BLOCKING OSCILLATOR DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR CIRCUIT
Haase, J.A.
1961-01-24
A double-pulse generator, particuiarly a double-pulse generator comprising a blocking oscillator utilizing a feedback circuit to provide means for producing a second pulse within the recovery time of the blocking oscillator, is described. The invention utilized a passive network which permits adjustment of the spacing between the original pulses derived from the blocking oscillator and further utilizes the original pulses to trigger a circuit from which other pulses are initiated. These other pulses are delayed and then applied to the input of the blocking oscillator, with the result that the output from the oscillator circuit contains twice the number of pulses originally initiated by the blocking oscillator itself.
Wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator
Armstrong, Darrell J.; Smith, Arlee V.
2007-07-24
A wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator (OPO) comprising a type II nonlinear optical medium for generating a pair of degenerate waves at twice a pump wavelength and a plurality of mirrors for rotating the polarization of one wave by 90 degrees to produce a wavelength-doubled beam with an increased output energy by coupling both of the degenerate waves out of the OPO cavity through the same output coupler following polarization rotation of one of the degenerate waves.
Large Amplitude Oscillations of a Double Pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerres, Jeffrey M.; Jacobs, Robert M.; Kasun, Sara F.; Bacon, Margaret E.; Nagolu, Chakravarthi M.; Owens, Erin L.; Siehl, Kevin F.; Thomsen, Marshall; Troyer, Jon S.
2008-03-01
The nature of the normal modes of oscillation in the small angle regime of a double pendulum is well established. However, for large amplitude oscillations, a closed form solution of the differential equations of motion does not exist. Using Lagrange formalism, we explore both the in-phase and out-of-phase normal modes of oscillation of a double pendulum as a function of the mass ratio of the two bobs and their initial angular positions. We conduct the analysis using MatLab, where we initially verify our code in the known small amplitude limit. Among our results we find that certain symmetries between the in-phase and out-of-phase normal modes that exist in the small amplitude limit are no longer present at large amplitudes.
Double integrated laser interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motyka, Zbigniew
2003-10-01
The layout of integrated optical system compromising the basis of proposed solution of double laser interferometer composed of two integrated Michelson's interferometers is presented and shortly discussed. Such an integrated system is designed for work with two lasers of different wavelength. It may serve for mapping surfaces and deformations of objects under investigation with the use of simultaneous recording of two mutually orthogonal gratings, each one composed of equidistant, parallel interference fringes projected onto the surface of such an object. The picture resulting two-coloured is recorded with the digital camera and may be used for obtaining these maps and deformations directly or in the indirect way after suitable digital processing applied to each colour component separately.
Generalized double-gradient model of flapping oscillations: Oblique waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korovinskiy, D. B.; Kiehas, S. A.
2016-09-01
The double-gradient model of flapping oscillations is generalized for oblique plane waves, propagating in the equatorial plane. It is found that longitudinal propagation (ky = 0) is prohibited, while transversal (kx = 0) or nearly transversal waves should possess a maximum frequency, diminishing with the reduction of | k y / k x | ratio. It turns out that the sausage mode may propagate in a narrow range of directions only, | k y / k x | ≫ 1 . A simple analytical expression for the dispersion relation of the kink mode, valid in most part of wave numbers range, | k y / k x | < 9 , is derived.
Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system
Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.
2010-11-15
A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)πR^{3}. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. Specifically, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R^{3}, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =μ/√ρRσ , where σ is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.
Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system
Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.
2010-11-15
A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) themore » pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)πR3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. Specifically, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =μ/√ρRσ , where σ is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.« less
Neutrino oscillation constraints on neutrinoless double-beta decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilenky, S. M.; Giunti, C.; Kim, C. W.; Monteno, M.
1998-06-01
We have studied the constraints imposed by the results of neutrino oscillation experiments on the effective Majorana mass \\|
Double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices with gradiometric layout
van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.; Adelerhof, D.J.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.
1997-10-01
Double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices (DROSs) with a gradiometric signal SQUID and either a reference SQUID or a reference junction will be presented in this article. The devices are user friendly, particularly those with a reference junction. Because of the large flux-to-voltage transfer of {partial_derivative}V/{partial_derivative}{Phi}=0.7{endash}1mV/{Phi}{sub 0}, the devices can be operated in a flux locked loop based on direct voltage readout without loss of sensitivity. The typical white flux noise of the DROSs amounts to {radical}S{sub {Phi}}=5{endash}6{mu}{Phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz, which corresponds to an energy resolution {epsilon}=S{sub {Phi}}/2L{sub sq}{approx_equal}200h. Coupled to an external planar first-order gradiometer, a white magnetic field sensitivity of {radical}S{sub B}{lt}2fT/{radical}Hz was measured inside a magnetically shielded room. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Double Ramification Cycles and Quantum Integrable Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buryak, Alexandr; Rossi, Paolo
2016-03-01
In this paper, we define a quantization of the Double Ramification Hierarchies of Buryak (Commun Math Phys 336:1085-1107, 2015) and Buryak and Rossi (Commun Math Phys, 2014), using intersection numbers of the double ramification cycle, the full Chern class of the Hodge bundle and psi-classes with a given cohomological field theory. We provide effective recursion formulae which determine the full quantum hierarchy starting from just one Hamiltonian, the one associated with the first descendant of the unit of the cohomological field theory only. We study various examples which provide, in very explicit form, new (1+1)-dimensional integrable quantum field theories whose classical limits are well-known integrable hierarchies such as KdV, Intermediate Long Wave, extended Toda, etc. Finally, we prove polynomiality in the ramification multiplicities of the integral of any tautological class over the double ramification cycle.
Internal upconversion and doubling of an optical parametric oscillator to extend the tuning range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campillo, A. J.
1972-01-01
Efficient extension of the tuning range of a 1.09-1.95-micron parametric oscillator to 0.435-0.975 microns by upconversion and doubling internally to the oscillator cavity is reported. Unlike previously studied external mixing, internal upconversion and doubling yielded uniform powers of 30 and 60 kW, respectively, over the entire extended tuning range with an unfocused 2-mm ruby laser pump beam of 750 kW.-
Schulze-Halberg, Axel E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com; Wang, Jie
2015-07-15
We obtain series solutions, the discrete spectrum, and supersymmetric partners for a quantum double-oscillator system. Its potential features a superposition of the one-parameter Mathews-Lakshmanan interaction and a one-parameter harmonic or inverse harmonic oscillator contribution. Furthermore, our results are transferred to a generalized Pöschl-Teller model that is isospectral to the double-oscillator system.
Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun
2014-01-14
The transport properties in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity well (Fermi velocity inside the well less than that outside the well) and electrostatic well structures are investigated using the transfer matrix method. The results show that quantum beats occur in the oscillations of the conductance for asymmetric double velocity wells. The beating effect can also be found in asymmetric double electrostatic wells, but only if the widths of the two wells are different. The beat frequency for the asymmetric double well is exactly equal to the frequency difference between the oscillation rates in two isolated single wells with the same structures as the individual wells in the double well structure. A qualitative interpretation is proposed based on the fact that the resonant levels depend upon the sizes of the quantum wells. The beating behavior can provide a new way to identify the symmetry of double well structures.
Integrable oscillator type and Schrödinger type dimers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh
2017-02-01
A PT-symmetric dimer is a two-site nonlinear oscillator dimer or a two-site nonlinear Schrödinger dimer where one site loses and the other site gains energy at the same rate. We present a wide class of integrable oscillator type dimers whose Hamiltonian is of arbitrary even order. Further, we also present a wide class of integrable nonlinear Schrödinger type dimers where again the Hamiltonian is of arbitrary even order. Finally, we consider a recently discussed complex dimer model and point out a few integrable cases in that model.
Efficient numerical integration of neutrino oscillations in matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casas, F.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Oteo, J. A.
2016-12-01
A special purpose solver, based on the Magnus expansion, well suited for the integration of the linear three neutrino oscillations equations in matter is proposed. The computations are speeded up to two orders of magnitude with respect to a general numerical integrator, a fact that could smooth the way for massive numerical integration concomitant with experimental data analyses. Detailed illustrations about numerical procedure and computer time costs are provided.
Double Fourier Harmonic Balance Method for Nonlinear Oscillators by Means of Bessel Series
2014-10-16
Double Fourier harmonic balance method for nonlinear oscillators by means of Bessel series T.C. Lipscombe∗1 and C.E. Mungan†2 1Catholic University of... harmonic balance method consists in expanding the displacement of an oscillator as a Fourier cosine series in time. A key modification is proposed here, in...than the exact value. Even better, the predicted frequency for the V-ramp case turns out to be exact. Keywords: Fourier expansion, harmonic balance
Integrated reservoir management doubles Nigerian field reserves
Akinlawon, Y.; Nwosu, T.; Satter, A.; Jespersen, R.
1996-10-01
An integrated alliance across disciplines, companies and countries enabled Texaco to conduct a comprehensive reservoir analysis of the North Apoi/Funiwa field in Nigeria. Recommendations implemented in 3 months doubled the book reserves of this mature field. The paper discusses the objectives, the integration of organizations, reservoir analysis, and conclusions. The conclusions made from the integrated study are: (1) 3-D seismic data dramatically improved reservoir description. (2) OOIP is considerably more than the booked values and reserves additions are substantial. (3) Significant value has been added to TOPCON`s assets as a result of teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the reservoirs and optimizing the scenarios for reservoir management. (4) Teamwork and integration of professionals, data, technology and tools was critical to the projects success. (5) The study set an example for effective and expeditious technology transfer and applications. (6) Partnering of TOPCON, DPR, NAPIMS, EPTD and SSI resulted in a quick cycle time and set an excellent example of integration and alliance.
Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.
1987-01-01
The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.
Self-seeding of a pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator
Tamura, Koji
2008-04-01
A self-seeded pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator consisting of a grazing incidence cavity geometry with a pair of gratings and a standing-wave cavity pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was developed and characterized. With self-seeding, narrow-linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) operation and SLM scanning were possible with a reduced lasing threshold, which was desirable for the intended applications.
Path Integral for Dirac oscillator with generalized uncertainty principle
Benzair, H.; Boudjedaa, T.; Merad, M.
2012-12-15
The propagator for Dirac oscillator in (1+1) dimension, with deformed commutation relation of the Heisenberg principle, is calculated using path integral in quadri-momentum representation. As the mass is related to momentum, we then adapt the space-time transformation method to evaluate quantum corrections and this latter is dependent from the point discretization interval.
Towards an Integrated Optic Phase-Locked Oscillator
2008-12-01
photodetection process. In a recent demonstration [8], a timing stability of 6.8 fs over 10 hours was demonstrated, corresponding to a stability of 1.9×10-19...optic phase-locked oscillator (IO-PLO). While much work remains, a design for an integrated optic balanced optical-microwave phase detector (IO...readily implemented device is an integrated optic balanced optical-microwave phase detector (IO-BOMPD), which is highly useful for distributed timing
Sub-picosecond double-clad photonic crystal fiber oscillator and amplifier system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Pingxue; Zhang, Mengmeng; Liang, Boxing; Chi, Junjie
2015-08-01
A ytterbium-doped large mode area PCF sub-picosecond laser oscillator and amplifier system is experimentally studied. The oscillator which combines NPE and SESAM is operating on the all-normal-dispersion regime and the LMA PCF is used as the gain medium. In the CW mode-locking regime, the oscillator directly generates the pulse at the repetition rate of 83.7 MHz while the pulse duration is 960 fs. The double-clad fiber amplifier system directly generates a high average power of 12.53 W with a pulse duration of 4.1 ps corresponding to the pulse energy of 150 nJ and peak power of 36.6 KW after about 3 m ytterbium doped double clad fiber amplification.
Development of a 14-vane, double-strapped, 5.8-GHz magnetron oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jin Joo; Lee, Han Seoul; Jang, Kwang Ho; Sim, Sung Hun; Choi, Heung Sik
2016-08-01
Experiments on a 14-vane, double-strapped magnetron oscillator were performed to demonstrate high-power, high-efficiency coherent radiation at 5.8 GHz. The double-strapped magnetron was designed by using the Buneman-Hatree resonance condition, electromagnetic simulations and non-linear three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Experiments showed an oscillation output power of 5.3 kW at 5.79 GHz, corresponding to a DC-RF conversion efficiency of 57%. The cathode voltage was 9.2 kV, the collected anode current was 1 A, and the external magnetic field is 7.5 kG. Experimental results for the RF power, oscillation frequency, and efficiency were in good agreement with the corresponding values from non-linear three-dimensional PIC simulations.
A non-PRE double-peaked burst with oscillations: burning front propagation and stalling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.
2006-01-01
Non-photospheric-radius-expansion (non-PRE) double-peaked bursts may be explained in terms of spreading (and temporary stalling) of thermonuclear flames from a rotational pole on the neutron star surface, as we argued in a previous study. Here we analyze Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of such a burst from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system 4U 1636-536, and show that our model (with ignition at high latitudes) can qualitatively explain the observed burst profile, and spectral evolution. Moreover, the evolution of the source radius inferred from the data shows a strong signature of temporary stalling of the burning front, which is an essential ingredient of our model. This implies that an understanding of thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars can be achieved by a simultaneous study of the evolution of intensity and spectrum of these bursts. We also report the discovery of millisecond period brightness oscillations from this burst, which is the first such observation from a non-PRE double-peaked burst. Our model can explain the corresponding oscillation amplitude during the first (weaker) peak, and the absence of oscillations during the second peak. We discuss how observations of oscillations during non-PRE double-peaked bursts provide an additional t 001 for understanding thermonuclear flame spreading successfully.
Generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in magnetic double-well systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M. Chudnovsky, Eugene
2004-05-01
Fundamental conservation laws mandate parameter-free generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in double-well systems. We consider two examples: tunneling of the magnetic moment in nanomagnets and tunneling between macroscopic current states in SQUIDs. In both cases the decoherence occurs via emission of phonons and photons at the oscillation frequency. We also show that in a system of identical qubits the decoherence greatly increases due to the superradiance of electromagnetic and sound waves. Our findings have important implications for building elements of quantum computers based upon nanomagnets and SQUIDs.
Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.
Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E
2013-11-05
Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.
Double-Paddle Oscillators as Probes of Quantum Turbulence in the Zero Temperature Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmoranzer, David; Jackson, Martin; Zemma, Elisa; Luzuriaga, Javier
2016-11-01
We present a technical report on our tests of a double-paddle oscillator as a detector of quantum turbulence in superfluid 4 He at low temperatures ranging from 20 to 1100 mK. The device, known to operate well in the two-fluid regime (Zemma and Luzuriaga in J Low Temp Phys 166:171-181, 2012), is also capable of detecting quantum turbulence in the zero temperature limit. The oscillator demonstrated Lorentzian responses with quality factors of order 10^5 in vacuum, and displayed negative-Duffing resonances in liquid, even at moderate drives. In superfluid He-II at low temperatures, its sensitivity was adversely affected by acoustic damping at higher harmonics. While it successfully created and detected the quantum turbulence, its overall performance does not compare favourably with other oscillators such as tuning forks.
Benderskii, V A; Kats, E I
2002-03-01
For a model one-dimensional asymmetric double-well potential we calculated the so-called survival probability (i.e., the probability for a particle initially localized in one well to remain there). We use a semiclassical (WKB) solution of the Schrödinger equation. It is shown that behavior essentially depends on transition probability, and on a dimensionless parameter Lambda that is a ratio of characteristic frequencies for low-energy nonlinear in-well oscillations and interwell tunneling. For the potential describing a finite motion (double-well) one has always a regular behavior. For Lambda<1, there are well defined resonance pairs of levels and the survival probability has coherent oscillations related to resonance splitting. However, for Lambda>1 there are no oscillations at all for the survival probability, and there is almost an exponential decay with the characteristic time determined by Fermi golden rule. In this case, one may not restrict himself to only resonance pair levels. The number of levels perturbed by tunneling grows proportionally to square root of [Lambda] (in other words, instead of isolated pairs there appear the resonance regions containing the sets of strongly coupled levels). In the region of intermediate values of Lambda one has a crossover between both limiting cases, namely, the exponential decay with subsequent long period recurrent behavior.
KIC 9246715: The Double Red Giant Eclipsing Binary with Odd Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rawls, Meredith L.; Gaulme, Patrick; McKeever, Jean; Jackiewicz, Jason; Orosz, Jerome A.; Corsaro, Enrico; Beck, Paul G.; Mosser, Benoît; Latham, David W.; Latham, Christian A.
2016-02-01
We combine Kepler photometry with ground-based spectra to present a comprehensive dynamical model of the double red giant eclipsing binary KIC 9246715. While the two stars are very similar in mass ({M}1={2.171}-0.008+0.006 {M}⊙ , {M}2={2.149}-0.008+0.006 {M}⊙ ) and radius ({R}1={8.37}-0.07+0.03 {R}⊙ , {R}2={8.30}-0.03+0.04 {R}⊙ ), an asteroseismic analysis finds one main set of solar-like oscillations with unusually low-amplitude, wide modes. A second set of oscillations from the other star may exist, but this marginal detection is extremely faint. Because the two stars are nearly twins, KIC 9246715 is a difficult target for a precise test of the asteroseismic scaling relations, which yield M = 2.17 ± 0.14 M⊙ and R = 8.26 ± 0.18 R⊙. Both stars are consistent with the inferred asteroseismic properties, but we suspect the main oscillator is Star 2 because it is less active than Star 1. We find evidence for stellar activity and modest tidal forces acting over the 171 day eccentric orbit, which are likely responsible for the essential lack of solar-like oscillations in one star and weak oscillations in the other. Mixed modes indicate the main oscillating star is on the secondary red clump (a core-He-burning star), and stellar evolution modeling supports this with a coeval history for a pair of red clump stars. This system is a useful case study and paves the way for a detailed analysis of more red giants in eclipsing binaries, an important benchmark for asteroseismology.
Force distribution for double-walled carbon nanotubes and gigahertz oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baowan, Duangkamon; Hill, James M.
2007-09-01
Advances in nanotechnology have led to the creation of many nano-scale devices and carbon nanotubes are representative materials to construct these devices. Double-walled carbon nanotubes with the inner tube oscillating can be used as gigahertz oscillators and form the basis of possible nano-electronic devices that might be instrumental in the micro-computer industry which are predominantly based on electron transport phenomena. There are many experiments and molecular dynamical simulations which show that a wave is generated on the outer cylinder as a result of the oscillation of the inner carbon nanotube and that the frequency of this wave is also in the gigahertz range. As a preliminary to analyze and model such devices, it is necessary to estimate accurately the resultant force distribution due to the inter-atomic interactions. Here we determine some new analytical expressions for the van der Waals force using the Lennard Jones potential for general lengths of the inner and outer tubes. These expressions are utilized together with Newton’s second law to determine the motion of an oscillating inner tube, assuming that any frictional effects may be neglected. An idealized and much simplified representation of the Lennard Jones force is used to determine a simple formula for the oscillation frequency resulting from an initial extrusion of the inner tube. This simple formula is entirely consistent with the existing known behavior of the frequency and predicts a maximum oscillation frequency occurring when the extrusion length is (L 2 L 1)/2 where L 1 and L 2 are the respective half-lengths of the inner and outer tubes (L 1 < L 2).
Resonance spiking by periodic loss in the double-sided liquid cooling disk oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Rongzhi; She, Jiangbo; Li, Dongdong; Li, Fuli; Peng, Bo
2017-03-01
A double-sided liquid cooling Nd:YAG disk oscillator working at a pump repetition rate of 20 Hz is demonstrated. The output energy of 376 mJ is realized, corresponding to the optical–optical efficiency of 12.8% and the slope efficiency of 14%. The pump pulse width is 300 µs and the laser pulse width is 260 µs. Instead of being a damped signal, the output of laser comprises undamped spikes. A periodic intra-cavity loss was found by numerical analysis, which has a frequency component near the eigen frequency of the relaxation oscillation. Resonance effect will induce amplified spikes even though the loss fluctuates in a small range. The Shark–Hartmann sensor was used to investigate the wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow and temperature gradient. According to the wavefront and fluid mechanics analysis, it is considered that the periodic intra-cavity loss can be attributed to turbulent flow and temperature gradient.
Spin-orbit interaction for the double ring-shaped oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chang-Yuan; Lu, Fa-Lin; Sun, Dong-Sheng; You, Yuan; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-08-01
The spin-orbit interactions (SOI) for the single and double ring-shaped oscillator potentials are studied as an energy correction to the Schrödinger equation. We find that the degeneracy for the energy levels with angular quantum number m = 0 keeps invariant in the case of the SOI. The degeneracy is still 2 for single ring-shaped potential and 4 for double ring-shaped potential. However, for the energy levels with angular quantum number m ≠ 0 the degeneracy is reduced from original 4 for the single ring-shaped potential and 8 for the double ring-shaped potential to 2. That is, their energy levels in the case of the SOI are split to 2 (single) and 4 (double) sublevels. There exists an accidental degeneracy for the cases | m | = 2 , 3 , 4 , …. We note that around the critical value b0, the energy levels are reversed. We also discuss some special cases for η = 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , …, and the b = 0 , c > 0. It should be pointed out that the parameter b0 is relevant for the angular part parameter b in the single and double ring-shaped potentials and it makes the energy levels changed from positive to negative, but the parameter c corresponds to the angular part parameter in double ring-shaped potential and the η is related to it. This model can be useful for investigations of axial symmetric subjects like the ring-shaped molecules or related problems and may also be easily extended to a many-electron theory.
Quantum-coupled radial-breathing oscillations in double-walled carbon nanotubes.
Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Wu, Muhong; Xiao, Fajun; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Ager, Joel W; Aloni, Shaul; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng
2013-01-01
Van der Waals-coupled materials, ranging from multilayers of graphene and MoS(2) to superlattices of nanoparticles, exhibit rich emerging behaviour owing to quantum coupling between individual nanoscale constituents. Double-walled carbon nanotubes provide a model system for studying such quantum coupling mediated by van der Waals interactions, because each constituent single-walled nanotube can have distinctly different physical structures and electronic properties. Here we systematically investigate quantum-coupled radial-breathing mode oscillations in chirality-defined double-walled nanotubes by combining simultaneous structural, electronic and vibrational characterizations on the same individual nanotubes. We show that these radial-breathing oscillations are collective modes characterized by concerted inner- and outer-wall motions, and determine quantitatively the tube-dependent van der Waals potential governing their vibration frequencies. We also observe strong quantum interference between Raman scattering from the inner- and outer-wall excitation pathways, the relative phase of which reveals chirality-dependent excited-state potential energy surface displacement in different nanotubes.
Oscillations, period doublings, and chaos in CO oxidation and catalytic mufflers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marek, Miloš; Schejbal, Matyáš; Kočí, Petr; Nevoral, Vladislav; Kubíček, Milan; Hadač, Otto; Schreiber, Igor
2006-09-01
Early experimental observations of chaotic behavior arising via the period-doubling route for the CO catalytic oxidation both on Pt (110) and Pt /γ-Al2O3 porous catalyst were reported more than 15 years ago. Recently, a detailed kinetic reaction scheme including over 20 reaction steps was proposed for the catalytic CO oxidation, NOx reduction, and hydrocarbon oxidation taking place in a three-way catalyst (TWC) converter, the most common reactor for detoxification of automobile exhaust gases. This reactor is typically operated with periodic variation of inlet oxygen concentration. For an unforced lumped model, we report results of the stoichiometric network analysis of a CO reaction subnetwork determining feedback loops, which cause the oscillations within certain regions of parameters in bifurcation diagrams constructed by numerical continuation techniques. For a forced system, numerical simulations of the CO oxidation reveal the existence of a period-doubling route to chaos. The dependence of the rotation number on the amplitude and period of forcing shows a typical bifurcation structure of Arnold tongues ordered according to Farey sequences, and positive Lyapunov exponents for sufficiently large forcing amplitudes indicate the presence of chaotic dynamics. Multiple periodic and aperiodic time courses of outlet concentrations were also found in simulations using the lumped model with the full TWC kinetics. Numerical solutions of the distributed model in two geometric coordinates with the CO oxidation subnetwork consisting of several tens of nonlinear partial differential equations show oscillations of the outlet reactor concentrations and, in the presence of forcing, multiple periodic and aperiodic oscillations. Spatiotemporal concentration patterns illustrate the complexity of processes within the reactor.
Hatano, T; Kubo, T; Tokura, Y; Amaha, S; Teraoka, S; Tarucha, S
2011-02-18
Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations are studied for a parallel-coupled vertical double quantum dot with a common source and drain electrode. We observe AB oscillations of current via a one-electron bonding state as the ground state and an antibonding state as the excited state. As the center gate voltage becomes more negative, the oscillation period is clearly halved for both the bonding and antibonding states, and the phase changes by half a period for the antibonding state. This result can be explained by a calculation that takes account of the indirect interdot coupling via the two electrodes.
THE EFFECT OF DOUBLE VERSUS SINGLE OSCILLATING EXERCISE DEVICES ON TRUNK AND LIMB MUSCLE ACTIVATION
Arora, Shruti; Button, Duane C.; Basset, Fabien A.
2013-01-01
Purpose/Background: Proper strengthening of the core and upper extremities is important for muscular health, performance, and rehabilitation. Exercise devices have been developed that attempt to disrupt the center of gravity in order to activate the trunk stabilizing muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the trunk and shoulder girdle muscle activation with double and single oscillating exercise devices (DOD and SOD respectively) in various planes. Methods: Twelve male subjects performed three interventions using both devices under randomized conditions: single-handed vertical orientation of DOD and SOD to produce 1) medio-lateral oscillation in the frontal plane 2) dorso-ventral oscillation in the sagittal plane and 3) single-handed horizontal orientation for superior and inferior oscillation in the transverse plane. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during the interventions of the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, forearm flexors as well as lower abdominal and back stabilizer muscles was collected, and were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions. A two way repeated measures ANOVA (2x3) was conducted to assess the influence of the devices and movement planes on muscle activation. Results: The DOD provided 35.9%, 40.8%, and 52.3% greater anterior deltoid, transverse abdominus (TA)/internal oblique (IO) and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) activation than did the SOD respectively. Effect size calculations revealed that these differences were of moderate to large magnitude (0.86, 0.48, and 0.61 respectively). There were no significant differences in muscular activation achieved between devices for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii and forearm flexor muscles. Exercise in the transverse plane resulted in 30.5%, 29.5%, and 19.5% greater activation than the sagittal and 21.8%, 17.2%, and 26.3% greater activation than the frontal plane for the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES respectively. Conclusions: A DOD demonstrated greater
241-AN Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report
JENSEN, C.E.
1999-09-21
This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AN double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.
241-AZ Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report
JENSEN, C.E.
1999-09-21
This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-A2 double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.
Barghathi, Hatem; Nozadze, David; Vojta, Thomas
2014-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process with aperiodic transition rates using a real-space renormalization group as well as Monte Carlo simulations. The transition rates are modulated according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences defined by the inflation rules A → ABk and B → A. For k=1 and 2, the aperiodic fluctuations are irrelevant, and the nonequilibrium transition is in the clean directed percolation universality class. For k≥3, the aperiodic fluctuations are relevant. We develop a complete theory of the resulting unconventional "infinite-modulation" critical point, which is characterized by activated dynamical scaling. Moreover, observables such as the survival probability and the size of the active cloud display pronounced double-log periodic oscillations in time which reflect the discrete scale invariance of the aperiodic chains. We illustrate our theory by extensive numerical results, and we discuss relations to phase transitions in other quasiperiodic systems.
Li, Peng; Li, Yuanji; Feng, Jinxia; Zhang, Kuanshou
2015-05-10
The singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) under double-pass pumping in a two-mirror linear cavity is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Different output couplers are used in the periodically poled lithium niobate based SRO to optimize the extracted signal output. When the 2.5% output coupler is used, a pump threshold as low as 3.7 W is achieved, and 6.2 W of signal at 1.56 μm with the linewidth of 62.5 kHz is obtained at pump power of 14.5 W. The measured signal frequency drift and peak-to-peak power fluctuation are less than ±40 MHz and ±0.9% in a given 1 h, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barghathi, Hatem; Nozadze, David; Vojta, Thomas
2014-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process with aperiodic transition rates using a real-space renormalization group as well as Monte Carlo simulations. The transition rates are modulated according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences defined by the inflation rules A → ABk and B → A. For k =1 and 2, the aperiodic fluctuations are irrelevant, and the nonequilibrium transition is in the clean directed percolation universality class. For k ≥3, the aperiodic fluctuations are relevant. We develop a complete theory of the resulting unconventional "infinite-modulation" critical point, which is characterized by activated dynamical scaling. Moreover, observables such as the survival probability and the size of the active cloud display pronounced double-log periodic oscillations in time which reflect the discrete scale invariance of the aperiodic chains. We illustrate our theory by extensive numerical results, and we discuss relations to phase transitions in other quasiperiodic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alyamani, A.; Algahtani, M.; Rusak, A. A.; Orlovich, V. A.; Dashkevich, V. I.; El-Desouki, M.
2016-04-01
We demonstrate a simple way of building a compact eye-safe laser source based on a double-pass pumped extracavity optical parametric oscillator (EOPO) without an optical Faraday isolator. A Nd:KGW pump laser (PL) and the KTP EOPO located close to the PL are designed with stable cavities, while the 100% end system mirrors form an unstable cavity with sufficiently high threshold at 1067 nm. At the 6.6 J pump of the Nd:KGW laser, the EOPO output energy obtained at 1577 nm is 14.7 mJ, corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 33% with respect to the fundamental. The pulse width is 7 ns and the output beam divergence is 3 times diffraction limit.
Integration of a Self-Coherence Algorithm into DISAT for Forced Oscillation Detection
Follum, James D.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Amidan, Brett G.
2015-03-03
With the increasing number of phasor measurement units on the power system, behaviors typically not observable on the power system are becoming more apparent. Oscillatory behavior on the power system, notably forced oscillations, are one such behavior. However, the large amounts of data coming from the PMUs makes manually detecting and locating these oscillations difficult. To automate portions of the process, an oscillation detection routine was coded into the Data Integrity and Situational Awareness Tool (DISAT) framework. Integration into the DISAT framework allows forced oscillations to be detected and information about the event provided to operational engineers. The oscillation detection algorithm integrates with the data handling and atypical data detecting capabilities of DISAT, building off of a standard library of functions. This report details that integration with information on the algorithm, some implementation issues, and some sample results from the western United States’ power grid.
Equilibrium states and chaos in an oscillating double-well potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, H.; Susanto, H.; Benson, T. M.; Cliffe, K. A.
2014-01-01
We investigate numerically parametrically driven coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations modeling the dynamics of coupled wave fields in a periodically oscillating double-well potential. The equations describe, among other things, two coupled periodically curved optical waveguides with Kerr nonlinearity or Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential that is shaken horizontally and periodically in time. In particular, we study the persistence of equilibrium states of the undriven system due to the presence of the parametric drive. Using numerical continuations of periodic orbits and calculating the corresponding Floquet multipliers, we find that the drive can (de)stabilize a continuation of an equilibrium state indicated by the change in the (in)stability of the orbit, showing that parametric drives can provide a powerful control to nonlinear (optical- or matter-wave-) field tunneling. We also discuss the appearance of chaotic regions reported in previous studies that is due to destabilization of a periodic orbit. Analytical approximations based on an averaging method are presented. Using perturbation theory, the influence of the drive on the symmetry-breaking bifurcation point is analyzed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Earl, Boyd L.
2008-01-01
A general result for the integrals of the Gaussian function over the harmonic oscillator wavefunctions is derived using generating functions. Using this result, an example problem of a harmonic oscillator with various Gaussian perturbations is explored in order to compare the results of precise numerical solution, the variational method, and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisenko, M. V.; Munyaev, V. O.; Satanin, A. M.
2016-11-01
The parametric frequency division in a coplanar waveguide line with an integrated single-contact rf SQUID (Josephson oscillator) is discussed. It is assumed that the oscillator is excited by pump pulses whose carrier frequency can be a multiple of the plasma frequency of the oscillator. It is shown that the Josephson oscillator excited at the pump frequency can induce frequency division by emitting subharmonics that are multiples of the fundamental frequency (fractional resonances). Parameters for which parametric frequency transformation occurs are determined. The possible generalization of this effect to the quantum case in which correlated microwave photons (entangled photon states) can be generated is discussed.
Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia
2015-07-01
Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.
Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator.
Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia
2015-07-01
Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, C.; Xue, X.; Dou, X.; Wu, J.
2015-12-01
The adjustment of gravity wave parameterization associated with model convection has made possible the spontaneous generation of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4.0), although there are some mismatching when compared with the observation. The parameterization is based on Lindzen's linear saturation theory which can better describe inertia-gravity waves (IGW) by taking the Coriolis effects into consideration. In this work we improve the parameterization by importing a more realistic double Gaussian distribution IGW spectrum, which is calculated from tropical radiosonde observations. A series of WACCM simulations are performed to determine the relationship between the period and amplitude of equatorial zonal wind oscillations and the feature of parameterized IGW. All of these simulations are capable of generating equatorial wind oscillations in the stratosphere using the standard spatial resolution settings. The period of the oscillation is associate inversely with the strength of the IGW forcing, but the central values of double Gaussian distribution IGW have influence both on the magnitude and period of the oscillation. In fact, the eastward and westward IGWs affect the amplitude of the QBO wind, respectively, and the strength of IGWs forcing determines the accelerating rate of the QBO wind. Furthermore, stronger forcing of IGWs can lead to a deeper propagate of the QBO phase, which can extend the lowest altitude of the constant zonal wind amplitudes to about 100 hPa.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chengxin; Chen, Fushen; Zhang, Jiahong
2016-01-01
A tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) implemented by using a carrier phase-shifted double sideband modulation (CPS-DSB) system consisting of an optical coupler (OC), a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) biased at the minimum transmission point, a polarization beam splitter (PBS), and a tunable optical delay line (TODL) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key device in the system is the CPS-DSB system, which functions in conjunction with a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) in the loop form a high-Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). Through simply adjusting the TODL, the central frequency of the MPF is shifted and the frequency tunability of the OEO can be realized. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided and the results are confirmed by an experiment. A microwave signal with a frequency-tuning range from 7.24 to 14.05 GHz is generated. The phase noise, the long-term stability and the side-mode suppression performance of the generated microwave signal are also investigated.
Application of the double paddle oscillator for quantifying environmental, surface mass variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Haoyan; Pomeroy, Joshua
2016-04-01
Sub-monolayer sensitivity to controlled gas adsorption and desorption is demonstrated using a double paddle oscillator (DPO) installed within an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environmental chamber equipped with in situ film deposition, (multi)gas admission and temperature control. This effort is intended to establish a robust framework for quantitatively comparing mass changes due to gas loading and unloading on different materials systems selected or considered for use as mass artefacts. Our apparatus is composed of a UHV chamber with gas introduction and temperature control and in situ materials deposition for future materials testing enabling in situ preparation of virgin surfaces that can be monitored during initial exposure to gasses of interest. These tools are designed to allow us to comparatively evaluate how different materials gain or lose mass due to precisely controlled environmental excursions, with a long term goal of measuring changes in absolute mass. Herein, we provide a detailed experimental description of the apparatus, an evaluation of the initial performance, and demonstration measurements using nitrogen adsorption and desorption directly on the DPO.
Application of the double paddle oscillator for quantifying environmental, surface mass variation.
Wei, Haoyan; Pomeroy, Joshua
2016-04-01
Sub-monolayer sensitivity to controlled gas adsorption and desorption is demonstrated using a double paddle oscillator (DPO) installed within an UHV (ultra-high vacuum) environmental chamber equipped with in situ film deposition, (multi)gas admission and temperature control. This effort is intended to establish a robust framework for quantitatively comparing mass changes due to gas loading and unloading on different materials systems selected or considered for use as mass artifacts. Our apparatus is composed of a UHV chamber with gas introduction and temperature control and in-situ materials deposition for future materials testing enabling in situ preparation of virgin surfaces that can be monitored during initial exposure to gasses of interest. These tools are designed to allow us to comparatively evaluate how different materials gain or lose mass due to precisely controlled environmental excursions, with a long term goal of measuring changes in absolute mass. Herein, we provide a detailed experimental description of the apparatus, an evaluation of the initial performance, and demonstration measurements using nitrogen adsorption and desorption directly on the DPO.
Application of the double paddle oscillator for quantifying environmental, surface mass variation
Wei, Haoyan; Pomeroy, Joshua
2016-01-01
Sub-monolayer sensitivity to controlled gas adsorption and desorption is demonstrated using a double paddle oscillator (DPO) installed within an UHV (ultra-high vacuum) environmental chamber equipped with in situ film deposition, (multi)gas admission and temperature control. This effort is intended to establish a robust framework for quantitatively comparing mass changes due to gas loading and unloading on different materials systems selected or considered for use as mass artifacts. Our apparatus is composed of a UHV chamber with gas introduction and temperature control and in-situ materials deposition for future materials testing enabling in situ preparation of virgin surfaces that can be monitored during initial exposure to gasses of interest. These tools are designed to allow us to comparatively evaluate how different materials gain or lose mass due to precisely controlled environmental excursions, with a long term goal of measuring changes in absolute mass. Herein, we provide a detailed experimental description of the apparatus, an evaluation of the initial performance, and demonstration measurements using nitrogen adsorption and desorption directly on the DPO. PMID:27212736
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barghathi, Hatem; Nozadze, David; Vojta, Thomas
2014-03-01
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process with aperiodic transition rates using a real-space renormalization group as well as Monte-Carlo simulations. The transition rates are modulated according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences defined by the inflation rules A --> ABk and B --> A. For k = 1 and 2, the aperiodic fluctuations are irrelevant, and the nonequilibrium transition is in the clean directed percolation universality class. For k >= 3 , the aperiodic fluctuations are relevant. We develop a complete theory of the resulting unconventional ``infinite-modulation'' critical point which is characterized by activated dynamical scaling. Moreover, observables such as the survival probability and the size of the active cloud display pronounced double-log periodic oscillations in time which reflect the discrete scale invariance of the aperiodic chains. We illustrate our theory by extensive numerical results, and we discuss relations to phase transitions in other quasiperiodic systems. This work has been supported in part by the NSF under grants no. DMR-0906566, DMR-1205803, and PHYS-1066293.
Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan
2015-12-01
Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction.
Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.
2015-06-24
Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.
Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; ...
2015-06-24
Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less
Li, Jin-Liang; Li, Yu-Xian
2008-11-19
Using nonequilibrium Green's function techniques, we investigate Andreev reflection and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations through a parallel-coupled double quantum dot connected with a ferromagnetic lead and a superconductor lead. The possibility of controlling Andreev reflection and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the system is explored by tuning the interdot coupling, the gate voltage, the magnetic flux, and the intradot spin-flip scattering. When the spin-flip scattering increases, Fano resonant peaks resulting from the asymmetrical levels of the two quantum dots begin to split, and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are suppressed. Due to the interdot coupling, one strongly and one weakly coupled state of the system can be formed. The magnetic flux can exchange the function of the two states, which leads to a swap effect.
Stable integrated hyper-parametric oscillator based on coupled optical microcavities.
Armaroli, Andrea; Feron, Patrice; Dumeige, Yannick
2015-12-01
We propose a flexible scheme based on three coupled optical microcavities that permits us to achieve stable oscillations in the microwave range, the frequency of which depends only on the cavity coupling rates. We find that the different dynamical regimes (soft and hard excitation) affect the oscillation intensity, but not their periods. This configuration may permit us to implement compact hyper-parametric sources on an integrated optical circuit with interesting applications in communications, sensing, and metrology.
Poles of integrále tritronquée and anharmonic oscillators. A WKB approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoero, Davide
2010-03-01
Poles of solutions to the Painlevé-I equations are intimately related to the theory of the cubic anharmonic oscillator. In particular, poles of integrále tritronquée are in bijection with cubic oscillators that admit the simultaneous solutions of two quantization conditions. We analyze this pair of quantization conditions by means of a suitable version of the complex WKB method. Ai miei zii Ivan e Silvia.
On Noether's Theorem and the Various Integrals of the Damped Linear Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinclair, Andrew J.; Hurtado, John E.; Bertinato, Chris; Betsch, Peter
2013-12-01
Noether's theorem provides deep insight into the connection between analytical mechanics and the integrals of dynamic systems, specifically, showing how symmetries of the action integral are connected to the integrals of motion. To demonstrate Noether's theorem, the harmonic oscillator is often used as a simple example problem. Presentations in the literature, however, often focus on the single absolutely-invariant symmetry for this problem. This paper presents a complete application of Noether's theorem to the damped harmonic oscillator, including general solutions of the divergence-invariant Killing equations and the associated integrals for all underdamped, critically-damped, and overdamped cases. This treatment brings forward several interesting issues. Five different symmetries produce independent solutions to the Killing equations, but of course, only two independent integrals exist for this second-order system. Also, integrals of a particular desired form may not be produced directly from Noether's theorem and are referred to as non-Noether or asymmetric integrals. For the damped oscillator, one such example is the time-independent integrals, referred to as motion constants.
Concept of Small Sized Integrated PWR with Double Pressure Vessels
Kinoshita, I.; Ueda, N.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumura, T.
2002-07-01
For early deployment of small sized nuclear reactors, it is better to reduce the BOP cost with new ideas than introducing innovative technologies for core, fuel and materials. In this report, a concept of the integrated, forced convective and small PWR with double pressure vessels has been proposed. The electric output of this reactor is 150 MW. Conventional technologies are adopted for core and fuel. Refueling, maintenance and repairing are made in a special ship with complete facilities and skilled experts. The pressure vessel with the core, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), main circulating pumps (MCP), steam generators (SG) and other reactor internals are transferred between the reactor building and the ship. Technical feasibility for safety and maintainability has been discussed qualitatively. The construction cost has been roughly estimated. (authors)
Double asymptotic expansion of three-center electronic repulsion integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez-Ibarra, A.; Köster, A. M.
2013-07-01
A double asymptotic expansion for the evaluation of three-center electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) in the long-range limit is presented. For the definition of this limit, a natural division of space based on the atomic coordinates and basis function exponents in utilized. The resulting analytical expression for the calculation of three-center ERIs in the long-range limit are implemented in the density functional theory program deMon2k. Validation and benchmark calculations of n-alkanes, hydrogen saturated graphene sheets and hydrogen saturated diamond blocks are discussed. It is shown that for a sufficient large number of long-range ERIs, the linear scaling regime is reached.
