In the equipment room, typical results for the thalamus are that the probability of any particles with z greater than or equal to 15 and from 2.3 percent to 1.3 percent for iron ions. The extra shielding provided in the equipment room makes little difference in these numbers. We conclude that this decrease in hit frequency (less than a factor of two) does not provide a compelling reason to avoid solar minimum for a manned mission to Mars. This conclusion could be revised, however, if a very small number of hits is found to cause critical malfunction within the brain.

  17. Cosmic Ray Hits in the Central Nervous System at Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Vazquez, M. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that a manned mission to Mars be launched at solar maximum rather than at solar minimum to minimize the radiation exposure to galactic cosmic rays. It is true that the number of hits from highly ionizing particles to critical regions in the brain will be less at solar maximum, and it is of some interest to estimate how much less. We present here calculations for several sites within the brain from iron ions (z = 26) and from particles with charge, z, greater than or equal to 15. The same shielding configurations and sites in the brain used in an earlier paper for solar minimum are employed so that direct comparison of results between the two solar activity conditions can be made. A simple pressure-vessel wall and an equipment room onboard a spacecraft are chosen as shielding examples. In the equipment room, typical results for the thalamus (100 mm2 area) are that the probability of any given cell nucleus being hit decreases from 10 percent at solar minimum to 6 percent at solar maximum for particles with z greater than or equal to 15 and from 2.3 percent to 1.3 percent for iron ions. We conclude that this modest decrease in hit frequency (less than a factor of two) is not a compelling reason to avoid solar minimum for a manned mission to Mars.

  18. Overview of HIT-SI3 experiment: Simulations, Diagnostics, and Summary of Current Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, James; Jarboe, Thomas; Nelson, Brian; Hossack, Aaron; Sutherland, Derek; Morgan, Kyle; Hansen, Chris; Benedett, Thomas; Everson, Chris; Victor, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3(HIT-SI3)experiment forms and maintains spheromaks via Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI). Three injector units allow for continuous injection of helicity into a copper flux conserver in order to sustain a spheromak. Firing of the injectors with a phase difference allows finite rotation of the plasma to provide a stabilizing effect. Simulations in the MHD code NIMROD and the fluid-model code PSI-TET provide validation and a basis for interpretation of the observed experimental data. Thompson Scattering (TS) and Far Infrared (FIR) Interferometer systems allow temperature and line-averaged density measurements to be taken. An Ion Doppler Spectroscopy (IDS) system allows measurement of the plasma rotation and velocity. HIT-SI3 data has been used for validation of IDCD predictions, in particular the projected impedance of helicity injectors according to the theory. The experimental impedances have been calculated here for the first time for different HIT-SI3 regimes. Such experimental evidence will contribute to the design of future experiments employing IDCD as a current-drive mechanism. Work supported by the D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Fusion Science.

  19. A business case for HIT adoption: effects of "meaningful use" EHR financial incentives on clinic revenue.

    PubMed

    Behkami, Nima A; Dorr, David A; Morrice, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe a framework that allows decision makers to efficiently evaluate factors that affect Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption and test suitable interventions; specifically financial incentives. The United States healthcare delivery system is experiencing a transformation to improve population health. There is strong agreement that "meaningful use" of Health Information Technology (HIT) is a major enabler in this effort. However it's also understood that the high cost of implementing an EHR is an obstacle for adoption. To help understand these complexities we developed a simulation model designed to capture the dynamic nature of policy interventions that affect the adoption of EHR. We found that "Effective" use of HIT approaches break-even-point and larger clinic revenue many times faster that "average" or "poor" use of HIT. This study uses a systems perspective to the evaluate EHR adoption process through the "meaningful use" redesign as proposed in the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act 2009 in the United States healthcare industry by utilizing the System Dynamics methodology and Scenario Analysis.

  20. Prediction of Potential Hit Song and Musical Genre Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterola, Christopher; Abundo, Cheryl; Tugaff, Jeric; Venturina, Lorcel Ericka

    Accurately quantifying the goodness of music based on the seemingly subjective taste of the public is a multi-million industry. Recording companies can make sound decisions on which songs or artists to prioritize if accurate forecasting is achieved. We extract 56 single-valued musical features (e.g. pitch and tempo) from 380 Original Pilipino Music (OPM) songs (190 are hit songs) released from 2004 to 2006. Based on an effect size criterion which measures a variable's discriminating power, the 20 highest ranked features are fed to a classifier tasked to predict hit songs. We show that regardless of musical genre, a trained feed-forward neural network (NN) can predict potential hit songs with an average accuracy of ΦNN = 81%. The accuracy is about +20% higher than those of standard classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA, ΦLDA = 61%) and classification and regression trees (CART, ΦCART = 57%). Both LDA and CART are above the proportional chance criterion (PCC, ΦPCC = 50%) but are slightly below the suggested acceptable classifier requirement of 1.25*ΦPCC = 63%. Utilizing a similar procedure, we demonstrate that different genres (ballad, alternative rock or rock) of OPM songs can be automatically classified with near perfect accuracy using LDA or NN but only around 77% using CART.