Science.gov

Sample records for double labelling

  1. Transmission performance of the double-sideband SCM optical label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiqing; Jia, Zhensheng; Xie, Shizhong

    2002-09-01

    Transmission performance of the optical label with the double-sideband subcarrier multiplexing is investigated using Volterra transfer function approach. It is shown that the phase shifts of the two sideband signal is induced jointly by the interaction between SCM component and payload component due to fiber dispersion and nonlinearity. This will cause the SCM label fading, and then harm to system performance.

  2. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  3. Double labeling autoradiography. Cell kinetic studies with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, B.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of the multiple applicability of the double labeling method with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR are demonstrated. Double labeling with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR makes it possible to determine the cycle and its phases with high precision by modifying the usual percent labeled mitoses method with a single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR. In addition, data is provided on the variances of the transit times through the cycle phases. For example, in the case of the jejunal crypt cells of the mouse, the transit times through successive cycle phases are uncorrelated. In the case of glial cells the double labeling method provides cell kinetic parameters despite the paucity of proliferating glial cells. In the adult untreated animal, glial cell mitoses are so rare that the percent labeled mitoses method can not be utilized. However, the S-phase duration can be measured by double labeling and the cycle time can be determined by the so-called method of labeled S phases. With the latter method the passage through the S phase of the /sup 3/H-TdR-labeled S phase cells can be registered by injecting /sup 14/C-TdR at different time intervals following /sup 3/H-TdR application. In this way an S-phase duration of about 10 hr and a cycle time of about 20 hr was found for glial cells in the adult untreated mouse. An exchange of glial cells between the growth fraction and the nongrowth fraction has also been shown by double labeling. A quite different application of the double labeling method with 3H- and /sup 14/C-TdR is the in vivo study of the cell cycle phase-specific effect of drugs used in chemotherapy of tumors. The effect of vincristine on these cells has been studied. Vincristine affects cells in S and G2 in such a manner that they are arrested during the next metaphase and subsequently become necrotic. It has no effect on G1 cells.

  4. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  5. Sequence-Dependent Fluorescence of Cy3- and Cy5-Labeled Double-Stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Kretschy, Nicole; Sack, Matej; Somoza, Mark M

    2016-03-16

    The fluorescent intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 dyes is strongly dependent on the nucleobase sequence of the labeled oligonucleotides. Sequence-dependent fluorescence may significantly influence the data obtained from many common experimental methods based on fluorescence detection of nucleic acids, such as sequencing, PCR, FRET, and FISH. To quantify sequence dependent fluorescence, we have measured the fluorescence intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 bound to the 5' end of all 1024 possible double-stranded DNA 5mers. The fluorescence intensity was also determined for these dyes bound to the 5' end of fixed-sequence double-stranded DNA with a variable sequence 3' overhang adjacent to the dye. The labeled DNA oligonucleotides were made using light-directed, in situ microarray synthesis. The results indicate that the fluorescence intensity of both dyes is sensitive to all five bases or base pairs, that the sequence dependence is stronger for double- (vs single-) stranded DNA, and that the dyes are sensitive to both the adjacent dsDNA sequence and the 3'-ssDNA overhang. Purine-rich sequences result in higher fluorescence. The results can be used to estimate measurement error in experiments with fluorescent-labeled DNA, as well as to optimize the fluorescent signal by considering the nucleobase environment of the labeling cyanine dye.

  6. Microfluidics-integrated cascaded double-microring resonators for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Li, Mingyu; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; He, Jian-Jun

    2014-11-01

    A highly-sensitive optical waveguide biosensor integrated with microfluidic channels based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) was investigated in this paper. Experimental results of the label-free detection exhibits this novel biosensor with the superior reliability for quantitative and kinetic measurement of the interaction between biological molecules, dramatically improving the sensitivity due to the Vernier effect induced by cascaded double-microring resonators.