On line and double integrals in the non-Newtonian sense
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ćakmak, Ahmet Faruk; Başar, Feyzi
2014-08-01
This paper is devoted to line and double integrals in the sense of non-Newtonian calculus (*-calculus). Moreover, in the sense of *-calculus, the fundamental theorem of calculus for line integrals and double integrals are stated and proved, and some applications are presented.
Frequency-dependent study of solid 4He contained in a rigid double-torus torsional oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong
2015-10-01
The rigid double-torus torsional oscillator (TO) is constructed to reduce any elastic effects inherent to complicated TO structures, allowing explicit probing for a genuine supersolid signature. We investigated the frequency- and temperature-dependent response of the rigid double-torus TO containing solid 4He with 0.6-ppb 3He and 300-ppb 3He . We did not find evidence to support the frequency-independent contribution proposed to be a property of supersolid helium. The frequency-dependent contribution which comes from the simple elastic effect of solid helium coupled to the TO is essentially responsible for the entire response. The magnitude of the period drop is linearly proportional to f2, indicating that the responses observed in this TO are mostly caused by the overshoot of "soft" solid helium against the wall of the torus. Dissipation of the rigid TO is vastly suppressed compared to that of nonrigid TOs.
Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell sodium magneto-optical filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cacciani, A.; Dolci, M.; Moretti, P. F.; D'Alessio, F.; Giuliani, C.; Micolucci, E.; Di Cianno, A.
2001-06-01
Doppler observations on Jupiter are presented and discussed. A two-cells Magneto-Optical Filter (MOF), able to obtain two separate signals, Red and Blue, on the opposite wings of the Sodium D-lines, along with a continuum reference signal, has been used. This set of data permits to discriminate between real oscillations and albedo ``modes" by means of the two algorithms D=(B-R)/(B+R) and S=(B+R)/continuum. No unambiguous oscillation modes were detected with amplitudes above the 1-sigma level of ~ 1.2 m s-1 in the range between 0.5 and 0.7 mHz. However, using refined analysis for signal recovery in a noisy background we notice an increase of power also in the region of the solar 5 min oscillations. The albedo variations on the Jupiter's surface and instrumental effects are addressed to be responsible for the spurious signals.
PROGRESS IN HANFORDS DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT
BERMAN HS
2008-01-22
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Paneled by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990s. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot and
Progress in Hanford's Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project
Bryson, D.C.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Boomer, K.D.
2008-07-01
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Panel led by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990's. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot
Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.
Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon
2014-01-01
The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.
Noakes, M.W. ); Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C. )
1990-01-01
Transportation of objects using overhead cranes can induce pendulum motion of the object, which usually must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that oscillation damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. This paper reviews the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects and describes a specific, full-scale implementation of the damped oscillation methods for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS). Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed. Finally, test results and lessons learned are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs.
Path integrals, matter waves, and the double slit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Eric R.; Bach, Roger A.; Batelaan, Herman
2015-11-01
Basic explanations of the double slit diffraction phenomenon include a description of waves that emanate from two slits and interfere. The locations of the interference minima and maxima are determined by the phase difference of the waves. An optical wave, which has a wavelength λ and propagates a distance L, accumulates a phase of 2π L/λ . A matter wave, also having wavelength λ that propagates the same distance L, accumulates a phase of π L/λ , which is a factor of two different from the optical case. Nevertheless, in most situations, the phase difference, {{Δ }}\\varphi , for interfering matter waves that propagate distances that differ by {{Δ }}L, is approximately 2π {{Δ }}L/λ , which is the same value computed in the optical case. The difference between the matter and optical case hinders conceptual explanations of diffraction from two slits based on the matter-optics analogy. In the following article we provide a path integral description for matter waves with a focus on conceptual explanation. A thought experiment is provided to illustrate the validity range of the approximation {{Δ }}\\varphi ≈ 2π {{Δ }}L/λ .
Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.
2015-06-24
Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm^{3} (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.
Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.
2015-06-24
Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less
Optimal feedback in efficient ring double-cavity optical parametric oscillators
Petnikova, V M; Shuvalov, Vladimir V
2010-09-10
It is shown that the use of two feedback circuits with matched transfer constants and optimal phase incursions in a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) makes it possible to localise the extremes of intensity distributions of interacting waves on the output face of a nonlinear crystal, which provides maximum possible conversion efficiency of pump energy. The optimisation procedure in this case is rather flexible because it is reduced to ambiguous matching of the period and shift of the extremes of exact analytic solutions of the corresponding problem in the form of cnoidal waves with respect to the nonlinear crystal position. Unlike the single-cavity OPO scheme, both these parameters can substantially exceed the nonlinear crystal length and even tend to infinity, which corresponds to solitary soliton-like solutions. (optical parametric oscillators)
Demonstration of Double EIT Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators and RLC Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harden, Joshua; Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.
2011-01-01
Single and double electromagnetically induced transparencies (EIT) in a medium, consisting of four-level atoms in the inverted-Y configuration, are discussed using mechanical and electrical analogies. A three-coupled spring-mass system subject to damping and driven by an external force is used to represent the four-level atom mechanically. The…
Linewidth oscillations in a nanometer-size double-slit interference experiment with single electrons
Barrachina, R. O.; Fremont, F.; Fossez, K.; Gruyer, D.; Helaine, V.; Lepailleur, A.; Leredde, A.; Maclot, S.; Scamps, G.; Chesnel, Jean-Yves
2010-06-15
In this article we provide experimental evidence of an interference phenomenon that, to the best of our knowledge, has so far not been observed with either matter or light. In a nanometer-sized version of Feynman's famous two-slit 'thought' experiment with single electrons, we managed to observe that the width of a quasi-monochromatic line oscillates with the detection angle. Furthermore, we find that it occurs in counterphase with the line intensity. We discuss the underlying mechanism that produces this unexpected result.
Optical velocity meter based on Ramsey oscillations in a double-grating setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preclíková, J.; Kozák, M.; Fregenal, D.; Hansen, J. P.
2014-04-01
We propose a method for measuring velocities of atoms or molecules in a gas phase based on time-resolved laser experiments. Two intensity gratings of electromagnetic field with variable time delay τ are created by interfering of four laser pulses. Using first-order perturbation theory, we show that such arrangement can be used for measuring particle velocities, which have an optical transition to a long-living excited state. It is shown that the optical Ramsey oscillations obtain a characteristic modulation that reflects the distribution of velocities.
An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset
Luan, Xingsheng; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Ying; McMillan, James F.; Zheng, Jiangjun; Huang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Chun; Gu, Tingyi; Wang, Di; Hati, Archita; Howe, David A.; Wen, Guangjun; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei
2014-01-01
High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f × Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to −125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~400 μW dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical oscillators to date and in room-temperature and atmospheric non-vacuum operating conditions. These characteristics enable optomechanical oscillators as a frequency reference platform for radio-frequency-photonic information processing. PMID:25354711
An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset.
Luan, Xingsheng; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Ying; McMillan, James F; Zheng, Jiangjun; Huang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Chun; Gu, Tingyi; Wang, Di; Hati, Archita; Howe, David A; Wen, Guangjun; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei
2014-10-30
High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f × Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59 th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to -125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~400 μW dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical oscillators to date and in room-temperature and atmospheric non-vacuum operating conditions. These characteristics enable optomechanical oscillators as a frequency reference platform for radio-frequency-photonic information processing.
Erkaev, N. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.
2010-06-15
Hall magnetohydrodynamic model is investigated for current sheet flapping oscillations, which implies a gradient of the normal magnetic field component. For the initial undisturbed current sheet structure, the normal magnetic field component is assumed to have a weak linear variation. The profile of the electric current velocity is described by hyperbolic functions with a maximum at the center of the current sheet. In the framework of this model, eigenfrequencies are calculated as functions of the wave number for the ''kink'' and ''sausage'' flapping wave modes. Because of the Hall effects, the flapping eigenfrequency is larger for the waves propagating along the electric current, and it is smaller for the opposite wave propagation with respect to the current. The asymmetry of the flapping wave propagation, caused by Hall effects, is pronounced stronger for thinner current sheets. This is due to the Doppler effect related to the electric current velocity.
Kinematic Properties of Double-barred Galaxies: Simulations versus Integral-field Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P.; Shen, Juntai; Cappellari, Michele
2016-09-01
Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we recently reported that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady double-barred (S2B) structure. Here we study the kinematics of these S2B simulations, and compare them to integral-field observations from ATLAS 3D and SAURON. We show that S2B galaxies exhibit several distinct kinematic features, namely: (1) significantly distorted isovelocity contours at the transition region between the two bars, (2) peaks in σ LOS along the minor axis of inner bars, which we term “σ-humps,” that are often accompanied by ring/spiral-like features of increased σ LOS, (3) {h}3{--}\\bar{v} anti-correlations in the region of the inner bar for certain orientations, and (4) rings of positive h 4 when viewed at low inclinations. The most impressive of these features are the σ-humps these evolve with the inner bar, oscillating in strength just as the inner bar does as it rotates relative to the outer bar. We show that, in cylindrical coordinates, the inner bar has similar streaming motions and velocity dispersion properties as normal large-scale bars, except for σ z , which exhibits peaks on the minor axis, i.e., humps. These σ z humps are responsible for producing the σ-humps. For three well-resolved early-type S2Bs (NGC 2859, NGC 2950, and NGC 3941) and a potential S2B candidate (NGC 3384), the S2B model qualitatively matches the integral-field data well, including the “σ-hollows” previously identified. We also discuss the kinematic effect of a nuclear disk in S2Bs.
Abnormal salience signaling in schizophrenia: The role of integrative beta oscillations.
Liddle, Elizabeth B; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Brookes, Matthew J; Robson, Siân E; Hall, Emma L; Morris, Peter G; Liddle, Peter F
2016-04-01
Aberrant salience attribution and cerebral dysconnectivity both have strong evidential support as core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Aberrant salience arising from an excess of dopamine activity has been implicated in delusions and hallucinations, exaggerating the significance of everyday occurrences and thus leading to perceptual distortions and delusional causal inferences. Meanwhile, abnormalities in key nodes of a salience brain network have been implicated in other characteristic symptoms, including the disorganization and impoverishment of mental activity. A substantial body of literature reports disruption to brain network connectivity in schizophrenia. Electrical oscillations likely play a key role in the coordination of brain activity at spatially remote sites, and evidence implicates beta band oscillations in long-range integrative processes. We used magnetoencephalography and a task designed to disambiguate responses to relevant from irrelevant stimuli to investigate beta oscillations in nodes of a network implicated in salience detection and previously shown to be structurally and functionally abnormal in schizophrenia. Healthy participants, as expected, produced an enhanced beta synchronization to behaviorally relevant, as compared to irrelevant, stimuli, while patients with schizophrenia showed the reverse pattern: a greater beta synchronization in response to irrelevant than to relevant stimuli. These findings not only support both the aberrant salience and disconnectivity hypotheses, but indicate a common mechanism that allows us to integrate them into a single framework for understanding schizophrenia in terms of disrupted recruitment of contextually appropriate brain networks.
Abnormal salience signaling in schizophrenia: The role of integrative beta oscillations
Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Brookes, Matthew J.; Robson, Siân E.; Hall, Emma L.; Morris, Peter G.
2016-01-01
Abstract Aberrant salience attribution and cerebral dysconnectivity both have strong evidential support as core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Aberrant salience arising from an excess of dopamine activity has been implicated in delusions and hallucinations, exaggerating the significance of everyday occurrences and thus leading to perceptual distortions and delusional causal inferences. Meanwhile, abnormalities in key nodes of a salience brain network have been implicated in other characteristic symptoms, including the disorganization and impoverishment of mental activity. A substantial body of literature reports disruption to brain network connectivity in schizophrenia. Electrical oscillations likely play a key role in the coordination of brain activity at spatially remote sites, and evidence implicates beta band oscillations in long‐range integrative processes. We used magnetoencephalography and a task designed to disambiguate responses to relevant from irrelevant stimuli to investigate beta oscillations in nodes of a network implicated in salience detection and previously shown to be structurally and functionally abnormal in schizophrenia. Healthy participants, as expected, produced an enhanced beta synchronization to behaviorally relevant, as compared to irrelevant, stimuli, while patients with schizophrenia showed the reverse pattern: a greater beta synchronization in response to irrelevant than to relevant stimuli. These findings not only support both the aberrant salience and disconnectivity hypotheses, but indicate a common mechanism that allows us to integrate them into a single framework for understanding schizophrenia in terms of disrupted recruitment of contextually appropriate brain networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1361‐1374, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853904
On the classical and quantum integrability of systems of resonant oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, Massimo
2017-01-01
We study in this paper systems of harmonic oscillators with resonant frequencies. For these systems we present general procedures for the construction of sets of functionally independent constants of motion, which can be used for the definition of generalized actionangle variables, in accordance with the general description of degenerate integrable systems which was presented by Nekhoroshev in a seminal paper in 1972. We then apply to these classical integrable systems the procedure of quantization which has been proposed to the author by Nekhoroshev during his last years of activity at Milan University. This procedure is based on the construction of linear operators by means of the symmetrization of the classical constants of motion mentioned above. For 3 oscillators with resonance 1: 1: 2, by using a computer program we have discovered an exceptional integrable system, which cannot be obtained with the standard methods based on the obvious symmetries of the Hamiltonian function. In this exceptional case, quantum integrability can be realized only by means of a modification of the symmetrization procedure.
Wu Dong; Yan, X. Q.; Zheng, C. Y.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.; Yu, M. Y.
2013-02-15
It is shown that well collimated mono-energetic ion beams with a large particle number can be generated in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime by using an elliptically polarized laser pulse with appropriate theoretically determined laser polarization ratio. Due to the J Multiplication-Sign B effect, the double-layer charge separation region is imbued with hot electrons that prevent ion pileup, thus suppressing the double-layer oscillations. The proposed mechanism is well confirmed by Particle-in-Cell simulations, and after suppressing the longitudinal double-layer oscillations, the ion beams driven by the elliptically polarized lasers own much better energy spectrum than those by circularly polarized lasers.
Noakes, M.W. ); Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C. )
1990-06-01
The transportation of objects using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object, which usually must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories has shown that oscillation-damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. Initial studies have been completed using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot. The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is an engineering and operations test bed developed for remote maintenance and handling studies within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of CFRP has been to advanced the technology of in-cell systems planned for future nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The AIMS provides the capabilities to examine the needs and constraints necessary for hot-cell remote maintenance and includes a force-reflecting master/slave teleoperator and overhead transporter system. The associated control system provides a flexible programming environment conducive to controls experimentation. This paper reviews the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects and describes a specific implementation of the oscillation damping methods for the AIMS transporter. Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed.
Hepatic circadian clock oscillators and nuclear receptors integrate microbiome-derived signals
Montagner, Alexandra; Korecka, Agata; Polizzi, Arnaud; Lippi, Yannick; Blum, Yuna; Canlet, Cécile; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Burcelin, Rémy; Yen, Yi-Chun; Je, Hyunsoo Shawn; Maha, Al-Asmakh; Mithieux, Gilles; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Guillou, Hervé; Pettersson, Sven; Wahli, Walter
2016-01-01
The liver is a key organ of metabolic homeostasis with functions that oscillate in response to food intake. Although liver and gut microbiome crosstalk has been reported, microbiome-mediated effects on peripheral circadian clocks and their output genes are less well known. Here, we report that germ-free (GF) mice display altered daily oscillation of clock gene expression with a concomitant change in the expression of clock output regulators. Mice exposed to microbes typically exhibit characterized activities of nuclear receptors, some of which (PPARα, LXRβ) regulate specific liver gene expression networks, but these activities are profoundly changed in GF mice. These alterations in microbiome-sensitive gene expression patterns are associated with daily alterations in lipid, glucose, and xenobiotic metabolism, protein turnover, and redox balance, as revealed by hepatic metabolome analyses. Moreover, at the systemic level, daily changes in the abundance of biomarkers such as HDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, FGF21, bilirubin, and lactate depend on the microbiome. Altogether, our results indicate that the microbiome is required for integration of liver clock oscillations that tune output activators and their effectors, thereby regulating metabolic gene expression for optimal liver function. PMID:26879573
Gill, D M; Green, W M J; Xiong, C; Rylyakov, A; Schow, C; Proesel, J; Rosenberg, J C; Barwicz, T; Khater, M; Assefa, S; Shank, S M; Reinholm, C; Kiewra, E; Kamlapurkar, S; Vlasov, Y A
2015-06-29
A novel high-speed Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) fully integrated into a 90 nm CMOS process is presented. The MZM features 'double-pass' optical phase shifter segments, and the first use of integrated inductors in a 'velocity-matched' distributed-electrode configuration.
Frequency-dependent Study of Ultrapure Solid 4He by Using Rigid Double-pendulum Torsional Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong
2015-03-01
The physical origin of the period drop found in the torsional oscillator (TO) containing solid 4He was previously interpreted as the appearance of supersolidity. The current consensus is that the increase in the shear modulus leads to the period anomaly. Further studies show that the stiffening effect in TO can be amplified if a TO is not properly designed to be ``rigid.'' In this study, we designed a rigid double-pendulum TO. High purity solid 4He sample (0.6ppb) was grown by the block capillary method. The resonant period of TO starts to decrease from the empty cell data at 80mK. The ratio of the resonant period changes to the total mass loading are 3 . 8 ×10-5 and 2 . 6 ×10-4 for 1st and 2nd mode, respectively. Unlike recent experiment, we could not found a frequency-independent period drop. The upper bound for the putative supersolid fraction is less than 4 ×10-6 . The dissipation peak accompanied with the period drop was also analyzed with Cole-Cole plot and ωτ plot. We conclude that major contribution for the anomalous TO responses comes from the elastic effect.
Equivalence of phase-oscillator and integrate-and-fire models.
Politi, Antonio; Rosenblum, Michael
2015-04-01
A quantitative comparison of various classes of oscillators (integrate-and-fire, Winfree, and Kuramoto-Daido type) is performed in the weak-coupling limit for a fully connected network of identical units. An almost perfect agreement is found, with only tiny differences among the models. We also show that the regime of self-consistent partial synchronization is rather general and can be observed for arbitrarily small coupling strength in any model class. As a byproduct of our study, we are able to show that an integrate-and-fire model with a generic pulse shape can be always transformed into a similar model with δ pulses and a suitable phase response curve.
Peng, B.; Urazuka, Y.; Chen, H.; Oyabu, S.; Otsuki, H.; Tanaka, T. Matsuyama, K.
2014-05-07
We report on numerical analysis on self-oscillation of standing spin wave excited in a nanostructured active ring resonator, consists of a ferromagnetic nanowire with perpendicular anisotropy. The confined resonant modes are along the nanowire length. A positive feedback with proportional-integral-derivative gain control was adopted in the active ring. Stable excitation of the 1st order standing spin wave has been demonstrated with micromagnetic simulations, taking into account the thermal effect with a random field model. The stationary standing spin wave with a pre-determined set variable of precession amplitude was attained within 20 ns by optimizing the proportional-integral-derivative gain control parameters. The result indicates that a monochromatic oscillation frequency f{sub osc} is extracted from the initial thermal fluctuation state and selectively amplified with the positive feedback loop. The obtained f{sub osc} value of 5.22 GHz practically agrees with the theoretical prediction from dispersion relation of the magneto static forward volume wave. It was also confirmed that the f{sub osc} change due to the temperature rise can be compensated with an external perpendicular bias field H{sub b}. The observed quick compensation time with an order of nano second suggests the fast operation speed in the practical device application.
Millimeter-wave double-dipole antennas for high-gain integrated reflector illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filipovic, Daniel F.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.
1992-05-01
A double-dipole antenna backed by a ground plane has been fabricated for submillimeter wavelengths. The double-dipole antenna is integrated on a thin dielectric membrane with a planar detector at its center. Measured feed patterns at 246 GHz agree well with theory and demonstrate a rotationally symmetric pattern with high coupling efficiency to Gaussian beams. The input impedance is around 50 ohms, and will match well to a Schottky diode or SIS detector. The double-dipole antenna served as the feed for a small machined parabolic reflector. The integrated reflector had a measured gain of 37 dB at 119 microns. This makes the double-dipole antenna ideally suited as a feed for high resolution tracking or for long focal length Cassegrain antenna systems.
Integration of GMR-based spin torque oscillators and CMOS circuitry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tingsu; Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab; Rodriguez, Saul; Malm, B. Gunnar; Åkerman, Johan; Rusu, Ana
2015-09-01
This paper demonstrates the integration of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) spin torque oscillators (STO) with dedicated high frequency CMOS circuits. The wire-bonding-based integration approach is employed in this work, since it allows easy implementation, measurement and replacement. A GMR STO is wire-bonded to the dedicated CMOS integrated circuit (IC) mounted on a PCB, forming a (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair. The GMR STO has a lateral size of 70 nm and more than an octave of tunability in the microwave frequency range. The proposed CMOS IC provides the necessary bias-tee for the GMR STO, as well as electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and wideband amplification targeting high frequency GMR STO-based applications. It is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, offers a measured gain of 12 dB, while consuming only 14.3 mW and taking a total silicon area of 0.329 mm2. The measurement results show that the (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair has a wide tunability range from 8 GHz to 16.5 GHz and improves the output power of the GMR STO by about 10 dB. This GMR STO-CMOS integration eliminates wave reflections during the signal transmission and therefore exhibits good potential for developing high frequency GMR STO-based applications, which combine the features of CMOS and STO technologies.
Spieth, Hubert R; Xue, Fangsen; Strau, Katharina
2004-12-01
On the southern Iberian Peninsula, the seasonal life history of the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, comprises 2 different photoperiodically induced developmental arrests: a hibernation diapause at photophases < 11 h and an estivation diapause at photophases > 14 h. At intermediate photophases (12 h to 13 h), the butterfly responds with a nondiapause. Combined with the experimental setup to determine photosensitivity in insects, the different photoperiodic responses at long-, intermediate-, and short-night conditions were examined to gain more insight into the time measurement mechanism in P. brassicae. The study reveals evidence for a "double circadian oscillator clock" mechanism that is based on 2 submechanisms, a "short-night determining system" and a separate "long-night determining system." This conclusion was drawn from the facts that an LD 9:15 long-night induces a hibernation diapause but inhibits an estivation diapause and, conversely, that an LD 16:8 short-night inhibits a hibernation diapause but induces an estivation diapause. This opposite effect of the same photoperiod supports the argument for the existence of 2 independent targets for light-dark cycles, interpreted as 2 antagonistic time measurement systems. The existence and independence of 2 systems was further shown by differences in long-night versus short-night responses regarding photosensitivity, temperature dependence, and heritable factors. The long-night measurement system is most effective in the 5th larval stage, is highly affected by temperature, and is easy to manipulate by selective inbreeding. The short-night measurement system is most effective in the 4th larval stage, is largely temperature compensated, and is not affected by experimental manipulation of the longnight measurement system.
Constrained time-optimal control of double-integrator system and its application in MPC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fehér, Marek; Straka, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav
2017-01-01
The paper deals with the design of a time-optimal controller for systems subject to both state and control constraints. The focus is laid on a double-integrator system, for which the time-to-go function is calculated. The function is then used as a part of a model predictive control criterion where it represents the long-horizon part. The designed model predictive control algorithm is then used in a constrained control problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor model, which behavior can be approximated by a double integrator model. Accomplishments of the control goals are illustrated in a numerical example.
Some improvements in design of atmospheric ammonia storage tanks of the double integrity type
Herbertsson, G. )
1992-04-01
This paper describes a new atmospheric ammonia storage tank in Iceland. Some modifications have been made to the former common open cup design of double integrity tanks. Another modification is described, dry air is bled under the cladding of the sidewall insulation to protect the insulation from moisture penetration under the vapor barrier which results in frost damages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahara, Daisuke; Ito, Naoki; Nagayama, Yoshio; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kohagura, Junko; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Kogi, Yuichiro; Mase, Atsushi
2016-10-01
Microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Our group solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne-type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. However, the LIA still has problems, that the instabilities of the sensitivity and poor channel isolation. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and solutions of above-mentioned problems. This work is performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaborative Research Program (NIFS15KOAP029 and NIFS16KUGM115).
A Multi-rhythmic Oscillator Model that Can Integrate Motion Stabilization with Motion Exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owaki, Dai; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Satoshi; Tero, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Akio
Central pattern generators (CPGs) have been increasingly attracting roboticists in the hope that they enable robots to realize truly supple and agile locomotion under real world constraints. Thus far, various CPG models have been proposed, particularly in terms of motion stabilization against external perturbations, i.e., limit cycle behavior. On the other hand, biological CPGs have another crucial aspect that cannot be neglected, i.e., motion exploration. Here, note that motion stabilization and motion exploration should be performed in different time-scales. Now the following questions arise: how can different time-scales be embedded into a single CPG effectively?; and what is a good mathematical tool for describing the coexistence of different time-scales? To overcome these problems, this paper introduces a novel oscillator model in which the two functions of motion stabilization and motion exploration can be seamlessly integrated by exploiting the concept of multi-rhythmicity, without relying on any hierarchical structure, which in turn enables that learning is an integral part of the motor control system. We applied this model to the learning of hopping motion as a practical example. Simulation results indicate that the robot can successfully perform online learning without the need for a separation between learning and performance phases.
Development of local oscillator integrated antenna array for microwave imaging diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.; Shinohara, S.
2015-12-01
Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA.
Alonso, Jose L.; Mascellaro, Salvatore; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Javier
2002-01-01
We developed a double-staining procedure involving NanoOrange dye (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.) and membrane integrity stains (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit; Molecular Probes) to show the morphological and membrane integrity changes of Campylobacter coli cells during growth. The conversion from a spiral to a coccoid morphology via intermediary forms and the membrane integrity changes of the C. coli cells can be detected with the double-staining procedure. Our data indicate that young or actively growing cells are mainly spiral shaped (green-stained cells), but older cells undergo a degenerative change to coccoid forms (red-stained cells). Club-shaped transition cell forms were observed with NanoOrange stain. Chlorinated drinking water affected the viability but not the morphology of C. coli cells. PMID:12324366
Katayama, Takuto; Kanai, Yasushi; Yoshida, Kazuetsu; Greaves, Simon; Muraoka, Hiroaki
2015-05-07
The spin-torque oscillator (STO) is the most important component in microwave-assisted magnetic recording. Some requirements for the STO are: large amplitude and stable oscillation, small injected current, and oscillation at a frequency that excites resonance in a recording medium. It is also necessary for the STO oscillation to closely follow the head coil current. In this paper, STOs were integrated into write heads and micromagnetic analyses carried out to obtain a write head structure with stable STO oscillation that could follow a high-frequency head coil current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. F.; Tung, J. C.; Tuan, P. H.; Yu, Y. T.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.
2017-01-01
A general method is developed to characterize the family of classical periodic orbits from the quantum Green's function for the two-dimensional (2D) integrable systems. A decomposing formula related to the beta function is derived to link the quantum Green's function with the individual classical periodic orbits. The practicality of the developed formula is demonstrated by numerically analyzing the 2D commensurate harmonic oscillators and integrable quantum billiards. Numerical analyses reveal that the emergence of the classical features in quantum Green's functions principally comes from the superposition of the degenerate states for 2D harmonic oscillators. On the other hand, the damping factor in quantum Green's functions plays a critical role to display the classical features in mesoscopic regime for integrable quantum billiards, where the physical function of the damping factor is to lead to the coherent superposition of the nearly degenerate eigenstates.
Chen, Y F; Tung, J C; Tuan, P H; Yu, Y T; Liang, H C; Huang, K F
2017-01-01
A general method is developed to characterize the family of classical periodic orbits from the quantum Green's function for the two-dimensional (2D) integrable systems. A decomposing formula related to the beta function is derived to link the quantum Green's function with the individual classical periodic orbits. The practicality of the developed formula is demonstrated by numerically analyzing the 2D commensurate harmonic oscillators and integrable quantum billiards. Numerical analyses reveal that the emergence of the classical features in quantum Green's functions principally comes from the superposition of the degenerate states for 2D harmonic oscillators. On the other hand, the damping factor in quantum Green's functions plays a critical role to display the classical features in mesoscopic regime for integrable quantum billiards, where the physical function of the damping factor is to lead to the coherent superposition of the nearly degenerate eigenstates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takada, T.; Nakamura, R.; Asano, Y.; Baumjohann, W.; Runov, A.; Volwerk, M.; Zhang, T. L.; Vörös, Z.; Keika, K.; Klecker, B.; Rème, H.; Lucek, E. A.; Carr, C.; Frey, H. U.
We examined two consecutive plasma sheet oscillation and dipolarization events observed by Cluster in the magnetotail, which are associated with a pseudo-breakup and a small substorm monitored by the IMAGE spacecraft. Energy input from the solar wind and an associated enhancement of the cross-tail current lead to current sheet thinning and plasma sheet oscillations of 3 5 min periods, while the pseudo-breakups occur during the loading phase within a spatially limited area, accompanied by a localized dipolarization observed by DSP TC1 or GOES 12. That is, the so-called “growth phase” is a preferable condition for both pseudo-breakup and plasma sheet oscillations in the near-Earth magnetotail. One of the plasma sheet oscillation events occurs before the pseudo-breakup, whereas the other takes place after pseudo-breakup. Thus there is no causal relationship between the plasma sheet oscillation events and pseudo-breakup. As for the contribution to the subsequent small substorm, the onset of the small substorm took place where the preceding plasma sheet oscillations can reach the region.
Optical characterization of tissue mimicking phantoms by a vertical double integrating sphere system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yilin; Jia, Qiumin; Shen, Shuwei; Liu, Guangli; Guo, Yuwei; Zhou, Ximing; Chu, Jiaru; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Erbao; Allen, David W.; Lemaillet, Paul; Xu, Ronald
2016-03-01
Accurate characterization of absorption and scattering properties for biologic tissue and tissue-simulating materials enables 3D printing of traceable tissue-simulating phantoms for medical spectral device calibration and standardized medical optical imaging. Conventional double integrating sphere systems have several limitations and are suboptimal for optical characterization of liquid and soft materials used in 3D printing. We propose a vertical double integrating sphere system and the associated reconstruction algorithms for optical characterization of phantom materials that simulate different human tissue components. The system characterizes absorption and scattering properties of liquid and solid phantom materials in an operating wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. Absorption and scattering properties of the phantoms are adjusted by adding titanium dioxide powder and India ink, respectively. Different material compositions are added in the phantoms and characterized by the vertical double integrating sphere system in order to simulate the human tissue properties. Our test results suggest that the vertical integrating sphere system is able to characterize optical properties of tissue-simulating phantoms without precipitation effect of the liquid samples or wrinkling effect of the soft phantoms during the optical measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalola, Simone; Ferrari, Vittorio; Marioli, Daniele
2012-03-01
In this paper a dual-chip system for inclination measurement is presented. It consists of a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) piezoresistive accelerometer manufactured in silicon bulk micromachining and a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) interface designed for resistive-bridge sensors. The sensor is composed of a seismic mass symmetrically suspended by means of four flexure beams that integrate two piezoresistors each to detect the applied static acceleration, which is related to inclination with respect to the gravity vector. The ASIC interface is based on a relaxation oscillator where the frequency and the duty cycle of a rectangular-wave output signal are related to the fractional bridge imbalance and the overall bridge resistance of the sensor, respectively. The latter is a function of temperature; therefore the sensing element itself can be advantageously used to derive information for its own thermal compensation. DC current excitation of the sensor makes the configuration unaffected by wire resistances and parasitic capacitances. Therefore, a modular system results where the sensor can be placed remotely from the electronics without suffering accuracy degradation. The inclination measurement system has been characterized as a function of the applied inclination angle at different temperatures. At room temperature, the experimental sensitivity of the system results in about 148 Hz/g, which corresponds to an angular sensitivity around zero inclination angle of about 2.58 Hz deg-1. This is in agreement with finite element method simulations. The measured output fluctuations at constant temperature determine an equivalent resolution of about 0.1° at midrange. In the temperature range of 25-65 °C the system sensitivity decreases by about 10%, which is less than the variation due to the microsensor alone thanks to thermal compensation provided by the current excitation of the bridge and the positive
Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing
2017-01-01
Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha‑1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices.
Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop
Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing
2017-01-01
Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha−1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices. PMID:28079051
Microfluidics-integrated cascaded double-microring resonators for label-free biosensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Li, Mingyu; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; He, Jian-Jun
2014-11-01
A highly-sensitive optical waveguide biosensor integrated with microfluidic channels based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) was investigated in this paper. Experimental results of the label-free detection exhibits this novel biosensor with the superior reliability for quantitative and kinetic measurement of the interaction between biological molecules, dramatically improving the sensitivity due to the Vernier effect induced by cascaded double-microring resonators.
Fedotchev, A I; Bondar', A T
2008-01-01
Method of correction of human stress-induced functional disorders is proposed which is based on two feedback contours from narrow-band EEG oscillators of the patient. The first one is a usual biofeedback contour in which the feedback signals from the narrow-band EEG oscillator are consciously perceived by the patient and serve him as a guide for voluntary reduction/activation of these EEG components. The second one is an additional contour of resonance stimulation which helps a subject to overcome the difficulties of conscious control of feedback signals. In this contour the parameters of audio-visual stimulation are automatically tuned to the frequency of the dominant narrow-band EEG oscillator of the patient (from the same or other EEG frequency range) to reach its resonance activation. Scientific basis of the method is provided, the results of its experimental testing are presented.
Nonlinear Elastic J-Integral Measurements in Mode I Using a Tapered Double Cantilever Beam Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macon, David J.
2006-01-01
An expression for the J-integral of a nonlinear elastic material is derived for an advancing crack in a tapered double cantilever beam fracture specimen. The elastic and plastic fracture energies related to the test geometry and how these energies correlates to the crack position are discussed. The dimensionless shape factors eta(sub el and eta(sub p) are shown to be equivalent and the deformation J-integral is analyzed in terms of the eta(sub el) function. The fracture results from a structural epoxy are interpreted using the discussed approach. The magnitude of the plastic dissipation is found to strongly depend upon the initial crack shape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Song, Jinyan; Tang, Longhua; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun
2015-06-01
Fast and accurate quantitative measurement of biologically relevant molecules has been demonstrated for medical diagnostics and drug applications in photonic integrated circuits. Herein, we reported a highly-sensitive optical biosensor based on cascaded double-microring resonators. The sensor was integrated with microfluidic channels and investigated with its label-free detection capability. With a wavelength resolution of 0.47 nm, the measured binding capacity of the antibody on the surface exhibits reliable detection limit down to 7.10 μg/mL using human immunoglobulin G (hIgG).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl
2014-01-01
Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl
2014-10-01
Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 mJ and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 µs and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-µm direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-μm IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defacio, B.; Vannevel, Alan; Brander, O.
1993-01-01
A formulation is given for a collection of phonons (sound) in a fluid at a non-zero temperature which uses the simple harmonic oscillator twice; one to give a stochastic thermal 'noise' process and the other which generates a coherent Glauber state of phonons. Simple thermodynamic observables are calculated and the acoustic two point function, 'contrast' is presented. The role of 'coherence' in an equilibrium system is clarified by these results and the simple harmonic oscillator is a key structure in both the formulation and the calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao
2016-09-01
Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an
Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao
2016-09-01
Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % (P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be
Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.
Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi
2014-10-28
The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.
Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip
Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi
2014-01-01
The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90 %RH. PMID:25353984
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Wang, X.; Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Shima, Y.; Nojiri, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Mase, A.
2016-11-01
In conventional multichannel/imaging microwave diagnostics of interferometry, reflectometry, and electron cyclotron emission measurements, a local oscillator (LO) signal is commonly supplied to a receiver array via irradiation using LO optics. In this work, we present a 60-GHz interferometer with a new eight-channel receiver array, called a local oscillator integrated antenna array (LIA). An outstanding feature of LIA is that it incorporates a frequency quadrupler integrated circuit for LO supply to each channel. This enables simple and uniform LO supply to the receiver array using only a 15-GHz LO source and a coaxial cable transmission line instead of using an expensive 60-GHz source, LO optics, and a waveguide transmission line. The new interferometer system is first applied to measure electron line-averaged density inside the divertor simulation experimental module (D-module) on GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror device.
Characteristics of non-irradiated and irradiated double SOI integration type pixel sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, M.; Sekigawa, D.; Hara, K.; Aoyagi, W.; Honda, S.; Tobita, N.; Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T.; Kurachi, I.; Tsuboyama, T.; Yamada, M.
2016-09-01
We are developing monolithic pixel sensors based on a 0.2 μm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology for high-energy physics experiment applications. With this SOI technology, the wafer resistivities for the electronics and sensor parts can be chosen separately. Therefore, a device with full depletion and fast charge collection is realized. The total ionizing dose (TID) effect is the major challenge for application in hard radiation environments. To compensate for TID damage, we introduced a double SOI structure that implements an additional middle silicon layer (SOI2 layer). Applying a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer should compensate for the effects induced by holes trapped in the buried oxide layers. We studied the recovery from TID damage induced by 60Co γ and other characteristics of the integration-type double SOI sensor INTPIXh2. When the double SOI sensor was irradiated to 100 kGy, it showed a response to the infrared laser similar to that of a non-irradiated sensor when we applied a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer. Thus, we concluded that the double SOI sensor is very effective at sufficiently enhancing the radiation hardness for application in experiments with harsh radiation environments, such as at Belle II or ILC.
A DOUBLE-PEAKED OUTBURST OF A 0535+26 OBSERVED WITH INTEGRAL, RXTE, AND SUZAKU
Caballero, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.; Suchy, S.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Kretschmar, P.; Fuerst, F.; Rothschild, R.; Finger, M. H.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Makishima, K.; Enoto, T.; Iwakiri, W.; and others
2013-02-20
The Be/X-ray binary A 0535+26 showed a normal (type I) outburst in 2009 August. It is the fourth in a series of normal outbursts associated with the periastron, but is unusual because it presented a double-peaked light curve. The two peaks reached a flux of {approx}450 mCrab in the 15-50 keV range. We present results of the timing and spectral analysis of INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Suzaku observations of the outburst. The energy-dependent pulse profiles and their evolution during the outburst are studied. No significant differences with respect to other normal outbursts are observed. The centroid energy of the fundamental cyclotron line shows no significant variation during the outburst. A spectral hardening with increasing luminosity is observed. We conclude that the source is accreting in the sub-critical regime. We discuss possible explanations for the double-peaked outburst.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Tugba; Akbulut, Saadet; Kiris, Aysenur; Gucin, Zuhal; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Bölükbasi Ates, Gamze; Tabakoǧlu, Haşim Özgür
2015-03-01
In order to develop minimally invasive, fast and precise diagnostic and therapeutic methods in medicine by using optical methods, first step is to examine how the light propagates, scatters and transmitted through medium. So as to find out appropriate wavelengths, it is required to correctly determine the optical properties of tissues. The aim of this study is to measure the optical properties of both cancerous and normal ex-vivo pancreatic tissues. Results will be compared to detect how cancerous and normal tissues respond to different wavelengths. Double-integrating-sphere system and computational technique inverse adding doubling method (IAD) were used in the study. Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues have been measured within the range of 500-650 nm. Statistical significant differences between cancerous and normal tissues have been obtained at 550 nm and 630 nm for absorption coefficients. On the other hand; there were no statistical difference found for scattering coefficients at any wavelength.
Whitfield, Troy W; Martyna, Glenn J
2007-02-21
In the effort to develop atomistic models capable of accurately describing nanoscale systems with complex interfaces, it has become clear that simple treatments with rigid charge distributions and dispersion coefficients selected to generate bulk properties are insufficient to predict important physical properties. The quantum Drude oscillator model, a system of one-electron pseudoatoms whose "pseudoelectrons" are harmonically bound to their respective "pseudonuclei," is capable of treating many-body polarization and dispersion interactions in molecular systems on an equal footing due to the ability of the pseudoatoms to mimic the long-range interactions that characterize real materials. Using imaginary time path integration, the Drude oscillator model can, in principle, be solved in computer operation counts that scale linearly with the number of atoms in the system. In practice, however, standard expressions for the energy and pressure, including the commonly used virial estimator, have extremely large variances that require untenably long simulation times to generate converged averages. In this paper, low-variance estimators for the internal energy are derived, in which the large zero-point energy of the oscillators does not contribute to the variance. The new estimators are applicable to any system of harmonic oscillators coupled to one another (or to the environment) via an arbitrary set of anharmonic interactions. The variance of the new estimators is found to be much smaller than standard estimators in three example problems, a one-dimensional anharmonic oscillator and quantum Drude models of the xenon dimer and solid (fcc) xenon, respectively, yielding 2-3 orders of magnitude improvement in computational efficiency.
A unified double-loop multi-scale control strategy for NMP integrating-unstable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seer, Qiu Han; Nandong, Jobrun
2016-03-01
This paper presents a new control strategy which unifies the direct and indirect multi-scale control schemes via a double-loop control structure. This unified control strategy is proposed for controlling a class of highly nonminimum-phase processes having both integrating and unstable modes. This type of systems is often encountered in fed-batch fermentation processes which are very difficult to stabilize via most of the existing well-established control strategies. A systematic design procedure is provided where its applicability is demonstrated via a numerical example.
BECKER, D.L.
2000-05-23
This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.
Chang, W K; Chung, H P; Lin, Y Y; Chen, Y H
2016-08-15
We report on the design and experimental demonstration of an electro-optically tunable, pulsed intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) based on a unique fan-out double-prism domain periodically poled lithium niobate (DPD PPLN) in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO_{4} laser. The PPLN device combines the functionalities of fan-out and ramped duty-cycle domain structured nonlinear crystals, working simultaneously as a continuous grating-period quasi-phase-matched optical parametric downconverter and an electro-optic beam deflector/Q switch in the laser system. When driving the fan-out DPD PPLN with a voltage pulse train and varying the DC offset of the pulse train, a pulsed IOPO was realized with its signal and idler being electro-optically tunable over the 1880 and 2453 nm bands at spectral tuning rates of 13.5 (measured) and 25.8 (calculated) nm/(kV/mm), respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, V. R.
1978-01-01
The reported investigation is concerned with the solution of systems of differential equations which are derived from a Hamiltonian function in the extended phase space. The problem selected involves a one-dimensional perturbed harmonic oscillator. The van der Pol equation considered has an exact asymptotic value for its amplitude. Comparisons are made between a numerical solution and a known analytical solution. In addition to the van der Pol problem, known solutions regarding the restricted problem of three bodies are used as examples for perturbed Keplerian motion. The extended phase space Hamiltonian discussed by Stiefel and Scheifele (1971) is considered. A description is presented of two canonical formulations of the perturbed harmonic oscillator.
Double Power Laws in the Event-integrated Solar Energetic Particle Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.
2016-04-01
A double power law or a power law with exponential rollover at a few to tens of MeV nucleon-1 of the event-integrated differential spectra has been reported in many solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The rollover energies per nucleon of different elements correlate with a particle's charge-to-mass ratio (Q/A). The probable causes are suggested as residing in shock finite lifetimes, shock finite sizes, shock geometry, and an adiabatic cooling effect. In this work, we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate a particle's transport process in the inner heliosphere. We solve the focused transport equation using a time-backward Markov stochastic approach. The convection, magnetic focusing, adiabatic cooling effect, and pitch-angle scattering are included. The effects that the interplanetary turbulence imposes on the shape of the resulting SEP spectra are examined. By assuming a pure power-law differential spectrum at the Sun, a perfect double-power-law feature with a break energy ranging from 10 to 120 MeV nucleon-1 is obtained at 1 au. We found that the double power law of the differential energy spectrum is a robust result of SEP interplanetary propagation. It works for many assumptions of interplanetary turbulence spectra that give various forms of momentum dependence of a particle's mean free path. The different spectral shapes in low-energy and high-energy ends are not just a transition from the convection-dominated propagation to diffusion-dominated propagation.
Double-wedged Wollaston-type polarimeter design and integration to RTT150-TFOSC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helhel, Selcuk; Kirbiyik, Halil; Bayar, Cevdet; Khamitov, Irek; Kahya, Gizem; Okuyan, Oguzhan
2016-07-01
Photometric and spectroscopic observation capabilities of 1.5-m Russian- Turkish Telescope RTT150 has been broadened with the integration of presented polarimeter. The well-known double-wedged Wollaston-type dual-beam technique was preferred and applied to design and produce it. The designed polarimeter was integrated into the telescope detector TFOSC, and called TFOSC-WP. Its capabil- ities and limitations were attempted to be determined by a number of observation sets. Non-polarized and strongly polarized stars were observed to determine its limi- tations as well as its linearity. An instrumental intrinsic polarization was determined for the 1×5 arcmin field of view in equatorial coordinate system, the systematic error of polarization degree as 0.2% %, and position angle as 1.9°. These limitations and capabilities are denoted as good enough to satisfy telescopes' present and future astrophysical space missions related to GAIA and SRG projects.
Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.
Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng
2014-09-01
In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, A.; Karsten, A.
2011-06-01
The accuracy of the calibration model for the single and double integrating sphere systems are compared for a white light system. A calibration model is created from a matrix of samples with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. In this instance the samples are made using different concentrations of intralipid and black ink. The total and diffuse transmittance and reflectance is measured on both setups and the accuracy of each model compared by evaluating the prediction errors of the calibration model for the different systems. Current results indicate that the single integrating sphere setup is more accurate than the double system method. This is based on the low prediction errors of the model for the single sphere system for a He-Ne laser as well as a white light source. The model still needs to be refined for more absorption factors. Tests on the prediction accuracies were then determined by extracting the optical properties of solid resin based phantoms for each system. When these properties of the phantoms were used as input to the modeling software excellent agreement between measured and simulated data was found for the single sphere systems.
Double integrating sphere system for optical parameter determination of industrial suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keränen, Ville T. J.; Mäkynen, Anssi J.
2008-06-01
The main objective of this study was to construct a double integrating sphere system and to verify its performance using Intralipid fat emulsion. The final goal was to be able to determine optical properties of various turbid suspensions with the proposed system. Online measurements even would have been possible as backscattering and forward scattering were measured simultaneously. The measured suspension was injected in a cuvette placed between two integrating spheres and illuminated with a laser through the first sphere. The diameter of the spheres was 8" and the diameter of the sample port could have been varied up to 2.5". The cuvette was made of plastic and optical grade glass and its diameter was sufficient to cover the sample port area. The sample thickness in the measurement cuvette was 5 mm. Optical powers were detected using fiber coupled photodiodes. There was one diode for each sphere and one for the unscattered light at the opposite end of the sphere system facing towards the laser. The measured optical powers were converted to absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and if possible to anisotropy using an inverse adding-doubling method. The results measured for the Intralipid using the described system corresponded with those documented in published literature. A number of pulp samples with unknown optical properties were measured with encouraging results. However, the differences between different pulps and fillers are so small that, in the future, the focus will be in error source elimination to achieve reasonable accuracy.
Duan, Gaopeng; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Long
2017-01-23
This paper focuses on the average consensus of double-integrator networked systems based on the asynchronous periodic edge-event triggered control. The asynchronous property lies in the edge event-detecting procedure. For different edges, their event detections are performed at different times and the corresponding events occur independently of each other. When an event is activated, the two adjacent agents connected by the corresponding link sample their relative state information and update their controllers. The application of incidence matrix facilitates the transformation of control objects from the agent-based to the edge-based. Practically, due to the constraints of network bandwidth and communication distance, agents usually cannot receive the instantaneous information of some others, which has an impact on the system performance. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the presence of communication time delays. For double-integrator multiagent systems with and without communication time delays, the average state consensus can be asynchronously achieved by designing appropriate parameters under the proposed event-detecting rules. The presented results specify the relationship among the maximum allowable time delays, interaction topologies, and event-detecting periods. Furthermore, the proposed protocols have the advantages of reduced communication costs and controller-updating costs. Simulation examples are given to illustrate the proposed theoretical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratas, Irmantas; Pyragas, Kestutis
2016-09-01
We analyze the dynamics of a large network of coupled quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons, which represent the canonical model for class I neurons near the spiking threshold. The network is heterogeneous in that it includes both inherently spiking and excitable neurons. The coupling is global via synapses that take into account the finite width of synaptic pulses. Using a recently developed reduction method based on the Lorentzian ansatz, we derive a closed system of equations for the neuron's firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which are exact in the infinite-size limit. The bifurcation analysis of the reduced equations reveals a rich scenario of asymptotic behavior, the most interesting of which is the macroscopic limit-cycle oscillations. It is shown that the finite width of synaptic pulses is a necessary condition for the existence of such oscillations. The robustness of the oscillations against aging damage, which transforms spiking neurons into nonspiking neurons, is analyzed. The validity of the reduced equations is confirmed by comparing their solutions with the solutions of microscopic equations for the finite-size networks.
Bur, Isabelle M.; Zouaoui, Sonia; Fontanaud, Pierre; Coutry, Nathalie; Molino, François; Martin, Agnès O.; Mollard, Patrice; Bonnefont, Xavier
2010-01-01
The mammalian circadian system is composed of multiple peripheral clocks that are synchronized by a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. This system keeps track of the external world rhythms through entrainment by various time cues, such as the light-dark cycle and the feeding schedule. Alterations of photoperiod and meal time modulate the phase coupling between central and peripheral oscillators. In this study, we used real-time quantitative PCR to assess circadian clock gene expression in the liver and pituitary gland from mice raised under various photoperiods, or under a temporal restricted feeding protocol. Our results revealed unexpected differences between both organs. Whereas the liver oscillator always tracked meal time, the pituitary circadian clockwork showed an intermediate response, in between entrainment by the light regimen and the feeding-fasting rhythm. The same composite response was also observed in the pituitary gland from adrenalectomized mice under daytime restricted feeding, suggesting that circulating glucocorticoids do not inhibit full entrainment of the pituitary clockwork by meal time. Altogether our results reveal further aspects in the complexity of phase entrainment in the circadian system, and suggest that the pituitary may host oscillators able to integrate multiple time cues. PMID:21179516
Ratas, Irmantas; Pyragas, Kestutis
2016-09-01
We analyze the dynamics of a large network of coupled quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons, which represent the canonical model for class I neurons near the spiking threshold. The network is heterogeneous in that it includes both inherently spiking and excitable neurons. The coupling is global via synapses that take into account the finite width of synaptic pulses. Using a recently developed reduction method based on the Lorentzian ansatz, we derive a closed system of equations for the neuron's firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which are exact in the infinite-size limit. The bifurcation analysis of the reduced equations reveals a rich scenario of asymptotic behavior, the most interesting of which is the macroscopic limit-cycle oscillations. It is shown that the finite width of synaptic pulses is a necessary condition for the existence of such oscillations. The robustness of the oscillations against aging damage, which transforms spiking neurons into nonspiking neurons, is analyzed. The validity of the reduced equations is confirmed by comparing their solutions with the solutions of microscopic equations for the finite-size networks.
2010-02-01
from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 154 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 3, FEBRUARY 1, 2010 Fig. 4. Measured silicon FPF response...air Bragg mirrors,” Opt. Lett., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 533–535, 2007. Authorized licensed use limited to: NRL. Downloaded on January 13, 2010 at 07:41 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. ...152 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 3, FEBRUARY 1, 2010 Detecting Low-Power RF Signals Using a Multimode Optoelectronic Oscillator
Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J
2008-01-01
Symptoms of lateral epicondylitis (LE) are attributed to degenerative changes and inflammatory reactions in the common extensor tendon induced by microscopic tears in the tissue after repetitive or overload functions of the wrist and hand extensor muscles. Conventional treatments, provided on the premise of inflammatory basis of LE, have shown 39-80% failure rate. An alternative approach suggests that symptoms of LE could be due to active tender points developed in the origin of hand and wrist extensor muscles after overuse or repetitive movements. Oscillating-energy Manual Therapy (OEMT), also known as V-spread, is a craniosacral manual technique that has been clinically used for treating tender points over the suture lines in the skull. Considering symptoms of LE may result from active tender points, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of OEMT on pain, grip strength, and functional abilities of subjects with chronic LE. Twenty-three subjects with chronic LE (>3mo) between ages of 24 and 72 years participated in this study. Before their participation, all subjects were screened to rule out cervical and other pathologies that could possibly contribute to their lateral elbow pain. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomized into treatment and placebo treatment groups by a second (treating) therapist. Subjects were blinded to their group assignment. Subjects in the treatment group received OEMT for six sessions. During each treatment session, first a tender point was located through palpation. After proper hand placement, the therapist focused the direction of the oscillating energy on the localized tender point. Subjects in the placebo group underwent the same procedure, but the direction of the oscillating energy was directed to an area above or below the tender points, not covering the affected area. Jamar Dynamometer, Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) were used to measure grip strength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böcklin, Christoph; Baumann, Dirk; Stuker, Florian; Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Fröhlich, Jürg
2013-02-01
For the reconstruction of physiological changes in specific tissue layers detected by optical techniques, the exact knowledge of the optical parameters μa, μs and g of different tissue types is of paramount importance. One approach to accurately determine these parameters for biological tissue or phantom material is to use a double-integrating-sphere measurement system. It offers a flexible way to measure various kinds of tissues, liquids and artificial phantom materials. Accurate measurements can be achieved by technical adjustments and calibration of the spheres using commercially available reflection and transmission standards. The determination For the reconstruction of physiological changes in specific tissue layers detected by optical techniques, the exact knowledge of the optical parameters μa, μs and g of different tissue types is of paramount importance. One approach to accurately determine these parameters for biological tissue or phantom material is to use a double-integrating-sphere measurement system. It offers a flexible way to measure various kinds of tissues, liquids and artificial phantom materials. Accurate measurements can be achieved by technical adjustments and calibration of the spheres using commercially available reflection and transmission standards. The determination of the optical parameters of a material is based on two separate steps. Firstly, the reflectance ρs, the total transmittance TsT and the unscattered transmittance TsC of the sample s are measured with the double-integrating-sphere setup. Secondly, the optical parameters μa, μs and g are reconstructed with an inverse search algorithm combined with an appropriate solver for the forward problem (calculating ρs, TsT and TsC from μa, μs and g) has to be applied. In this study a Genetic Algorithm is applied as search heuristic, since it offers the most flexible and general approach without requiring any foreknowledge of the fitness-landscape. Given the challenging
DOUBLE POWER LAWS IN THE EVENT-INTEGRATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE SPECTRUM
Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.
2016-04-10
A double power law or a power law with exponential rollover at a few to tens of MeV nucleon{sup −1} of the event-integrated differential spectra has been reported in many solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The rollover energies per nucleon of different elements correlate with a particle's charge-to-mass ratio (Q/A). The probable causes are suggested as residing in shock finite lifetimes, shock finite sizes, shock geometry, and an adiabatic cooling effect. In this work, we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate a particle's transport process in the inner heliosphere. We solve the focused transport equation using a time-backward Markov stochastic approach. The convection, magnetic focusing, adiabatic cooling effect, and pitch-angle scattering are included. The effects that the interplanetary turbulence imposes on the shape of the resulting SEP spectra are examined. By assuming a pure power-law differential spectrum at the Sun, a perfect double-power-law feature with a break energy ranging from 10 to 120 MeV nucleon{sup −1} is obtained at 1 au. We found that the double power law of the differential energy spectrum is a robust result of SEP interplanetary propagation. It works for many assumptions of interplanetary turbulence spectra that give various forms of momentum dependence of a particle's mean free path. The different spectral shapes in low-energy and high-energy ends are not just a transition from the convection-dominated propagation to diffusion-dominated propagation.
In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beek, J. F.; Blokland, P.; Posthumus, P.; Aalders, M.; Pickering, J. W.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.
1997-11-01
The optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor) were measured in vitro for cartilage, liver, lung, muscle, myocardium, skin, and tumour (colon adenocarcinoma CC 531) at 630, 632.8, 790, 850 and 1064 nm. Rabbits, rats, piglets, goats, and dogs were used to obtain the tissues. A double-integrating-sphere setup with an intervening sample was used to determine the reflectance, and the diffuse and collimated transmittances of the sample. The inverse adding - doubling algorithm was used to determine the optical properties from the measurements. The overall results were comparable to those available in the literature, although only limited data are available at 790 - 850 nm. The results were reproducible for a specific sample at a specific wavelength. However, when comparing the results of different samples of the same tissue or different lasers with approximately the same wavelength (e.g. argon dye laser at 630 nm and HeNe laser at 632.8 nm) variations are large. We believe these variations in optical properties should be explained by biological variations of the tissues. In conclusion, we report on an extensive set of in vitro absorption and scattering properties of tissues measured with the same equipment and software, and by the same group. Although the accuracy of the method requires further improvement, it is highly likely that the other existing data in the literature have a similar level of accuracy.
Istomin, Andrei Y.; Starace, Anthony F.; Manakov, N. L.; Meremianin, A. V.; Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, Igor
2005-11-15
Similarly to differential cross sections for one-electron photoionization, the doubly differential cross section for double photoionization (DPI) may be conveniently described by four parameters: the singly differential (with respect to energy sharing) cross section ({sigma}{sub 0}), the dipole asymmetry parameter ({beta}), and two nondipole asymmetry parameters ({gamma} and {delta}). Here we derive two model-independent representations for these parameters for DPI from a {sup 1}S{sub 0} atomic bound state: (i) in terms of one-dimensional integrals of the polarization-invariant DPI amplitudes and (ii) in terms of the exact two-electron reduced matrix elements. For DPI of He at excess energies, E{sub exc}, of 100 eV, 450 eV, and 1 keV, we present numerical results for the asymmetry parameters within the framework of the convergent close-coupling theory and compare them with results of lowest-order (in the interelectron interaction) perturbation theory (LOPT). The results for E{sub exc}=1 keV exhibit a nondipole asymmetry that is large enough to be easily measured experimentally. We find excellent agreement between our LOPT results and other theoretical predictions and experimental data for total cross sections and ratios of double to single ionization cross sections for K-shell DPI from several multielectron atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Chi; Li, Dong; Gao, Shan; Daniel, Ketui
2016-11-01
This paper presents a CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamic) simulation and experimental results for the reflected radiation error from turbine vanes when measuring turbine blade's temperature using a pyrometer. In the paper, an accurate reflection model based on discrete irregular surfaces is established. Double contour integral method is used to calculate view factor between the irregular surfaces. Calculated reflected radiation error was found to change with relative position between blades and vanes as temperature distribution of vanes and blades was simulated using CFD. Simulation results indicated that when the vanes suction surface temperature ranged from 860 K to 1060 K and the blades pressure surface average temperature is 805 K, pyrometer measurement error can reach up to 6.35%. Experimental results show that the maximum pyrometer absolute error of three different targets on the blade decreases from 6.52%, 4.15% and 1.35% to 0.89%, 0.82% and 0.69% respectively after error correction.
Content modification attacks on consensus seeking multi-agent system with double-integrator dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yimeng; Gupta, Nirupam; Chopra, Nikhil
2016-11-01
In this paper, vulnerability of a distributed consensus seeking multi-agent system (MAS) with double-integrator dynamics against edge-bound content modification cyber attacks is studied. In particular, we define a specific edge-bound content modification cyber attack called malignant content modification attack (MCoMA), which results in unbounded growth of an appropriately defined group disagreement vector. Properties of MCoMA are utilized to design detection and mitigation algorithms so as to impart resilience in the considered MAS against MCoMA. Additionally, the proposed detection mechanism is extended to detect the general edge-bound content modification attacks (not just MCoMA). Finally, the efficacies of the proposed results are illustrated through numerical simulations.
Double-shell tank integrity assessments ultrasonic test equipment performance test
Pfluger, D.C.
1996-09-26
A double-shell tank (DST) inspection (DSTI) system was performance tested over three months until August 1995 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, completing a contract initiated in February 1993 to design, fabricate, and test an ultrasonic inspection system intended to provide ultrasonic test (UT) and visual data to determine the integrity of 28 DSTs at Hanford. The DSTs are approximately one-million-gallon underground radioactive-waste storage tanks. The test was performed in accordance with a procedure (Jensen 1995) that included requirements described in the contract specification (Pfluger 1995). This report documents the results of tests conducted to evaluate the performance of the DSTI system against the requirements of the contract specification. The test of the DSTI system also reflects the performance of qualified personnel and operating procedures.
Dong, Yimeng; Gupta, Nirupam; Chopra, Nikhil
2016-11-01
In this paper, vulnerability of a distributed consensus seeking multi-agent system (MAS) with double-integrator dynamics against edge-bound content modification cyber attacks is studied. In particular, we define a specific edge-bound content modification cyber attack called malignant content modification attack (MCoMA), which results in unbounded growth of an appropriately defined group disagreement vector. Properties of MCoMA are utilized to design detection and mitigation algorithms so as to impart resilience in the considered MAS against MCoMA. Additionally, the proposed detection mechanism is extended to detect the general edge-bound content modification attacks (not just MCoMA). Finally, the efficacies of the proposed results are illustrated through numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahim, M. A.; Ramadan, H. S.
2016-10-01
The design of power system stabilizer (PSS) is load-dependent and needs continuous adjustment at each operating condition. This paper aims at introducing a robust non-fragile PSS for interconnected power systems. The proposed controller has the capability of adaptively tuning online its rule-base through a variable-structure direct adaptive control algorithm in order to rigorously attain the desired objectives. The PSS controller acts on damping the electromechanical modes of oscillations not only through a wide range of operating conditions but also in presence of different disturbances. Using MATLABTM-Simulink, simulation results significantly verify that the proposed controller provides favorable performance and efficiently contributes towards enhancing the system dynamic behavior when applied to the four machines two-area power system that mimics the typical system behavior in actual operation. The interaction between the variable-structure adaptive fuzzy-based power system stabilizer (VS-AFPSS) and the existed typical ones inside the interconnected power systems has been explicitly discussed. Compared to other conventional controllers, VS-AFPSS enables better damping characteristics to both local and inter-area oscillation modes considering different operating conditions and sever disturbances.
Integrated routing and fill for self-aligned double patterning (SADP) using grid-based design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Youngsoo; Lee, Jeemyung; Lee, Seongmin; Shin, Youngsoo
2016-03-01
Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) has been proposed as an alternative patterning solution for sub-10nm technology because of delay of advanced lithography beyond 193nm ArF. In conventional SADP, line and space style of dummy metal fills are inserted once main design is complete. A large buffer distance is required around the main design because no further verification of main design (in presence of fills) is performed. This causes irregular pattern density, which becomes a source of process variations. We propose integrated-fill, in which main design and dummy fill insertion are performed together. This requires a change in overall design flow, which we discuss. Integrated-fill is demonstrated in M2 layer of SADP process; M2 density increases by 15.7% with 2.3% reduction in standard deviation of density distribution; metal thickness variation is also reduced by 24%. More dummy fills cause increased coupling capacitance, which however is shown to be insignificant.
Brinkmann, Maximilian; Janfrüchte, Sarah; Hellwig, Tim; Dobner, Sven; Fallnich, Carsten
2016-05-15
We present a fiber-based optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode. The FOPO consisted of a photonic crystal fiber to convert the pump pulses via four-wave mixing and a dispersive resonator formed by a single-mode fiber. Via dispersion filtering, output pulses with a bandwidth of about 3 nm, a temporal duration of about 8 ps and a pulse energy of up to 22 nJ could be generated. By changing the repetition frequency of the pump laser diode by about ±1 kHz, the wavelength of the output pulses could be tuned between 1130 and 1310 nm within 8 μs, without the need to change the length of the resonator. Therewith, the FOPO should especially be suited for hyperspectral imaging, while its all-electronic control constitutes a promising approach to a turnkey and alignment-free light source.
Synchronization, diversity, and topology of networks of integrate and fire oscillators
Guardiola; Diaz-Guilera; Llas; Perez
2000-10-01
We study synchronization dynamics of a population of pulse-coupled oscillators. In particular, we focus our attention on the interplay between topological disorder and synchronization features of networks. First, we analyze synchronization time T in random networks, and find a scaling law which relates T to network connectivity. Then, we compare synchronization time for several other topological configurations, characterized by a different degree of randomness. The analysis shows that regular lattices perform better than a disordered network. This fact can be understood by considering the variability in the number of links between two adjacent neighbors. This phenomenon is equivalent to having a nonrandom topology with a distribution of interactions and it can be removed by an adequate local normalization of the couplings.
Huang, J F; Chang, W K; Chung, H P; Huang, S S; Chang, J W; Chen, Y H
2013-12-16
We report a design and demonstration of an electro-optically Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) based on a unique ramped duty-cycle periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) in a diode-pumped 1064-nm Nd:YVO(4) laser. The PPLN crystal, having a double-prism domain (DPD) structure with a domain period of 30 μm, can work simultaneously as an electro-optic (EO) beam deflector (and therefore an EO Q-switch in the laser cavity) and an optical parametric down converter. The characterized deflection sensitivity of the DPD PPLN device was 1.15°/kV-cm. At a 180-V Q-switching voltage and a 1-kHz switching rate, we measured a down-converted signal at 1550 nm with pulse energy of >8.1 μJ (or peak power of >2.3 kW) from the constructed IOPO at 7.5-W diode pump power. Continuous wavelength tuning of the IOPO signal was also demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watkins, Charles E; Berman, Julian H
1956-01-01
This report treats the Kernel function of the integral equation that relates a known or prescribed downwash distribution to an unknown lift distribution for harmonically oscillating wings in supersonic flow. The treatment is essentially an extension to supersonic flow of the treatment given in NACA report 1234 for subsonic flow. For the supersonic case the Kernel function is derived by use of a suitable form of acoustic doublet potential which employs a cutoff or Heaviside unit function. The Kernel functions are reduced to forms that can be accurately evaluated by considering the functions in two parts: a part in which the singularities are isolated and analytically expressed, and a nonsingular part which can be tabulated.
Novembre, Giacomo; Sammler, Daniela; Keller, Peter E
2016-08-01
Shared knowledge and interpersonal coordination are prerequisites for most forms of social behavior. Influential approaches to joint action have conceptualized these capacities in relation to the separate constructs of co-representation (knowledge) and self-other entrainment (coordination). Here we investigated how brain mechanisms involved in co-representation and entrainment interact to support joint action. To do so, we used a musical joint action paradigm to show that the neural mechanisms underlying co-representation and self-other entrainment are linked via a process - indexed by EEG alpha oscillations - regulating the balance between self-other integration and segregation in real time. Pairs of pianists performed short musical items while action familiarity and interpersonal (behavioral) synchronization accuracy were manipulated in a factorial design. Action familiarity referred to whether or not pianists had rehearsed the musical material performed by the other beforehand. Interpersonal synchronization was manipulated via congruent or incongruent tempo change instructions that biased performance timing towards the impending, new tempo. It was observed that, when pianists were familiar with each other's parts, millisecond variations in interpersonal synchronized behavior were associated with a modulation of alpha power over right centro-parietal scalp regions. Specifically, high behavioral entrainment was associated with self-other integration, as indexed by alpha suppression. Conversely, low behavioral entrainment encouraged reliance on internal knowledge and thus led to self-other segregation, indexed by alpha enhancement. These findings suggest that alpha oscillations index the processing of information about self and other depending on the compatibility of internal knowledge and external (environmental) events at finely resolved timescales.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.
2014-01-01
NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connor, J. N. L.; Curtis, P. R.; Farrelly, D.
1984-01-01
Methods that can be used in the numerical implementation of the uniform swallowtail approximation are described. An explicit expression for that approximation is presented to the lowest order, showing that there are three problems which must be overcome in practice before the approximation can be applied to any given problem. It is shown that a recently developed quadrature method can be used for the accurate numerical evaluation of the swallowtail canonical integral and its partial derivatives. Isometric plots of these are presented to illustrate some of their properties. The problem of obtaining the arguments of the swallowtail integral from an analytical function of its argument is considered, describing two methods of solving this problem. The asymptotic evaluation of the butterfly canonical integral is addressed.
The Role of Gamma Band Oscillations and Synchrony on Rubber Hand Illusion and Crossmodal Integration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kanayama, Noriaki; Sato, Atsushi; Ohira, Hideki
2009-01-01
The rubber hand illusion represents an illusory experience during the mislocalization of own hand when correlated visuotactile stimuli are presented to the actual and fake hands. The visuotactile integration process appears to cause this illusion; the corresponding brain activity was revealed in many studies. In this study, we investigated the…
Toriello, Nicholas M; Liu, Chung N; Blazej, Robert G; Thaitrong, Numrin; Mathies, Richard A
2007-11-15
A novel injection method is developed that utilizes a thermally switchable oligonucleotide affinity capture gel to mediate the concentration, purification, and injection of dsDNA for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis analysis. The affinity capture matrix consists of a 20 base acrydite modified oligonucleotide copolymerized into a 6% linear polyacrylamide gel that captures ssDNA or dsDNA analyte including PCR amplicons and synthetic oligonucleotides. Double stranded PCR amplicons with complementarity to the capture probe up to 81 bases from their 5' terminus are reproducibly captured via helix invasion. By integrating the oligo capture matrix directly with the CE separation channel, the electrophoretically mobilized target fragments are quantitatively captured and injected after thermal release for unbiased, efficient, and quantitative analysis. The capture process exhibits optimal efficiency at 44 degrees C and 100 V/cm with a 20 microM affinity capture probe (TM = 57.7 degrees C). A dsDNA titration assay with 20 bp fragments validated that dsDNA is captured at the same efficiency as ssDNA. Dilution studies with a duplex 20mer show that targets can be successfully captured and analyzed with a limit of detection of 1 pM from 250 nL of solution (approximately 150,000 fluorescent molecules). Simultaneous capture and injection of amplicons from E. coli K12 and M13mp18 using a mixture of two different capture probes demonstrates the feasibility of multiplex target capture. Unlike the traditional cross-injector, this method enables efficient capture and injection of dsDNA amplicons which will facilitate the quantitative analysis of products from integrated nanoliter-scale PCR reactors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yang; Wang, Huasheng; Xia, Jixia; Cai, Guobiao; Zhang, Zhenpeng
2017-04-01
For the pressure reducing regulator and check valve double-valve combined test system in an integral bipropellant propulsion system, a system model is established with modular models of various typical components. The simulation research is conducted on the whole working process of an experiment of 9 MPa working condition from startup to rated working condition and finally to shutdown. Comparison of simulation results with test data shows: five working conditions including standby, startup, rated pressurization, shutdown and halt and nine stages of the combined test system are comprehensively disclosed; valve-spool opening and closing details of the regulator and two check valves are accurately revealed; the simulation also clarifies two phenomena which test data are unable to clarify, one is the critical opening state in which the check valve spools slightly open and close alternately in their own fully closed positions, the other is the obvious effects of flow-field temperature drop and temperature rise in pipeline network with helium gas flowing. Moreover, simulation results with consideration of component wall heat transfer are closer to the test data than those under the adiabatic-wall condition, and more able to reveal the dynamic characteristics of the system in various working stages.
Evaluation of Ultrasonic Measurement Variation in the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project
Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Crawford, Susan L.; Munley, John T.
2010-01-12
Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) under contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the condition of the double-shell tanks (DST) on the Hanford nuclear site. WRPS has contracted with AREVA Federal Services LLC (AFS) to perform ultrasonic testing (UT) inspections of the 28 DSTs to assess the condition of the tanks, judge the effects of past corrosion control practices, and satisfy a regulatory requirement to periodically assess the integrity of the tanks. Since measurement inception in 1997, nine waste tanks have been examined twice (at the time of this report) providing UT data that can now be compared over specific areas. During initial reviews of these two comparable data sets, average UT wall-thickness measurement reductions were noted in most of the tanks. This variation could be a result of actual wall thinning occurring on the waste-tanks walls, or some other unexplained anomaly resulting from measurement error due to causes such as the then-current measurement procedures, operator setup, or equipment differences. WRPS contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assist in understanding why this variation exists and where it stems from.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshikawa, Takehiro; Sugawara, Shuichi; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Shiga, Motoyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori
2010-08-01
Full-dimensional path-integral molecular dynamics simulations were performed to determine whether the double proton transfer tautomerization of porphycene is a concerted or a stepwise process. We employed an on-the-fly direct dynamics technique at the semiempirical PM6 method whose parameters were determined so as that the relative energies of the stationary points approximately reproduce previously reported electronic structure calculations. It was found that double proton transfer occurs dominantly through the concerted pathway via the second-order saddle point structure and that contribution of the stepwise mechanism increases with a temperature increase. Nuclear quantum effects play essential roles in determining the proton transfer mechanism.
Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs): Double Fourier Series (DFS) Dynamical Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, M.; Hong, S.
2013-12-01
A multi-scale atmospheric/oceanic model system with unified physics, the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs) has been created for use in numerical weather prediction, seasonal simulations, and climate research projects, from global to regional scales. It includes not only the model code, but also the test cases and scripts. The model system is developed and practiced by taking advantage of both operational and research applications. We outlines the history of GRIMs, its current applications, and plans for future development, providing a summary useful to present and future users. In addition to the traditional spherical harmonics (SPH) dynamical core, a new spectral method with a double Fourier series (DFS) is available in the GRIMs (Table 1). The new DFS dynamical core with full physics is evaluated against the SPH dynamical core in terms of short-range forecast capability for a heavy rainfall event and seasonal simulation framework. Comparison of the two dynamical cores demonstrates that the new DFS dynamical core exhibits performance comparable to the SPH in terms of simulated climatology accuracy and the forecast of a heavy rainfall event. Most importantly, the DFS algorithm guarantees improved computational efficiency in the cluster computer as the model resolution increases, which is consistent with theoretical values computed from the dry primitive equation model framework of Cheong (Fig. 1). The current study shows that, at higher resolutions, the DFS approach can be a competitive dynamical core because the DFS algorithm provides the advantages of both the spectral method for high numerical accuracy and the grid-point method for high performance computing in the aspect of computational cost. GRIMs dynamical cores
Temu, Florence; Leonhardt, Marcus; Carter, Jane; Thiam, Sylla
2014-01-01
Sub-Saharan African countries now face the double burden of Non Communicable and Communicable Diseases. This situation represents a major threat to fragile health systems and emphasises the need for innovative integrative approaches to health care delivery. Health services need to be reorganised to address populations’ needs holistically and effectively leverage resources in already resource-limited settings. Access and delivery of quality health care should be reinforced and implemented at primary health care level within the framework of health system strengthening. Competencies need to be developed around services provided rather than specific diseases. New models of integration within the health sector and other sectors should be explored and further evidence generated to inform policy and practice to combat the double burden. PMID:25419329
Liu, Baocang; Wang, Qin; Yu, Shengli; Jing, Peng; Liu, Lixia; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Jun
2014-10-21
Rational design of the hierarchical architecture of a material with well controlled functionality is crucially important for improving its properties. In this paper, we present the general strategies for rationally designing and constructing three types of hierarchical Pd integrated TiO2 double-shell architectures, i.e. yolk-double-shell TiO2 architecture (Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2) with yolk-type Pd nanoparticles residing inside the central cavity of the hollow TiO2 structure; ultrafine Pd nanoparticles homogenously dispersed on both the external and internal surfaces of the inner TiO2 shell; and double-shell TiO2 architecture (@TiO2/Pd@TiO2) with Pd nanoparticles solely loaded on the external surface of the inner TiO2 shell, and double-shell TiO2 architecture (@TiO2@Pd@TiO2) with Pd nanoparticles dispersed in the interlayer space of double TiO2 shells, via newly developed Pd(2+) ion-diffusion and Pd sol impregnation methodologies. These architectures are well controlled in structure, size, morphology, and configuration with Pd nanoparticles existing in various locations. Owing to the variable synergistic effects arising from the location discrepancies of Pd nanoparticle in the architectures, they exhibit remarkable variations in catalytic activity. In particular, different from previously reported yolk-shell structures, the obtained yolk-double-shell Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2 architecture, which is revealed for the first time, possesses a uniform hierarchical structure, narrow size distribution, and good monodispersibility, and it creates two Pd-TiO2 interfaces on the external and internal surfaces of the inner TiO2 shell, leading to the strongest synergistic effect of Pd nanoparticles with TiO2 shell. Furthermore, the interlayer chamber between the double TiO2 shells connecting with the central cavity of the hollow TiO2 structure through the mesoporous TiO2 wall forms a nanoreactor for enriching the reactants and preventing the deletion of Pd nanoparticles during the reaction, thus
Exact path-integral evaluation of the heat distribution function of a trapped Brownian oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Debarati; Cherayil, Binny J.
2010-11-01
Using path integrals, we derive an exact expression—valid at all times t —for the distribution P(Q,t) of the heat fluctuations Q of a Brownian particle trapped in a stationary harmonic well. We find that P(Q,t) can be expressed in terms of a modified Bessel function of zeroth order that in the limit t→∞ exactly recovers the heat distribution function obtained recently by Imparato [Phys. Rev. E 76, 050101(R) (2007)]10.1103/PhysRevE.76.050101 from the approximate solution to a Fokker-Planck equation. This long-time result is in very good agreement with experimental measurements carried out by the same group on the heat effects produced by single micron-sized polystyrene beads in a stationary optical trap. An earlier exact calculation of the heat distribution function of a trapped particle moving at a constant speed v was carried out by van Zon and Cohen [Phys. Rev. E 69, 056121 (2004)]10.1103/PhysRevE.69.056121; however, this calculation does not provide an expression for P(Q,t) itself, but only its Fourier transform (which cannot be analytically inverted), nor can it be used to obtain P(Q,t) for the case v=0 .
Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S
2016-03-15
Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S.
2016-03-01
Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology.
Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S.
2016-01-01
Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology. PMID:26976199
Steiger, Tineke K.; Bunzeck, Nico
2017-01-01
Motivation can have invigorating effects on behavior via dopaminergic neuromodulation. While this relationship has mainly been established in theoretical models and studies in younger subjects, the impact of structural declines of the dopaminergic system during healthy aging remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we used electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young and elderly humans in a reward-learning paradigm. Specifically, scene images were initially encoded by combining them with cues predicting monetary reward (high vs. low reward). Subsequently, recognition memory for the scenes was tested. As a main finding, we can show that response times (RTs) during encoding were faster for high reward predicting images in the young but not elderly participants. This pattern was resembled in power changes in the theta-band (4–7 Hz). Importantly, analyses of structural MRI data revealed that individual reward-related differences in the elderlies’ response time could be predicted by the structural integrity of the dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN; as measured by magnetization transfer (MT)). These findings suggest a close relationship between reward-based invigoration, theta oscillations and age-dependent changes of the dopaminergic system. PMID:28174533
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huggard, Peter G.; Azcona, Luis; Laisné, Alexandre; Ellison, Brian N.; Shen, Pengbo; Gomes, Nathan J.; Davies, Phil A.
2004-10-01
Photomixing is a flexible and efficient method of providing both local oscillator signals for heterodyne receivers and high frequency phase reference signals. Ultrafast, 70 GHz bandwidth, λ = 1.55 µm, photodiodes from u2t Photonics AG have been incorporated into three designs of mm-wave waveguide mounts. The photomixers utilise a thin freestanding gold foil, or a gold on dielectric, probe to couple power into the waveguide and to deliver the photodiode bias. The frequency coverage of the designs is from 70 GHz to 300 GHz. A method of rapidly characterizing the frequency response of these photomixers using spontaneous-spontaneous beating of light from an EDFA is described. Recent work has been directed at increasing the degree of integration of the photodiode with the waveguide probe and choke filter to reduce the frequency dependence of the output power. A simplified photomixer block manufacturing process has also been introduced. A combined probe and filter structure, impedance matched to both the coplanar output line on the photodiode chip and to 0.4 height milled waveguide, is presented. This matching is achieved over the W-band with a fixed waveguide backshort. We present modelled and experimental results showing the increased efficiency and smoother tuning. The design and frequency response of such a probe is reported. We also present the performance of a simpler mount, operating in the frequency range from 160 GHz to 300 GHz, which generates powers of around 10 µW up to 250 GHz.
Hu, Yufei; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Huang, Jilei
2017-02-28
Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be integrated into the plant genome. The double-strand break repair (DSBR) pathway is a major model for T-DNA integration. From this model, we expect that two ends of a T-DNA molecule would invade into a single DNA double-strand break (DSB) or independent DSBs in the plant genome. We call the later phenomenon a heterogeneous T-DNA integration which has never been observed. In this work, we demonstrated it in an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant seb19. To resolve the chromosomal structural changes caused by T-DNA integration at both the nucleotide and chromosome levels, we performed inverse PCR, genome resequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and linkage analysis. We found, in seb19, a single T-DNA connected two different chromosomal loci and caused complex chromosomal rearrangements. The specific break-junction pattern in seb19 is consistent with the result of heterogeneous T-DNA integration but not of recombination between two T-DNA insertions. We demonstrated that, in seb19, heterogeneous T-DNA integration evoked a cascade of incorrect repair of seven DSBs on chromosome 4 and 5, and then produced translocation, inversion, duplication and deletion. Heterogeneous T-DNA integration supports the DSBR model and suggests that two ends of a T-DNA molecule could be integrated into the plant genome independently. Our results also show a new origin of chromosomal abnormalities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.
2015-05-01
A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.
Noguera, Norman; Rózga, Krzysztof
2015-07-15
In this work, one provides a justification of the condition that is usually imposed on the parameters of the hypergeometric equation, related to the solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator in two-dimensional constant curvature spaces, in order to determine the solutions which are square-integrable. One proves that in case of negative curvature, it is a necessary condition of square integrability and in case of positive curvature, a necessary condition of regularity. The proof is based on the analytic continuation formulas for the hypergeometric function. It is observed also that the same is true in case of a slightly more general potential than the one for harmonic oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham Hoover, William; Clinton Sprott, Julien; Griswold Hoover, Carol
2016-10-01
We describe the application of adaptive (variable time step) integrators to stiff differential equations encountered in many applications. Linear harmonic oscillators subject to nonlinear thermal constraints can exhibit either stiff or smooth dynamics. Two closely related examples, Nosé's dynamics and Nosé-Hoover dynamics, are both based on Hamiltonian mechanics and generate microstates consistent with Gibbs' canonical ensemble. Nosé's dynamics is stiff and can present severe numerical difficulties. Nosé-Hoover dynamics, although it follows exactly the same trajectory, is smooth and relatively trouble-free. We emphasize the power of adaptive integrators to resolve stiff problems such as the Nosé dynamics for the harmonic oscillator. The solutions also illustrate the power of computer graphics to enrich numerical solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, Sergio; Fassari, Silvestro; Rinaldi, Fabio
2013-09-01
We rigorously define the self-adjoint Hamiltonian of the harmonic oscillator perturbed by an attractive δ‧-interaction, of strength β, centred at 0 (the bottom of the confining parabolic potential), by explicitly providing its resolvent. Our approach is based on a ‘coupling constant renormalization’, related to a technique originated in quantum field theory and implemented in the rigorous mathematical construction of the self-adjoint operator representing the negative Laplacian perturbed by the δ-interaction in two and three dimensions. The way the δ‧-interaction enters in our Hamiltonian corresponds to the one originally discussed for the free Hamiltonian (instead of the harmonic oscillator one) by P Sěba. It should not be confused with the δ‧-potential perturbation of the harmonic oscillator discussed, e.g., in a recent paper by Gadella, Glasser and Nieto (also introduced by P Sěba as a perturbation of the one-dimensional free Laplacian and recently investigated in that context by Golovaty, Hryniv and Zolotaryuk). We investigate in detail the spectrum of our perturbed harmonic oscillator. The spectral structure differs from that of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator perturbed by an attractive δ-interaction centred at the origin: the even eigenvalues are not modified at all by the δ‧-interaction. Moreover, all the odd eigenvalues, regarded as functions of β, exhibit the rather remarkable phenomenon called ‘level crossing’ after first producing the double degeneracy of all the even eigenvalues for the value \\beta = \\beta _0 = \\frac{{2\\sqrt \\pi }}{{B\\left( {\\frac{3}{4},\\frac{1}{2}} \\right)}} \\cong 1.47934(B( ·, ·) being the beta function). Dedicated to Professor Gianfausto Dell'Antonio on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
Paradoxes of neutrino oscillations
Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Smirnov, A. Yu.
2009-08-15
Despite the theory of neutrino oscillations being rather old, some of its basic issues are still being debated in the literature. We discuss a number of such issues, including the relevance of the 'same energy' and 'same momentum' assumptions, the role of quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations in neutrino oscillations, the dependence of the coherence and localization conditions that ensure the observability of neutrino oscillations on neutrino energy and momentum uncertainties, the question of (in)dependence of the oscillation probabilities on the neutrino production and detection processes, and the applicability limits of the stationary-source approximation. We also develop a novel approach to calculation of the oscillation probability in the wave-packet approach, based on the summation/integration conventions different from the standard one, which allows a new insight into the 'same energy' vs. 'same momentum' problem. We also discuss a number of apparently paradoxical features of the theory of neutrino oscillations.