  7. Double-labelled HIV-1 particles for study of virus-cell interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, Marko; Briggs, John A.G.; Endress, Thomas; Glass, Baerbel; Riegelsberger, Stefan; Kraeusslich, Hans-Georg; Lamb, Don C.; Braeuchle, Christoph; Mueller, Barbara . E-mail: Barbara_Mueller@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2007-03-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) delivers its genome to a host cell through fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane. While the viral and cellular proteins involved in entry have been analyzed in detail, the dynamics of virus-cell fusion are largely unknown. Single virus tracing (SVT) provides the unique opportunity to visualize viral particles in real time allowing direct observation of the dynamics of this stochastic process. For this purpose, we developed a double-coloured HIV derivative carrying a green fluorescent label attached to the viral matrix protein combined with a red label fused to the viral Vpr protein designed to distinguish between complete virions and subviral particles lacking MA after membrane fusion. We present here a detailed characterization of this novel tool together with exemplary live cell imaging studies, demonstrating its suitability for real-time analyses of HIV-cell interaction.

  8. Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Song, Jinyan; Tang, Longhua; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Fast and accurate quantitative measurement of biologically relevant molecules has been demonstrated for medical diagnostics and drug applications in photonic integrated circuits. Herein, we reported a highly-sensitive optical biosensor based on cascaded double-microring resonators. The sensor was integrated with microfluidic channels and investigated with its label-free detection capability. With a wavelength resolution of 0.47 nm, the measured binding capacity of the antibody on the surface exhibits reliable detection limit down to 7.10 μg/mL using human immunoglobulin G (hIgG).

  9. A method for double-labeling sputum cells for p53 and cytokeratin

    SciTech Connect

    Neft, R.E.; Tierney, L.A.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques may enhance the usefulness of sputum cytology as a screening tool for lung cancer. These techniques may also be useful in detecting and following the early progression of disease from metaplasia to dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and finally to invasive carcinoma. Longitudinal information on the evolution of these malignant changes in the respiratory epithelium can be gained by prospective study of populations at high risk for lung cancer. This work is significant because double-labeling of cells in sputum with p53 and cytokeratin antibodies facilitates rapid screening of p53 positive neoplastic and preneoplastic lung cells by brightfield and fluorescence microscopy.

  10. Avidin-biotin-immunoglucose oxidase: use in single and double labeling procedures.

    PubMed

    Gown, A M; Garcia, R; Ferguson, M; Yamanaka, E; Tippens, D

    1986-03-01

    We have investigated the use of an avidin-biotin-immunoglucose oxidase (AB-GO) technique for single and double antigen localization in conjunction with the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase (AB-P) technique in fixed, embedded specimens, using sequential monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies of the same species. The optimal technique for double labeling requires the first antibody to be applied and localized with the AB-P technique using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as the chromogen, followed by an optional elution step and/or incubation with mild detergent (0.01% Triton). The second antigen is localized with the AB-GO technique with nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) as a chromogen. Effects of antigen concentration, intermediate elution steps, and the relative efficiency of the two methodologies are described.

  11. Morphology and Immunoreactivity of Retrogradely Double-Labeled Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the specificity and reliability of a retrograde double-labeling technique that was recently established for identification of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and to characterize the morphology of displaced (d)GCs (dGs). Methods. A mixture of the gap-junction–impermeable dye Lucifer yellow (LY) and the permeable dye neurobiotin (NB) was applied to the optic nerve stump for retrograde labeling of GCs and the cells coupled with them. A confocal microscope was adopted for morphologic observation. Results. GCs were identified by LY labeling, and they were all clearly labeled by NB. Cells coupled to GCs contained a weak NB signal but no LY. LY and NB revealed axon bundles, somas and dendrites of GCs. The retrogradely identified GCs numbered approximately 50,000 per retina, and they constituted 44% of the total neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Somas of retrogradely identified dGs were usually negative for glycine, ChAT (choline acetyltransferase), bNOS (brain-type nitric oxidase), GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), and glial markers, and occasionally, they were weakly GABA-positive. dGs averaged 760 per retina and composed 1.7% of total GCs. Sixteen morphologic subtypes of dGs were encountered, three of which were distinct from known GCs. dGs sent dendrites to either sublaminas of the IPL, mostly sublamina a. Conclusions. The retrograde labeling is reliable for identification of GCs. dGs participate in ON and OFF light pathways but favor the OFF pathway. ChAT, bNOS, glycine, and GAD remain reliable AC markers in the GCL. GCs may couple to GABAergic ACs, and the gap junctions likely pass NB and GABA. PMID:21482641

  12. Transport and metabolism of double-labelled CDPcholine in mammalian tissues.

    PubMed

    Galletti, P; De Rosa, M; Nappi, M A; Pontoni, G; del Piano, L; Salluzzo, A; Zappia, V