Liu, Hongliang; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Jaque, D
2013-09-01
We report on the design and implementation of a prototype of optical waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG crystals by using femtosecond-laser irradiation. In this prototype, two concentric tubular structures with nearly circular cross sections of different diameters have been inscribed in the Nd:YAG crystals, generating double-cladding waveguides. Under 808 nm optical pumping, waveguide lasers have been realized in the double-cladding structures. Compared with single-cladding waveguides, the concentric tubular structures, benefiting from the large pump area of the outermost cladding, possess both superior laser performance and nearly single-mode beam profile in the inner cladding. Double-cladding waveguides of the same size were fabricated and coated by a thin optical film, and a maximum output power of 384 mW and a slope efficiency of 46.1% were obtained. Since the large diameters of the outer claddings are comparable with those of the optical fibers, this prototype paves a way to construct an integrated single-mode laser system with a direct fiber-waveguide configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwieciński, Jan; Maul, Martin
2003-02-01
In this paper we derive an integral equation for the evolution of unintegrated (longitudinally) polarized quark and gluon parton distributions. The conventional Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) framework is modified at small x in order to incorporate the QCD expectations concerning the double ln2(1/x) resummation at low x for the integrated distributions. Complete Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions are included that makes the formalism compatible with the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderately small values of x. The obtained modified polarized CCFM equation is shown to be partially diagonalized by the Fourier-Bessel transformation. Results of the numerical solution for this modifed polarized CCFM equation for the nonsinglet quark distributions are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helhel, S.; Khamitov, I.; Kahya, G.; Bayar, C.; Kaynar, S.; Gumerov, R.
2015-10-01
Photometric and spectroscopic observation capabilities of 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope RTT150 has been broadened with the integration of presented polarimeter. The well-known double-wedged Wollaston-type dual-beam technique was preferred and applied to design and produce it. The designed polarimeter was integrated into the telescope detector TFOSC, and called TFOSC-WP. Its capabilities and limitations were attempted to be determined by a number of observation sets. Non-polarized and strongly polarized stars were observed to determine its limitations as well as its linearity. An instrumental intrinsic polarization was determined for the 1 × 5 arcmin field of view in equatorial coordinate system, the systematic error of polarization degree as 0.2 %, and position angle as 1.9∘. These limitations and capabilities are denoted as good enough to satisfy telescopes' present and future astrophysical space missions related to GAIA and SRG projects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zi-Jiang; Qin, Pan
2016-07-01
This paper considers the problem of distributed synchronisation tracking control of multiple Euler-Lagrange systems on a directed graph which contains a spanning tree with the leader node being the root. To design the high performance distributed controllers, a virtual double-integrator is introduced in each agent and is controlled by a virtual distributed linear high-gain synchronisation tracking controller, so that the position and velocity of each agent track those of the reference trajectory with arbitrarily short transient time and small ultimate tracking error. Then taking the double-integrator's position and velocity as the estimates of those of the reference trajectory, in each generalised coordinate of each Euler-Lagrange agent, a local controller with a disturbance observer and a sliding mode control term is designed, to suppress the mutual interactions among the agents and the modelling uncertainties. The boundedness of the overall signals and the synchronisation tracking control performance are analysed, and the conditions for guaranteed control performance are clarified. Simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the performance of the distributed controllers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xiwang; Han, Liang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang
2016-12-01
Time-varying formation analysis and design problems for double-integrator multi-agent systems with jointly connected topologies are investigated. Different from the previous work on formation control, in this paper, the formation is specified by time-varying piecewise continuously differentiable vectors and the topology can be disconnected at any time instant. First, a distributed formation control protocol is constructed using local neighbour-to-neighbour information. In the case where the switching topology is jointly connected, necessary and sufficient conditions for double-integrator multi-agent systems to achieve time-varying formations are proposed, where the formation feasibility constraint is also derived. To describe the macroscopic movement of the whole formation, explicit expressions of the formation reference are presented, the motion modes of which can be partially assigned. Moreover, an approach to design the formation control protocol is given, which is fully distributed and requires no global information about the topology. Finally, the obtained theoretical results are applied to deal with the time-varying formation control problems of multi-vehicle systems.
Pitch doubling through dual-patterning lithography challenges in integration and litho budgets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dusa, Mircea; Quaedackers, John; Larsen, Olaf F. A.; Meessen, Jeroen; van der Heijden, Eddy; Dicker, Gerald; Wismans, Onno; de Haas, Paul; van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Finders, Jo; Vleeming, Bert; Storms, Geert; Jaenen, Patrick; Cheng, Shaunee; Maenhoudt, Mireille
2007-03-01
We present results from investigating critical challenges of pitch doubling through Double Patterning to meet manufacturing requirements for 32nm 1/ II pitch on 1.2NA lithography system. Simulations of lithography alternatives identified manufacturable Dose-Focus latitudes for a dual-line positive process option which led to an experimental setup based on a single hardmask process. Key challenges of the selected process relate to the presence or absence of the hardmask layer during 1 st or 2 nd patterning step. This has an effect on wafer topography, process setup, etch bias and wafer litho-to-etch CDU offsets, which will create two final CDU populations. Therefore, there are two metrology challenges, separation between the two CD populations and overlay-at-resolution using CDSEM. They were addressed by designing appropriate CD and overlay targets and by implementing an adequate dense sampling allowing modeling of wafer and field CD distributions. We introduced a new CDU model to calculate double patterning budgets based on defining CD from its edges and pooling CD variance from two adjacent patterns within 2*Pitch distance. For a single line and 1.35NA system, the model predicted 3.1nm variance with mask CDU and etch bias being the major contributors. We achieved an experimental resolution of 32-nm 1/ II pitch on 1.2NA system, which equals 0.20k1. Experimental results at 32-nm resolution were confirmed in a pre-manufacturing environment on a full lot of 24 wafers, with raw CDU of 6nm (3s). After modeling and correcting for interfield (wafer) and intrafield spatial distributions, CDU was improved to 2.5nm (3s). Best overlay results equaled scanner SMO capability of ~7nm (mean+3s).
miR-285-Yki/Mask double-negative feedback loop mediates blood-brain barrier integrity in Drosophila.
Li, Dong; Liu, Yanling; Pei, Chunli; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Linqing; Xiao, Jing; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Zengqiang; Bi, Xiaolin
2017-03-21
The Hippo signaling pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to mammals and plays a central role in maintaining organ size and tissue homeostasis. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) physiologically isolates the brain from circulating blood or the hemolymph system, and its integrity is strictly maintained to perform sophisticated neuronal functions. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of subperineurial glia (SPG) growth and BBB maintenance during development are not clear. Here, we report an miR-285-Yorkie (Yki)/Multiple Ankyrin repeats Single KH domain (Mask) double-negative feedback loop that regulates SPG growth and BBB integrity. Flies with a loss of miR-285 have a defective BBB with increased SPG ploidy and disruptive septate junctions. Mechanistically, miR-285 directly targets the Yki cofactor Mask to suppress Yki activity and down-regulates the expression of its downstream target cyclin E, a key regulator of cell cycle. Disturbance of cyclin E expression in SPG causes abnormal endoreplication, which leads to aberrant DNA ploidy and defective septate junctions. Moreover, the expression of miR-285 is increased by knockdown of yki or mask and is decreased with yki overexpression, thus forming a double-negative feedback loop. This regulatory loop is crucial for sustaining an appropriate Yki/Mask activity and cyclin E level to maintain SPG ploidy and BBB integrity. Perturbation of this signaling loop, either by dysregulated miR-285 expression or Yki activity, causes irregular SPG ploidy and BBB disruption. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-285 promotes canonical Hippo pathway-mediated apoptosis independent of the p53 or JNK pathway. Collectively, these results reveal an exquisite regulatory mechanism for BBB maintenance through an miR-285-Yki/Mask regulatory circuit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.
1988-01-01
Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.
Potter, B.M.
1980-05-13
An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Doering, Lutz; Daus, Alwin; Brand, Uwe; Frank, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin
2015-05-01
Silicon microforce sensors, to be used as a transferable standard for micro force and depth scale calibrations of hardness testing instruments, are developed using silicon bulk micromachining technologies. Instead of wet chemical etching, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is employed in the sensor fabrication process leading to more precise control of 300 μm deep structures with smooth sidewall profiles. Double meander springs are designed flanking to the boss replacing the conventional rectangular springs and thereby improving the system linearity. Two full p-SOI piezoresistive Wheatstone bridges are added on both clamped ends of the active sensors. To realize passive force sensors two spring-mass elements are stacked using glue and photoresist as joining materials. Correspondingly, although plastic deformation seems to occur when the second spring is contacted, the kink effect (i.e., abrupt increase of stiffness) is obviously observed from the first test of the passive stack sensor.
Current sheet oscillations in the magnetic filament approach
Erkaev, N. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.
2012-06-15
Magnetic filament approach is applied for modeling of nonlinear 'kink'-like flapping oscillations of thin magnetic flux tubes in the Earth's magnetotail current sheet. A discrete approximation for the magnetic flux tube was derived on a basis of the Hamiltonian formulation of the problem. The obtained system of ordinary differential equations was integrated by method of Rosenbrock, which is suitable for stiff equations. The two-dimensional exact Kan's solution of the Vlasov equations was used to set the background equilibrium conditions for magnetic field and plasma. Boundary conditions for the magnetic filament were found to be dependent on the ratio of the ionospheric conductivity and the Alfven conductivity of the magnetic tube. It was shown that an enhancement of this ratio leads to the corresponding increase of the frequency of the flapping oscillations. For some special case of boundary conditions, when the magnetic perturbations vanish at the boundaries, the calculated frequency of the 'kink'-like flapping oscillations is rather close to that predicted by the 'double gradient' analytical model. For others cases, the obtained frequency of the flapping oscillations is somewhat larger than that from the 'double gradient' theory. The frequency of the nonlinear flapping oscillations was found to be a decreasing function of the amplitude.
Liu, Shuqin; Han, Wenpeng; Jiang, Shunyan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wu, Changxin
2016-02-10
Canadian double-muscled Large White pigs are characterized by notable muscle mass, showing high daily gain and lean rate and good meat quality. In order to identify the major genes or proteins involved in muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy, three pairs of full-sib pigs with extreme muscle mass difference from Canadian Large White were selected as experimental animals at 3 months age. The phenotypic differences of longissimus dorsi muscles (LD) were investigated with microarray and proteomics (2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS), and results were verified by real-time PCR and western bolting respectively. The gene expressing profiling identified 57 and 260 and 147 differently expressed genes (DEGs) from the three pairs respectively with Bayesian statistics and significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) (p<0.05, q<0.05, fold>2). From the network of these DEGs, some major genes were displayed, such as EGF, PPARG, FN1, SERPINE1, MYC, JUN, involved in Wnt, MAPK and TGF-β signal pathway respectively, which mainly participated in cell differentiation and proliferation. In parallel, proteomics analyses revealed 50 differently expressed protein (DEP) spots with mass spectrum, and 33 spots of them were found annotated, which took part in energy metabolism and the structure and contraction of muscle fiber. In brief, our integrated study provides a good foundation for the further study on the genetic mechanism of the double muscle traits in pigs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sandeep; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Aernouts, Ben; Gellynck, Karolien; Vlaminck, Lieven; Bockstaele, Ronny; Cornelissen, Maria; Ramon, Herman; Saeys, Wouter
2014-05-01
Near infrared spectroscopy offers a promising technological platform for continuous glucose monitoring in the human body. NIR measurements can be performed in vivo with an implantable single-chip based optical NIR sensor. However, the application of NIR spectroscopy for accurate estimation of the analyte concentration in highly scattering biological systems still remains a challenge. For instance, a thin tissue layer may grow in the optical path of the sensor. As most biological tissues allow only a small fraction of the collimated light to pass, this might result in a large reduction of the light throughput. To quantify the effect of presence of a thin tissue layer in the optical path, the bulk optical properties of tissue samples grown on sensor dummies which had been implanted for several months in goats were characterized using Double Integrating Spheres and unscattered transmittance measurements. The measured values of diffuse reflectance, diffuse transmittance and collimated transmittance were used as input to Inverse Adding-Doubling algorithm to estimate the bulk optical properties of the samples. The estimates of absorption and scattering coefficients were then used to calculate the light attenuation through a thin tissue layer. Based on the lower reduction in unscattered transmittance and higher absorptivity of glucose molecules, the measurement in the combination band was found to be the better option for the implantable sensor. As the tissues were found to be highly forward scattering with very low unscattered transmittance, the diffuse transmittance measurement based sensor configuration was recommended for the implantable glucose sensor.
Levin, A.E.; Griffith, P.
1980-04-01
Tests performed in a small scale water loop showed that voiding oscillations, similar to those observed in sodium, were present in water, as well. An analytical model, appropriate for either sodium or water, was developed and used to describe the water flow behavior. The experimental results indicate that water can be successfully employed as a sodium simulant, and further, that the condensation heat transfer coefficient varies significantly during the growth and collapse of vapor slugs during oscillations. It is this variation, combined with the temperature profile of the unheated zone above the heat source, which determines the oscillatory behavior of the system. The analytical program has produced a model which qualitatively does a good job in predicting the flow behavior in the wake experiment. The amplitude discrepancies are attributable to experimental uncertainties and model inadequacies. Several parameters (heat transfer coefficient, unheated zone temperature profile, mixing between hot and cold fluids during oscillations) are set by the user. Criteria for the comparison of water and sodium experiments have been developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Shanshan; Wu, Mengxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng
2016-07-01
The synergistic toughening effect of building blocks and interface interaction exists in natural materials, such as nacre. Herein, inspired by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibrillar chitin and two-dimensional (2D) calcium carbonate platelets of natural nacre, we have fabricated integrated strong and tough ternary bio-inspired nanocomposites (artificial nacre) successfully via the synergistic effect of 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and 1D double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and hydrogen bonding cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, the crack mechanics model with crack deflection by 2D rGO nanosheets and crack bridging by 1D DWNTs and PVA chains induces resultant artificial nacre exhibiting excellent fatigue-resistance performance. These outstanding characteristics enable the ternary bioinspired nanocomposites have many promising potential applications, for instance, aerospace, flexible electronics devices and so forth. This synergistic toughening strategy also provides an effective way to assemble robust graphene-based nanocomposites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monem, S.; Singh, A.; Karsten, A. E.; Amin, R.; Harith, M. A.
2015-12-01
Tissue simulators, the so-called tissue phantoms, have been used to mimic human tissue for spectroscopic applications. Phantoms' design depends on patterning the optical properties, namely absorption and scattering coefficients which characterize light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere measurement results were fed into the calibration models using the multiple polynomial regression method and Newton-Raphson algorithm. The third-order polynomials have been used for optical properties predictions. Good agreement between the two models has been obtained. Role of solid phantoms' components, namely titanium dioxide as a scatterer and black carbon as an absorber, has been discussed. Both of the two components showed observable effects on the absorption and scattering of light inside the solid tissue phantoms.
DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION
WASHENFELDER DJ
2008-01-22
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobhani, Hadi; Hassanabadi, Hassan
2016-08-01
This paper contains study of Bohr Hamiltonian considering time-dependent form of two important and famous nuclear potentials and harmonic oscillator. Dependence on time in interactions is considered in general form. In order to investigate this system, a powerful mathematical method has been employed, so-called Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant method. Appropriate dynamical invariant for considered system has been constructed. Then its eigen functions and the wave function are derived. At the end, we discussed about physical meaning of the results.
Wang, Sen
2014-09-01
In this paper, a Ka-band CMOS push-push voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated into a glass-integrated passive device (GIPD) process is presented. The transformer, λ/4 transmission line, and inductors of the VCO are realized in the GIPD process, achieving superior performances, and therefore improve the phase noise of the VCO. Moreover, the transformer-based VCO is a differential Hartley topology to further reduce the phase noise and chip area. Operating at 1.8 V supply voltage, the VCO core consumes merely 3.8 mW of dc power. The measured phase noise is -109.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the 30.84 GHz oscillation frequency. The push-push VCO also demonstrates a 24.5 dB fundamental rejection, and exhibits an 8.4% tuning range. Compared with recently published CMOS-based VCOs, it is observed that the proposed VCO exhibits excellent performance under low power consumption.
Medkour, Terkia; Ferrone, Frank; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hannaert, Patrick
2008-06-01
Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS) polymerization reduces erythrocyte deformability, causing deleterous vaso-occlusions. The double-nucleation model states that polymers grow from HbS aggregates, the nuclei, (i) in solution (homogeneous nucleation), (ii) onto existing polymers (heterogeneous nucleation). When linearized at initial HbS concentration, this model predicts early polymerization and its characteristic delay-time (Ferrone et al. J Mol Biol 183(4):591-610, 611-631, 1985). Addressing its relevance for describing complete polymerization, we constructed the full, non-linearized model (Simulink), The MathWorks). Here, we compare the simulated outputs to experimental progress curves (n = 6-8 different [HbS], 3-6 mM range, from Ferrone's group). Within 10% from start, average root mean square (rms) deviation between simulated and experimental curves is 0.04 +/- 0.01 (25 degrees C, n = 8; mean +/- standard error). Conversely, for complete progress curves, averaged rms is 0.48 +/- 0.04. This figure is improved to 0.13 +/- 0.01 by adjusting heterogeneous pathway parameters (p < 0.01): the nucleus stability (sigma(2) micro( cc ): + 40%), and the fraction of polymer surface available for nucleation (phi), from 5e(-7), (3 mM) to 13 (6 mM). Similar results are obtained at 37 degrees C. We conclude that the physico-chemical description of heterogeneous nucleation warrants refinements in order to capture the whole HbS polymerization process.
Chromosomal Integrity after UV Irradiation Requires FANCD2-Mediated Repair of Double Strand Breaks
Federico, María Belén; Vallerga, María Belén; Radl, Analía; Paviolo, Natalia Soledad; Bocco, José Luis; Di Giorgio, Marina; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa
2016-01-01
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs). FANCD2, a central factor of the FA pathway, is essential for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) generated during fork collapse at ICLs. While lesions different from ICLs can also trigger fork collapse, the contribution of FANCD2 to the resolution of replication-coupled DSBs generated independently from ICLs is unknown. Intriguingly, FANCD2 is readily activated after UV irradiation, a DNA-damaging agent that generates predominantly intra-strand crosslinks but not ICLs. Hence, UV irradiation is an ideal tool to explore the contribution of FANCD2 to the DNA damage response triggered by DNA lesions other than ICL repair. Here we show that, in contrast to ICL-causing agents, UV radiation compromises cell survival independently from FANCD2. In agreement, FANCD2 depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs generated during the replication of UV-damaged DNA and is dispensable for UV-induced checkpoint activation. Remarkably however, FANCD2 protects UV-dependent, replication-coupled DSBs from aberrant processing by non-homologous end joining, preventing the accumulation of micronuclei and chromatid aberrations including non-homologous chromatid exchanges. Hence, while dispensable for cell survival, FANCD2 selectively safeguards chromosomal stability after UV-triggered replication stress. PMID:26765540
Chromosomal Integrity after UV Irradiation Requires FANCD2-Mediated Repair of Double Strand Breaks.
Federico, María Belén; Vallerga, María Belén; Radl, Analía; Paviolo, Natalia Soledad; Bocco, José Luis; Di Giorgio, Marina; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa
2016-01-01
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs). FANCD2, a central factor of the FA pathway, is essential for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) generated during fork collapse at ICLs. While lesions different from ICLs can also trigger fork collapse, the contribution of FANCD2 to the resolution of replication-coupled DSBs generated independently from ICLs is unknown. Intriguingly, FANCD2 is readily activated after UV irradiation, a DNA-damaging agent that generates predominantly intra-strand crosslinks but not ICLs. Hence, UV irradiation is an ideal tool to explore the contribution of FANCD2 to the DNA damage response triggered by DNA lesions other than ICL repair. Here we show that, in contrast to ICL-causing agents, UV radiation compromises cell survival independently from FANCD2. In agreement, FANCD2 depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs generated during the replication of UV-damaged DNA and is dispensable for UV-induced checkpoint activation. Remarkably however, FANCD2 protects UV-dependent, replication-coupled DSBs from aberrant processing by non-homologous end joining, preventing the accumulation of micronuclei and chromatid aberrations including non-homologous chromatid exchanges. Hence, while dispensable for cell survival, FANCD2 selectively safeguards chromosomal stability after UV-triggered replication stress.
An implantable seal-less centrifugal pump with integrated double-disk motor.
Schima, H; Schmallegger, H; Huber, L; Birgmann, I; Reindl, C; Schmidt, C; Roschal, K; Wieselthaler, G; Trubel, W; Losert, U
1995-07-01
Thrombus formation and sealing problems at the shaft as well as the compact and efficient design of the driving unit have been major difficulties in the construction of a long-term implantable centrifugal pump. To eliminate the problems of the seal, motor size, and efficiency, two major steps were taken by modifying the Vienna implantable centrifugal pump. First, a special driving unit was developed, in which the permanent magnets of the motor themselves are used for coupling the force into the rotor. Second, the rotor shaft in the pumping chamber was eliminated by adopting a concept recently presented by Ohara. The rotor is supported by 3 pins, which run on a carbon disk, whose concave shape leads to stabilization. The device has the following specifications: size: 65 mm (diameter) by 35 mm (height), 101 cm3; priming volume 30 cm3, 240 g; and a 6-pole brushless double disk DC motor. The required input power of the described prototype is 15 W at 150 mm Hg, 5 L/min (overall eta = 11%), and has an in vitro index of hemolysis (IH) of 0.0046 g/100 L. The test for in vitro thrombus growth exhibited far less thrombus formation in the new design than in designs with axles. In conclusion, the design of a special driving unit and the elimination of the axle led to the construction of a small pump with very low blood traumatization.
Integration of III-V materials and Si-CMOS through double layer transfer process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Fitzgerald, Eugene; Tan, Chuan Seng
2015-03-01
A method to integrate III-V compound semiconductor and SOI-CMOS on a common Si substrate is demonstrated. The SOI-CMOS layer is temporarily bonded on a Si handle wafer. Another III-V/Si substrate is then bonded to the SOI-CMOS containing handle wafer. Finally, the handle wafer is released to realize the SOI-CMOS on III-V/Si hybrid structure on a common substrate. Through this method, high temperature III-V materials growth can be completed without the presence of the temperature sensitive CMOS layer, hence damage to the CMOS layer is avoided.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.; Constantoudis, Vasilios
2009-01-01
In Planck's model of the harmonic oscillator (HO) a century ago, both the energy and the phase space were quantized according to epsilon[subscript n] = nhv, n = 0, 1, 2..., and [double integral]dp[subscript x] dx = h. By referring to just these two relations, we show how the adoption of "cycle-averaged phase-space states" (CAPSSs) leads to the…
Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng
2015-12-22
With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosme, Jayson G.
2015-09-01
We numerically investigate the relaxation dynamics in an isolated quantum system of interacting bosons trapped in a double-well potential after an integrability breaking quench. Using the statistics of the spectrum, we identify the postquench Hamiltonian as nonchaotic and close to integrability over a wide range of interaction parameters. We demonstrate that the system exhibits thermalization in the context of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We also explore the possibility of an initial state to delocalize with respect to the eigenstates of the postquench Hamiltonian even for energies away from the middle of the spectrum. We observe distinct regimes of equilibration process depending on the initial energy. For low energies, the system rapidly relaxes in a single step to a thermal state. As the energy increases towards the middle of the spectrum, the relaxation dynamics exhibits prethermalization and the lifetime of the metastable states grows. Time evolution of the occupation numbers and the von Neumann entropy in the mode-partitioned system underpins the analyses of the relaxation dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, M. S.; Park, H.; Park, S. H.; Hong, S. Y.
2014-12-01
The Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs)-double Fourier series (DFS) spectral dynamical core has been developed to overcome the limitation of traditional spectral model using spherical harmonics in terms of computational cost at very high resolution. Recently, the GRIMs-DFS dynamical core was updated in two respects: (1) better scalability on high-performance computing platform; and (2) reduction of numerical time-stepping error. To improve the parallel efficiency, the archived wave domain was designed not to be sliced in the meridional direction, but to be decomposed in the horizontal and vertical directions. Although the computational cost slightly increased due to the requirement of temporary work array, the revised DFS dynamical core yielded higher scalability in terms of the wall-clock-time than the original one. In addition, its efficiency gain became greater with the increase of horizontal resolution when the number of processors is increased. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter has been proposed as a simple improvement to the widely used Robert-Asselin filter, in order to reduce time-stepping errors in semi-implicit leapfrog integration. This new approach was implemented into the GRIMs-DFS dynamical core and its impact was quantitatively evaluated on medium-range forecast and seasonal ensemble prediction frameworks. Preliminary results showed that the RAW time-filter properly reduced spurious light rainfalls that might be produced from unphysical computational mode generated by leap-frog time stepping. Further details will be presented in the conference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillipson-Nichols, Rebecca A.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.
2015-01-01
4U 1705-44 is a bright low mass x-ray binary (LMXB) containing a neutron star and a close, low mass companion. The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor obtained approximately 14 years of daily monitoring on 4U 1705-44 in the 2-20 keV energy range. Understanding the x-ray variability of 4U1705-44 is critical to the study of all low mass x-ray binaries because they share many of the same global characteristics in their high-amplitude transitions and non-periodic variability. After comparing the longterm light curve and phase space trajectories of 4U1705-44 to various nonlinear oscillators, the Duffing Oscillator was revealed to be a strong candidate to describe these systems. The parameters of the Duffing equation were optimized and six solutions sharing the same characteristics as 4U1705-44 were found. Striking commonalities were revealed via a phase-space analysis of both 4U1705-44 and the six Duffing solutions: the low-order driving period is no less than 87 days and spans up to 180 days, which is seenand highlighted in the power spectra, zero-crossings and close returns analysis of4U1705-44. Furthermore, the driving frequency of all six Duffing solutions tend toconverge to a range of 3.6 - 4.5, corresponding to driving periods in the range from 130 to 175 days, in agreement with that found in 4U1705-44. Nonlinear analysis methods such as close returns and zero-crossings of the Duffing solutions also show the same trends. This strongly suggests that 4U1705-44 shares the same topological characteristics as the Duffing equation. With further analysis, we hope to develop a model to explain why 4U1705-44 shares the unique topology of the Duffing Oscillator specifically, rather than those of other families of nonlinear differential equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz
1995-01-01
Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cacciani, Alessandro; Rosati, P.; Ricci, D.; Marquedant, R.; Smith, E.
1988-01-01
The magneto-optical filter (MOF) was used to get high and intermediate l-modes of solar oscillations. For very low l-modes the imaging capability of the MOF is still attractive since it allows a pixel by pixel intensity normalization. However, a crude attempt to get very low l power spectra from Dopplergrams obtained at Mt. Wilson gave noisy results. This means that a careful analysis of all the factors potentially affecting high resolution Dopplergrams should be accomplished. In order to better investigate this problem, a nonimaging channel using the lock-in amplifier technique was considered. Two systems are now operational, one at JPL and the other at University of Rome. Observations in progress are used to discuss the MOF stability, the noise level, and the possible application in asteroseismology.
Maxwell, W M C; Parrilla, I; Caballero, I; Garcia, E; Roca, J; Martinez, E A; Vazquez, J M; Rath, D
2007-10-01
The main aim of this study was to compare the motility and functional integrity of bull spermatozoa after single and double freezing and thawing. The viability and morphological integrity of spermatozoa selected by PureSperm density gradient centrifugation after cryopreservation of bovine semen in two commercial extenders (Experiment 1) and the function of bull spermatozoa before and after a second freezing and thawing assisted by PureSperm selection (Experiment 2) were examined. On average, 35.8 +/- 12.1% of sperm loaded onto the PureSperm density gradient were recovered after centrifugation. In Experiment 1, post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were higher for spermatozoa frozen in Tris-egg yolk extender than in AndroMed, whether the assessments were made immediately after thawing [80.4 +/- 12.7 vs 47.6 +/- 19.0% motile and 78.8 +/- 8.3 vs 50.1 +/- 19.5% normal apical ridge (NAR), p < 0.05] or after preparation on the gradient (83.3 +/- 8.6 vs 69.4 +/- 15.9% motile and 89.5 +/- 7.2 vs 69.1 +/- 11.4% NAR, p < 0.05). For semen frozen in Tris-egg yolk extender, selection on the PureSperm gradient did not influence total motility but significantly improved the proportion of acrosome-intact spermatozoa. After the gradient, both the total motility and percentage of normal acrosomes increased for spermatozoa frozen in AndroMed (Minitüb Tiefenbach, Germany). In Experiment 2, there was no difference in sperm motility after the first and second freeze-thawing (82.9 +/- 12.7 vs 68.8 +/- 18.7%). However, the proportion of acrosome-intact spermatozoa was significantly improved by selection through the PureSperm gradient, whether measured by phase contrast microscopy (78.9 +/- 9.7 vs 90.4 +/- 4.0% NAR, p < 0.05) or flow cytometry (53.4 +/- 11.7 vs 76.3 +/- 6.0% viable acrosome-intact spermatozoa, p < 0.001). The improvement in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosomes was maintained after resuspension in the cooling extender and cooling to 4 degrees C (88
Dupont, Eric; Journet, Michel; Oula, Marie-Laure; Gomez, Juan; Léveillé, Claude; Loing, Estelle; Bilodeau, Diane
2014-01-01
Background Cellulite is a serious cosmetic concern for most of the 90% of women affected by it. Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of a complex integral anti-cellulite gel. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved 44 healthy women, aged 25–55 years. Subjects had a normal to slightly overweight body mass index and presented slight to moderate cellulite on their thighs, buttocks, and/or hips at baseline. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the treated or placebo group and accordingly applied the active product or placebo on their hips, stomach, buttocks, and thighs, twice daily for 3 months. Skin tonicity, orange-peel aspect, and stubborn cellulite were assessed at day 0, 28, 56, and 84. A self-evaluation questionnaire was completed by all volunteers. Results At the end of the study, an average of 81% of the subjects applying the active product presented improvement in their cellulite condition versus 32% for the placebo group (all descriptors and sites combined). At day 84, skin tonicity, orange-peel appearance, and stubborn cellulite were improved in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, on all studied areas. Skin tonicity improved on average by +41% for buttocks, +35% for hips, and +31% for thighs. Orange peel appearance was reduced on average by −25% for buttocks, −22% for hips, and −22% for thighs. Stubborn cellulite was reduced on average by −19% for buttocks, −24% for hips, and −22% for thighs. Circumference measurements decreased in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, for the abdomen (average value of −1.1 cm) and thighs (average value of −0.8 cm). The product was well tolerated and perceived by the volunteers themselves as better performing than placebo on all criteria. Conclusion All results validate the efficacy of the present integral formulation to significantly reduce signs of cellulite and reshape the silhouette. PMID:24600240
Pisella, L; Binkofski, F; Lasek, K; Toni, I; Rossetti, Y
2006-01-01
The current dominant view of the visual system is marked by the functional and anatomical dissociation between a ventral stream specialised for perception and a dorsal stream specialised for action. The "double-dissociation" between visual agnosia (VA), a deficit of visual recognition, and optic ataxia (OA), a deficit of visuo-manual guidance, considered as consecutive to ventral and dorsal damage, respectively, has provided the main argument for this dichotomic view. In the first part of this paper, we show that the currently available empirical data do not suffice to support a double-dissociation between OA and VA. In the second part, we review evidence coming from human neuropsychology and monkey data, which cast further doubts on the validity of a simple double-dissociation between perception and action because they argue for a far more complex organisation with multiple parallel visual-to-motor connections: 1. A dorso-dorsal pathway (involving the most dorsal part of the parietal and pre-motor cortices): for immediate visuo-motor control--with OA as typical disturbance. The latest research about OA is reviewed, showing how these patients exhibit deficits restricted to the most direct and fast visuo-motor transformations. We also propose that mild mirror ataxia, consisting of misreaching errors when the controlesional hand is guided to a visual goal though a mirror, could correspond to OA with an isolated "hand effect". 2. A ventral stream-prefrontal pathway (connections from the ventral visual stream to pre-frontal areas, by-passing the parietal areas): for "mediate" control (involving spatial or temporal transpositions [Rossetti, Y., & Pisella, L. (2003). Mediate responses as direct evidence for intention: Neuropsychology of Not to-, Not now- and Not there-tasks. In S. Johnson (Ed.), Cognitive Neuroscience perspectives on the problem of intentional action (pp. 67-105). MIT Press.])--with VA as typical disturbance. Preserved visuo-manual guidance in patients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
Integrated Component Systems, Inc. incorporated information from a NASA Tech Briefs article into a voltage-controlled oscillator it designed for a customer. The company then applied the technology to its series of phase-locked loop synthesizers, which offer superior phase noise performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watkins, Charles E; Runyan, Harry L; Woolston, Donald S
1955-01-01
This report treats the Kernel function of an integral equation that relates a known prescribed downwash distribution to an unknown lift distribution for a harmonically oscillating finite wing in compressible subsonic flow. The Kernel function is reduced to a form that can be accurately evaluated by separating the Kernel function into two parts: a part in which the singularities are isolated and analytically expressed and a nonsingular part which may be tabulated. The form of the Kernel function for the sonic case (Mach number 1) is treated separately. In addition, results for the special cases of Mach number of 0 (incompressible case) and frequency of 0 (steady case) are given. The derivation of the integral equation which involves this Kernel function is reproduced as an appendix. Another appendix gives the reduction of the form of the Kernel function obtained herein for the three-dimensional case to a known result of Possio for two-dimensional flow. A third appendix contains some remarks on the evaluation of the Kernel function, and a fourth appendix presents an alternate form of expression for the Kernel function.
Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Ismail, Syed
2016-05-20
Field experiments were conducted to test and evaluate the initial atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) measurement capability of airborne, high-energy, double-pulsed, 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. This IPDA was designed, integrated, and operated at the NASA Langley Research Center on-board the NASA B-200 aircraft. The IPDA was tuned to the CO_{2} strong absorption line at 2050.9670 nm, which is the optimum for lower tropospheric weighted column measurements. Flights were conducted over land and ocean under different conditions. The first validation experiments of the IPDA for atmospheric CO_{2} remote sensing, focusing on low surface reflectivity oceanic surface returns during full day background conditions, are presented. In these experiments, the IPDA measurements were validated by comparison to airborne flask air-sampling measurements conducted by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. IPDA performance modeling was conducted to evaluate measurement sensitivity and bias errors. The IPDA signals and their variation with altitude compare well with predicted model results. In addition, off-off-line testing was conducted, with fixed instrument settings, to evaluate the IPDA systematic and random errors. Analysis shows an altitude-independent differential optical depth offset of 0.0769. Optical depth measurement uncertainty of 0.0918 compares well with the predicted value of 0.0761. IPDA CO_{2} column measurement compares well with model-driven, near-simultaneous air-sampling measurements from the NOAA aircraft at different altitudes. With a 10-s shot average, CO_{2} differential optical depth measurement of 1.0054±0.0103 was retrieved from a 6-km altitude and a 4-GHz on-line operation. As compared to CO_{2} weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of 404.08 ppm, derived from air sampling, IPDA measurement resulted in a value of 405.22±4.15 ppm with 1.02% uncertainty and
Squeezed states of damped oscillator chain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
The Caldirola-Kanai model of one-dimensional damped oscillator is extended to the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping. The correlated and squeezed states for the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping are constructed. Based on the concept of the integrals of motion, it is demonstrated how squeezing phenomenon arises due to parametric excitation.
Gitsevich, Aleksandr
2001-01-01
An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.
Liu, Guanxiong; Debnath, Bishwajit; Pope, Timothy R; Salguero, Tina T; Lake, Roger K; Balandin, Alexander A
2016-10-01
The charge-density-wave (CDW) phase is a macroscopic quantum state consisting of a periodic modulation of the electronic charge density accompanied by a periodic distortion of the atomic lattice in quasi-1D or layered 2D metallic crystals. Several layered transition metal dichalcogenides, including 1T-TaSe2, 1T-TaS2 and 1T-TiSe2 exhibit unusually high transition temperatures to different CDW symmetry-reducing phases. These transitions can be affected by the environmental conditions, film thickness and applied electric bias. However, device applications of these intriguing systems at room temperature or their integration with other 2D materials have not been explored. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature current switching driven by a voltage-controlled phase transition between CDW states in films of 1T-TaS2 less than 10 nm thick. We exploit the transition between the nearly commensurate and the incommensurate CDW phases, which has a transition temperature of 350 K and gives an abrupt change in current accompanied by hysteresis. An integrated graphene transistor provides a voltage-tunable, matched, low-resistance load enabling precise voltage control of the circuit. The 1T-TaS2 film is capped with hexagonal boron nitride to provide protection from oxidation. The integration of these three disparate 2D materials in a way that exploits the unique properties of each yields a simple, miniaturized, voltage-controlled oscillator suitable for a variety of practical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Guanxiong; Debnath, Bishwajit; Pope, Timothy R.; Salguero, Tina T.; Lake, Roger K.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2016-10-01
The charge-density-wave (CDW) phase is a macroscopic quantum state consisting of a periodic modulation of the electronic charge density accompanied by a periodic distortion of the atomic lattice in quasi-1D or layered 2D metallic crystals. Several layered transition metal dichalcogenides, including 1T-TaSe2, 1T-TaS2 and 1T-TiSe2 exhibit unusually high transition temperatures to different CDW symmetry-reducing phases. These transitions can be affected by the environmental conditions, film thickness and applied electric bias. However, device applications of these intriguing systems at room temperature or their integration with other 2D materials have not been explored. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature current switching driven by a voltage-controlled phase transition between CDW states in films of 1T-TaS2 less than 10 nm thick. We exploit the transition between the nearly commensurate and the incommensurate CDW phases, which has a transition temperature of 350 K and gives an abrupt change in current accompanied by hysteresis. An integrated graphene transistor provides a voltage-tunable, matched, low-resistance load enabling precise voltage control of the circuit. The 1T-TaS2 film is capped with hexagonal boron nitride to provide protection from oxidation. The integration of these three disparate 2D materials in a way that exploits the unique properties of each yields a simple, miniaturized, voltage-controlled oscillator suitable for a variety of practical applications.
Monolithic Millimeter Wave Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Nan-Lei
There is an increasing interest in the millimeter -wave spectrum for use in communications and for military and scientific applications. The concept of monolithic integration aims to produce very-high-frequency circuits in a more reliable, reproducible way than conventional electronics, and also at lower cost, with smaller size and lighter weight. In this thesis, a negative resistance device is integrated monolithically with a resonator to produce an effective oscillator. This work fills the void resulting from the exclusion of the local oscillator from the monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMMIC) receiver design. For convenience a microwave frequency model was used to design the resonator circuit. A 5 GHz hybrid oscillator was first fabricated to test the design; the necessary GaAs process technology was developed for the fabrication. Negative resistance devices and oscillator theory were studied, and a simple but practical model of the Gunn diode was devised to solve the impedance matching problem. Monolithic oscillators at the Ka band (35 GHz) were built and refined. All devices operated in CW mode. By means of an electric-field probe, the output power was coupled into a metallic waveguide for measurement purposes. The best result was 3.63 mW of power output, the highest efficiency was 0.43% and the frequency stability was better than 10-4. In the future, an IMPATT diode could replace the Gunn device to give much higher power and efficiency. A varactor-tuned circuit also suitable for large-scale integration is under study.
On the theory of oscillating airfoils of finite span in subsonic compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reissner, Eric
1950-01-01
The problem of oscillating lifting surface of finite span in subsonic compressible flow is reduced to an integral equation. The kernel of the integral equation is approximated by a simpler expression, on the basis of the assumption of sufficiently large aspect ratio. With this approximation the double integral occurring in the formulation of the problem is reduced to two single integrals, one of which is taken over the chord and the other over the span of the lifting surface. On the basis of this reduction the three-dimensional problem appears separated into two two-dimensional problems, one of them being effectively the problem of two-dimensional flow and the other being the problem of spanwise circulation distribution. Earlier results concerning the oscillating lifting surface of finite span in incompressible flow are contained in the present more general results.
MMIC Replacement for Gunn Diode Oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David
2011-01-01
An all-solid-state replacement for high-frequency Gunn diode oscillators (GDOs) has been proposed for use in NASA s millimeter- and submillimeter-wave sensing instruments. Highly developed microwave oscillators are used to achieve a low-noise and highly stable reference signal in the 10-40-GHz band. Compact amplifiers and high-power frequency multipliers extend the signal to the 100-500-GHz band with minimal added phase noise and output power sufficient for NASA missions. This technology can achieve improved output power and frequency agility, while maintaining phase noise and stability comparable to other GDOs. Additional developments of the technology include: a frequency quadrupler to 145 GHz with 18 percent efficiency and 15 percent fixed tuned bandwidth; frequency doublers featuring 124, 240, and 480 GHz; an integrated 874-GHz subharmonic mixer with a mixer noise temperature of 3,000 K DSB (double sideband) and mixer conversion loss of 11.8 dB DSB; a high-efficiency frequency tripler design with peak output power of 23 mW and 14 mW, and efficiency of 16 and 13 percent, respectively; millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers to the 30-40 GHz band with high DC power efficiency; and an 874-GHz radiometer suitable for airborne observation with state-of-the-art sensitivity at room temperature and less than 5 W of total power consumption.
Transient chaos in two coupled, dissipatively perturbed Hamiltonian Duffing oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabarathinam, S.; Thamilmaran, K.; Borkowski, L.; Perlikowski, P.; Brzeski, P.; Stefanski, A.; Kapitaniak, T.
2013-11-01
The dynamics of two coupled, dissipatively perturbed, near-integrable Hamiltonian, double-well Duffing oscillators has been studied. We give numerical and experimental (circuit implementation) evidence that in the case of small positive or negative damping there exist two different types of transient chaos. After the decay of the transient chaos in the neighborhood of chaotic saddle we observe the transient chaos in the neighborhood of unstable tori. We argue that our results are robust and they exist in the wide range of system parameters.
Murase, K. |; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Evans, A.C.; Gjedde, A.
1996-12-01
The authors developed a method for mapping the change in cerebral glucose utilization at two different physiological states using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method. They studied young normal subjects without (baseline-baseline group, n = 5) and with (baseline-stimulation group, n = 5) vibrotactile stimulation of the fingertips of the right hand. Dynamic scans were performed using positron emission tomography (PET) following an initial dose (the first session, 0--30 min) and an additional dose (the second session, 30--60 min). The parametric images of the net clearance of FDG from blood to brain (K*), unidirectional blood-to-brain clearance (K*{sub 1}) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMR{sub glc}) of the two sessions were generated. The averaged subtraction (second minus first session) and t-statistic images were generated, which were rendered into Talairach`s sterotaxic coordinates and merged with the averaged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. In the baseline-baseline group, regional K*, K*{sub 1}, and CMR{sub glc} in the first and second sessions were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.953, 0.935, and 0.951, respectively, n = 340). In the baseline-stimulation group, significant increases in these estimates were obtained in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) (from 3.43 {+-} 0.78 to 4.02 {+-} 1.01 ml/100 g/min for K*, 7.85 {+-} 1.88 to 9.09 {+-} 1.71 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 28.0 {+-} 5.9 to 32.3 {+-} 5.5 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}), while there were no significant changes in the ipsilateral SI (from 3.45 {+-} 0.84 to 3.39 {+-} 0.72 ml/100 g/min for K*, 8.17 {+-} 2.33 to 8.37 {+-} 1.75 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 29.5 {+-} 8.1 to 29.1 {+-} 8.2 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}). Significant increases in K* and CMR{sub glc} in the contralateral SI were clearly demonstrated in the t-statistic image.