    1985-12-01

    Double-labelled [methyl-14C,5-3H]CDPcholine has been synthesized and subjected to a pharmacokinetic analysis in several biological systems. In transport experiments with intact human erythrocytes no incorporation of radioactivity is observable. On the other hand the results obtained with perfused rat liver suggest a rapid cleavage of the pyrophosphate bridge of the molecule, followed by a rapid uptake of the hydrolytic products. The plasma half-lives of intravenously injected CDPcholine and of its metabolites have been evaluated within 60 sec range. Renal and fecal excretion of the injected radioactivity is negligible: only 2.5% of administered 14C- and 6.5% of the 3H- is excreted up to 48 hr after administration. Liver and kidney are the major CDPcholine metabolizing organs, characterized by a fast and extensive uptake of choline metabolites, followed by a slow release; conversely the rate of uptake of both 3H and 14C-labelled moieties by rat brain is significantly slower, reaching a steady-state level after 10 hr. The characterization of the labelled compounds detectable in the investigated organs provides some insights on the metabolism of the drug: the 3H-cytidine moiety in all the examined organs appears to be incorporated into the nucleic acid fraction via the cytidine nucleotide pool; the [14C]choline moiety of the molecule is in part converted, at the mitochondrial level, into betaine which accounts for about 60% of the total 14C-radioactivity associated with liver and kidney 30 min after administration; [14C]betaine in turn acts as methyl donor to homocysteine yielding [14C]methionine subsequently incorporated into proteins; the time dependent increase in labelled phospholipids is indicative of a recycling of the choline methyl-groups in this lipid fraction via CDPcholine and/or S-adenosylmethionine; the rather extensive amount of labelled methionine detectable in brain probably arises from its uptake from the blood stream, since the enzyme catalyzing the

  13. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Thomas M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron–electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package “DeerAnalysis” (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications. PMID:26477251

  14. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas M; Fanucci, Gail E

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron-electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package "DeerAnalysis" (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications.

  15. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at ~1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  16. Fluorescent vancomycin and terephthalate comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides nanoparticles: synthesis and application for bacteria labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianchao; Fan, Hai; Wang, Nan; Ai, Shiyun

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin (Van)- and terephthalate (TA)-comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides (Van-TA-Eu-LDHs) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a two-step method, in which, TA acted as a sensitizer to enhance the fluorescent property and Van was modified on the surface of LDH to act as an affinity reagent to bacteria. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and fluorescent spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the prepared Van- and TA-comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides (Van-TA-Eu-LDHs) nanoparticles with diameter of 50 nm in size showed highly efficient fluorescent property. Furthermore, due to the high affinity of Van to bacteria, the prepared Van-TA-Eu-LDHs nanoparticles showed efficient bacteria labelling by fluorescent property. The prepared nanoparticles may have wide applications in the biological fields, such as biomolecular labelling and cell imaging.

  17. Studies with nonradioisotopic sodium chromate. II. Single- and double-label sup 52 Cr/ sup 51 Cr posttransfusion recovery estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, W.A.; Keegan, T.; Hanbury, C.M.; Holme, S.; Pleban, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A recently developed nonradioisotopic 52Cr technique was used to measure either red cell volume or posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells. The experimental method uses Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure red cell chromium. Results from the 52Cr method were compared with those from 51Cr single-label and 125I-albumin/51Cr double-label procedures using 49-day AS-1 red cell concentrates drawn and prepared according to standard procedures. In the first group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated concurrently with both 52Cr-labeled fresh red cells and 125I-albumin. The latter measured plasma volume from which red cell volume was estimated on the basis of the hematocrit (125I red cell volume). 51Cr-labeled stored red cells were transfused to measure posttransfusion recoveries. The correlation between 52Cr and 125I red cell volumes was significant (r = 0.68, p less than 0.01), and, in this group, the differences were not significant (p less than 0.05). Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion recoveries of 51Cr-labeled stored red cells averaged 66 +/- 5 percent when measured with the 125I/51Cr technique and 69 +/- 8 percent when measured with the 52Cr/51Cr method. In the second group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated by the 125I-albumin technique, and the posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells was quantitated by 51Cr- and 52Cr-labeled stored cells simultaneously. In this group, posttransfusion recoveries with 125I/51Cr averaged 73 +/- 7 percent; with 125I/52Cr, they averaged 75 +/- 10 percent. Using the single-label method of calculation, recoveries averaged 76 +/- 7 and 75 +/- 10 percent for the 51Cr and 52Cr methods, respectively.

  18. Abiotic Immobilization of Nitrate in Forest Soils: a Double Label Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, R. W.; Ollinger, S. V.; Hobbie, E. A.; Frey, S. D.; Dail, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    Mechanisms of soil nitrogen (N) retention remain a key uncertainty in the terrestrial N cycle. During recent work at the Harvard Forest Chronic N Experiment, 15N added to soils as ammonia nitrate was observed to be rapidly immobilized after addition to soil on a time scale of minutes. In published results it was hypothesized that the rapid time of immobilization could be explained by abiotic immobilization of both ammonia and nitrate. The possibility of abiotic immobilization of nitrate has been studied since the first half of the 20th century, mainly using ideal compounds and soil sterilization techniques. However, critics of these studies have argued that while in vitro studies may indicate the possibility of an abiotic reaction, they cannot demonstrate its plausibility in soils. Soil sterilization methods have been criticized, because they are not effective enough to eliminate biotic interactions within an experimental treatment. Isotopic tracer studies have also been used but also have problems differentiating biotic and abiotic reactions. This study is an attempt to demonstrate abiotic immobilization of nitrate in soil samples through the use of double labeled nitrate (15N18O3- ). The resolution of this method depends on the biochemistry of microbial immobilization of nitrate; reduction of nitrate to nitrite, then ammonia and glutamine before incorporation into microbial biomass. Reduction of 15N18O3- before microbial utilization of the 15N implies that retention of both heavy isotopes in the soil can only occur through abiotic reaction of 15N18Ox species. In biotic immobilization the 18O is lost to the system in water. While nitrate has proven unreactive in soils, its reduced product, nitrite, is known to be readily reactive with various soil compounds. Nitrite can be introduced into the soil environment naturally by both 'leakiness' in nitrification and denitrification and may possibly be generated abiotically through methods such as the proposed Ferrous

  19. Studies of double-labeled mouse thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits to estimate relative fucose content

    SciTech Connect

    Magner, J.; Papagiannes, E.

    1986-11-01

    The composition and structure of the complex oligosaccharides of thyrotropin (TSH) and free alpha-subunits are not well established, but are believed to be important determinants of the biological properties of these glycoproteins. We employed a simple double-label technique to learn the relative fucose content of mouse thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits. Thyrotropic tumor minces were incubated simultaneously with (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 3/H)fucose. Thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits were labeled with both isotopes, and the ratio of /sup 3/H//sup 35/S was higher in free alpha-subunits than in thyrotropin; free alpha-subunits were approximately fivefold richer in fucose than was thyrotropin. The /sup 3/H//sup 35/S ratio was not substantially altered in TSH or free alpha-subunits secreted after a brief incubation with 10(-7) M thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Species which incorporated (/sup 3/H)fucose were resistant to endoglycosidase H. Thus, mouse free alpha-subunits secreted by thyrotropic tumor are relatively rich in fucose. Double-isotope labeling using an amino acid and a sugar appears to be a useful technique for studies of the glycoprotein hormones.

  20. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syryamina, V. N.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011), 10.1063/1.3633241], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  1. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakova, Maria V.; Shi, Ce; Armani, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms. PMID:25785307

  2. Optimized RNA ISH, RNA FISH and protein-RNA double labeling (IF/FISH) in Drosophila ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sandra G; Peters, Nathaniel C; Altaras, Ariel E; Berg, Celeste A

    2014-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique for detecting nucleic acids in cells and tissues. Here we describe three ISH procedures that are optimized for Drosophila ovaries: whole-mount, digoxigenin-labeled RNA ISH; RNA fluorescent ISH (FISH); and protein immunofluorescence (IF)–RNA FISH double labeling (IF/FISH). Each procedure balances conflicting requirements for permeabilization, fixation and preservation of antigenicity to detect RNA and protein expression with high resolution and sensitivity. The ISH protocol uses alkaline phosphatase–conjugated digoxigenin antibodies followed by a color reaction, whereas FISH detection involves tyramide signal amplification (TSA). To simultaneously preserve antigens for protein detection and enable RNA probe penetration for IF/FISH, we perform IF before FISH and use xylenes and detergents to permeabilize the tissue rather than proteinase K, which can damage the antigens. ISH and FISH take 3 d to perform, whereas IF/FISH takes 5 d. Probe generation takes 1 or 2 d to perform. PMID:24113787