Oscillators: Old and new perspectives
Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.; Roy, Jyotirmoy
2014-02-11
We consider some of the well known oscillators in literature which are known to exhibit interesting effects of nonlinearity. We review the Lindstedt-Poincare technique for dealing with with the nonlinear effects and then go on to introduce the relevance of the renormalization group for the oscillator following the pioneering work of Chen et al. It is pointed out that the traditional Lindstedt-Poincare and the renormalization group techniques have operational connections. We use this to find an unexpected mode softening in the double pendulum. This mode softening prompted us to look for chaos in the double pendulum at low energies-energies that are just sufficient to allow the outer pendulum to rotate (the double pendulum is known to be chaotic at high energies-energies that are greater than that needed to make both pendulums to rotate). The emergence of the chaos is strongly dependent on initial conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parashar, Piyush K.; Sharma, R. P.; Komarala, Vamsi K.
2017-01-01
Optical properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on SiO2 thin films of variable thickness, as a plasmonic double layer on a plain silicon wafer, are investigated for broadband antireflection. The light confinement into the silicon is found to be sensitive to the SiO2 film thickness of a few nanometers due to an evanescent character of the Ag NPs’ near-fields. The Ag NPs’ size anisotropy plays a pivotal role in incident light coupling due to the sub-wavelength spatial variation of near-fields at the interface, which leads to reflectance spectrum oscillation behavior in the nanoparticles’ surface plasmon resonance and off-resonance regions. With an optimized SiO2/Ag NP double layer, the average reflectance in the 300-1200 nm spectral range is reduced to 14% in comparison to 42% in bare silicon, with a flat minimum reflectance of 3.5% in the 725-1020 nm spectral region. Finite difference time domain calculations are performed for spatial variation of near-fields and their angular distribution of far-fields at different inhomogeneous interfaces (where near-fields exist). The total reflectance from various configurations is simulated theoretically by considering the experimentally optimized physical parameters of the plasmonic double layer to support the observations. To verify the role of SiO2 surface topology apart from the nanoparticle morphology in plasmon near-field coupling, thermally grown SiO2 films are investigated along with the sputtered SiO2 thin films.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong
2015-01-01
Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.
Oscillating stagnation point flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.
1982-01-01
A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.
Oscillating stagnation point flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.
1982-11-01
A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.
Transition paths to stochastic oscillations of a self-excited oscillator with a ferrite resonator
Aranson, I.S.; Pavlov, D.A.
1986-01-01
It is demonstrated experimentally that the transition to stochastic oscillations in a self-excited oscillator with ferrite resonator occurs through the complexification of the structure of self-modulation. All basic types of bifurcations are recorded: doubling, intermittency, hard onset of chaos, and critical behavior of strange attractors. Tripling of the self-modulation period was observed for special values of the parameters.
Memcapacitor model and its application in a chaotic oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guang-Yi, Wang; Bo-Zhen, Cai; Pei-Pei, Jin; Ti-Ling, Hu
2016-01-01
A memcapacitor is a new type of memory capacitor. Before the advent of practical memcapacitor, the prospective studies on its models and potential applications are of importance. For this purpose, we establish a mathematical memcapacitor model and a corresponding circuit model. As a potential application, based on the model, a memcapacitor oscillator is designed, with its basic dynamic characteristics analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Some circuit variables such as charge, flux, and integral of charge, which are difficult to measure, are observed and measured via simulations and experiments. Analysis results show that besides the typical period-doubling bifurcations and period-3 windows, sustained chaos with constant Lyapunov exponents occurs. Moreover, this oscillator also exhibits abrupt chaos and some novel bifurcations. In addition, based on the digital signal processing (DSP) technology, a scheme of digitally realizing this memcapacitor oscillator is provided. Then the statistical properties of the chaotic sequences generated from the oscillator are tested by using the test suit of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The tested randomness definitely reaches the standards of NIST, and is better than that of the well-known Lorenz system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271064, 61401134, and 60971046), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LZ12F01001 and LQ14F010008), and the Program for Zhejiang Leading Team of S&T Innovation, China (Grant No. 2010R50010).
Tests on Double Layer Metalization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, D. S.
1983-01-01
28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.
George Neil
2003-05-12
FEL Oscillators have been around since 1977 providing not only a test bed for the physics of Free Electron Lasers and electron/photon interactions but as a workhorse of scientific research. More than 30 FEL oscillators are presently operating around the world spanning a wavelength range from the mm region to the ultraviolet using DC and rf linear accelerators and storage rings as electron sources. The characteristics that have driven the development of these sources are the desire for high peak and average power, high micropulse energies, wavelength tunability, timing flexibility, and wavelengths that are unavailable from more conventional laser sources. Substantial user programs have been performed using such sources encompassing medicine, biology, solid state research, atomic and molecular physics, effects of non-linear fields, surface science, polymer science, pulsed laser vapor deposition, to name just a few.
Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.
1958-03-18
This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duvall, Thomas
2004-01-01
Oscillations were first detected in the solar photosphere in 1962 by Leighton and students. In 1970 it was calculated that these oscillations, with a period near five minutes, were the manifestations of acoustic waves trapped in the interior. The subsequent measurements of the frequencies of global oscillation modes from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the waves made possible the refinement of solar interior models. Over the years, increased understanding of the nuclear reaction rates, the opacity, the equation of state, convection, and gravitational settling have resulted. Mass flows shift the frequencies of modes leading to very accurate measurements of the interior rotation as a function of radius and latitude. In recent years, analogues of terrestrial seismology have led to a tomography of the interior, including measurements of global north-south flows and flow and wave speed measurements below features such as sunspots. The future of helioseismology seems bright with the approval of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, to be launched in 2008.
Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge; Herrera, Antonio
2013-01-01
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity.
Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A.; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge
2013-01-01
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity. PMID:23533788
Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong
2015-08-20
Double-pulsed 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO_{2} remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO_{2} measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-μm double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photoelectromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-μm IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO_{2} measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO_{2} measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO_{2} measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO_{2} temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.
Ivanov, Sergei D. Grant, Ian M.; Marx, Dominik
2015-09-28
With the goal of computing quantum free energy landscapes of reactive (bio)chemical systems in multi-dimensional space, we combine the metadynamics technique for sampling potential energy surfaces with the ab initio path integral approach to treating nuclear quantum motion. This unified method is applied to the double proton transfer process in the formic acid dimer (FAD), in order to study the nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures without imposing a one-dimensional reaction coordinate or reducing the dimensionality. Importantly, the ab initio path integral metadynamics technique allows one to treat the hydrogen bonds and concomitant proton transfers in FAD strictly independently and thus provides direct access to the much discussed issue of whether the double proton transfer proceeds via a stepwise or concerted mechanism. The quantum free energy landscape we compute for this H-bonded molecular complex reveals that the two protons move in a concerted fashion from initial to product state, yet world-line analysis of the quantum correlations demonstrates that the protons are as quantum-uncorrelated at the transition state as they are when close to the equilibrium structure.
Ivanov, Sergei D; Grant, Ian M; Marx, Dominik
2015-09-28
With the goal of computing quantum free energy landscapes of reactive (bio)chemical systems in multi-dimensional space, we combine the metadynamics technique for sampling potential energy surfaces with the ab initio path integral approach to treating nuclear quantum motion. This unified method is applied to the double proton transfer process in the formic acid dimer (FAD), in order to study the nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures without imposing a one-dimensional reaction coordinate or reducing the dimensionality. Importantly, the ab initio path integral metadynamics technique allows one to treat the hydrogen bonds and concomitant proton transfers in FAD strictly independently and thus provides direct access to the much discussed issue of whether the double proton transfer proceeds via a stepwise or concerted mechanism. The quantum free energy landscape we compute for this H-bonded molecular complex reveals that the two protons move in a concerted fashion from initial to product state, yet world-line analysis of the quantum correlations demonstrates that the protons are as quantum-uncorrelated at the transition state as they are when close to the equilibrium structure.
Stable local oscillator module.
Brocato, Robert Wesley
2007-11-01
This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.
Furukawa, Tomoyuki; Angelis, Karel J; Britt, Anne B
2015-01-01
The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g., errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork) and exogenous sources (e.g., ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals). Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1) displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2), both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway.
Furukawa, Tomoyuki; Angelis, Karel J.; Britt, Anne B.
2015-01-01
The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g., errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork) and exogenous sources (e.g., ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals). Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1) displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2), both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway. PMID:26074930
Wang, W; Guan, C; Zhou, C; Peng, Y; Pratt, L M; Chen, X; Chen, L; Chen, Z; Yuan, X; Xiao, S
2017-01-06
The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South China is a prime target for geobiological investigation because it offers opportunities to integrate chemostratigraphic and paleobiological data. Previous studies were mostly focused on successions in shallow-water shelf facies, but data from deep-water successions are needed to fully understand basinal redox structures. Here, we report δ(13) Ccarb , δ(13) Corg , δ(34) Spyr , δ(34) SCAS , and δ(15) Nsed data from a drill core of the fossiliferous Lantian Formation, which is a deep-water equivalent of the Doushantuo Formation. Our data confirm a large (>10‰) spatial gradient in δ(13) Ccarb in the lower Doushantuo/Lantian formations, but this gradient is probably due to the greater sensitivity of carbonate-poor deep-water sediments to isotopic mixing with (13) C-depleted carbonate cements. A pronounced negative δ(13) Ccarb excursion (EN3) in the upper Doushantuo/Lantian formations, however, is spatially consistent and may be an equivalent of the Shuram excursion. δ(34) Spyr is more negative in deeper-water facies than in shallow-water facies, particularly in the lower Doushantuo/Lantian formations, and this spatial pattern is interpreted as evidence for ocean redox stratification: Pyrite precipitated in euxinic deep waters has lower δ(34) Spyr than that formed within shallow-water sediments. The Lantian Formation was probably deposited in oscillating oxic and euxinic conditions. Euxinic black shales have higher TOC and TN contents, but lower δ(34) Spyr and δ(15) Nsed values. In euxinic environments, pyrite was predominantly formed in the water column and organic nitrogen was predominantly derived from nitrogen fixation or NH4(+) assimilation because of quantitative denitrification, resulting in lower δ(34) Spyr and δ(15) Nsed values. Benthic macroalgae and putative animals occur exclusively in euxinic black shales. If preserved in situ, these organisms must have lived in brief oxic episodes punctuating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Eckert, Markus; Weinbach, Matthias
Most small or medium sized parts produced in mass production are made by shearing and forming of sheet metal. This technology is cost effective, but the achievable quality and geometrical complexity are limited when working high and highest strength steel. Based on the requirements for widening the process limits of conventional sheet metal working the Fraunhofer IPT has developed the laser-assisted sheet metal working technology. With this enhancement it is possible to produce parts made of high and highest strength steel with outstanding quality, high complexity and low tool wear. Additionally laser hardening has been implemented to adjust the mechanical properties of metal parts within the process. Currently the process is limited to lower sheet thicknesses (<2 mm) to maintain short cycle times. To enable this process for larger geometries and higher sheet thicknesses the Fraunhofer IPT developed a system for double sided laser-assisted sheet metal working within progressive dies.
Kleinert, H; Zatloukal, V
2013-11-01
The statistics of rare events, the so-called black-swan events, is governed by non-Gaussian distributions with heavy power-like tails. We calculate the Green functions of the associated Fokker-Planck equations and solve the related stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the subject in the framework of path integration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edelson, Stephen M.; Arin, Deborah; Bauman, Margaret; Lukas, Scott E.; Rudy, Jane H.; Sholar, Michelle; Rimland, Bernard
1999-01-01
Nineteen individuals with autism either listened to auditory integration training processed music or unprocessed music for 20 half-hour sessions. A significant decrease in Aberrant Behavior Checklist Scores was observed in the experimental group at the 30-month follow-up assessment. In addition, three experimental subjects but no controls showed a…
Infrared properties of the Double Barrier Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, H. Y.; Sinkkonen, J.
The infrared admittance of the Double Barrier Structure (DBS) is investigated by using a time-dependent quantum theory. The analysis is carried out under the small signal condition with no dc bias. The calculated results show conductance oscillations in the infrared frequency region. The oscillations are associated with the quantum well transit time resonances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Wei, Chaopeng; Zhou, Jingwen; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo
2017-04-01
Ternary anodes have attracted more and more attention due to the characteristic advantages resulting from the effect integration of three different materials on the lithium storage mechanism with functional interfaces interaction. However, clarifying the distribution and interaction of carbon, MoS2 and TiO2 in the MoS2/C/TiO2 composite, which is helpful for the understanding of the formation and lithium storage mechanism of the ternary anodes, is a well-known challenge. Herein, a novel pore core-double shell nanostructure of P25@carbon network supported few-layer MoS2 nanosheet (P25@C@FL-MoS2) is successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal approach. The distribution and interaction of the carbon, MoS2 and TiO2 in the obtained P25@C@FL-MoS2 hybrid are systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis et al. It is found that the carbon serves as binder, which supports few-layer MoS2 shell and coats the P25 core via Tisbnd Osbnd C bonds at the same time. Such multi-functional integration with smart structure and strong interfacial contact generates favorable structure stability and interfacial pseudocapacity-like storage mechanism. As a consequence, superior cycling and rate capacity of the muti-functional integration ternary P25@C@FL-MoS2 anode are achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ou-Peng, Li; Yong, Zhang; Rui-Min, Xu; Wei, Cheng; Yuan, Wang; Bing, Niu; Hai-Yan, Lu
2016-05-01
Design and characterization of a G-band (140-220 GHz) terahertz monolithic integrated circuit (TMIC) amplifier in eight-stage common-emitter topology are performed based on the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). An inverted microstrip line is implemented to avoid a parasitic mode between the ground plane and the InP substrate. The on-wafer measurement results show that peak gains are 20 dB at 140 GHz and more than 15-dB gain at 140-190 GHz respectively. The saturation output powers are -2.688 dBm at 210 GHz and -2.88 dBm at 220 GHz, respectively. It is the first report on an amplifier operating at the G-band based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT technology. Compared with the hybrid integrated circuit of vacuum electronic devices, the monolithic integrated circuit has the advantage of reliability and consistency. This TMIC demonstrates the feasibility of the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP DHBT amplifier in G-band frequencies applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501091) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. ZYGX2014J003 and ZYGX2013J020).
Small X-Band Oscillator Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix A.; Clark, Eric B.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.
2009-01-01
A small, segmented microstrip patch antenna integrated with an X-band feedback oscillator on a high-permittivity substrate has been built and tested. This oscillator antenna is a prototype for demonstrating the feasibility of such devices as compact, low-power-consumption building blocks of advanced, lightweight, phased antenna arrays that would generate steerable beams for communication and remotesensing applications.
Jäämaa, Sari; Laiho, Marikki
2012-01-01
Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancer types in men, and its incidence is steadily increasing. On the other hand, primary seminal vesicle carcinomas are extremely rare with less than 60 cases reported worldwide. Therefore the difference in cancer incidence has been estimated to be more than a 100,000-fold. This is astonishing, as both tissues share similar epithelial structure and hormonal cues. Clearly, the two epithelia differ substantially in the maintenance of genomic integrity, possibly due to inherent differences in their DNA damage burden and DNA damage signaling. The DNA damage response evoked by DNA double strand breaks may be relevant, as their faulty repair has been implicated in the formation of common genomic rearrangements such as TMPRSS2-ERG fusions during prostate carcinogenesis. Here, we review DNA damaging processes of both tissues with an emphasis on inflammation and androgen signaling. We discuss how benign prostate and seminal vesicle epithelia respond to acute DNA damage, focusing on the canonical DNA double strand break-induced ATM-pathway, p53 and DNA damage induced checkpoints. We propose that the prostate might be more prone to the accumulation of genetic aberrations during epithelial regeneration than seminal vesicles due to a weaker ability to enforce DNA damage checkpoints. PMID:22762987
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, Hung-Ming; Thei, Kong-Beng; Tsai, Sheng-Fu; Lu, Chun-Tsen; Liao, Xin-Da; Lee, Kuan-Ming; Liu, Wen-Chau
2002-10-01
We have investigated the interesting double ion implant (DII) Ti-salicide and pre-amorphization implant (PAI) Co-salicide techniques for ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) applications. The DII technique is combined with germanium (or arsenic) PAI and Si ion-mixing processes. The sheet resistances both of n+ and p+ polysilicons are decreased when the DII Ti-salicide and PAI Co-salicide techniques are used. Moreover, the incomplete phase transformation of Ti-salicide is not observed in 0.2 μm wide polysilicon devices with the Ge DII process. Furthermore, the n+/p-well junction leakage current is reduced when the Si ion-mixing process is used. Experimentally, based on the studied DII Ti-salicide and PAI Co-salicide techniques, high-performance 0.2 μm CMOS devices have been successfully fabricated.
Li, Hua; Jiang, Linxiu; Guo, Chaoqun; Zhu, Jianmin; Jiang, Yongrong; Chen, Zhencheng
2017-01-01
The injection and ionization of volatile organic compounds (VOA) by an integrated chip is experimentally analyzed in this paper. The integrated chip consists of a needle-to-cylinder electrode mounting on the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) substrate. The needle-to-cylinder electrode is designed and fabricated by Lithographie, Galvanoformung and Abformung (LIGA) technology. In this paper, the needle is connected to a negative power supply of −5 kV and used as the cathode; the cylinder electrodes are composed of two arrays of cylinders and serve as the anode. The ionic wind is produced based on corona and glow discharges of needle-to-cylinder electrodes. The experimental setup is designed to observe the properties of the needle-to-cylinder discharge and prove its functions as an ion source and air pump. In summary, the main results are as follows: (1) the ionic wind velocity produced by the chip is about 0.79 m/s at an applied voltage of −3300 V; (2) acetic acid and ammonia water can be injected through the chip, which is proved by pH test paper; and (3) the current measured by a Faraday cup is about 10 pA for acetic acid and ammonia with an applied voltage of −3185 V. The integrated chip is promising for portable analytical instruments, such as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:28054980
Li, Hua; Jiang, Linxiu; Guo, Chaoqun; Zhu, Jianmin; Jiang, Yongrong; Chen, Zhencheng
2017-01-04
The injection and ionization of volatile organic compounds (VOA) by an integrated chip is experimentally analyzed in this paper. The integrated chip consists of a needle-to-cylinder electrode mounting on the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) substrate. The needle-to-cylinder electrode is designed and fabricated by Lithographie, Galvanoformung and Abformung (LIGA) technology. In this paper, the needle is connected to a negative power supply of -5 kV and used as the cathode; the cylinder electrodes are composed of two arrays of cylinders and serve as the anode. The ionic wind is produced based on corona and glow discharges of needle-to-cylinder electrodes. The experimental setup is designed to observe the properties of the needle-to-cylinder discharge and prove its functions as an ion source and air pump. In summary, the main results are as follows: (1) the ionic wind velocity produced by the chip is about 0.79 m/s at an applied voltage of -3300 V; (2) acetic acid and ammonia water can be injected through the chip, which is proved by pH test paper; and (3) the current measured by a Faraday cup is about 10 pA for acetic acid and ammonia with an applied voltage of -3185 V. The integrated chip is promising for portable analytical instruments, such as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), and mass spectrometry (MS).
Nonholonomic double-bracket equations and the Gauss thermostat.
Rojo, Alberto G; Bloch, Anthony M
2009-08-01
In this Rapid Communication we consider certain equations that arise from imposing a constant kinetic-energy constraint on a one-dimensional set of oscillators. This is a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint on these oscillators and the dynamics are consistent with Gauss's law of least constraint. Dynamics of this sort are of interest in nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. We show that under certain choices of external potential these equations give rise to a generalization of the so-called double-bracket equations which are of interest in studying gradient flows and integrable systems such as the Toda lattice. In the case of harmonic potentials the flow is described by a symmetric bracket and periodic solutions are obtained.
Du, Gang; Jiang, Zhibin; Diao, Xiaodi; Yao, Yang
2012-04-01
Although the clinical pathway (CP) predefines predictable standardized care process for a particular diagnosis or procedure, many variances may still unavoidably occur. Some key index parameters have strong relationship with variances handling measures of CP. In real world, these problems are highly nonlinear in nature so that it's hard to develop a comprehensive mathematic model. In this paper, a rule extraction approach based on combing hybrid genetic double multi-group cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) and discrete PSO algorithm (named HGDMCPSO/DPSO) is developed to discovery the previously unknown and potentially complicated nonlinear relationship between key parameters and variances handling measures of CP. Then these extracted rules can provide abnormal variances handling warning for medical professionals. Three numerical experiments on Iris of UCI data sets, Wisconsin breast cancer data sets and CP variances data sets of osteosarcoma preoperative chemotherapy are used to validate the proposed method. When compared with the previous researches, the proposed rule extraction algorithm can obtain the high prediction accuracy, less computing time, more stability and easily comprehended by users, thus it is an effective knowledge extraction tool for CP variances handling.
Oscillating Permanent Magnets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.
1989-01-01
Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)
Feng, Jijun; Akimoto, Ryoichi; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Mozume, Teruo; Hasama, Toshifumi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi
2013-07-01
We demonstrate a compact all-optical Michelson interferometer (MI) gating switch with monolithic integration of two different bandgap energies. Based on the ion-induced intermixing in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells, the blueshift of the band edge can be tailored. Through phosphorus ion implantation with a dose of 5 × 10(14) cm(-2) and subsequent annealing at 720 °C for 60 s, an implanted sample can acquire a high transmittance compared with the as-grown one. Meanwhile, the cross-phase modulation (XPM) efficiency of a non-implanted sample undergoing the same annealing process decreases little. An implanted part for signal propagation and a non-implanted section for XPM are thus monolithically integrated for an MI switch by an area-selective manner. Full switching of a π-rad nonlinear phase shift is achieved with pump pulse energy of 5.6 pJ at a 10-GHz repetition rate.
Guo, Wenxi; Xue, Xinyu; Wang, Sihong; Lin, Changjian; Wang, Zhong Lin
2012-05-09
We present a new approach to fabricate an integrated power pack by hybridizing energy harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a lithium ion battery (LIB) on the same Ti foil that has double-sided TiO(2) nanotube (NTs) arrays. The solar cell part is made of two different cosensitized tandem solar cells based on TiO(2) nanorod arrays (NRs) and NTs, respectively, which provide an open-circuit voltage of 3.39 V and a short-circuit current density of 1.01 mA/cm(2). The power pack can be charged to about 3 V in about 8 min, and the discharge capacity is about 38.89 μAh under the discharge density of 100 μA. The total energy conversion and storage efficiency for this system is 0.82%. Such an integrated power pack could serve as a power source for mobile electronics.
Terahertz oscillators using resonant tunneling diodes and their functions for various applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asada, M.; Suzuki, S.
2016-04-01
Compact and coherent source is a key component for various applications of the terahertz wave. We report on our recent results of terahertz oscillators using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). The RTD is an InGaAs/AlAs double-barrier structure on InP substrate, and integrated with a planar slot antenna as a resonator and radiator. The output power is obtained from the substrate side through a Si lens. To achieve high-frequency oscillation, a narrow quantum well and an optimized collector spacer thickness were used. The former reduces the electron dwell time in the resonant tunneling region and the latter simultaneously reduces the electron transit time and the capacitance at the collector depletion region. The conduction loss of the slot antenna was also reduced with an optimized antenna length and an improved air bridge structure between the RTD and antenna. By these structures, fundamental oscillation up to 1.92 THz were obtained at room temperature. Oscillation above 2 THz is further expected in theoretical calculation. An oscillator with patch antenna, in which a Si lens is unnecessary, was fabricated. In a preliminary experiment, output power of 55 μW was obtained at 1 THz in a three-element array. Wireless data transmission using direct intensity modulation was demonstrated with the data rate of 30 Gbp/s and the bit error rate below the forward error correction limit. By integrating a varactor into the slot antenna, electrical frequency tuning was achieved with a tuning range of 580-900 GHz in an array device. Application of frequency-tunable RTD oscillators to measurements of absorption spectra was also demonstrated.
Multiphoton imaging with a novel compact diode-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator.
König, Karsten; Andersen, Peter; Le, Tuan; Breunig, Hans Georg
2015-12-01
Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy commonly relies on bulky and expensive femtosecond lasers. We integrated a novel minimal-footprint Ti:sapphire oscillator, pumped by a frequency-doubled distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode laser, into a clinical multiphoton tomograph and evaluated its imaging capability using different biological samples, i.e. cell monolayers, corneal tissue, and human skin. With the novel laser, the realization of very compact Ti:sapphire-based systems for high-quality multiphoton imaging at a significantly size and weight compared to current systems will become possible.
Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator
Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.
2008-10-17
We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.
Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.
2008-10-01
We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2π in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step Δt. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/Δt is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is "blue shifted" relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval Δt. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.
Chemical oscillator as a generalized Rayleigh oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2013-10-01
We derive the conditions under which a set of arbitrary two dimensional autonomous kinetic equations can be reduced to the form of a generalized Rayleigh oscillator which admits of limit cycle solution. This is based on a linear transformation of field variables which can be found by inspection of the kinetic equations. We illustrate the scheme with the help of several chemical and bio-chemical oscillator models to show how they can be cast as a generalized Rayleigh oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Dean; Peirce, Christine; Hobbs, Richard; Gregory, Emma
2016-04-01
roughness. Increased basement roughness leads to a non-uniform distribution of sediments, which we hypothesise influences the pattern of hydrothermal circulation and ultimately the secondary alteration of the upper crust. A combination of the complimentary wide-angle and normal incidence datasets and their individual models act as a starting point for joint inversion of seismic, gravity and MT data. The joint inversion produces a fully integrated model, enabling us to better understand how the oceanic crust evolves as a result of hydrothermal fluid circulation and cooling, as it ages from zero-age at the ridge-axis to 6 Ma at borehole 504B. Ultimately, this model can be used to undertake full waveform inversion to produce a high-resolution velocity model of the oceanic crust in the Panama Basin. This research is part of a major, interdisciplinary NERC-funded research collaboration entitled: Oceanographic and Seismic Characterisation of heat dissipation and alteration by hydrothermal fluids at an Axial Ridge (OSCAR).
Synchronization of genetic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Tianshou; Zhang, Jiajun; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Chen, Luonan
2008-09-01
Synchronization of genetic or cellular oscillators is a central topic in understanding the rhythmicity of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. Here, we show how a collective rhythm across a population of genetic oscillators through synchronization-induced intercellular communication is achieved, and how an ensemble of independent genetic oscillators is synchronized by a common noisy signaling molecule. Our main purpose is to elucidate various synchronization mechanisms from the viewpoint of dynamics, by investigating the effects of various biologically plausible couplings, several kinds of noise, and external stimuli. To have a comprehensive understanding on the synchronization of genetic oscillators, we consider three classes of genetic oscillators: smooth oscillators (exhibiting sine-like oscillations), relaxation oscillators (displaying jump dynamics), and stochastic oscillators (noise-induced oscillation). For every class, we further study two cases: with intercellular communication (including phase-attractive and repulsive coupling) and without communication between cells. We find that an ensemble of smooth oscillators has different synchronization phenomena from those in the case of relaxation oscillators, where noise plays a different but key role in synchronization. To show differences in synchronization between them, we make comparisons in many aspects. We also show that a population of genetic stochastic oscillators have their own synchronization mechanisms. In addition, we present interesting phenomena, e.g., for relaxation-type stochastic oscillators coupled to a quorum-sensing mechanism, different noise intensities can induce different periodic motions (i.e., inhomogeneous limit cycles).
Zou, Zhen; He, Dinggeng; Cai, Linli; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yang, Xue; Li, Liling; Li, Siqi; Su, Xiaoya
2016-04-06
The outstanding progress of nanoparticles-based delivery systems capable of releasing hypoglycemic drugs in response to glucose has dramatically changed the outlook of diabetes management. However, the developed glucose-responsive systems have not offered real-time monitoring capabilities for accurate quantifying hypoglycemic drugs released. In this study, we present a multifunctional delivery system that integrates both delivery and monitoring issues using glucose-triggered competitive binding scheme on alizarin complexone (ALC) functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). In this system, ALC is modified on the surface of MSN as the signal reporter. Gluconated insulin (G-Ins) is then introduced onto MSN-ALC via benzene-1,4-diboronic acid (BA) mediated esterification reaction, where G-Ins not only blocks drugs inside the mesopores but also works as a hypoglycemic drug. In the absence of glucose, the sandwich-type boronate ester structure formed by BA binding to the diols of ALC and G-Ins remains intact, resulting in an fluorescence emission peak at 570 nm and blockage of pores. Following a competitive binding, the presence of glucose cause the dissociation of boronate ester between ALC and BA, which lead to the pores opening and disappearance of fluorescence. As proof of concept, rosiglitazone maleate (RSM), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was doped into the MSN to form a multifunctional MSN (RSM@MSN-ALC-BA-Ins), integrating with double-drugs loading, glucose-responsive performance, and real-time monitoring capability. It has been demonstrated that the glucose-responsive release behaviors of insulin and RSM in buffer or in human serum can be quantified in real-time through evaluating the changes of fluorescence signal. We believe that this developed multifunctional system can shed light on the invention of a new generation of smart nanoformulations for optical diagnosis, individualized treatment, and noninvasive monitoring of diabetes management.
Screening effects and Friedel oscillations in quantum-well nanostructures
Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.
2008-11-15
The screening of the Coulomb interaction is studied with regard to Friedel oscillations in multicomponent electron plasma structure. A double quantum well (QW) and a superlattice are considered. The groundstate energy of a donor (exciton) in a double quantum well is calculated by a variational method as a function of the population of subbands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jie; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao
2015-05-01
As farmland systems vary over space and time (season and year), accurate and updated maps of paddy rice are needed for studies of food security and environmental problems. We selected a wheat-rice double-cropped area from fragmented landscapes along the rural-urban complex (Jiangsu Province, China) and explored the potential utility of integrating time series optical images (Landsat-8, MODIS) and radar images (PALSAR) in mapping paddy rice planting areas. We first identified several main types of non-cropland land cover and then identified paddy rice fields by selecting pixels that were inundated only during paddy rice flooding periods. These key temporal windows were determined based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature and vegetation indices. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated using regions of interest (ROIs) drawn from multiple high-resolution images, Google Earth, and in-situ cropland photos. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 89.8% and 0.79, respectively. In comparison with the National Land Cover Data (China) from 2010, the resultant map better detected changes in the paddy rice fields and revealed more details about their distribution. These results demonstrate the efficacy of using images from multiple sources to generate paddy rice maps for two-crop rotation systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ling; Sharma, Sandeep; Aernouts, Ben; Ramon, Herman; Saeys, Wouter
2012-06-01
Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of turbid media in the light path is important in NIR absorption spectroscopy of biological tissues where multiple scattering complexes the collected light signals due to the non-uniform tissue architecture. Several approaches such as time resolved spectroscopy and spatially resolved spectroscopy have been proposed to measure the bulk optical properties of turbid media. Among them, double integrating sphere (DIS) measurements are recognized as the "golden standard" for in vitro optical properties measurement of turbid media because of its high accuracy and robustness in different conditions. A DIS system is convenient to measure the in vitro optical properties of turbid media like intralipid solutions and biological tissues, since it measures the diffuse reflectance and transmittance simultaneously. However, DIS measurements have been mostly limited to the optical window region (400-1000 nm) or suffered from low signal levels on the detectors due to the absorption by water in the NIR region. In this study, we developed a DIS system for optical property measurement in the 1300-2350 nm region based on a novel wavelength tunable spectroscopic setup which incorporates a high power broadband supercontinuum laser and a high precision monochromator. With this system, optical properties of intralipid solutions were measured in the wavelength region of 1300-2350nm.
Wang, Jie; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao
2015-01-01
As farmland systems vary over space and time (season and year), accurate and updated maps of paddy rice are needed for studies of food security and environmental problems. We selected a wheat-rice double-cropped area from fragmented landscapes along the rural–urban complex (Jiangsu Province, China) and explored the potential utility of integrating time series optical images (Landsat-8, MODIS) and radar images (PALSAR) in mapping paddy rice planting areas. We first identified several main types of non-cropland land cover and then identified paddy rice fields by selecting pixels that were inundated only during paddy rice flooding periods. These key temporal windows were determined based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature and vegetation indices. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated using regions of interest (ROIs) drawn from multiple high-resolution images, Google Earth, and in-situ cropland photos. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 89.8% and 0.79, respectively. In comparison with the National Land Cover Data (China) from 2010, the resultant map better detected changes in the paddy rice fields and revealed more details about their distribution. These results demonstrate the efficacy of using images from multiple sources to generate paddy rice maps for two-crop rotation systems. PMID:25965027
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, Norihiro; Nanjo, Takuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio
2012-03-01
In laser medicine, the accurate knowledge about the optical properties (absorption coefficient; μa, scattering coefficient; μs, anisotropy factor; g) of laser irradiated tissues is important for the prediction of light propagation in tissues, since the efficacy of laser treatment depends on the photon propagation within the irradiated tissues. Thus, it is likely that the optical properties of tissues at near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths will be more important due to more biomedical applications of lasers will be developed. For improvement of the laser induced thermotherapy, the optical property change during laser treatment should be considered in the wide wavelength range. For estimation of the optical properties of the biological tissues, the optical properties measurement system with a double integrating sphere setup and an inverse Monte Carlo technique was developed. The optical properties of chicken muscle tissue were measured in the native state and after laser coagulation using the optical properties measurement system in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm. A CO2 laser was used for laser coagulation. After laser coagulation, the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue increased. And, the optical penetration depth decreased. For improvement of the treatment depth during laser coagulation, a quantitative procedure using the treated tissue optical properties for determination of the irradiation power density following light penetration decrease might be important in clinic.
Stable local oscillator microcircuit.
Brocato, Robert Wesley
2006-10-01
This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. The StaLO uses a comb generator followed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The comb generator creates a set of harmonic components of the 100MHz input signal. The SAW filters are narrow bandpass filters that are used to select the desired component and reject all others. The resulting circuit has very low sideband power levels and low phase noise (both less than -40dBc) that is limited primarily by the phase noise level of the input signal.
Holographic charge oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis; Tong, David
2015-04-01
The Reissner-Nordström black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law.
Time reversal for modified oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordero-Soto, R.; Suslov, S. K.
2010-03-01
We consider a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in ®n with variable coefficients for a modified oscillator that is dual (with respect to time reversal) to a model of the quantum oscillator. We find a second pair of dual Hamiltonians in the momentum representation. The examples considered show that in mathematical physics and quantum mechanics, a change in the time direction may require a total change of the system dynamics to return the system to its original quantum state. We obtain particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We also consider a Hamiltonian structure of the classical integrable problem and its quantization.
Hydrogen-Maser/Ruby-Maser/Quartz-Crystal Oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Rabi T.; Dick, G. John
1994-01-01
Highly stable oscillator suitable for use as 100-MHz frequency standard consists of 100-MHz hydrogen maser combined with double-phase-locked-loop receiver. Generates 100-MHz signal with reduced noise. Contains 100-MHz voltage-controlled quartz-crystal oscillator (VCO) locked in phase to superconducting-cavity maser oscillator (SCMO). SCMO, locks in phase to hydrogen maser, phase-locking receiver and its SCMO/ VCO combination to hydrogen maser. Aspects of SCMO described in previous reports, including "Performance of Superconducting-Cavity Maser" (NPO-18175), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 15, No. 6. Performances of component oscillators complement each other.
Frequency stabilization in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonio, Dario; Zanette, Damián H.; López, Daniel
2012-05-01
Mechanical oscillators are present in almost every electronic device. They mainly consist of a resonating element providing an oscillating output with a specific frequency. Their ability to maintain a determined frequency in a specified period of time is the most important parameter limiting their implementation. Historically, quartz crystals have almost exclusively been used as the resonating element, but micromechanical resonators are increasingly being considered to replace them. These resonators are easier to miniaturize and allow for monolithic integration with electronics. However, as their dimensions shrink to the microscale, most mechanical resonators exhibit nonlinearities that considerably degrade the frequency stability of the oscillator. Here we demonstrate that, by coupling two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance, it is possible to stabilize the oscillation frequency of nonlinear self-sustaining micromechanical resonators. Our findings provide a new strategy for engineering low-frequency noise oscillators capitalizing on the intrinsic nonlinear phenomena of micromechanical resonators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalyn, Brenda
2006-01-01
Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…
Saturation in coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roman, Ahmed; Hanna, James
2015-03-01
We consider a weakly nonlinear system consisting of a resonantly forced oscillator coupled to an unforced oscillator. It has long been known that, for quadratic nonlinearities and a 2:1 resonance between the oscillators, a perturbative solution of the dynamics exhibits a phenomenon known as saturation. At low forcing, the forced oscillator responds, while the unforced oscillator is quiescent. Above a critical value of the forcing, the forced oscillator's steady-state amplitude reaches a plateau, while that of the unforced oscillator increases without bound. We show that, contrary to established folklore, saturation is not unique to quadratically nonlinear systems. We present conditions on the form of the nonlinear couplings and resonance that lead to saturation. Our results elucidate a mechanism for localization or diversion of energy in systems of coupled oscillators, and suggest new approaches for the control or suppression of vibrations in engineered systems.
Zhou, Weiming; Li, Xiangyang; Lu, Jie; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin; Liang, Haiyi
2014-12-16
As an indispensible material for modern society, natural rubber possesses peerless mechanical properties such as strength and toughness over its artificial analogues, which remains a mystery. Intensive experimental and theoretical investigations have revealed the self-enhancement of natural rubber due to strain-induced crystallization. However a rigorous model on the self-enhancement, elucidating natural rubber's extraordinary mechanical properties, is obscured by deficient understanding of the local hierarchical structure under strain. With spatially resolved synchrotron radiation micro-beam scanning X-ray diffraction we discover weak oscillation in distributions of strain-induced crystallinity around crack tip for stretched natural rubber film, demonstrating a soft-hard double network structure. The fracture energy enhancement factor obtained by utilizing the double network model indicates an enhancement of toughness by 3 orders. It's proposed that upon stretching spontaneously developed double network structures integrating hierarchy at multi length-scale in natural rubber play an essential role in its remarkable mechanical performance.
The Accretion Rate Dependence of Burst Oscillation Amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ootes, Laura S.; Watts, Anna L.; Galloway, Duncan K.; Wijnands, Rudy
2017-01-01
Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries exhibit oscillations during thermonuclear bursts, attributed to asymmetric brightness patterns on the burning surfaces. All models that have been proposed to explain the origin of these asymmetries (spreading hotspots, surface waves, and cooling wakes) depend on the accretion rate. By analysis of archival RXTE data of six oscillation sources, we investigate the accretion rate dependence of the amplitude of burst oscillations. This more than doubles the size of the sample analyzed previously by Muno et al., who found indications for a relationship between accretion rate and oscillation amplitudes. We find that burst oscillation signals can be detected at all observed accretion rates. Moreover, oscillations at low accretion rates are found to have relatively small amplitudes ({A}{{rms}}≤slant 0.10) while oscillations detected in bursts observed at high accretion rates cover a broad spread in amplitudes (0.05≤slant {A}{{rms}}≤slant 0.20). In this paper we present the results of our analysis and discuss these in the light of current burst oscillation models. Additionally, we investigate the bursts of two sources without previously detected oscillations. Despite the fact that these sources have been observed at accretion rates where burst oscillations might be expected, we find their behavior not to be anomalous compared to oscillation sources.
A New Chaotic Electro-Mechanical Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buscarino, Arturo; Famoso, Carlo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia
In this paper, a new electro-mechanical chaotic oscillator is presented. The system is based on the motion of the metal tip of a beam in a double-well potential generated by two magnets, and works thanks to the vibrations generated in the flexible mechanical structure by two rotating coils that produce noise-like signals. As the source of vibration is internal, the system may be considered an autonomous oscillator. Chaotic motion is experimentally observed and verified with a mathematical model of the phenomenon.
Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stecker, F. W.
1982-01-01
Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wellman, Jane V.
2002-01-01
Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the…
Abbes, Ilham Ben; Richard, Pierre-Yves; Lefebvre, Marie-Anne; Guilhem, Isabelle; Poirier, Jean-Yves
2013-01-01
Background Most closed-loop insulin delivery systems rely on model-based controllers to control the blood glucose (BG) level. Simple models of glucose metabolism, which allow easy design of the control law, are limited in their parametric identification from raw data. New control models and controllers issued from them are needed. Methods A proportional integral derivative with double phase lead controller was proposed. Its design was based on a linearization of a new nonlinear control model of the glucose–insulin system in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients validated with the University of Virginia/Padova T1DM metabolic simulator. A 36 h scenario, including six unannounced meals, was tested in nine virtual adults. A previous trial database has been used to compare the performance of our controller with their previous results. The scenario was repeated 25 times for each adult in order to take continuous glucose monitoring noise into account. The primary outcome was the time BG levels were in target (70–180 mg/dl). Results Blood glucose values were in the target range for 77% of the time and below 50 mg/dl and above 250 mg/dl for 0.8% and 0.3% of the time, respectively. The low blood glucose index and high blood glucose index were 1.65 and 3.33, respectively. Conclusion The linear controller presented, based on the linearization of a new easily identifiable nonlinear model, achieves good glucose control with low exposure to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:23759403
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Álvaro, M.; Carretero, M.; Bonilla, L. L.