  3. Simultaneous labeling of single- and double-strand DNA breaks by DNA breakage detection-FISH (DBD-FISH).

    PubMed

    Fernández, José Luis; Cajigal, Dioleyda; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    DNA Breakage Detection-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH) permits simultaneous and selective labeling of single- and double-strand DNA breaks in individual cells, either in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. In this technique, cells are embedded into agarose microgels, lysed and subjected to electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Subsequently, the produced "comets" are exposed to a controlled denaturation step which transforms DNA breaks into single-stranded DNA regions, detected by hybridization with whole genome fluorescent probes or the probes to specific DNA sequences. This makes possible a targeted analysis of various chromatin areas for the presence of DNA breaks. The migration length of the DBD-FISH signal is proportional to the number of double strand breaks, whereas its fluorescence intensity depends on numbers of single-strand breaks.The detailed protocol for detection of two types of DNA breaks produced by ionizing radiation is presented. The technique can be used to determine intragenomic and intercellular heterogeneity in the induction and repair of DNA damage.

  4. High-sensitivity double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Amrita Kumar; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a two-dimensional double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator based neighboring hole radius modulation. By theoretical and experimental analyses, we confirmed that the quality factor (Q-factor) increases at a certain neighboring hole radius. Experimentally, we showed Q-factors of (1.93–2.02) × 105. Moreover, by using sucrose solution, we measured a sensitivity of 1571 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), which is the highest sensitivity ever reported for such a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based resonator type device. We reported the detection limit (DL) of the refractive index change of (4.15–4.34) × 10‑6 RIU, which is one of the best in previous reports.

  5. DNA with Parallel Strand Orientation: A Nanometer Distance Study with Spin Labels in the Watson-Crick and the Reverse Watson-Crick Double Helix.

    PubMed

    Wunnicke, Dorith; Ding, Ping; Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2015-10-29

    Parallel-stranded (ps) DNA characterized by its sugar-phosphate backbones pointing in the same direction represents an alternative pairing system to antiparallel-stranded (aps) DNA with the potential to inhibit transcription and translation. 25-mer oligonucleotides were selected containing only dA·dT base pairs to compare spin-labeled nucleobase distances over a range of 10 or 15 base pairs in ps DNA with those in aps DNA. By means of the copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen-Meldal-Sharpless alkyne-azide cycloaddition, the spin label 4-azido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl was clicked to 7-ethynyl-7-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to yield 25-mer oligonucleotides incorporating two spin labels. The interspin distances between spin labeled residues were determined by pulse EPR spectroscopy. The results reveal that in ps DNA these distances are between 5 and 10% longer than in aps DNA when the labeled DNA segment is located near the center of the double helix. The interspin distance in ps DNA becomes shorter compared with aps DNA when one of the spin labels occupies a position near the end of the double helix.

  6. CRISPR-CAS9 D10A nickase target-specific fluorescent labeling of double strand DNA for whole genome mapping and structural variation analysis

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Jennifer; Sibert, Justin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yonggang; Hu, Wenhui; Riethman, Harold; Xiao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new, sequence-specific DNA labeling strategy that will dramatically improve DNA mapping in complex and structurally variant genomic regions, as well as facilitate high-throughput automated whole-genome mapping. The method uses the Cas9 D10A protein, which contains a nuclease disabling mutation in one of the two nuclease domains of Cas9, to create a guide RNA-directed DNA nick in the context of an in vitro-assembled CRISPR-CAS9-DNA complex. Fluorescent nucleotides are then incorporated adjacent to the nicking site with a DNA polymerase to label the guide RNA-determined target sequences. This labeling strategy is very powerful in targeting repetitive sequences as well as in barcoding genomic regions and structural variants not amenable to current labeling methods that rely on uneven distributions of restriction site motifs in the DNA. Importantly, it renders the labeled double-stranded DNA available in long intact stretches for high-throughput analysis in nanochannel arrays as well as for lower throughput targeted analysis of labeled DNA regions using alternative methods for stretching and imaging the labeled long DNA molecules. Thus, this method will dramatically improve both automated high-throughput genome-wide mapping as well as targeted analyses of complex regions containing repetitive and structurally variant DNA. PMID:26481349