2012-05-01
We present a finite difference method to solve a new type of nonlocal hydrodynamic equations that arise in the theory of spatially inhomogeneous Bloch oscillations in semiconductor superlattices. The hydrodynamic equations describe the evolution of the electron density, electric field and the complex amplitude of the Bloch oscillations for the electron current density and the mean energy density. These equations contain averages over the Bloch phase which are integrals of the unknown electric field and are derived by singular perturbation methods. Among the solutions of the hydrodynamic equations, at a 70 K lattice temperature, there are spatially inhomogeneous Bloch oscillations coexisting with moving electric field domains and Gunn-type oscillations of the current. At higher temperature (300 K) only Bloch oscillations remain. These novel solutions are found for restitution coefficients in a narrow interval below their critical values and disappear for larger values. We use an efficient numerical method based on an implicit second-order finite difference scheme for both the electric field equation (of drift-diffusion type) and the parabolic equation for the complex amplitude. Double integrals appearing in the nonlocal hydrodynamic equations are calculated by means of expansions in modified Bessel functions. We use numerical simulations to ascertain the convergence of the method. If the complex amplitude equation is solved using a first order scheme for restitution coefficients near their critical values, a spurious convection arises that annihilates the complex amplitude in the part of the superlattice that is closer to the cathode. This numerical artifact disappears if the space step is appropriately reduced or we use the second-order numerical scheme.
Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1995-01-01
It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.
Creveling, R.
1957-12-17
S> A shock-excited quartz crystal oscillator is described. The circuit was specifically designed for application in micro-time measuring work to provide an oscillator which immediately goes into oscillation upon receipt of a trigger pulse and abruptly ceases oscillation when a second pulse is received. To achieve the instant action, the crystal has a prestressing voltage applied across it. A monostable multivibrator receives the on and off trigger pulses and discharges a pulse through the crystal to initiate or terminate oscillation instantly.
Neutrino Oscillations: Eighty Years in Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowers, Rebecca Lyn
In order to discuss neutrino oscillations, it is necessary to have knowledge of the developments in the field spanning the last eighty years. The existence of the neutrino was posited by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to account for the mass defect in beta decay, and to this day physicists are still endeavoring to answer fundamental questions about this enigmatic particle. The scope of this thesis includes a historical background of neutrino physics and a discussion of neutrinos and the Standard Model; subsequent to this is a discussion of the Solar Neutrino Problem, which provided the impetus for the proposal of neutrino oscillations. Bolstering the theory of neutrino oscillations (which is developed in the body of this thesis) are neutrino detector experiments and their results; these include the Homestake experiment, SNO, Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande, MINOS, and Double-Chooz. We also include relevant derivations, most particularly of the quantum mechanics of neutrino oscillations as treated in the wave packet formalism. We have amassed here the principle theories and experimental results -- a mere tip of the iceberg -- that have brought us to our current understanding of neutrino oscillations. We have also studied the quantum mechanics of neutrino oscillations and developed for ourselves the wave packet formalism describing the phenomenon.
Nature's Autonomous Oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.
2012-01-01
Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, D. H.
1982-01-01
During warmup, crystal oscillators often show a frequency offset as large as 1 part in 10 to the 5th power. If timing information is transferred to the oscillator and then the oscillator is allowed to warmup, a timing error greater than 1 millisecond will occur. For many applications, it is unsuitable to wait for the oscillator to warmup. For medium accuracy timing requirements where overall accuracies in the order of 1 millisecond are required, a no warmup crystal concept was developed. The concept utilizes two crystal oscillator, used sequentially to avoid using a crystal oscillator for timing much higher frequency accuracy once warmed up. The accuracy achieved with practical TCXOs at initial start over a range of temperatures is discussed. A second design utilizing two oven controlled oscillators is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagedorn, P.
The mathematical pendulum is used to provide a survey of free and forced oscillations in damped and undamped systems. This simple model is employed to present illustrations for and comparisons between the various approximation schemes. A summary of the Liapunov stability theory is provided. The first and the second method of Liapunov are explained for autonomous as well as for nonautonomous systems. Here, a basic familiarity with the theory of linear oscillations is assumed. La Salle's theorem about the stability of invariant domains is explained in terms of illustrative examples. Self-excited oscillations are examined, taking into account such oscillations in mechanical and electrical systems, analytical approximation methods for the computation of self-excited oscillations, analytical criteria for the existence of limit cycles, forced oscillations in self-excited systems, and self-excited oscillations in systems with several degrees of freedom. Attention is given to Hamiltonian systems and an introduction to the theory of optimal control is provided.
Analysis of supplementary controls in damping subsynchronous oscillations
Balasubramanyam, P.V.; Murty, A.S.R.; Sarkar, B.N.
1995-12-31
Analysis and damping of torsional oscillations through thyristor control reactor (TCR) is presented in this paper. The reactive power control is achieved through TCR at the machine terminals. Generator speed deviation signal is used as auxiliary signal and terminal voltage feed back signal as main control signal for TCR. The following control strategies for auxiliary control to TCR have been analyzed. Case 1: Analysis of basic system without damping controls. Case 2: Proportional control (P). Case 3: Proportional control with filter (P+filter). Case 4: Proportional plus derivative control with filter (P+D+filter). Case 5: Proportional plus integral plus derivative control with filter (P+I+D+filter). The main objective of this paper is to discuss the performance of different control strategies for damping torsional oscillations when a generator is connected to an infinite bus via double circuit 400kV transmission line, in which one circuit is series compensated. This configuration is similar to IEEE benchmark two model.
The odd-order Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masterov, Ivan
2016-06-01
We consider a Hamiltonian formulation of the (2 n + 1)-order generalization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator with distinct frequencies of oscillation. This system is invariant under time translations. However, the corresponding Noether integral of motion is unbounded from below and can be presented as a direct sum of 2n one-dimensional harmonic oscillators with an alternating sign. If this integral of motion plays a role of a Hamiltonian, a quantum theory of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator faces a ghost problem. We construct an alternative canonical formulation for the system under study to avoid this nasty feature.
Simple driven chaotic oscillators with complex variables.
Marshall, Delmar; Sprott, J C
2009-03-01
Despite a search, no chaotic driven complex-variable oscillators of the form z+f(z)=e(iOmegat) or z+f(z)=e(iOmegat) are found, where f is a polynomial with real coefficients. It is shown that, for analytic functions f(z), driven complex-variable oscillators of the form z+f(z)=e(iOmegat) cannot have chaotic solutions. Seven simple driven chaotic oscillators of the form z+f(z,z)=e(iOmegat) with polynomial f(z,z) are given. Their chaotic attractors are displayed, and Lyapunov spectra are calculated. Attractors for two of the cases have symmetry across the x=-y line. The systems' behavior with Omega as a control parameter in the range of Omega=0.1-2.0 is examined, revealing cases of period doubling, intermittency, chaotic transients, and period adding as routes to chaos. Numerous cases of coexisting attractors are also observed.
Coupling a Bose condensate to micromechanical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemp, Chandler; Fox, Eli; Flanz, Scott; Vengalattore, Mukund
2011-05-01
We describe the construction of a compact apparatus to investigate the interaction of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate and a micromechanical oscillator. The apparatus uses a double magneto-optical trap, Raman sideband cooling, and evaporative cooling to rapidly produce a 87Rb BEC in close proximity to a high Q membrane. The micromotion of the membrane results in small Zeeman shifts at the location of the BEC due to a magnetic domain attached to the oscillator. Detection of this micromotion by the condensate results in a backaction on the membrane. We investigate prospects of using this backaction to generate nonclassical states of the mechanical oscillator. This work was funded by the DARPA ORCHID program.
EDFA-based coupled opto-electronic oscillator and its phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
EDFA-based coupled opto-electronic oscillator (COEO), an integrated optical and microwave oscillator that can generate picosecond optical pulses, is presented. the phase noise measurements of COEO show better performance than synthesizer-driven mode-locked laser.
High power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Haitao; Gao, Gan; Li, Qinghua; Gong, Mali
2017-03-01
Generation of high power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser is experimentally demonstrated. By employing the Yb-doped 10/130 double-clad fiber as the gain medium, the laser realizes an output power of 5.1 W and pulse energy of 0.175 µJ at repetition rate of 29.14 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this average output power is the highest among the reported double-scale pulse oscillators. The autocorrelation trace of pulses contains the short (98 fs) and long (29.5 ps) components, and the spectral bandwidth of the pulse is 27.3 nm. Such double-scale pulses are well suited for seeding the high power MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) systems, nonlinear frequency conversion and optical coherence tomography.
Double coupled electron shuttle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prada, M.; Platero, G.
2012-10-01
A nanoshuttle consisting of two movable islands connected in series and integrated between two contacts is studied. We evaluate the electron transport through the system in the presence of a source-drain voltage with and without an rf excitation. We evaluate the response of the system in terms of the net direct current enhanced by the mechanical motion of the oscillators. An introduction to the charge stability diagram is given in terms of electrochemical potentials and mechanical displacements. The low capacitance of the islands allows the observation of Coulomb blockade even at room temperature. Using radio frequency excitations, the nonlinear dynamics of the system is studied. The oscillators can be tuned to unstable regions where mechanically assisted transfer of electrons can further increase the amplitude of motion, resulting of a net energy being pumped into the system. The resulting amplified response can be exploited to design a mechanical motion detector of nanoscale objects.
An analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators.
Agrawal, Deepak; Seshia, Ashwin
2014-12-01
In recent years, there has been much interest in the design of low-noise MEMS oscillators. This paper presents a new analytical formulation for noise in a MEMS oscillator encompassing essential resonator and amplifier nonlinearities. The analytical expression for oscillator noise is derived by solving a second-order nonlinear stochastic differential equation. This approach is applied to noise modeling of an electrostatically addressed MEMS resonator-based square-wave oscillator in which the resonator and oscillator circuit nonlinearities are integrated into a single modeling framework. By considering the resulting amplitude and phase relations, we derive additional noise terms resulting from resonator nonlinearities. The phase diffusion of an oscillator is studied and the phase diffusion coefficient is proposed as a metric for noise optimization. The proposed nonlinear phase noise model provides analytical insight into the underlying physics and a pathway toward the design optimization for low-noise MEMS oscillators.
Oscillations in stellar atmospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A. E.; Fontenla, J. M.
1989-01-01
Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized.
Workshop on Harmonic Oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Zachary, W. W. (Editor)
1993-01-01
Proceedings of a workshop on Harmonic Oscillators held at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland on March 25 - 28, 1992 are presented. The harmonic oscillator formalism is playing an important role in many branches of physics. This is the simplest mathematical device which can connect the basic principle of physics with what is observed in the real world. The harmonic oscillator is the bridge between pure and applied physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Alejandro
2013-04-01
Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain dynamical systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy into the vibration: no external rate needs to be adjusted to the resonant frequency. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the swaying of the London Millennium Footbridge in 2000. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments. The heart is a “relaxation oscillator”, i.e., a non-sinusoidal self-oscillator whose period is determined by sudden, nonlinear switching at thresholds. We review the general criterion that determines whether a linear system can self-oscillate. We then describe the limiting cycles of the simplest nonlinear self-oscillators, as well as the ability of two or more coupled self-oscillators to become spontaneously synchronized (“entrained”). We characterize the operation of motors as self-oscillation and prove a theorem about their limit efficiency, of which Carnot’s theorem for heat engines appears as a special case. We briefly discuss how self-oscillation applies to servomechanisms, Cepheid variable stars, lasers, and the macroeconomic business cycle, among other applications. Our emphasis throughout is on the energetics of self-oscillation, often neglected by the literature on nonlinear dynamical systems.
Correlated states of a quantum oscillator acted by short pulses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
Correlated squeezed states for a quantum oscillator are constructed based on the method of quantum integrals of motion. The quantum oscillator is acted upon by short duration pulses. Three delta-kickings of frequency are used to model the pulses' dependence upon the time aspects of the frequency of the oscillator. Additionally, the correlation coefficient and quantum variances of operations of coordinates and momenta are written in explicit form.
Quantum wormholes and harmonic oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garay, Luis J.
1993-01-01
The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface which divides the space time manifold into two disconnected parts. Minisuperspace models which consist of a homogeneous massless scalar field coupled to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space time are considered. Once the path integral over the lapse function is performed, the requirement that the space time be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is argued that there does not exist any wave function which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. Then, the wormhole wave functions can be written as linear combinations of harmonic oscillator wave functions.
Membrane Resonance Enables Stable and Robust Gamma Oscillations
Moca, Vasile V.; Nikolić, Danko; Singer, Wolf; Mureşan, Raul C.
2014-01-01
Neuronal mechanisms underlying beta/gamma oscillations (20–80 Hz) are not completely understood. Here, we show that in vivo beta/gamma oscillations in the cat visual cortex sometimes exhibit remarkably stable frequency even when inputs fluctuate dramatically. Enhanced frequency stability is associated with stronger oscillations measured in individual units and larger power in the local field potential. Simulations of neuronal circuitry demonstrate that membrane properties of inhibitory interneurons strongly determine the characteristics of emergent oscillations. Exploration of networks containing either integrator or resonator inhibitory interneurons revealed that: (i) Resonance, as opposed to integration, promotes robust oscillations with large power and stable frequency via a mechanism called RING (Resonance INduced Gamma); resonance favors synchronization by reducing phase delays between interneurons and imposes bounds on oscillation cycle duration; (ii) Stability of frequency and robustness of the oscillation also depend on the relative timing of excitatory and inhibitory volleys within the oscillation cycle; (iii) RING can reproduce characteristics of both Pyramidal INterneuron Gamma (PING) and INterneuron Gamma (ING), transcending such classifications; (iv) In RING, robust gamma oscillations are promoted by slow but are impaired by fast inputs. Results suggest that interneuronal membrane resonance can be an important ingredient for generation of robust gamma oscillations having stable frequency. PMID:23042733
A 1 GHz Oscillator-Type Active Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian; Ponchak, George E.
2008-01-01
Wireless sensors are desired for monitoring aircraft engines, automotive engines, industrial machinery, and many other applications. The most important requirement of sensors is that they do not interfere with the environment that they are monitoring. Therefore, wireless sensors must be small, which demands a high level of integration. Sensors that modulate an oscillator active antenna have advantages of small size, high level of integration, and lower packaging cost. Several types of oscillator active antennas have been reported. Ip et al. demonstrated a CPW line fed patch antenna with a feedback loop [1]. No degradation in performance was noticed without a ground plane. A GaAs FET was used in an amplifier/oscillator-based active antenna [2]. An oscillator based on a Cree SiC transistor was designed and characterized in [3]. This paper reports the integration of the SiC Clapp oscillator to a slotline loop antenna.
Experimental investigation of a double-diffused MOS structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.
1976-01-01
Self-aligned polysilicon gate technology was applied to double-diffused MOS (DMOS) construction in a manner that retains processing simplicity and effectively eliminates parasitic overlap capacitance because of the self-aligning feature. Depletion mode load devices with the same dimensions as the DMOS transistors were integrated. The ratioless feature results in smaller dimension load devices, allowing for higher density integration with no increase in the processing complexity of standard MOS technology. A number of inverters connected as ring oscillators were used as a vehicle to test the performance and to verify the anticipated benefits. The propagation time-power dissipation product and process related parameters were measured and evaluated. This report includes (1) details of the process; (2) test data and design details for the DMOS transistor, the load device, the inverter, the ring oscillator, and a shift register with a novel tapered geometry for the output stages; and (3) an analytical treatment of the effect of the distributed silicon gate resistance and capacitance on the speed of DMOS transistors.
Reinjection laser oscillator and method
McLellan, Edward J.
1984-01-01
A uv preionized CO.sub.2 oscillator with integral four-pass amplifier capable of providing 1 to 5 GW laser pulses with pulse widths from 0.1 to 0.5 ns full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is described. The apparatus is operated at any pressure from 1 atm to 10 atm without the necessity of complex high voltage electronics. The reinjection technique employed gives rise to a compact, efficient system that is particularly immune to alignment instabilities with a minimal amount of hardware and complexity.
Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiorini, Ettore
2007-06-01
The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.
Micro-machined resonator oscillator
Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.
1994-08-16
A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.
Micro-machined resonator oscillator
Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.
1994-01-01
A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.
Investigation of transverse oscillation method.
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-05-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can display only the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation (TO) method overcomes this limitation by introducing a TO and an axial oscillation in the pulse echo field. The theory behind the creation of the double oscillation pulse echo field is explained as well as the theory behind the estimation of the vector velocity. A parameter study of the method is performed, using the ultrasound simulation program Field II. A virtual linear-array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and type of echo-canceling filter used. Using an experimental scanner, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic flow in a blood mimicking fluid, and the fluid is scanned under different flow-to-beam angles. The relative standard deviation on the transverse velocity estimate is found to be less than 10% for all angles between 50 degrees and 90 degrees. Furthermore, the TO method is evaluated in the flowrig using pulsatile flow, which resembles the flow in the femoral artery. The estimated volume flow as a function of time is compared to the volume flow derived from a conventional axial method at a flow-to-beam angle of 60 degrees. It is found that the method is highly sensitive to the angle between the flow and the beam direction. Also, the choice of echo canceling filter affects the performance significantly.
Electronically Tuned Microwave Oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, Mysore
1987-01-01
Features include low phase noise and frequency stability. Bias-tuned, low-phase-noise microwave oscillator circuit based on npn bipolar transistor and dielectric resonator. Operating at frequency of about 8.4 GHz, oscillator adjusted to give low phase noise, relatively flat power output versus frequency, and nearly linear frequency versus bias voltage.
Investigating Magnetic Oscillations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brueningsen, Christopher A.
1993-01-01
Studies magnetic oscillation using an air track. Ceramic magnets are attached to the cart and also are used as dampeners in place of the springs. The resulting oscillations are fairly sinusoidal and is a good example of simple harmonic motion. (MVL)
Wessendorf, Kurt O.
2001-01-01
An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.
Enthalpy of sublimation as measured using a silicon oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeel, Hamza; Pomeroy, J. M.
In this study, we report the enthalpy of sublimation of common gases (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, krypton, xenon, and water vapor) using a large area silicon oscillator with a sub-ng (~0.027 ng/cm2) mass sensitivity. The double paddle oscillator design enables high frequency stability (17 ppb) at cryogenic temperatures and provides a consistent technique for enthalpy measurements. The enthalpies of sublimation are derived from the rate of mass loss during programmed thermal desorption and are detected as a change in the resonance frequency of the self-tracking oscillator. These measured enthalpy values show excellent agreement with the accepted literature values.
Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M
1995-12-01
Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.
Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.
1957-09-24
A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.
Motion in an asymmetric double well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizard, Alain J.; Westland, Melissa C.
2017-02-01
The problem of the periodic motion of a particle in an asymmetric double-well (quartic) potential is solved explicitly in terms of the Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions. While the solution of the orbital motion is expressed simply in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function, the period of oscillation is more directly expressed in terms of periods of the Jacobi elliptic functions.
Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia
Wilson, Charles J.
2015-01-01
What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that oscillate spontaneously, firing action potentials even in the absence of any synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed. Only variations in its timing can carry the message. Among cells of this type are all those making up the deeper nuclei of the basal ganglia, including both segments of the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus. These cells receive thousands of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, but no input is required to maintain the firing of the cells; they fire at approximately the same rate when the synapses are silenced. Instead, synaptic inputs produce brief changes in spike timing and firing rate. The interactions among oscillating cells within and among the basal ganglia nuclei produce a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and decorrelates the network, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson’s disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by all the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134
Quantum harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Yuhong
1993-01-01
The influence functional path-integral treatment of quantum Brownian motion is briefly reviewed. A newly derived exact master equation of a quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to a general environment at arbitrary temperature is discussed. It is applied to the problem of loss of quantum coherence.
Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Anthony G.
Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /τ where τ is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency
On The Chaotic Dynamics Of Multiple Double Layers In Plasma
Ivan, L. M.; Chiriac, S. A.; Aflori, M.; Dimitriu, D. G.
2007-04-23
When a multiple double layers structure in plasma is driven far from equilibrium, it passes into a chaotic state, characterized by uncorrelated oscillations of the plasma parameters. Two scenarios of transition to chaos were identified: the Feigenbaum scenario (cascade of period doubling bifurcations) and the intermittency scenario.
Inhibitory control of intrinsic hippocampal oscillations?
Fischer, Yacov; Dürr, Roland
2003-08-22
An oscillatory mode of activity is a basic operational mode of the hippocampus. Such activity involves the concurrent expression of several rhythmic processes, of which theta (4-15 Hz) and gamma (20-80 Hz) oscillations are prominent and considered to be important for cognitive processing. In an experimental model that preserves the intrinsic network oscillator, exhibiting the dependency on cholinergic inputs and consequent expression of concurrent theta and gamma oscillations, we investigate the intrinsic mechanisms underlying such integrated hippocampal network responses. This experimental framework is used here to examine the currently prevailing dogma, that interneurons control hippocampal oscillations. The spontaneous response of individual pyramidal cells (in areas CA3 and CA1) and interneurons (area CA3), during oscillatory activity, was monitored intracellularly. Particular attention was given to the initiation of interneuron discharge during oscillations, to the impact of the synaptic output of discharging interneurons on the oscillatory activity, and to the time at which interneurons discharge in relation to the oscillatory cycles. Analysis of the spontaneous patterns of activity in individual interneurons and their outcome, during the oscillatory activity, revealed that interneuron activity is incompatible with initiating, pacing or determining the oscillatory frequencies, although contributing to the apparent rhythmic patterns. Moreover, our results show that non-interneuronal members of the network control interneuron activity. We therefore suggest that the activity of the excitatory cells, i.e., principle cells, is critical toward the initiation, pacing and synchronization of intrinsic hippocampal network oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilik, A. M.; Kachurik, I. I.; Rebesh, A. P.
2010-06-01
We study the properties of the sequences of the energy eigenvalues for some generalizations of q-deformed oscillators including the p, q-oscillator, and the three-, four- and five-parameter deformed oscillators given in the literature. It is shown that most of the considered models belong to the class of so-called Fibonacci oscillators for which any three consecutive energy levels satisfy the relation En + 1 = λEn + ρEn - 1 with real constants λ, ρ. On the other hand, for a certain μ-oscillator known since 1993, we prove its non-Fibonacci nature. Possible generalizations of the three-term Fibonacci relation are discussed, among which for the μ-oscillator we choose, as the most adequate, the so-called quasi-Fibonacci (or local Fibonacci) property of the energy levels. The property is encoded in the three-term quasi-Fibonacci (QF) relation with the non-constant, n-dependent coefficients λ and ρ. Various aspects of the QF relation are elaborated for the μ-oscillator and some of its extensions.
Silicon-Germanium Voltage-Controlled Oscillator at 105 GHz
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Alden; Larocca, Tim; Chang, M. Frank; Samoska, Lorene A.
2011-01-01
A group at UCLA, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has designed a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) created specifically for a compact, integrated, electronically tunable frequency generator useable for submillimeter- wave science instruments operating in extreme cold environments.
Trigger circuit forces immediate synchronization of free-running oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagano, S.
1975-01-01
Device provides positive triggering for inverter synchronization in uninterruptible power supplies. Integrated-circuit oscillator frequency may be higher, lower, or the same as that of the synch pulse and is always synchronized by first clock pulse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikata, Tsubasa; Kato, Takahiro; Kotaki, Yukio; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Kawakami, Akira; Yasui, Kanji
2014-01-01
We fabricated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) integrating of an oscillator and a detector by double side photolithography and material modification with a dilutehydrochloric acid solution (pH = 1.65) within a monolithic Bi-2212 crystal. The dilute hydrochloric solution modifies Bi-2212 to insulating BiOCl. Various lateral dimensions of the oscillator IJJ from 45 × 8 to 95 × 30 µm2 were formed; all of the detectors were about 15 × 10 to 15 × 30 µm2 in lateral dimensions. These stacks have 180-416 junctions. Zero voltage current for the detector stack was measured at 77 K while sweeping a bias voltage in the oscillator stack. The zero voltage current of the detector stack was strongly suppressed when a kink structure in the current-voltage curve of the oscillator stacks appeared. This indicates that the oscillator stack emits radiation at this voltage. From the Josephson voltage-frequency relation, it is found that the voltage corresponds to about 0.5-1 THz.
Undamped fritting oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, V. A.
2013-01-01
Fritting oscillations in a glasslike film of methane and chlorine rapidly attenuate. A change in the boundary condition makes them weakly damped, while dosed synchronized injections of vacancies with high-energy particles make it possible to obtain a self-oscillatory system. The mechanism of fritting oscillations is described in detail. An oscillating dissipative structure is formed in the active medium of nonequilibrium glass supersaturated with vacancies and exhibiting a liquid-like behavior. A capillary flow of the medium plays a special role in its evolution.
Solar atmosphere neutrino oscillations
Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P.D.; /Fermilab
2007-02-01
The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations on the solar atmosphere neutrino fluxes observable at Earth. We find that peculiar matter oscillation effects in the Sun do exist, but are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ''vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23}).
LSND neutrino oscillation results
Louis, W.C.
1996-06-01
In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say {bar {nu}}{sub e}). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations.
The electronic properties of concentric double quantum ring and possibility designing XOR gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
AL-Badry, Lafy. F.
2017-03-01
In this paper I have investigated the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in concentric double quantum ring. The outer ring attached to leads while the inner ring only tunnel-coupled to the outer ring. The effect of inner ring on electron transport properties through outer ring studied and found that the conductance spectrum consists of two types of oscillations. One is the normal Aharonov-Bohm oscillation, and other is a small oscillations superposed above AB oscillation. The AB oscillation utilized to designing nanoscale XOR gate by choosing the magnetic flux and tuning the gate voltages which realization XOR gate action.
Strong feedback limit of the Goodwin circadian oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woller, Aurore; Gonze, Didier; Erneux, Thomas
2013-03-01
The three-variable Goodwin model constitutes a prototypical oscillator based on a negative feedback loop. It was used as a minimal model for circadian oscillations. Other core models for circadian clocks are variants of the Goodwin model. The Goodwin oscillator also appears in many studies of coupled oscillator networks because of its relative simplicity compared to other biophysical models involving a large number of variables and parameters. Because the synchronization properties of Goodwin oscillators still remain difficult to explore mathematically, further simplifications of the Goodwin model have been sought. In this paper, we investigate the strong negative feedback limit of Goodwin equations by using asymptotic techniques. We find that Goodwin oscillations approach a sequence of decaying exponentials that can be described in terms of a single-variable leaky integrated-and-fire model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)
1987-01-01
Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.
Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.
2016-06-15
Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.
W-band monolithic oscillator using InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, Y.; Pavlidis, D.; Tutt, M.; Ng, G. I.; Lai, R.
1990-01-01
A W-band monolithic integrated oscillator circuit was designed and fabricated using submicron HEMT technology. The oscillation frequency was around 81 GHz and the power was -7 dBm at the chip level. This is the first report of an InAlAs/InGaAs monolithic oscillator operating at the W-band.
Entraining synthetic genetic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagemakers, Alexandre; Buldú, Javier M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; de Luis, Oscar; Izquierdo, Adriana; Coloma, Antonio
2009-09-01
We propose a new approach for synchronizing a population of synthetic genetic oscillators, which consists in the entrainment of a colony of repressilators by external modulation. We present a model where the repressilator dynamics is affected by periodic changes in temperature. We introduce an additional plasmid in the bacteria in order to correlate the temperature variations with the enhancement of the transcription rate of a certain gene. This can be done by introducing a promoter that is related to the heat shock response. This way, the expression of that gene results in a protein that enhances the overall oscillations. Numerical results show coherent oscillations of the population for a certain range of the external frequency, which is in turn related to the natural oscillation frequency of the modified repressilator. Finally we study the transient times related with the loss of synchronization and we discuss possible applications in biotechnology of large-scale production coupled to synchronization events induced by heat shock.
Oscillating fluid power generator
Morris, David C
2014-02-25
A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.
High frequency nanotube oscillator
Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX
2012-02-21
A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.
1995-01-01
We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.
Oscillating Filaments. I. Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas
2017-01-01
We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.
Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.
1995-03-01
refractory periods. The same system can be perturbed to a state in which amplitude of oscillation is attenuated or abolished. We have characterized critical perturbations which induce transitions between these two states, giving rise to patterns of dysrhythmic activity that are similar to those seen in the experiments. We illustrate the importance of noise in initiation and termination of rhythm, comparable to normal respiratory rhythm intermixed with spontaneous dysrhythmias. In the BvP system the incidence and duration of dysrhythmia is shown to be strongly influenced by the level of noise. These studies should lead to greater understanding of rhythmicity and integrative responses of the respiratory control system, and provide insight into disturbances in control mechanisms that cause apnea and aspiration in clinical disease states.
Current oscillations in nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyland, Brittany
We develop a simple phenomenological model to describe current oscillations in single, conically shaped nanopores. The model utilizes aspects of reaction rate theory, electrochemical oscillators, and nonlinear dynamical systems. Time series of experimental data were analyzed and compared to time series simulated using the model equations. There is good qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation, though the model needs to be improved in order to obtain better quantitative agreement.
Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Logan, Ronald T., Jr.
1996-01-01
Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.
Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.
Oscillating asymmetric dark matter
Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo; Zurek, Kathryn M. E-mail: haiboyu@umich.edu
2012-05-01
We study the dynamics of dark matter (DM) particle-antiparticle oscillations within the context of asymmetric DM. Oscillations arise due to small DM number-violating Majorana-type mass terms, and can lead to recoupling of annihilation after freeze-out and washout of the DM density. Asymmetric DM oscillations 'interpolate' between symmetric and asymmetric DM freeze-out scenarios, and allow for a larger DM model-building parameter space. We derive the density matrix equations for DM oscillations and freeze-out from first principles using nonequilibrium field theory, and our results are qualitatively different than in previous studies. DM dynamics exhibits particle-vs-antiparticle 'flavor' effects, depending on the interaction type, analogous to neutrino oscillations in a medium. 'Flavor-sensitive' DM interactions include scattering or annihilation through a new vector boson, while 'flavor-blind' interactions include scattering or s-channel annihilation through a new scalar boson. In particular, we find that flavor-sensitive annihilation does not recouple when coherent oscillations begin, and that flavor-blind scattering does not lead to decoherence.
Oscillating asymmetric dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2012-05-01
We study the dynamics of dark matter (DM) particle-antiparticle oscillations within the context of asymmetric DM. Oscillations arise due to small DM number-violating Majorana-type mass terms, and can lead to recoupling of annihilation after freeze-out and washout of the DM density. Asymmetric DM oscillations "interpolate" between symmetric and asymmetric DM freeze-out scenarios, and allow for a larger DM model-building parameter space. We derive the density matrix equations for DM oscillations and freeze-out from first principles using nonequilibrium field theory, and our results are qualitatively different than in previous studies. DM dynamics exhibits particle-vs-antiparticle "flavor" effects, depending on the interaction type, analogous to neutrino oscillations in a medium. "Flavor-sensitive" DM interactions include scattering or annihilation through a new vector boson, while "flavor-blind" interactions include scattering or s-channel annihilation through a new scalar boson. In particular, we find that flavor-sensitive annihilation does not recouple when coherent oscillations begin, and that flavor-blind scattering does not lead to decoherence.
Differential Resonant Ring YIG Tuned Oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, Ronald A.
2010-01-01
A differential SiGe oscillator circuit uses a resonant ring-oscillator topology in order to electronically tune the oscillator over multi-octave bandwidths. The oscillator s tuning is extremely linear, because the oscillator s frequency depends on the magnetic tuning of a YIG sphere, whose resonant frequency is equal to a fundamental constant times the DC magnetic field. This extremely simple circuit topology uses two coupling loops connecting a differential pair of SiGe bipolar transistors into a feedback configuration using a YIG tuned filter creating a closed-loop ring oscillator. SiGe device technology is used for this oscillator in order to keep the transistor s 1/f noise to an absolute minimum in order to achieve minimum RF phase noise. The single-end resonant ring oscillator currently has an advantage in fewer parts, but when the oscillation frequency is greater than 16 GHz, the package s parasitic behavior couples energy to the sphere and causes holes and poor phase noise performance. This is because the coupling to the YIG is extremely low, so that the oscillator operates at near the unloaded Q. With the differential resonant ring oscillator, the oscillation currents are just in the YIG coupling mechanisms. The phase noise is even better, and the physical size can be reduced to permit monolithic microwave integrated circuit oscillators. This invention is a YIG tuned oscillator circuit making use of a differential topology to simultaneously achieve an extremely broadband electronic tuning range and ultra-low phase noise. As a natural result of its differential circuit topology, all reactive elements, such as tuning stubs, which limit tuning bandwidth by contributing excessive open loop phase shift, have been eliminated. The differential oscillator s open-loop phase shift is associated with completely non-dispersive circuit elements such as the physical angle of the coupling loops, a differential loop crossover, and the high-frequency phase shift of the n
Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.
2014-04-24
A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.
Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.
2016-06-01
Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.
Kayser, Boris
2012-06-01
To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.
Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab
2011-07-01
Starting in the late 1960s, neutrino detectors began to see signs that neutrinos, now known to come in the flavors electron ({nu}{sub e}), muon ({nu}{sub {mu}}), and tau ({nu}{sub {tau}}), could transform from one flavor to another. The findings implied that neutrinos must have mass, since massless particles travel at the speed of light and their clocks, so to speak, don't tick, thus they cannot change. What has since been discovered is that neutrinos oscillate at two distinct scales, 500 km/GeV and 15,000 km/GeV, which are defined by the baseline (L) of the experiment (the distance the neutrino travels) divided by the neutrino energy (E). Neutrinos of one flavor can oscillate into neutrinos of another flavor at both L/E scales, but the amplitude of these oscillations is different for the two scales and depends on the initial and final flavor of the neutrinos. The neutrino states that propogate unchanged in time, the mass eigenstates {nu}1, {nu}2, {nu}3, are quantum mechanical mixtures of the electron, muon, and tau neutrino flavors, and the fraction of each flavor in a given mass eigenstate is controlled by three mixing angles and a complex phase. Two of these mixing angles are known with reasonable precision. An upper bound exists for the third angle, called {theta}{sub 13}, which controls the size of the muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at an L/E of 500 km/GeV. The phase is completely unknown. The existence of this phase has important implications for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter we observe in the universe today. Experiments around the world have steadily assembled this picture of neutrino oscillation, but evidence of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at 500 km/GeV has remained elusive. Now, a paper from the T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment in Japan, reports the first possible observation of muon neutrinos oscillating into electron neutrinos at 500 km/GeV. They see 6 candidate signal events, above an expected background
Oscillate boiling from microheaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fenfang; Gonzalez-Avila, S. Roberto; Nguyen, Dang Minh; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2017-01-01
We report about an intriguing boiling regime occurring for small heaters embedded on the boundary in subcooled water. The microheater is realized by focusing a continuous wave laser beam to about 10 μ m in diameter onto a 165-nm-thick layer of gold, which is submerged in water. After an initial vaporous explosion a single bubble oscillates continuously and repeatedly at several 100 kHz albeit with constant laser power input. The microbubble's oscillations are accompanied with bubble pinch-off, leading to a stream of gaseous bubbles in the subcooled water. The self-driven bubble oscillation is explained with a thermally kicked oscillator caused by surface attachment and by the nonspherical collapses. Additionally, Marangoni stresses induce a recirculating streaming flow which transports cold liquid towards the microheater, reducing diffusion of heat along the substrate and therefore stabilizing the phenomenon to many million cycles. We speculate that this oscillate boiling regime may overcome the heat transfer thresholds observed during the nucleate boiling crisis and offers a new pathway for heat transfer under microgravity conditions.
Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.
Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando
2009-06-01
Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.
Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pashaev, Oktay K.; Nalci, Sengul
2012-01-01
The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = φ and Q = -1/φ, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n → ∞ it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated.
Integrated optical phase locked loop.
Lentine, Anthony L.; Kim, Jungwon; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; DeRose, Christopher T.; Kartner, Franz X.; Byun, Hyunil; Nejadmalayeri, Amir H.; Watts, Michael R.; Zortman, William A.
2010-12-01
A silicon photonics based integrated optical phase locked loop is utilized to synchronize a 10.2 GHz voltage controlled oscillator with a 509 MHz mode locked laser, achieving 32 fs integrated jitter over 300 kHz bandwidth.
Canton, Sophie E.; Plésiat, Etienne; Bozek, John D.; Rude, Bruce S.; Decleva, Piero; Martín, Fernando
2011-01-01
Vibrationally resolved valence-shell photoionization spectra of H2, N2 and CO have been measured in the photon energy range 20–300 eV using third-generation synchrotron radiation. Young’s double-slit interferences lead to oscillations in the corresponding vibrational ratios, showing that the molecules behave as two-center electron-wave emitters and that the associated interferences leave their trace in the angle-integrated photoionization cross section. In contrast to previous work, the oscillations are directly observable in the experiment, thereby removing any possible ambiguity related to the introduction of external parameters or fitting functions. A straightforward extension of an original idea proposed by Cohen and Fano [Cohen HD, Fano U (1966) Phys Rev 150:30] confirms this interpretation and shows that it is also valid for diatomic heteronuclear molecules. Results of accurate theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental findings.
Mechanobiological oscillators control lymph flow
Kunert, Christian; Baish, James W.; Liao, Shan; Padera, Timothy P.; Munn, Lance L.
2015-01-01
The ability of cells to sense and respond to physical forces has been recognized for decades, but researchers are only beginning to appreciate the fundamental importance of mechanical signals in biology. At the larger scale, there has been increased interest in the collective organization of cells and their ability to produce complex, “emergent” behaviors. Often, these complex behaviors result in tissue-level control mechanisms that manifest as biological oscillators, such as observed in fireflies, heartbeats, and circadian rhythms. In many cases, these complex, collective behaviors are controlled—at least in part—by physical forces imposed on the tissue or created by the cells. Here, we use mathematical simulations to show that two complementary mechanobiological oscillators are sufficient to control fluid transport in the lymphatic system: Ca2+-mediated contractions can be triggered by vessel stretch, whereas nitric oxide produced in response to the resulting fluid shear stress causes the lymphatic vessel to relax locally. Our model predicts that the Ca2+ and NO levels alternate spatiotemporally, establishing complementary feedback loops, and that the resulting phasic contractions drive lymph flow. We show that this mechanism is self-regulating and robust over a range of fluid pressure environments, allowing the lymphatic vessels to provide pumping when needed but remain open when flow can be driven by tissue pressure or gravity. Our simulations accurately reproduce the responses to pressure challenges and signaling pathway manipulations observed experimentally, providing an integrated conceptual framework for lymphatic function. PMID:26283382
Digital numerically controlled oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cellier, A.; Huey, D. C.; Ma, L. N. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
The frequency and phase of an output signal from an oscillator circuit are controlled with accuracy by a digital input word. Positive and negative alterations in output frequency are both provided for by translating all values of input words so that they are positive. The oscillator reference frequency is corrected only in one direction, by adding phase to the output frequency of the oscillator. The input control word is translated to a single algebraic sign and the digital 1 is added thereto. The translated input control word is then accumulated. A reference clock signal having a frequency at an integer multiple of the desired frequency of the output signal is generated. The accumulated control word is then compared with a threshold level. The output signal is adjusted in a single direction by dividing the frequency of the reference clock signal by a first integer or by an integer different from the first integer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrkac, Gino; Keatley, Paul S.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Butler, Keith
2015-11-01
The magnetic vortex has sparked the interest of the academic and industrial communities over the last few decades. From their discovery in the 1970s for bubble memory devices to their modern application as radio frequency oscillators, magnetic vortices have been adopted to modern telecommunication and sensor applications. Basic properties of vortex structures in the static and dynamic regime, from a theoretical and experimental point of view, are presented as well as their application in spin torque driven nano-pillar and magnetic tunnel junction devices. Single vortex excitations and phase locking phenomena of coupled oscillators are discussed with an outlook of vortex oscillators in magnetic hybrid structures with imprinted domain confinement and dynamic encryption devices.
Chalcogenide optical parametric oscillator.
Ahmad, Raja; Rochette, Martin
2012-04-23
We demonstrate the first optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on chalcogenide glass. The parametric gain medium is an As(2)Se(3) chalcogenide microwire coated with a layer of polymer. The doubly-resonant OPO oscillates simultaneously at a Stokes and an anti Stokes wavelength shift of >50 nm from the pump wavelength that lies at λ(P) = 1,552 nm. The oscillator has a peak power threshold of 21.6 dBm and a conversion efficiency of >19%. This OPO experiment provides an additional application of the chalcogenide microwire technology; and considering the transparency of As(2)Se(3) glass extending far in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths, the device holds promise for realizing mid-IR OPOs utilizing existing optical sources in the telecommunications wavelength region.
Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Altemir, David A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.
New sensitive marginal oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahf, L.
1981-09-01
A new type of a sensitive marginal oscillator has been developed for the determination of high magnetic inductions by means of nuclear magnetic resonance. Obtaining a high sensitivity with this measuring principle demands a soft behavior of the oscillator which is a particular feature of the circuit presented. It is shown that this behavior is due to the fact that a very weak positive feedback is established by the inner capacitances of the single field effect transistor used in the circuit. Optimal values for the operation parameters are calculated.
Coupled opto-electronic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yao, X. Steve (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A coupled opto-electronic oscillator that directly couples a laser oscillation with an electronic oscillation to simultaneously achieve a stable RF oscillation at a high frequency and ultra-short optical pulsation by mode locking with a high repetition rate and stability. Single-mode selection can be achieved even with a very long opto-electronic loop. A multimode laser can be used to pump the electronic oscillation, resulting in a high operation efficiency. The optical and the RF oscillations are correlated to each other.
Electric fields and double layers in plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.
1987-01-01
Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.
Electric fields and double layers in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.
1987-05-01
Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.
A new hydrodynamic analysis of double layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hora, Heinrich
1987-01-01
A genuine two-fluid model of plasmas with collisions permits the calculation of dynamic (not necessarily static) electric fields and double layers inside of plasmas including oscillations and damping. For the first time a macroscopic model for coupling of electromagnetic and Langmuir waves was achieved with realistic damping. Starting points were laser-produced plasmas showing very high dynamic electric fields in nonlinear force-produced cavitous and inverted double layers in agreement with experiments. Applications for any inhomogeneous plasma as in laboratory or in astrophysical plasmas can then be followed up by a transparent hydrodynamic description. Results are the rotation of plasmas in magnetic fields and a new second harmonic resonance, explanation of the measured inverted double layers, explanation of the observed density-independent, second harmonics emission from laser-produced plasmas, and a laser acceleration scheme by the very high fields of the double layers.
Triple inverter pierce oscillator circuit suitable for CMOS
Wessendorf; Kurt O.
2007-02-27
An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be formed using discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), or as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The oscillator circuit utilizes a Pierce oscillator design with three inverter stages connected in series. A feedback resistor provided in a feedback loop about a second inverter stage provides an almost ideal inverting transconductance thereby allowing high-Q operation at the resonator-controlled frequency while suppressing a parasitic oscillation frequency that is inherent in a Pierce configuration using a "standard" triple inverter for the sustaining amplifier. The oscillator circuit, which operates in a range of 10 50 MHz, has applications for use as a clock in a microprocessor and can also be used for sensor applications.
Oscillating Reactions: Two Analogies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina I.; Šoptrajanov, Bojan T.
2007-01-01
Oscillating chemical reactions are truly spectacular phenomena, and demonstrations are always appreciated by the class. However, explaining such reactions to high school or first-year university students is problematic, because it may seem that no acceptable explanation is possible unless the students have profound knowledge of both physical…
Wein bridge oscillator circuit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipoma, P. C.
1971-01-01
Circuit with minimum number of components provides stable outputs of 2 to 8 volts at frequencies of .001 to 100 kHz. Oscillator exhibits low power consumption, portability, simplicity, and drive capability, it has application as loudspeaker tester and audible alarm, as well as in laboratory and test generators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T.
1976-01-01
For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.
LSND neutrino oscillation results
Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration
1997-06-01
The LSND experiment at Los Alamos has conducted searches for {anti {nu}}{sub {mu}} {r_arrow} {anti {nu}}{sub e} oscillations using {anti {nu}}{sub {mu}} from U{sup +} decay at rest and for {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_arrow} {nu}{sub e} oscillations using {nu}{sub {mu}} from {pi}{sup +} decay in flight. For the {anti {nu}}{sub {mu}} {r_arrow} {anti {nu}}{sub e} search, a total excess of 51.8{sub {minus}16.9}{sup +18.7} {+-} 8.0 events is observed with e{sup +} energy between 20 and 60 MeV, while for the {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_arrow} {nu}{sub e} search, a total excess of 18.1 {+-} 6.6 {+-} 4.0 events is observed with e{sup {minus}} energy between 60 and 200 MeV. If attributed to neutrino oscillations, these excesses correspond to oscillation probabilities (averaged over the experimental energies and spatial acceptances) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05)% and (0.26 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.05)%, respectively.
Relativistic harmonic oscillator revisited
Bars, Itzhak
2009-02-15
The familiar Fock space commonly used to describe the relativistic harmonic oscillator, for example, as part of string theory, is insufficient to describe all the states of the relativistic oscillator. We find that there are three different vacua leading to three disconnected Fock sectors, all constructed with the same creation-annihilation operators. These have different spacetime geometric properties as well as different algebraic symmetry properties or different quantum numbers. Two of these Fock spaces include negative norm ghosts (as in string theory), while the third one is completely free of ghosts. We discuss a gauge symmetry in a worldline theory approach that supplies appropriate constraints to remove all the ghosts from all Fock sectors of the single oscillator. The resulting ghost-free quantum spectrum in d+1 dimensions is then classified in unitary representations of the Lorentz group SO(d,1). Moreover, all states of the single oscillator put together make up a single infinite dimensional unitary representation of a hidden global symmetry SU(d,1), whose Casimir eigenvalues are computed. Possible applications of these new results in string theory and other areas of physics and mathematics are briefly mentioned.
Live imaging of calcium spikes during double fertilization in Arabidopsis
Hamamura, Yuki; Nishimaki, Moe; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Geitmann, Anja; Kurihara, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya
2014-01-01
Ca2+ waves and oscillation are key signalling elements during the fertilization process of animals, and are involved, for example, in egg activation. In the unique double fertilization process in flowering plants, both the egg cell and the neighbouring central cell fuse with a sperm cell each. Here we succeeded in imaging cytosolic Ca2+ in these two cells, and in the two synergid cells that accompany the gametes during semi-in vivo double fertilization. Following pollen tube discharge and plasmogamy, the egg and central cells displayed transient Ca2+ spikes, but not oscillations. Only the events in the egg cell correlated with the plasmogamy. In contrast, the synergid cells displayed Ca2+ oscillations on pollen tube arrival. The two synergid cells showed distinct Ca2+ dynamics depending on their respective roles in tube reception. These Ca2+ dynamics in the female gametophyte seem to represent highly specific signatures that coordinate successful double fertilization in the flowering plants. PMID:25146889
120-GHz HEMT Oscillator With Surface-Wave-Assisted Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samoska, Lorene; Siegel, Peter; Leong, Kevin; Itoh, Tatsuo; Qian, Yongxi; Radisic, Vesna
2003-01-01
Two monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) have been designed and built to function together as a source of electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 120 GHz. One of the MMICs is an oscillator and is the highest-power 120-GHz oscillator reported thus far in the literature. The other MMIC is an end-fire antenna that radiates the oscillator signal. Although these MMICs were constructed as separate units and electrically connected with wire bonds, future oscillator/ antenna combinations could readily be fabricated as monolithic integrated units. Such units could be used as relatively high-power solid-state microwave sources in diverse applications that include automotive radar, imaging, scientific instrumentation, communications, and radio astronomy. As such, these units would be attractive alternatives to vacuum-tube oscillators, which are still used to obtain acceptably high power in the frequency range of interest. The oscillator (see figure) includes a high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), with gate-periphery dimensions of 4 by 37 m, in a common-source configuration. The series feedback element of the oscillator is a grounded coplanar waveguide (CPW) at the source. The HEMT is biased for class-A operation (meaning that current is conducted throughout the oscillation cycle) to maximize the output power of the oscillator. Input and output impedance-matching circuit elements are designed to maximize output power and to establish the conditions needed for oscillation. The design of the antenna takes advantage of surface waves, which, heretofore, have been regarded as highly disadvantageous because they can leak power and degrade the performances of antennas that have not been designed to exploit them. Measures taken to suppress surface waves have included complex machining of circuit substrates and addition of separate substrates. These measures are difficult to implement in standard MMIC fabrication processes. In contrast, because the design of the
Orthogonal polynomials and deformed oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.
2015-10-01
In the example of the Fibonacci oscillator, we discuss the construction of oscillator-like systems associated with orthogonal polynomials. We also consider the question of the dimensions of the corresponding Lie algebras.
Master oscillator stability requirements considerations
Schwarz, H.; Vancraeynest, J.
1986-06-24
This note attempts to point out some ideas about the required stability of the 476 MHz master oscillator, assuming that the phase noise of the oscillator is the only source of noise in the accelerator system.
Owens-Gary, Michelle; Shea, Laura
2015-01-01
Eating disorders are more common in youth with diabetes, especially females, and not only interfere with diabetes management but can increase the risk for diabetes-related complications. School nurses may be the first to recognize eating disorders among students with diabetes. They are an integral part of a multidisciplinary team, connecting students and families to both health care and community resources, ensuring that mental, physical, and social needs are addressed. PMID:25417328
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiorini, Ettore
2010-12-01
Almost exactly seventy years ago and only one year before his tragic disappearance the ingenious idea of Ettore Majorana is becoming one of the most important step in the development of fundamental physics. The problem of the nature of the neutrino, namely if it is a massless Dirac particle different from its antineutrino or a Majorana particle with finite mass, is discussed. In fact the recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicates that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavours is finite. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to determine the effective value of the mass of a Majorana neutrino. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already at least partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is indeed a Majorana particle.
Democracy-independence trade-off in oscillating dendrites and its implications for grid cells.
Remme, Michiel W H; Lengyel, Máté; Gutkin, Boris S
2010-05-13
Dendritic democracy and independence have been characterized for near-instantaneous processing of synaptic inputs. However, a wide class of neuronal computations requires input integration on long timescales. As a paradigmatic example, entorhinal grid fields have been thought to be generated by the democratic summation of independent dendritic oscillations performing direction-selective path integration. We analyzed how multiple dendritic oscillators embedded in the same neuron integrate inputs separately and determine somatic membrane voltage jointly. We found that the interaction of dendritic oscillations leads to phase locking, which sets an upper limit on the timescale for independent input integration. Factors that increase this timescale also decrease the influence that the dendritic oscillations exert on somatic voltage. In entorhinal stellate cells, interdendritic coupling dominates and causes these cells to act as single oscillators. Our results suggest a fundamental trade-off between local and global processing in dendritic trees integrating ongoing signals.
Ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barral, S.; Peradzyński, Z.
2010-01-01
The underlying mechanism of low-frequency oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated theoretically. It is shown that relaxation oscillations arise from a competition between avalanche ionization and the advective transport of the working gas. The model derived recovers the slow progression and fast recession of the ionization front. Analytical approximations of the shape of current pulses and of the oscillation frequency are provided for the case of large amplitude oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haque, Masud
2014-03-01
We consider Bloch oscillations of interacting quantum particles in a one-dimensional lattice subject to a linear potential gradient (a tilt). For hard-core bosons and for free fermions, we show perfectly periodic behavior of density and momentum distributions. The oscillations can be predominantly position oscillations, or predominantly width oscillations, depending on the initial state. We show how the periodic behavior is modified for weak and strong interactions.
Neutrino Oscillations with Reactor Neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Anatael
2007-06-01
Prospect measurements of neutrino oscillations with reactor neutrinos are reviewed in this document. The following items are described: neutrinos oscillations status, reactor neutrino experimental strategy, impact of uncertainties on the neutrino oscillation sensitivity and, finally, the experiments in the field. This is the synthesis of the talk delivered during the NOW2006 conference at Otranto (Italy) during September 2006.
Lyapunov exponents for a Duffing oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeni, Andrea R.; Gallas, Jason A. C.
With the help of a parallel computer we perform a systematic computation of Lyapunov exponents for a Duffing oscillator driven externally by a force proportional to cos( t). In contrast to the familiar situation in discrete-time systems where one finds “windows” of regularity embedded in intervals of chaos, we find the continuous-time Duffing oscillator to contain a quite regular epetition of relatively self-similar “islands of chaos” (i.e. regions characterized by positive exponents) embedded in large “seas of regularity” (negative exponents). We also investigate the effect of driving the oscillator with a Jacobian elliptic function cn( t, m). For m = 0 one has cn( t, 0) ≡ cos( t), the usual trigonometric pumping. For m = 1 one has cn( t, 1) ≡ sech( t), a hyperbolic pumping. When 0 < m < 1 the Jacobian function is an intermediary double-periodic function with periodicity depending on m and with Fourier spectrum consisting of a regular train of narrow lines with varying envelope. Using m to tune the drive appropriately one may displace the islands of chaos in parameter space. Thus, Jacobian pumping provides a possible way of “cleaning chaos” in regions of the parameter space for periodically driven systems.
Multisynchronization of Chaotic Oscillators via Nonlinear Observer Approach
Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Mata-Machuca, Juan L.
2014-01-01
The goal of this work is to synchronize a class of chaotic oscillators in a master-slave scheme, under different initial conditions, considering several slaves systems. The Chen oscillator is employed as a benchmark model and a nonlinear observer is proposed to reach synchronicity between the master and the slaves' oscillators. The proposed observer contains a proportional and integral form of a bounded function of the synchronization error in order to provide asymptotic synchronization with a satisfactory performance. Numerical experiments were carried out to show the operation of the considered methodology. PMID:24578671
Multisynchronization of chaotic oscillators via nonlinear observer approach.
Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Mata-Machuca, Juan L
2014-01-01
The goal of this work is to synchronize a class of chaotic oscillators in a master-slave scheme, under different initial conditions, considering several slaves systems. The Chen oscillator is employed as a benchmark model and a nonlinear observer is proposed to reach synchronicity between the master and the slaves' oscillators. The proposed observer contains a proportional and integral form of a bounded function of the synchronization error in order to provide asymptotic synchronization with a satisfactory performance. Numerical experiments were carried out to show the operation of the considered methodology.
Ribas-Maynou, J; Gawecka, J E; Benet, J; Ward, W S
2014-04-01
We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestimates the epididymal SCF breaks because the broken DNA ends remain attached to the nuclear matrix, causing the DNA to remain associated with the dispersion halo, and the Comet tails to be weak. Therefore, we term these hidden dsDNA breaks. When the Comet assay was modified to include an additional incubation with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) after the conventional lysis, thereby solubilizing the nuclear matrix, the broken DNA was released from the matrix, which resulted in a reduction of the sperm head halo and an increase in the Comet tail length, exposing the hidden dsDNA breaks. Conversely, SCF-induced vas deferens sperm had small halos and long tails with the conventional neutral Comet assay, suggesting that the broken DNA ends were not tethered to the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that the attachment to the nuclear matrix is crucial for the religation of SCF-induced DNA breaks in sperm. Our data suggest that the neutral Comet assay identifies only dsDNA breaks that are released from the nuclear matrix and that the addition of an SDS treatment can reveal these hidden dsDNA breaks.
Dynamic states of a unidirectional ring of chen oscillators
Carvalho, Ana
2015-03-10
We study curious dynamical patterns appearing in a network of a unidirectional ring of Chen oscillators coupled to a ‘buffer’ cell. The network has Z{sub 3} exact symmetry group. We simulate the coupled cell systems associated to the two networks and obtain steady-states, rotating waves, quasiperiodic behavior, and chaos. The different patterns appear to arise through a sequence of Hopf, period-doubling and period-halving bifurcations. The network architecture appears to explain some patterns, whereas the properties of the chaotic oscillator may explain others. We use XPPAUT and MATLAB to compute numerically the relevant states.
Octave spanning wedge dispersive mirrors with low dispersion oscillations.
Habel, Florian; Shirvanyan, Vage; Trubetskov, Michael; Burger, Christian; Sommer, Annkatrin; Kling, Matthias F; Schultze, Martin; Pervak, Vladimir
2016-05-02
A novel concept for octave spanning dispersive mirrors with low spectral dispersion oscillations is presented. The key element of the so-called wedge dispersive mirror is a slightly wedged layer which is coated on a specially optimized dispersive multilayer stack by a common sputter coating process. The group delay dispersion (GDD) of a pulse reflected on a wedge dispersive mirror is nearly free of oscillations. Fabricated mirrors with negative GDD demonstrate the compression of a pulse down to 3.8 fs as good as double angled mirrors optimized for the same bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesic, Peter
2003-10-01
The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.
High brightness, narrow-band, Ti:Al2O3 oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, A. J. W.; Kangas, K. W.; Fisher, C. H.
The injection-seeding of a short (about 30 cm) Ti:Al2O3 power oscillator with the output from a short-pulse, narrow-band, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 oscillator is reported. The frequency-doubled output from a Continuum YG681C Nd:YAG laser was used as the common pump source for both the seed laser and power oscillator. Good injection-seeding was observed with more than 20 ns delay; less delay than this resulted in poorer seeding. Minimizing the seed laser turn on time allowed harder pumping of the power oscillator, hence higher output energy, while maining good seeding. The spectral output from the power oscillator was analyzed using both an etalon and a 1-m MacPherson spectrometer. The seeded power oscillator is shown to closely replicate the seed laser output, operating on 2 or 3 longitudinal modes.
Voltage-controlled photonic oscillator.
Savchenkov, A A; Ilchenko, V S; Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L
2010-05-15
We report the development and demonstration of an X-band voltage-controlled photonic oscillator based on a whispering gallery mode resonator made of an electro-optic crystalline material. The oscillator has good spectral purity and wide, agile, linear tunability. We have modified the existing theoretical model of the opto-electronic oscillator to describe the performance of our tunable oscillator and have found a good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measurement results. We show that the device is promising for higher-frequency applications where high-performance tunable oscillators with wide tunability do not exist.
Oscillations of complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lai, Choy Heng
2006-12-01
A complex network processing information or physical flows is usually characterized by a number of macroscopic quantities such as the diameter and the betweenness centrality. An issue of significant theoretical and practical interest is how such quantities respond to sudden changes caused by attacks or disturbances in recoverable networks, i.e., functions of the affected nodes are only temporarily disabled or partially limited. By introducing a model to address this issue, we find that, for a finite-capacity network, perturbations can cause the network to oscillate persistently in the sense that the characterizing quantities vary periodically or randomly with time. We provide a theoretical estimate of the critical capacity-parameter value for the onset of the network oscillation. The finding is expected to have broad implications as it suggests that complex networks may be structurally highly dynamic.
THz Local Oscillator Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehdi, Imran
2004-01-01
The last decade has seen a number of technological advancements that have now made it possible to implement fully solid state local oscillator chains up to 2 THz. These chains are composed of cascaded planar multiplier stages that are pumped with W-band high power sources. The high power W-band sources are achieved by power combining MMIC amplifiers and can provide in access of 150 mW with about 10% bandwidth. Planar diode technology has also enabled novel circuit topologies that can take advantage of the high input power and demonstrate significant efficiencies well into the THz range. Cascaded chains to 1.9 THz have now been demonstrated with enough output power to successfully pump hot-electron bolometer mixers in this frequency range. An overview of the current State-of-the-Art of the local oscillator technology will be presented along with highlighting future trends and challenges.
Double Your Major, Double Your Return?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni
2008-01-01
We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…
Nonlinear Neural Network Oscillator.
A nonlinear oscillator (10) includes a neural network (12) having at least one output (12a) for outputting a one dimensional vector. The neural ... neural network and the input of the input layer for modifying a magnitude and/or a polarity of the one dimensional output vector prior to the sample of...first or a second direction. Connection weights of the neural network are trained on a deterministic sequence of data from a chaotic source or may be a
Millennial climate oscillation spied
Kerr, R.A.
1996-01-12
Although evaluating the effects of greenhouse gases on climatic warming has been a major growth industry, greenhouse gases are not the only effect on the global climate. Analysing climate records stored in sediments and glacial ice, researchers have detected a slow climate oscillation that has alternately warmed and cooled the world very couple of thousand years for the past hundred thousand years, perhaps millions of years. This article gives an overview of the evidence.
Decay of oscillating universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mithani, Audrey Todhunter
2016-08-01
It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.
Covariant deformed oscillator algebras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quesne, Christiane
1995-01-01
The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.
Spatiotemporal Phase Synchronization in a Large Array of Convective Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, Montserrat A.; Burguete, Javier
In a quasi-1D thermal convective system consisting of a large array of nonlinearly coupled oscillators, clustering is the way to achieve a regime of mostly antiphase synchronized oscillators. This regime is characterized by a spatiotemporal doubling of traveling modes. As the dynamics is explored beyond a spatiotemporal chaos regime with weak coupling, new interacting modes emerge through a supercritical bifurcation. In this new regime, the system exhibits coherent subsystems of antiphase synchronized oscillators, which are stationary clusters following a spatiotemporal beating phenomena. This regime is the result of a stronger coupling. We show from a phase mismatch model applied to each oscillator, that these phase coherent domains undergo a global phase instability meanwhile the interactions between oscillators become nonlocal. For each value of the control parameter we find out the time-varying topology (link matrix) from the contact interactions between oscillators. The new characteristic spatiotemporal scales are extracted from the antiphase correlations at the time intervals defined by the link matrix. The interpretation of these experimental results contributes to widen the understanding of other complex systems exhibiting similar phase chaotic dynamics in 2D and 3D.
Ionic mechanisms for intrinsic slow oscillations in thalamic relay neurons.
Destexhe, A; Babloyantz, A; Sejnowski, T J
1993-01-01
The oscillatory properties of single thalamocortical neurons were investigated by using a Hodgkin-Huxley-like model that included Ca2+ diffusion, the low-threshold Ca2+ current (lT) and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (lh). lh was modeled by double activation kinetics regulated by intracellular Ca2+. The model exhibited waxing and waning oscillations consisting of 1-25-s bursts of slow oscillations (3.5-4 Hz) separated by long silent periods (4-20 s). During the oscillatory phase, the entry of Ca2+ progressively shifted the activation function of lh, terminating the oscillations. A similar type of waxing and waning oscillation was also observed, in the absence of Ca2+ regulation of lh, from the combination of lT, lh, and a slow K+ current. Singular approximation showed that for both models, the activation variables of lh controlled the dynamics of thalamocortical cells. Dynamical analysis of the system in a phase plane diagram showed that waxing and waning oscillations arose when lh entrained the system alternately between stationary and oscillating branches. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8274647
Biochemical Oscillations and Cellular Rhythms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldbeter, Albert; Berridge, Foreword by M. J.
1997-04-01
1. Introduction; Part I. Glycolytic Oscillations: 2. Oscillatory enzymes: simple periodic behaviour in an allosteric model for glycolytic oscillations; Part II. From Simple to Complex Oscillatory Behaviour; 3. Birhythmicity: coexistence between two stable rhythms; 4. From simple periodic behaviour to complex oscillations, including bursting and chaos; Part III. Oscillations Of Cyclic Amo In Dictyostelium Cells: 5. Models for the periodic synthesis and relay of camp signals in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae; 6. Complex oscillations and chaos in the camp signalling system of Dictyostelium; 7. The onset of camp oscillations in Dictyostelium as a model for the ontogenesis of biological rhythms; Part IV. Pulsatile Signalling In Intercellular Communication: 8. Function of the rhythm of intercellular communication in Dictyostelium. Link with pulsatile hormone secretion; Part V. Calcium Oscillations: 9. Oscillations and waves of intracellular calcium; Part VI. The Mitotic Oscillator: 10. Modelling the mitotic oscillator driving the cell division cycle; Part VII. Circadian Rhythms: 11. Towards a model for circadian oscillations in the Drosophila period protein (PER); 12. Conclusions and perspectives; References.
LSND neutrino oscillation results
Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration
1996-10-01
The LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos from antimuon decay at rest. The electron antineutrinos are detected via the reaction electron antineutrino + proton {r_arrow} positron + neutron, correlated with the 2.2-MeV gamma from neutron + proton {r_arrow} deuteron + gamma. The use of tight cuts to identify positron events with correlated gamma rays yields 22 events with positron energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup -8}. A chi-squared fit to the entire positron sample results in a total excess of 51.8 {sup +18.7}{sub -16.9} {+-} 8.0 events with positron energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05){percent}. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
LSND neutrino oscillation results
White, D.H.; LSND Collaboration
1997-11-01
The LSND experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations using {anti v}{sub {mu}} from {mu}{sup +} decay at rest. The {anti v}{sub e} are detected via the reaction {anti v}{sub e} p {yields} e{sup +}n, correlated with the 2.2 MeV {gamma} from n p {yields} d {gamma}. The use of tight cuts to identify e{sup +} events with correlated {gamma} rays yielded 22 events with e{sup +} energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}. A {chi}{sup 2} fit to the entire e{sup +} sample results in a total excess of 51.8{sub {minus}16.9}{sup +18.7} {+-} 8.0 events with e{sup +} energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of 0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05%.
Temperature sensitive oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
An oscillator circuit for sensing and indicating temperature by changing oscillator frequency with temperature comprises a programmable operational amplifier which is operated on the roll-off portion of its gain versus frequency curve and has its output directly connected to the inverting input to place the amplifier in a follower configuration. Its output is also connected to the non-inverting input by a capacitor with a crystal or other tuned circuit also being connected to the non-inverting input. A resistor is connected to the program input of the amplifier to produce a given set current at a given temperature, the set current varying with temperature. As the set current changes, the gain-bandwidth of the amplifier changes and, in turn, the reflected capacitance across the crystal changes, thereby providing the desired change in oscillator frequency by pulling the crystal. There is no requirement that a crystal employed with this circuit display either a linear frequency change with temperature or a substantial frequency change with temperature.
Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley
2011-01-01
We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.
Latest results from Double Chooz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minotti, A.
2017-01-01
Double Chooz is a short-baseline neutrino disappearance experiment. It detects ν¯ e produced in the power plant of Chooz, France, where is located. The main goal of the experiment is the measurement of θ13 mixing angle and in 2011 for the first time the experiment observed an indication for a non zero value of such an oscillation parameter. The mixing angle was successively measured using only the far detector finding the best fit value of sin2(2θ13) = 0.090 -0.029 +0.032 . The near detector is under construction and will start data taking by the middle of 2014 allowing the reduction of the systematic errors. In this paper I make a review of the Double Chooz experiment, focusing in particular on the latest results of the measurement of the mixing angle θ13 relying on the neutron absorption on Gadolinium. I also present results proving the capability of Double Chooz to identify the ortho-positronium. This has been done in an event-by-event basis for the first time in a large liquid scintillator experiments, and can be an additional handle for the electron/positron discrimination in future detectors based on such technology.
Delinating Thermohaline Double-Diffusive Rayleigh Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, T.; Walther, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liedl, R.
2013-12-01
In natural systems, convective flow induced from density differences may occur in near-coastal aquifers, atmospheric boundary layers, oceanic streams or within the earth crust. Whether an initially stable, diffusive regime evolves into a convective (stable or chaotic) regime, or vice versa, depends on the system's framing boundary conditions. A conventional parameter to express the relation between diffusive and convective forces of such a density-driven regime is Rayleigh number (Ra). While most systems are mainly dominated by only a single significant driving force (i.e. only temperature or salinity), some systems need to consider two boundary processes (e.g. deep, thus warm, haline flow in porous media). In that case, a two-dimensional, 'double-diffusive' Rayleigh system can be defined. Nield (1998) postulated a boundary between diffusive and convective regime at RaT + RaC = 4pi^2 in the first quadrant (Q1), with Rayleigh numbers for temperature and concentration respectively. The boundary in the forth quadrant (Q4) could not exactly be determined, yet the approximate position estimated. Simulations with HydroGeoSphere (Therrien, 2010) using a vertical, quadratic, homogeneous, isotropic setup confirmed the existence of the 4pi^2-boundary and revealed additional regimes (diffusive, single-roll, double-roll, chaotic) in Q1. Also, non-chaotic, oscillating patterns could be identified in Q4. More detailed investigations with OpenGeoSys (Kolditz, 2012) confirmed the preceding HGS results, and, using a 1:10-scaled domain (height:length), uncovered even more distinctive regimes (diffusive, minimum ten roles, supposely up to 25 roles, and chaotic?) in Q1, while again, oscillating patterns were found in the transition zone between diffusive and chaotic regimes in Q4. Output of numerical simulations from Q1 and Q4 show the mentioned regimes (diffusive, stable-convective, stable-oscillatory, chaotic) while results are displayed in context of a possible delination between
Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton
2016-03-01
We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.
1997-09-30
SEP 1997 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition of a Nd-Yag Pumped MOPO (Master Oscillator...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ACQUISITION OF A ND-YAG PUMPED MOPO (MASTER OSCILLATOR / POWER OSCILLATOR) OPTICAL...instrument is configured in a master oscillator/power oscillator configuration, hence the designation MOPO . The MOPO will be used in conjunction
Local oscillator distribution using a geostationary satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardin, Joseph; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durga
2004-01-01
A satellite communication system suitable for distribution of local oscillator reference signals for a widely spaced microwave array has been developed and tested experimentally. The system uses a round-trip correction method of the satellite This experiment was carried out using Telstar-5, a commercial Ku-band geostationary satellite. For this initial experiment, both earth stations were located at the same site to facilitate direct comparison of the received signals. The local oscillator reference frequency was chosen to be 300MHz and was sent as the difference between two Ku-band tones. The residual error after applying the round trip correction has been measured to be better than 3psec for integration times ranging from 1 to 2000 seconds. For integration times greater then 500 seconds, the system outperforms a pair of hydrogen masers with the limitation believed to be ground-based equipment phase stability. The idea of distributing local oscillators using a geostationary satellite is not new; several researchers experimented with this technique in the eighties, but the achieved accuracy was 3 to 100 times worse than the present results. Since substantially and the performance of various components has improved. An important factor is the leasing of small amounts of satellite communication bandwidth. We lease three 100kHz bands at approximately one hundredth the cost of a full 36 MHz transponder. Further tests of the system using terminal separated by large distances and comparison tests with two hydrogen masers and radio interferometry is needed.
High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator
MacLennan, Donald A.; Dymond, Jr., Lauren E.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Grimm, William G.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Ola, Samuel A.; Simpson, James E.; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.
2001-01-01
A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.
High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator
MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang
2000-01-01
A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.
Numerical calculations of velocity and pressure distribution around oscillating airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.; Kobiske, M.
1974-01-01
An analytical procedure based on the Navier-Stokes equations was developed for analyzing and representing properties of unsteady viscous flow around oscillating obstacles. A variational formulation of the vorticity transport equation was discretized in finite element form and integrated numerically. At each time step of the numerical integration, the velocity field around the obstacle was determined for the instantaneous vorticity distribution from the finite element solution of Poisson's equation. The time-dependent boundary conditions around the oscillating obstacle were introduced as external constraints, using the Lagrangian Multiplier Technique, at each time step of the numerical integration. The procedure was then applied for determining pressures around obstacles oscillating in unsteady flow. The obtained results for a cylinder and an airfoil were illustrated in the form of streamlines and vorticity and pressure distributions.
Wind-driven, double-gyre, ocean circulation in a reduced-gravity, 2.5-layer, lattice Boltzmann model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, L. H.; Feng, S. D.; Luo, D. H.; Gao, S. T.
2006-07-01
A coupled lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with second-order accuracy is applied to the reduced-gravity, shallow water, 2.5-layer model for wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation. By introducing the second-order integral approximation for the collision operator, the model becomes fully explicit. The Coriolis force and other external forces axe included in the model with second-order accuracy, which is consistent with the discretization accuracy of the LB equation. The feature of the multiple equilibria solutions is found in the numerical experiments under different Reynolds numbers based on this LB scheme. With the Reynolds number increasing from 3000 to 4000, the solution of this model is destabilized from the anti-syminetric double-gyre solution to the subtropic gyre solution and then to the subpolar gyre solution. The transitions between these equilibria. states are also found in some parameter ranges. The time-dependent variability of the circulation based on this LB simulation is also discussed for varying viscosity regimes. The flow of this model exhibits oscillations with different timescales varying from subannual to interannual. The corresponding statistical oscillation modes are obtained by spectral analysis. By analyzing the spatio-temporal structures of these modes, it is found that the subannual oscillation with a 9-month period originates from the barotropic Rossby basin mode. and the interannual oscillations with periods ranging from 1.5 years to 4.6 years originate from the recirculation gyre modes, which include the barotropic and the baroclinic recirculation gyre modes.
Glucose Oscillations Can Activate an Endogenous Oscillator in Pancreatic Islets.
McKenna, Joseph P; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Mukhitov, Nikita; Roper, Michael G; Bertram, Richard
2016-10-01
Pancreatic islets manage elevations in blood glucose level by secreting insulin into the bloodstream in a pulsatile manner. Pulsatile insulin secretion is governed by islet oscillations such as bursting electrical activity and periodic Ca2+ entry in β-cells. In this report, we demonstrate that although islet oscillations are lost by fixing a glucose stimulus at a high concentration, they may be recovered by subsequently converting the glucose stimulus to a sinusoidal wave. We predict with mathematical modeling that the sinusoidal glucose signal's ability to recover islet oscillations depends on its amplitude and period, and we confirm our predictions by conducting experiments with islets using a microfluidics platform. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby oscillatory blood glucose levels recruit non-oscillating islets to enhance pulsatile insulin output from the pancreas. Our results also provide support for the main hypothesis of the Dual Oscillator Model, that a glycolytic oscillator endogenous to islet β-cells drives pulsatile insulin secretion.
Pulse-coupled BZ oscillators with unequal coupling strengths.
Horvath, Viktor; Kutner, Daniel J; Chavis, John T; Epstein, Irving R
2015-02-14
Coupled chemical oscillators are usually studied with symmetric coupling, either between identical oscillators or between oscillators whose frequencies differ. Asymmetric connectivity is important in neuroscience, where synaptic strength inequality in neural networks commonly occurs. While the properties of the individual oscillators in some coupled chemical systems may be readily changed, enforcing inequality between the connection strengths in a reciprocal coupling is more challenging. We recently demonstrated a novel way of coupling chemical oscillators, which allows for manipulation of individual connection strengths. Here we study two identical, pulse-coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillators with unequal connection strengths. When the pulse perturbations contain KBr (inhibitor), this system exhibits simple out-of-phase and complex oscillations, oscillatory-suppressed states as well as temporally periodic patterns (N : M) in which the two oscillators exhibit different numbers of peaks per cycle. The N : M patterns emerge due to the long-term effect of the inhibitory pulse-perturbations, a feature that has not been considered in earlier works. Time delay was previously shown to have a profound effect on the system's behaviour when pulse coupling was inhibitory and the coupling strengths were equal. When the coupling is asymmetric, however, delay produces no qualitative change in behaviour, though the 1 : 2 temporal pattern becomes more robust. Asymmetry in instantaneous excitatory coupling via AgNO3 injection produces a previously unseen temporal pattern (1 : N patterns starting with a double peak) with time delay and high [AgNO3]. Numerical simulations of the behaviour agree well with theoretical predictions in asymmetrical pulse-coupled systems.
Bifurcation techniques for stiffness identification of an impact oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Maolin; Ing, James; Páez Chávez, Joseph; Wiercigroch, Marian
2016-12-01
In this paper, a change in stability (bifurcation) of a harmonically excited impact oscillator interacting with an elastic constraint is used to determine the stiffness of constraint. For this purpose, detailed one- and two-parameter bifurcation analyzes of the impacting system are carried out by means of experiments and numerical methods. This study reveals the presence of codimension-one bifurcations of limit cycles, such as grazing, period-doubling and fold bifurcations, as well as a cusp singularity and hysteretic effects. Particularly, the two-parameter continuation of the obtained codimension-one bifurcations (including both period-doubling and fold bifurcations) indicates a strong correlation between the stiffness of the impacted constraint and the frequency at which a certain bifurcation appear. The undertaken approach may prove to be useful for condition monitoring of dynamical systems by identifying mechanical properties through bifurcation analysis. The theoretical predictions for the impact oscillator are verified by a number of experimental observations.
The impact damped harmonic oscillator in free decay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, G. V.; North, C. M.
1987-01-01
The impact-damped oscillator in free decay is studied by using time history solutions. A large range of oscillator amplitude is covered. The amount of damping is correlated with the behavior of the impacting mass. There are three behavior regimes: (1) a low amplitude range with less than one impact per cycle and very low damping, (2) a useful middle amplitude range with a finite number of impacts per cycle, and (3) a high amplitude range with an infinite number of impacts per cycle and progressively decreasing damping. For light damping the impact damping in the middle range is: (1) proportional to impactor mass, (2) additive to proportional damping, (3) a unique function of vibration amplitude, (4) proportional to 1-epsilon, where epsilon is the coefficient of restitution, and (5) very roughly inversely proportional to amplitude. The system exhibits jump phenomena and period doublings. An impactor with 2 percent of the oscillator's mass can produce a loss factor near 0.1.
Collective oscillations in disordered neural networks.
Olmi, Simona; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro
2010-04-01
We investigate the onset of collective oscillations in a excitatory pulse-coupled network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons in the presence of quenched and annealed disorder. We find that the disorder induces a weak form of chaos that is analogous to that arising in the Kuramoto model for a finite number N of oscillators [O. V. Popovych, Phys. Rev. E 71 065201(R) (2005)]. In fact, the maximum Lyapunov exponent turns out to scale to zero for N-->infinity , with an exponent that is different for the two types of disorder. In the thermodynamic limit, the random-network dynamics reduces to that of a fully homogeneous system with a suitably scaled coupling strength. Moreover, we show that the Lyapunov spectrum of the periodically collective state scales to zero as 1/N{2}, analogously to the scaling found for the "splay state."
Synchronization in Networks of Coupled Chemical Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showalter, Kenneth; Tinsley, Mark; Nkomo, Simbarashe; Ke, Hua
2014-03-01
We have studied networks of coupled photosensitive chemical oscillators. Experiments and simulations are carried out on networks with different topologies and modes of coupling. We describe experimental and modeling studies of chimera and phase-cluster states and their relation to other synchronization states. Networks of integrate-and-fire oscillators are also studied in which sustained coordinated activity is exhibited. Individual nodes display incoherent firing events; however, a dominant frequency within the collective signal is exhibited. The introduction of spike-timing-dependent plasticity allows the network to evolve and leads to a stable unimodal link-weight distribution. M. R. Tinsley et al., Nature Physics 8, 662 (2012); S. Nkomo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 244102 (2013); H. Ke et al., in preparation.
A common-view disciplined oscillator
Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.
2010-05-15
This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.
Granada oscillation code (GraCo)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moya, A.; Garrido, R.
2008-08-01
Granada oscillation code (GraCo) is a software constructed to compute adiabatic and non-adiabatic oscillation eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. The adiabatic version gives the standard numerical resolution, and also the Richardson extrapolation, different sets of eigenfunctions, different outer mechanical boundary conditions or different integration variables. The non-adiabatic version can include the atmosphere-pulsation interaction. The code has been used for intensive studies of δ Scuti, γ Doradus, β Ceph., SdO and, SdB stars. The non adiabatic observables “phase-lag” (the phase between the effective temperature variations and the radial displacement) and {δ T_{eff}over T_{eff}} (relative surface temperature variation) can help to the modal identification. These quantities together with the energy balance (“growth rate”) provide useful additional information to the adiabatic resolution (eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions).
Chaotic gas bubble oscillations in a viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Fernández, Javier
2008-05-01
Regular and chaotic radial oscillations of an acoustically driven gas bubble in a viscoelastic fluid have been theoretically analyzed. For parameter values usually found in diagnostic ultrasound period-doubling routes to chaos have been identified. Thresholds values of the external pressure amplitude for a first bifurcation in terms of the elasticity and the shear viscosity of the host fluid have also been evaluated. To cite this article: J. Jiménez-Fernández, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
Patterns of vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Keun-Shik; Sa, Jong-Youb
1990-01-01
Vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder was numerically investigated at Re = 100 with the Navier-Stokes equations and the new boundary conditions. The detailed shedding patterns are characterized by means of streakline plotting and lift-coefficient curves. A parameter map is presented which distinguishes the synchronized shedding from the asynchronous and the double vortices shedding from the single vortex shedding. The computational result is in good agreement with earlier experimental results.
Closed-loop control of ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators
Barral, S.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Kurzyna, J.; Dudeck, M.
2011-08-15
Feedback control of ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated with a proportional-integral-derivative controller acting on the discharge voltage. The stability of the current is found to systematically improve with proportional control, whereas integral and derivative control have in most cases a detrimental or insignificant impact. At low discharge voltages, proportional control eliminates at the same time ionization breathing oscillations as well as a coexisting low frequency mode. A progressive deterioration of the stability is observed at higher voltage, presumably attributable to the limited output voltage range of the controller. The time-averaged characteristics of the discharge such as average current, thrust and efficiency, remain unchanged within measurement uncertainties.
Motivation, emotion, and their inhibitory control mirrored in brain oscillations.
Knyazev, Gennady G
2007-01-01
Recent studies suggest brain oscillations as a mechanism for cerebral integration. Such integration can exist across a number of functional domains, with different frequency rhythms associated with each domain. Here, evidence is summarized which shows that delta oscillations depend on activity of motivational systems and participate in salience detection. Theta oscillations are involved in memory and emotional regulation. Alpha oscillations participate in inhibitory processes which contribute to a variety of cognitive operations such as attention and memory. The importance of inhibitory functions associated with alpha oscillations increases during the course of evolution. In ontogenesis, these functions develop later and may be more sensitive to a variety of detrimental environmental influences. In a number of developmental stages and pathological conditions, a deficient alpha and/or increased slow-wave activity are associated with cognitive deficits and a lack of inhibitory control. It is shown that slow-wave and alpha oscillations are reciprocally related to each other. This reciprocal relationship may reflect an inhibitory control over motivational and emotional drives which is implemented by the prefrontal cortex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Góźdź, Marek; Góźdź, Andrzej
2014-05-01
It has been firmly established that neutrinos change their flavour during propagation. This feature is attributed to the feature that each flavour eigenstate is a superposition of three mass eigenstates, which propagate with different frequencies. This picture, although widely accepted, is wrong in the simplest approach and requires quite sophisticated treatment based on the wave-packet description within quantum field theory. In this communication we present a novel, much simpler explanation and show that oscillations among massive particles can be obtained in a natural way. We use the framework of quantum mechanics with time being a physical observable, not just a parameter.
CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR
Spinrad, R.J.
1961-10-17
A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Siegel, Peter H.
Most operational Submillimeter-wave radio telescopes, both space borne and ground based, employ local oscillator sources based on Gunn diodes followed by whisker contacted Schottky multipliers. Enough progress, however, has been made on a number of fronts to conclude that next generation of radio telescopes that become operational in the new Millennium will have a different local oscillator (LO) generation architecture. MMIC power amplifiers with impressive gain in the Ka- to-W band have enabled the use of microwave synthesizers which can then be actively multiplied to provide a frequency agile power source beyond 100 GHz. This medium power millimeter source can then be amplified to enable efficient pumping of follow-on balanced multiplier stages. Input power to the multipliers can be further enhanced by power combining to achieve close to half a Watt at W-band. An 800 GHz three-stage multiplier chain, implemented this way has demonstrated a peak output power of 1 mW. A second advance in LO generation lies in the Schottky diode varactor technology. Planar Schottky diode multipliers have now been demonstrated up to 1500 GHz and it can be assumed that most of the future multiplier chains will be based on these robust devices rather than the whisker contacted diode of the past. The ability to produce planar GaAs diode chips deep into the THz range, with submicron dimensions, has opened up a wide range of circuit design space which can be taken advantage of to improve efficiency, bandwidth, and power handling capability of the multipliers. A third breakthrough has been the demonstration of photonic based LO sources utilizing GaAs photomixers. These sources, though not yet implemented in robust space borne missions, offer a number of advantages over their electronic counterparts, including extremely broad tuning, fiber coupled components, and solid-state implementation. Another development, which holds some promise, is the use of micro-machining technology to implement
The algebra of two dimensional generalized Chebyshev-Koornwinder oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.
2014-10-01
In the previous works of Borzov and Damaskinsky ["Chebyshev-Koornwinder oscillator," Theor. Math. Phys. 175(3), 765-772 (2013)] and ["Ladder operators for Chebyshev-Koornwinder oscillator," in Proceedings of the Days on Diffraction, 2013], the authors have defined the oscillator-like system that is associated with the two variable Chebyshev-Koornwinder polynomials. We call this system the generalized Chebyshev-Koornwinder oscillator. In this paper, we study the properties of infinite-dimensional Lie algebra that is analogous to the Heisenberg algebra for the Chebyshev-Koornwinder oscillator. We construct the exact irreducible representation of this algebra in a Hilbert space H of functions that are defined on a region which is bounded by the Steiner hypocycloid. The functions are square-integrable with respect to the orthogonality measure for the Chebyshev-Koornwinder polynomials and these polynomials form an orthonormalized basis in the space H. The generalized oscillator which is studied in the work can be considered as the simplest nontrivial example of multiboson quantum system that is composed of three interacting oscillators.
Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.
Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin
2015-01-01
This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.
Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability
Jensen, Mark P.; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin
2014-01-01
In this article, we summarize the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, and are usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. Here we propose that it is this role that may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis; specifically that theta oscillations may facilitate, and that changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie, some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis, and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments. PMID:25792761
Competing Synchronization of Nonlinear Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, Epaminondas
2006-03-01
Coupled nonlinear oscillators abound in nature and in man-made devices. Think for example of two neurons in the brain competing to get the attention of a third neuron, and eventually developing some sort of synchronization process. This is a common feature involving oscillators in general, and can be studied using numerical simulations and/or experimental setups. In this talk, results involving electronic circuits and plasma discharges will be presented showing interesting features related to the types of oscillators and to the types of couplings. In particular, for the case of two oscillators competing for synchronization with a third one, the target oscillator synchronizes alternately to one or the other of the competing oscillators. The time intervals of synchronous states vary in a random-like manner. Numerical and experimental results will be presented and the consistency between them will be discussed.
Dimitriu, D. G.; Ivan, L. M.
2008-03-19
Experimental results are presented that reveal a complex route to chaos in plasma, in which a Feigenbaum scenario (cascade of temporal period-doubling bifurcation) develops simultaneously with a cascade of spatial period-doubling bifurcations, in connection with the appearance of a non-concentric multiple double layers structure. The Feigenbaum scenario is identified in the time series of the oscillations of the current through the plasma conductor.
Single-Arm Double-Mode Double-Order Planar Waveguide Interferometric Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkisov, Sergey S.
2000-01-01
We have met the goals stated in section one for the project. We have demonstrated the feasibility of a single-arm double-mode double-order waveguide interferometer as a cost efficient alternative to an optical chemical sensor. Experimental prototype was built as a dye-doped polymer waveguide with propagating modes of orders <<0>> and <<1>> of the same TM polarization. The prototype demonstrated sensitivity to ammonia of the order of 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. Sensor based on polyimide doped with BCP can operate at elevated temperature up to 150 C. Upon the future funding, we are planning to optimize the light source, material and the design in order to achieve sensitivity of the order of 1 ppm per full oscillations.
C P -violating baryon oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeen, David; Nelson, Ann E.
2016-10-01
We enumerate the conditions necessary for C P violation to be manifest in n -n ¯ oscillations and build a simple model that can give rise to such effects. We discuss a possible connection between neutron oscillations and dark matter, provided the mass of the latter lies between mp-me and mp+me. We apply our results to a possible baryogenesis scenario involving C P violation in the oscillations of the Ξ0.
Localization oscillation in antidot lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uryu, S.; Ando, T.
1998-06-01
The Anderson localization in square and hexagonal antidot lattices is numerically studied with the use of a Thouless number method. It is revealed that localization is very sensitive to the aspect ratio between the antidot diameter and the lattice constant. In a hexagonal lattice, both the Thouless number and the localization length oscillate with the period equal to the Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation. The oscillation is quite weak in a square lattice.
Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.
1990-01-01
The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.
[Synchronization of the activity of gamma oscillation and ERP components].
Wang, Mingshi; Liu, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Yun
2005-10-01
In the present study the activity of the gamma oscillation synchronized with the stimuli and ERP is investigated by means of unimodal and bimodal experiments. The multiresolution wavelet algorithm is used for signal extraction and Gabor transform is employed to represent the temporal evolution of the selected frequency components. The results show that the gamma oscillation is strongly phase-locked not only with the exogenous stimuli in the three experiments, but also with the endogenous components of ERPs (N2b, P300). And the ERP and the gamma oscillation induced by the bimodal stimuli show the audio-visual bisensory integration and relationship. In addition, the results from the experiments with the auditory stimuli show that the gamma oscillation may be closely related to the perception of auditory signals.
Quantum kicked harmonic oscillator in contact with a heat bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prado Reynoso, M. Á.; López Vázquez, P. C.; Gorin, T.
2017-02-01
We consider the quantum harmonic oscillator in contact with a finite-temperature bath, modeled by the Caldeira-Leggett master equation. Applying periodic kicks to the oscillator, we study the system in different dynamical regimes between classical integrability and chaos, on the one hand, and ballistic or diffusive energy absorption, on the other. We then investigate the influence of the heat bath on the oscillator in each case. Phase-space techniques allow us to simulate the evolution of the system efficiently. In this way, we calculate high-resolution Wigner functions at long times, where the system approaches a quasistationary cyclic evolution. Thereby, we perform an accurate study of the thermodynamic properties of a nonintegrable, quantum chaotic system in contact with a heat bath at finite temperature. In particular, we find that the heat transfer between harmonic oscillator and heat bath is governed by Fourier's law.
Symmetries of coupled harmonic oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.
1993-01-01
It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators possesses many interesting symmetries. It is noted that the symmetry of a single oscillator is that of the three-parameter group Sp(2). Thus two uncoupled oscillator exhibits a direct product of two Sp(2) groups, with six parameters. The coupling can be achieved through a rotation in the two-dimensional space of two oscillator coordinates. The closure of the commutation relations for the generators leads to the ten-parameter group Sp(4) which is locally isomorphic to the deSitter group O(3,2).
Dipole oscillations in fermionic mixtures
Chiacchiera, S.; Macri, T.; Trombettoni, A.
2010-03-15
We study dipole oscillations in a general fermionic mixture. Starting from the Boltzmann equation, we classify the different solutions in the parameter space through the number of real eigenvalues of the small oscillations matrix. We discuss how this number can be computed using the Sturm algorithm and its relation with the properties of the Laplace transform of the experimental quantities. After considering two components in harmonic potentials having different trapping frequencies, we study dipole oscillations in three-component mixtures. Explicit computations are done for realistic experimental setups using the classical Boltzmann equation without intraspecies interactions. A brief discussion of the application of this classification to general collective oscillations is also presented.
Quartz-crystal-oscillator hygrometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruger, R.
1977-01-01
Measuring device, which eliminates complex and expensive optical components by electronically sensing dewpoint of water vapor in gas, employs piezoelectric crystal oscillator, supportive circuitry, temperature regulators, and readout.
Chemotaxis and Actin Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Negrete, Jose; Beta, Carsten; Pumir, Alain; Gholami, Azam; Tarantola, Marco; Westendorf, Christian; Zykov, Vladimir
Recently, self-oscillations of the cytoskeletal actin have been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report experimental results on the self-oscillation mechanism and the role of regulatory proteins and myosin II. We stimulate cells rapidly and periodically by using photo un-caging of the chemoattractant in a micro-fluidic device and measured the cellular responses. We found that the response amplitude grows with stimulation strength only in a very narrow region of stimulation, after which the response amplitude reaches a plateau. Moreover, the frequency-response is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and de-polymerization time in the single cell level. Despite of the large cell-to-cell variability, we found that the polymerization time is independent of external stimuli and the de-polymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation strength increases. Our conclusions will be summarized and the role of noise in the signaling network will be discussed. German Science Foundation CRC 937.
Neutrino oscillations refitted
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forero, D. V.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.
2014-11-01
Here, we update our previous global fit of neutrino oscillations by including the recent results that have appeared since the Neutrino 2012 conference. These include the measurements of reactor antineutrino disappearance reported by Daya Bay and RENO, together with latest T2K and MINOS data including both disappearance and appearance channels. We also include the revised results from the third solar phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-III, as well as new solar results from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-IV. We find that the preferred global determination of the atmospheric angle θ23 is consistent with maximal mixing. We also determine the impact of the new data upon all the other neutrino oscillation parameters with an emphasis on the increasing sensitivity to the C P phase, thanks to the interplay between accelerator and reactor data. In the Appendix, we present the updated results obtained after the inclusion of new reactor data presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference. We discuss their impact on the global neutrino analysis.
Monolithic optical parametric oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breunig, Ingo; Beckmann, Tobias; Buse, Karsten
2012-02-01
Stability and footprint of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) strongly depend on the cavity used. Monolithic OPOs tend to be most stable and compact since they do not require external mirrors that have to be aligned. The most straightforward way to get rid of the mirrors is to coat the end faces of the nonlinear crystal. Whispering gallery resonators (WGRs) are a more advanced solution since they provide ultra-high reflectivity over a wide spectral range without any coating. Furthermore, they can be fabricated out of nonlinear-optical materials like lithium niobate. Thus, they are ideally suited to serve as a monolithic OPO cavity. We present the experimental realization of optical parametric oscillators based on whispering gallery resonators. Pumped at 1 μm wavelength, they generate signal and idler fields tunable between 1.8 and 2.5 μm wavelength. We explore different schemes, how to phase match the nonlinear interaction in a WGR. In particular, we show improvements in the fabrication of quasi-phase-matching structures. They enable great flexibility for the tuning and for the choice of the pump laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Cheveigné, Alain; Arzounian, Dorothée
2015-12-01
Objective. Oscillations are an important aspect of brain activity, but they often have a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to source-to-electrode mixing with competing brain activity and noise. Filtering can improve the SNR of narrowband signals, but it introduces ringing effects that may masquerade as genuine oscillations, leading to uncertainty as to the true oscillatory nature of the phenomena. Likewise, time-frequency analysis kernels have a temporal extent that blurs the time course of narrowband activity, introducing uncertainty as to timing and causal relations between events and/or frequency bands. Approach. Here, we propose a methodology that reveals narrowband activity within multichannel data such as electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, electrocorticography or local field potential. The method exploits the between-channel correlation structure of the data to suppress competing sources by joint diagonalization of the covariance matrices of narrowband filtered and unfiltered data. Main results. Applied to synthetic and real data, the method effectively extracts narrowband components at unfavorable SNR. Significance. Oscillatory components of brain activity, including weak sources that are hard or impossible to observe using standard methods, can be detected and their time course plotted accurately. The method avoids the temporal artifacts of standard filtering and time-frequency analysis methods with which it remains complementary.
Extinction of oscillating populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch
2016-03-01
Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation.
Nanoscale relaxation oscillator
Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul
2009-04-07
A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.
Socially synchronized circadian oscillators.
Bloch, Guy; Herzog, Erik D; Levine, Joel D; Schwartz, William J
2013-08-22
Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the 'group' level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature.
Weismüller, P; Clausen, M; Weller, R; Richter, P; Steinmann, J; Henze, E; Dormehl, I; Kochs, M; Adam, W E; Hombach, V
1993-01-01
A new tomographic technique combined with phase analysis was used to detect premature and ectopic ventricular contraction patterns in 15 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and during ventricular tachycardia in seven patients. Data generated by gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were analysed by backprojection of the Fourier coefficients, double-angulation, and integration to thick slices containing the ventricles, thus allowing visualisation of the contraction patterns in three perpendicular views. The results were compared with those of catheter mapping. In nine patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome the site of initial contraction detected was identical with the site of the accessory pathway found by catheter mapping. The sites of origin of the ventricular tachycardias determined by catheter mapping were within 3 cm of the sites detected by the new technique. This new technique seems to be a promising non-invasive method for localising ectopic ventricular activity that will considerably shorten the time required for subsequent invasive procedures. Images PMID:8461217
Study of the anode plasma double layer: optogalvanic detectors
Gurlui, S.; Dimitriu, D.; Strat, M.; Strat, Georgeta
2006-01-15
The experimental and theoretical results show that the anode double layer (DL) is a very sensitive plasma formation suitable for fine optogalvanic studies. The obtained results demonstrate that the parameters of the oscillations sustained by a DL (frequency, amplitude) can be used as optogalvanic detectors.
Zhou, Weiming; Li, Xiangyang; Lu, Jie; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin; Liang, Haiyi
2014-01-01
As an indispensible material for modern society, natural rubber possesses peerless mechanical properties such as strength and toughness over its artificial analogues, which remains a mystery. Intensive experimental and theoretical investigations have revealed the self-enhancement of natural rubber due to strain-induced crystallization. However a rigorous model on the self-enhancement, elucidating natural rubber's extraordinary mechanical properties, is obscured by deficient understanding of the local hierarchical structure under strain. With spatially resolved synchrotron radiation micro-beam scanning X-ray diffraction we discover weak oscillation in distributions of strain-induced crystallinity around crack tip for stretched natural rubber film, demonstrating a soft-hard double network structure. The fracture energy enhancement factor obtained by utilizing the double network model indicates an enhancement of toughness by 3 orders. It's proposed that upon stretching spontaneously developed double network structures integrating hierarchy at multi length-scale in natural rubber play an essential role in its remarkable mechanical performance. PMID:25511479
Enhanced Raman scattering assisted by ultrahigh order modes of the double metal cladding waveguide
Xu, Tian; Huang, Liming; Jin, Yonglong; Fang, Jinghuai E-mail: fjhuai@ntu.edu.cn; Yin, Cheng E-mail: fjhuai@ntu.edu.cn; Huang, Meizhen
2014-10-20
Distinguished from the usual strategy to enhance the Raman scattering such as creating hot spots in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering, this paper takes a quite different approach based on the double metal cladding waveguide. The target analyte is located in the guiding layer of sub-millimeter scale, where several ultrahigh order modes with high intensity are simultaneously excited via a focused laser beam. The experimental setup is simple, and both simulation and experimental results confirm the enhancement mechanism of these oscillating modes. Other appealing features include the large detection area and the ability to excite guided modes via both polarizations. This scheme can be applied to large molecules detection and readily integrated with other Raman enhancement techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pines, D.
1998-01-01
Two Flight Model AMSU-A Phase Locked Oscillators (P/N 1348360-1, S/Ns F03 and F04) have been tested per AES Test Procedure AE-26758. The tests included vibration testing, thermal cycle testing, AM/FM Noise testing, and full functional testing. EMI/REO 2 Testing was not performed. (See test data for S/N F01). Both AMSU-A Phase Locked Oscillators satisfactorily passed all performance requirements of the AE-26633 Product specification. During thermal cycling of PLO serial number F03, the oven and data logger momentarily lost power, including a loss of data. The unit did not experience any thermal stress. TAR 003134 describes the corrective action. Prior to testing PLO serial number FO4, power was applied to the unit. (+15v,-15v) the unit did not display the proper phase lock. Upon test equipment check out a connector was found to be defective. TAR 003133 describes the corrective action. After completion of testing of PLO serial number F04 was installed into Receiver Assembly F02. Upon testing F02 Receiver Assembly the unit was found not to phase lock at ambient temperature. Removal of PLO Assembly F04 was required. R2 was the real issue. Solithane was secondary. Troubleshooting revealed excessive solithane on inner PLL Assembly cover inhibiting optimum grounding. Also, R2 was reselected which increased the lock range from -30 C to +60 C. TAR 002737 describes the corrective action.
Archetypal oscillator for smooth and discontinuous dynamics.
Cao, Qingjie; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina E; Grebogi, Celso; Thompson, J Michael T
2006-10-01
We propose an archetypal system to investigate transitions from smooth to discontinuous dynamics. In the smooth regime, the system bears significant similarities to the Duffing oscillator, exhibiting the standard dynamics governed by the hyperbolic structure associated with the stationary state of the double well. At the discontinuous limit, however, there is a substantial departure in the dynamics from the standard one. In particular, the velocity flow suffers a jump in crossing from one well to another, caused by the loss of local hyperbolicity due to the collapse of the stable and unstable manifolds of the stationary state. In the presence of damping and external excitation, the system has coexisting attractors and also a chaotic saddle which becomes a chaotic attractor when a smoothness parameter drops to zero. This attractor can bifurcate to a high-period periodic attractor or a chaotic sea with islands of quasiperiodic attractors depending on the strength of damping.
Electrical Oscillations in Two-Dimensional Microtubular Structures
Cantero, María del Rocío; Perez, Paula L.; Smoler, Mariano; Villa Etchegoyen, Cecilia; Cantiello, Horacio F.
2016-01-01
Microtubules (MTs) are unique components of the cytoskeleton formed by hollow cylindrical structures of αβ tubulin dimeric units. The structural wall of the MT is interspersed by nanopores formed by the lateral arrangement of its subunits. MTs are also highly charged polar polyelectrolytes, capable of amplifying electrical signals. The actual nature of these electrodynamic capabilities remains largely unknown. Herein we applied the patch clamp technique to two-dimensional MT sheets, to characterize their electrical properties. Voltage-clamped MT sheets generated cation-selective oscillatory electrical currents whose magnitude depended on both the holding potential, and ionic strength and composition. The oscillations progressed through various modes including single and double periodic regimes and more complex behaviours, being prominent a fundamental frequency at 29 Hz. In physiological K+ (140 mM), oscillations represented in average a 640% change in conductance that was also affected by the prevalent anion. Current injection induced voltage oscillations, thus showing excitability akin with action potentials. The electrical oscillations were entirely blocked by taxol, with pseudo Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a KD of ~1.29 μM. The findings suggest a functional role of the nanopores in the MT wall on the genesis of electrical oscillations that offer new insights into the nonlinear behaviour of the cytoskeleton. PMID:27256791
Global mapping of nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka
2017-01-01
Present investigations of sea level extremes are based on hourly data measured at coastal tide gauges. The use of hourly data restricts existing global and regional analyses to periods larger than 2 h. However, a number of processes occur at minute timescales, of which the most ruinous are tsunamis. Meteotsunamis, hazardous nonseismic waves that occur at tsunami timescales over limited regions, may also locally dominate sea level extremes. Here, we show that nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales (<2 h) may substantially contribute to global sea level extremes, up to 50% in low-tidal basins. The intensity of these oscillations is zonally correlated with mid-tropospheric winds at the 99% significance level, with the variance doubling from the tropics and subtropics to the mid-latitudes. Specific atmospheric patterns are found during strong events at selected locations in the World Ocean, indicating a globally predominant generation mechanism. Our analysis suggests that these oscillations should be considered in sea level hazard assessment studies. Establishing a strong correlation between nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales and atmospheric synoptic patterns would allow for forecasting of nonseismic sea level oscillations for operational use, as well as hindcasting and projection of their effects under past, present and future climates.
Global mapping of nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales
Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka
2017-01-01
Present investigations of sea level extremes are based on hourly data measured at coastal tide gauges. The use of hourly data restricts existing global and regional analyses to periods larger than 2 h. However, a number of processes occur at minute timescales, of which the most ruinous are tsunamis. Meteotsunamis, hazardous nonseismic waves that occur at tsunami timescales over limited regions, may also locally dominate sea level extremes. Here, we show that nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales (<2 h) may substantially contribute to global sea level extremes, up to 50% in low-tidal basins. The intensity of these oscillations is zonally correlated with mid-tropospheric winds at the 99% significance level, with the variance doubling from the tropics and subtropics to the mid-latitudes. Specific atmospheric patterns are found during strong events at selected locations in the World Ocean, indicating a globally predominant generation mechanism. Our analysis suggests that these oscillations should be considered in sea level hazard assessment studies. Establishing a strong correlation between nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales and atmospheric synoptic patterns would allow for forecasting of nonseismic sea level oscillations for operational use, as well as hindcasting and projection of their effects under past, present and future climates. PMID:28098195
Global mapping of nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales.
Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka
2017-01-18
Present investigations of sea level extremes are based on hourly data measured at coastal tide gauges. The use of hourly data restricts existing global and regional analyses to periods larger than 2 h. However, a number of processes occur at minute timescales, of which the most ruinous are tsunamis. Meteotsunamis, hazardous nonseismic waves that occur at tsunami timescales over limited regions, may also locally dominate sea level extremes. Here, we show that nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales (<2 h) may substantially contribute to global sea level extremes, up to 50% in low-tidal basins. The intensity of these oscillations is zonally correlated with mid-tropospheric winds at the 99% significance level, with the variance doubling from the tropics and subtropics to the mid-latitudes. Specific atmospheric patterns are found during strong events at selected locations in the World Ocean, indicating a globally predominant generation mechanism. Our analysis suggests that these oscillations should be considered in sea level hazard assessment studies. Establishing a strong correlation between nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales and atmospheric synoptic patterns would allow for forecasting of nonseismic sea level oscillations for operational use, as well as hindcasting and projection of their effects under past, present and future climates.
Electrical Oscillations in Two-Dimensional Microtubular Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantero, María Del Rocío; Perez, Paula L.; Smoler, Mariano; Villa Etchegoyen, Cecilia; Cantiello, Horacio F.
2016-06-01
Microtubules (MTs) are unique components of the cytoskeleton formed by hollow cylindrical structures of αβ tubulin dimeric units. The structural wall of the MT is interspersed by nanopores formed by the lateral arrangement of its subunits. MTs are also highly charged polar polyelectrolytes, capable of amplifying electrical signals. The actual nature of these electrodynamic capabilities remains largely unknown. Herein we applied the patch clamp technique to two-dimensional MT sheets, to characterize their electrical properties. Voltage-clamped MT sheets generated cation-selective oscillatory electrical currents whose magnitude depended on both the holding potential, and ionic strength and composition. The oscillations progressed through various modes including single and double periodic regimes and more complex behaviours, being prominent a fundamental frequency at 29 Hz. In physiological K+ (140 mM), oscillations represented in average a 640% change in conductance that was also affected by the prevalent anion. Current injection induced voltage oscillations, thus showing excitability akin with action potentials. The electrical oscillations were entirely blocked by taxol, with pseudo Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a KD of ~1.29 μM. The findings suggest a functional role of the nanopores in the MT wall on the genesis of electrical oscillations that offer new insights into the nonlinear behaviour of the cytoskeleton.
Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.
1994-01-01
A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.
A Simple RLCC-Diode-Opamp Chaotic Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
San-Um, Wimol; Suksiri, Bandhit; Ketthong, Patinya
This paper presents a simple autonomous chaotic oscillator. The design method is primarily based on a linear oscillator constructed by a closed loop connection of two building blocks, i.e. an inverting active integrator and a passive second-order LC integrator. A diode is inserted in parallel to the two building blocks for inducing chaos. The mathematical model reveals a set of three-dimensional ordinary differential equations, containing seven terms with four constants and an exponential nonlinearity. The dynamics properties are investigated in terms of an equilibrium point, Jacobian matrix, chaotic attractors, bifurcation, Lyapunov exponents, and chaotic waveforms in time domain. The proposed chaotic oscillator potentially exhibits complex dynamical behaviors through the utilization of only six minimal electronic components.
Analysis of the reverse recovery oscillation of superjunction MOSFET body diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Peng; Fu, Guicui
2017-03-01
The voltage and current oscillations occasionally occur during the reverse recovery transient of the superjunction MOSFET body diode. This paper identifies the unique reverse recovery oscillation characteristics of the superjunction MOSFET body diode. Base on the experimental investigation and theoretical analysis, the various reverse recovery oscillation mechanisms are clarified. At first, with a discrete 650 V/47 A superjunction MOSFET utilized, the high-frequency and low-frequency oscillation characteristics during the reverse recovery transient are obtained by the double-pulse test. After the theoretical analysis, it is found that the superjunction MOSFET body diode has various oscillation mechanisms depending on its drift region injection level. Under high-level injection condition, the high-frequency oscillation occurs due to the plasma extraction transient-time (PETT) effect. Under low-level injection condition, the body diode's snappy reverse recovery results in the low-frequency LC oscillation. In the end of the paper, the oscillation behaviors under both high and low level injection conditions are reproduced by the mixed-mode numerical simulation, the simulation results validate the proposed oscillation mechanisms.
How to control the coherent oscillations in Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg dynamics of three-level system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Xiao-Ke
2016-02-01
Coherent pulse is used to control and measure the quantum state of three-level system in double quantum dots. We analyze the coherent oscillations in Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg (LZS) dynamics by the adiabatic-impulse model, which simplifies the applied pulse as an optical interference device. Under the designed “hat-shape” pulse, the sweeping speed through each avoid crossing can be tuned independently. The coherent oscillations in LZS dynamics of three-level system are optimized by the control pulse. Moreover, we can filter out the coherent oscillations with the unexpected frequency and only keep the coherent oscillations with the frequency we are interested in.
Direct limits on the oscillation frequency.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lager, S; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2006-07-14
We report results of a study of the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency using a large sample of B(s)(0) semileptonic decays corresponding to approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in 2002-2006. The amplitude method gives a lower limit on the B(s)(0) oscillation frequency at 14.8 ps(-1) at the 95% C.L. At delta m(s) = 19 ps(-1), the amplitude deviates from the hypothesis A= 0(1) by 2.5 (1.6) standard deviations, corresponding to a two-sided C.L. of 1% (10%). A likelihood scan over the oscillation frequency, delta m(s), gives a most probable value of 19 ps(-1) and a range of 17 < delta m(s) < 21 ps(-1)at the 90% C.L., assuming Gaussian uncertainties. This is the first direct two-sided bound measured by a single experiment. If delta m(s) lies above 22 ps(-1), then the probability that it would produce a likelihood minimum similar to the one observed in the interval 16-22 ps(-1) is (5.0 +/- 0.3)%.
Modeling flexible flapping wings oscillating at resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexeev, Alexander; Masoud, Hassan
2010-03-01
Using a hybrid approach for fluid-structure interactions that integrates the lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring models, we study the three-dimensional aerodynamics of flexible flapping wings at hovering. The wings are a pair of flat elastic plates tilted from the horizontal and driven to oscillate according to the sinusoidal law. Our simulations reveal that resonance oscillations of flexible wings dramatically increase aerodynamic lift at low Reynolds number. Comparing to otherwise identical rigid wings, flexible wings at resonance generate up to two orders of magnitude greater lift. Within the resonance band, we identify two operation regimes leading to the maximum lift and the maximum efficiency, respectively. The maximum lift occurs when the wing tip and root move with a phase lag of 90 degrees, whereas the maximum efficiency occurs at the frequency where the wing tip and root oscillate in counterphase. Our results suggest that the resonance regimes would be optimal for the design of microscale flying machines using flexible flapping wings driven by simple kinematic strokes.
Galilean covariant harmonic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
1993-01-01
A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single particle is described. Within the proposed formalism, all non-covariant force laws defining acting forces which become to be defined covariantly by some differential equations are rejected. Such an approach leads out of the standard classical mechanics and gives an example of non-Newtonian mechanics. It is shown that the exactly solvable linear system of differential equations defining forces contains the Galilean covariant description of harmonic oscillator as its particular case. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in Galilean covariant classical mechanics the validity of the second Newton law of dynamics implies the Hooke law and vice versa. It is shown that the kinetic and total energies transform differently with respect to the Galilean transformations.
Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.
2012-01-01
We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…
Oscillator With Low Phase Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleinberg, Leonard L.
1987-01-01
Phase errors cancelled for high frequency stability. Radio-frequency oscillator achieves high stability of frequency through parallel, two-amplifier configuration in which effects cause phase noise tend to cancel each other. Circuit includes two amplifiers with resonating elements, each constitutes part of feedback loop of other. Generate same frequency because each circuit provides other with conditions necessary for oscillation.
Longitudinal oscillation of launch vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaser, R. F.
1973-01-01
During powered flight a vehicle may develop longitudinal self-excited oscillations, so-called oscillations, of its structure. The energy supplying the vibration is tapped from the thrust by the activity of the system itself; that is, oscillation of the structure causes oscillation of the propellant system, especially of the pumps. In this way an oscillating thrust can be created that, by a feedback loop, may sustain the structural oscillation under certain circumstances. Two special features of the system proved to be essential for creation of instability. One is the effect of the inherent time interval that the thrust oscillation is lagging behind the structural oscillation. The other is the decreased of system mass caused by the exhausting of gas. The latter feature may cause an initially stable system to become unstable. To examine the stability of the system, a single mass-spring model, which is the result of a one-term Galerkin approach to the equation of motion, has been considered. The Nyquist stability criterion leads to a stability graph that shows the stability conditions in terms of the system parameter and also demonstrates the significance of time lag, feedback magnitude, and loss of mass. An important conclusion can be drawn from the analysis: large relative displacements of the pump-engine masses favor instability. This is also confirmed by flight measurements.
Mechanical Parametric Oscillations and Waves
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.
2013-01-01
Usually parametric oscillations are not the topic of general physics courses. Probably it is because the mathematical theory of this phenomenon is relatively complicated, and until quite recently laboratory experiments for students were difficult to implement. However parametric oscillations are good illustrations of the laws of physics and can be…
Decoherence of a quantum harmonic oscillator monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate
Brouard, S.; Alonso, D.; Sokolovski, D.
2011-07-15
We investigate the dynamics of a quantum oscillator, whose evolution is monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a symmetric double-well potential. It is demonstrated that the oscillator may experience various degrees of decoherence depending on the variable being measured and the state in which the BEC is prepared. These range from a ''coherent'' regime in which only the variances of the oscillator position and momentum are affected by measurement, to a slow (power-law) or rapid (Gaussian) decoherence of the mean values themselves.
Dual-rod Cr: LiSAF oscillator/amplifier for remote sensing applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Early, J. W.; Lester, C. S.; Cockroft, N. J.; Johnson, Christyl C.; Reichle, D. J.; Mordaunt, D. W.
1996-01-01
A dual rod configuration is used to achieve 16W average power operation from a flashlamp-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser oscillator. A double-pass dual-rod amplifier configuration was used to amplify 141(mu)J pulses from a Q-switched diode-pumped LiSAF oscillator by a factor of (approximately)120. This experiment established a small signal gain of 13.4% per cm at 820 nm. Improved slope efficiency (7.4% electrical-to-light) and pulse repetition frequency (40Hz) were achieved with a single-rod oscillator using improved Cr:LiSAF material.
Variations on a theme of q-oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pashaev, Oktay K.
2015-06-01
We present several ideas in the direction of physical interpretation of q- and f-oscillators as nonlinear oscillators. First we show that an arbitrary one-dimensional integrable system in action-angle variables can be naturally represented as a classical and quantum f-oscillator. As an example, the semi-relativistic oscillator as a descriptive of the Landau levels for relativistic electron in magnetic field is solved as an f-oscillator. By using dispersion relation for q-oscillator we solve the linear q-Schrödinger equation and corresponding nonlinear complex q-Burgers equation. The same dispersion allows us to construct integrable q-NLS model as a deformation of cubic NLS in terms of recursion operator of NLS hierarchy. A peculiar property of the model is to be completely integrable at any order of expansion in deformation parameter around q = 1. As another variation on the theme, we consider hydrodynamic flow in bounded domain. For the flow bounded by two concentric circles we formulate the two circle theorem and construct the solution as the q-periodic flow by non-symmetric q-calculus. Then we generalize this theorem to the flow in the wedge domain bounded by two arcs. This two circular-wedge theorem determines images of the flow by extension of q-calculus to two bases: the real one, corresponding to circular arcs and the complex one, with q as a primitive root of unity. As an application, the vortex motion in annular domain as a nonlinear oscillator in the form of classical and quantum f-oscillator is studied. Extending idea of q-oscillator to two bases with the golden ratio, we describe Fibonacci numbers as a special type of q-numbers with matrix Binet formula. We derive the corresponding golden quantum oscillator, nonlinear coherent states and Fock-Bargman representation. Its spectrum satisfies the triple relations, while the energy levels’ relative difference approaches asymptotically to the golden ratio and has no classical limit.
An asymptotic expression for the dipole oscillator strength for transitions of the He sequence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khandelwal, G. S.; Khan, F.; Wilson, J. W.
1989-01-01
The radial integral for 1s2 1S-1s np 1P transitions of the He isoelectronic sequence is asymptotically expanded to order n exp -7 to facilitate calculations of the dipole oscillator strength for large n. The threshold differential oscillator strength values are obtained for ions up to Z = 30 within the screened hydrogenic model.
Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, T. E.
1978-01-01
A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization.
Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin
2015-08-10
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ratio beyond optical absorption only, which is experimentally demonstrated in this paper.
Quantum oscillations without magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianyu; Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.
2017-01-01
When the magnetic field B is applied to a metal, nearly all observable quantities exhibit oscillations periodic in 1 /B . Such quantum oscillations reflect the fundamental reorganization of electron states into Landau levels as a canonical response of the metal to the applied magnetic field. We predict here that, remarkably, in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals, quantum oscillations can occur in the complete absence of magnetic field. These zero-field quantum oscillations are driven by elastic strain which, in the space of the low-energy Dirac fermions, acts as a chiral gauge potential. We propose an experimental setup in which the strain in a thin film (or nanowire) can generate a pseudomagnetic field b as large as 15 T and demonstrate the resulting de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations periodic in 1 /b .
Progress in optical parametric oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, Y. X.; Byer, R. L.
1984-01-01
It is pointed out that tunable coherent sources are very useful for many applications, including spectroscopy, chemistry, combustion diagnostics, and remote sensing. Compared with other tunable sources, optical parametric oscillators (OPO) offer the potential advantage of a wide wavelength operating range, which extends from 0.2 micron to 25 microns. The current status of OPO is examined, taking into account mainly advances made during the last decade. Attention is given to early LiNbO3 parametric oscillators, problems which have prevented wide use of parametric oscillators, the demonstration of OPO's using urea and AgGaS2, progress related to picosecond OPO's, a breakthrough in nanosecond parametric oscillators, the first demonstration of a waveguide and fiber parametric amplification and generation, the importance of chalcopyrite crystals, and theoretical work performed with the aim to understand the factors affecting the parametric oscillator performance.
Coupled oscillators on evolving networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, R. K.; Bagarti, Trilochan
2016-12-01
In this work we study coupled oscillators on evolving networks. We find that the steady state behavior of the system is governed by the relative values of the spread in natural frequencies and the global coupling strength. For coupling strong in comparison to the spread in frequencies, the system of oscillators synchronize and when coupling strength and spread in frequencies are large, a phenomenon similar to amplitude death is observed. The network evolution provides a mechanism to build inter-oscillator connections and once a dynamic equilibrium is achieved, oscillators evolve according to their local interactions. We also find that the steady state properties change by the presence of additional time scales. We demonstrate these results based on numerical calculations studying dynamical evolution of limit-cycle and van der Pol oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-08-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
Mink van der Molen, A B; Salu, M K
1991-04-06
A 59-year-old woman is described with symptomatic cholelithiasis. A double gallbladder was incidentally found during abdominal surgery. The literature on a double gallbladder is reviewed with respect to incidence, anatomy, diagnosis and therapy.
Başar, Erol; Düzgün, Aysel
2016-05-01
The present report is a trial to survey analysis and applications of brain oscillations in cognitive impairment for opening the way to a new take off in research on brain oscillation. Although the number of papers related to brain oscillations rapidly increases, it is important to indicate the common principles governing the functioning of brain oscillations in the brain and body. Research scientists need a global view on the types of analysis, applications and existing oscillations. Further, scientists dealing with brain oscillations must have some knowledge from theoretical physics, system theory, and also general philosophy. The neuroscientists working on brain oscillations can mentally integrate several papers in the present report, and try to discover new avenues to augment knowledge on brain functions. A new take off in the search of brain oscillations indicates the strong need to survey this brunch of neuroscience in a broad panoply of science.
Nonlinear dynamics of plasma oscillations modeled by an anharmonic oscillator
Enjieu Kadji, H. G.; Nana Nbendjo, B. R.; Chabi Orou, J. B.; Talla, P. K.
2008-03-15
This paper considers nonlinear dynamics of plasma oscillations modeled by an anharmonic oscillator. These plasma oscillations are described by a nonlinear differential equation of the form xe+{epsilon}(1+x{sup 2})x+x+{kappa}x{sup 2}+{delta}x{sup 3}=F cos {omega}t. The amplitudes of the forced harmonic, superharmonic, and subharmonic oscillatory states are obtained using the harmonic balance technique and the multiple time scales method. Admissible values of the amplitude of the external strength are derived. Bifurcation sequences displayed by the model for each type of oscillatory states are performed numerically through the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme.
Emergence of amplitude and oscillation death in identical coupled oscillators.
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D V; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2014-09-01
We deduce rigorous conditions for the onset of amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD) in a system of identical coupled paradigmatic Stuart-Landau oscillators. A nonscalar coupling and high frequency are beneficial for the onset of AD. In strong contrast, scalar diffusive coupling and low intrinsic frequency are in favor of the emergence of OD. Our finding contributes to clearly distinguish intrinsic geneses for AD and OD, and further substantially corroborates that AD and OD are indeed two dynamically distinct oscillation quenching phenomena due to distinctly different mechanisms.
Kato, Akio
2006-11-14
The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.
The double identity of linguistic doubling.
Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered
2016-11-29
Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf < slafmak), but once doubling in form is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., slaf = ball, slaflaf = balls), the doubling aversion shifts into a reliable (morphological) preference. We next show that sign-naive speakers spontaneously project these principles to novel signs in American Sign Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.
An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suslov, S. K.
2013-03-01
We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.
Nonlinear self-excited oscillations of a ducted flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowling, A. P.
1997-09-01
Self-excited oscillations of a confined flame, burning in the wake of a bluff-body flame-holder, are considered. These oscillations occur due to interaction between unsteady combustion and acoustic waves. According to linear theory, flow disturbances grow exponentially with time. A theory for nonlinear oscillations is developed, exploiting the fact that the main nonlinearity is in the heat release rate, which essentially ‘saturates’. The amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations are sufficiently small that the acoustic waves remain linear. The time evolution of the oscillations is determined by numerical integration and inclusion of nonlinear effects is found to lead to limit cycles of finite amplitude. The predicted limit cycles are compared with results from experiments and from linear theory. The amplitudes and spectra of the limit-cycle oscillations are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Linear theory is found to predict the frequency and mode shape of the nonlinear oscillations remarkably well. Moreover, we find that, for this type of nonlinearity, describing function analysis enables a good estimate of the limit-cycle amplitude to be obtained from linear theory.
Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John
The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.
Orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing
Smith, Stephen Fulton; Moore, James Anthony
2014-04-01
An orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing includes a dual-polyhedral oscillator array, including an outer sensing array of oscillators and an inner clock array of oscillators situated inside the outer sensing array. The outer sensing array includes a first pair of sensing oscillators situated along a first axis of the outer sensing array, a second pair of sensing oscillators situated along a second axis of the outer sensing array, and a third pair of sensing oscillators situated along a third axis of the outer sensing array. The inner clock array of oscillators includes a first pair of clock oscillators situated along a first axis of the inner clock array, a second pair of clock oscillators situated along a second axis of the inner clock array, and a third pair of clock oscillators situated along a third axis of the inner clock array.
Orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing
Smith, Stephen Fulton; Moore, James Anthony
2013-02-26
An orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing includes a dual-polyhedral oscillator array, including an outer sensing array of oscillators and an inner clock array of oscillators situated inside the outer sensing array. The outer sensing array includes a first pair of sensing oscillators situated along a first axis of the outer sensing array, a second pair of sensing oscillators situated along a second axis of the outer sensing array, and a third pair of sensing oscillators situated along a third axis of the outer sensing array. The inner clock array of oscillators includes a first pair of clock oscillators situated along a first axis of the inner clock array, a second pair of clock oscillators situated along a second axis of the inner clock array, and a third pair of clock oscillators situated along a third axis of the inner clock array.
Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts
Popov, M.; Popov, V.L.; Pohrt, R.
2015-01-01
If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011
Linking oscillations in cerebellar circuits
Courtemanche, Richard; Robinson, Jennifer C.; Aponte, Daniel I.
2013-01-01
In many neuroscience fields, the study of local and global rhythmicity has been receiving increasing attention. These network influences could directly impact on how neuronal groups interact together, organizing for different contexts. The cerebellar cortex harbors a variety of such local circuit rhythms, from the rhythms in the cerebellar cortex per se, or those dictated from important afferents. We present here certain cerebellar oscillatory phenomena that have been recorded in rodents and primates. Those take place in a range of frequencies: from the more known oscillations in the 4–25 Hz band, such as the olivocerebellar oscillatory activity and the granule cell layer oscillations, to the more recently reported slow (<1 Hz oscillations), and the fast (>150 Hz) activity in the Purkinje cell layer. Many of these oscillations appear spontaneously in the circuits, and are modulated by behavioral imperatives. We review here how those oscillations are recorded, some of their modulatory mechanisms, and also identify some of the cerebellar nodes where they could interact. A particular emphasis has been placed on how these oscillations could be modulated by movement and certain neuropathological manifestations. Many of those oscillations could have a definite impact on the way information is processed in the cerebellum and how it interacts with other structures in a variety of contexts. PMID:23908606
Slow brain oscillations of sleep, resting state, and vigilance.
Van Someren, E J W; Van Der Werf, Y D; Roelfsema, P R; Mansvelder, H D; da Silva, F H Lopes
2011-01-01
The most important quest of cognitive neuroscience may be to unravel the mechanisms by which the brain selects, links, consolidates, and integrates new information into its neuronal network, while preventing saturation to occur. During the past decade, neuroscientists working within several disciplines have observed an important involvement of the specific types of brain oscillations that occur during sleep--the cortical slow oscillations; during the resting state--the fMRI resting state networks including the default-mode network (DMN); and during task performance--the performance modulations that link as well to modulations in electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography frequency content. Understanding the role of these slow oscillations thus appears to be essential for our fundamental understanding of brain function. Brain activity is characterized by oscillations occurring in spike frequency, field potentials or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. Environmental stimuli, reaching the brain through our senses, activate or inactivate neuronal populations and modulate ongoing activity. The effect they sort is to a large extent determined by the momentary state of the slow endogenous oscillations of the brain. In the absence of sensory input, as is the case during rest or sleep, brain activity does not cease. Rather, its oscillations continue and change with respect to their dominant frequencies and coupling topography. This chapter briefly introduces the topics that will be addressed in this dedicated volume of Progress in Brain Research on slow oscillations and sets the stage for excellent papers discussing their molecular, cellular, network physiological and cognitive performance aspects. Getting to know about slow oscillations is essential for our understanding of plasticity, memory, brain structure from synapse to DMN, cognition, consciousness, and ultimately for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of
Explosive oscillation death in coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Hongjie; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Xiyun; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zonghua; Guan, Shuguang
2014-12-01
Recently, explosive phase transitions, such as explosive percolation and explosive synchronization, have attracted extensive research interest. So far, most existing works have investigated Kuramoto-type models, where only phase variables are involved. Here, we report the occurrence of explosive oscillation quenching in a system of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators that incorporates both phase and amplitude dynamics. We observe three typical scenarios with distinct microscopic mechanism of occurrence, i.e., ordinary, hierarchical, and cluster explosive oscillation death, corresponding to different frequency distributions of oscillators. We carry out theoretical analyses and obtain the backward transition point, which is shown to be independent of the specific frequency distributions. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical predictions.
VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR
Scheele, P.F.
1958-09-16
This patent relates to transistor oscillators and in particular to those transistor oscillators whose frequencies vary according to controlling voltages. A principal feature of the disclosed transistor oscillator circuit resides in the temperature compensation of the frequency modulating stage by the use of a resistorthermistor network. The resistor-thermistor network components are selected to have the network resistance, which is in series with the modulator transistor emitter circuit, vary with temperature to compensate for variation in the parameters of the transistor due to temperature change.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosensteel, George
1995-01-01
Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.