  7. CRISPR-CAS9 D10A nickase target-specific fluorescent labeling of double strand DNA for whole genome mapping and structural variation analysis.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Jennifer; Sibert, Justin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yonggang; Hu, Wenhui; Riethman, Harold; Xiao, Ming

    2016-01-29

    We have developed a new, sequence-specific DNA labeling strategy that will dramatically improve DNA mapping in complex and structurally variant genomic regions, as well as facilitate high-throughput automated whole-genome mapping. The method uses the Cas9 D10A protein, which contains a nuclease disabling mutation in one of the two nuclease domains of Cas9, to create a guide RNA-directed DNA nick in the context of an in vitro-assembled CRISPR-CAS9-DNA complex. Fluorescent nucleotides are then incorporated adjacent to the nicking site with a DNA polymerase to label the guide RNA-determined target sequences. This labeling strategy is very powerful in targeting repetitive sequences as well as in barcoding genomic regions and structural variants not amenable to current labeling methods that rely on uneven distributions of restriction site motifs in the DNA. Importantly, it renders the labeled double-stranded DNA available in long intact stretches for high-throughput analysis in nanochannel arrays as well as for lower throughput targeted analysis of labeled DNA regions using alternative methods for stretching and imaging the labeled long DNA molecules. Thus, this method will dramatically improve both automated high-throughput genome-wide mapping as well as targeted analyses of complex regions containing repetitive and structurally variant DNA.

  8. The lumbar cord location of the motoneurons innervating psoas and iliacus muscles: a single and double labeling study in the female Syrian golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Boers, J; Holstege, G

    1997-11-21

    The spinal cord location of the motoneurons innervating the psoas and iliacus muscles was determined in the golden hamster. The results of single and double labeling studies, using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), showed that both psoas and iliacus motoneurons were present ventrolaterally in the ventral horn in the caudal L1 to rostral L5 lumbar spinal segments with their motoneurons intermingled in one cell group. Further retrograde tracing studies demonstrated abdominal muscle motoneurons ventrolaterally in the ventral horn of the L1 and upper L2 segments. Double labeling experiments revealed that at these levels (caudal L1 and rostral L2), the abdominal muscle motoneurons were located dorsomedial to the psoas and iliacus motoneurons.

  9. Label-free impedimetric immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of cancer marker Murine double minute 2 in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Elshafey, Reda; Tlili, Chaker; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Tavares, Ana C; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-01-15

    The detection of cancer biomarkers is as important tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer such as brain cancer. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) has been widely studied as prognostic marker for brain tumor. Here we describe development of a new sensitive label free impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of MDM2 based on cysteamine self assembled monolayers on a clean polycrystalline Au electrode surface. The amine-modified electrodes were further functionalized with antibody using homobifunctional 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (PDITC) linker. The assembly processes of the immunosensor had been monitored with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques using Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) solution as redox probe. The impedance changes upon binding of MDM2 protein to the sensor surface was utilized for the detection of MDM2. The increase in relative electron-transfer resistance (ΔR/R(0)%) values was linearly proportional to the concentration of tumor marker MDM2 in the wide dynamic range of 1pg/ml-1μg/ml. The limit of detection was 0.29pg/ml in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 1.3pg/ml in mouse brain tissue homogenate, respectively. The immunosensor showed a good performance in comparison with ELISA for the analysis of the MDM2 in the cancerous mouse brain tissue homogenates. Moreover, the immunosensor had a good selectivity against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein, long-storage stability and reproducibility. It might be become a promising assay for clinical diagnosis and early detection of tumors.

  10. Double labeling of vagal preganglionic and sympathetic postganglionic fibers in celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric arteries and myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Shi-Jane; Kao, Chih-Kuan; Wang, Feng-Bin

    2017-02-28

    Sympathetic efferents regulate the “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic and vagal fibers have been suggested to retrogradely and centrally spread pathogens associated with Parkinson’s disease. To examine the arrangement of the vagal and sympathetic motor fibers in the celiac ganglion (CG), gastrointestinal tract, and along the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches, we double-labeled the vagal efferents by injecting Dextran-Texas Red into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the sympathetic postganglionics with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18). The laser scanning confocal microscope was used for image analysis. Vagal nerve endings were densely distributed around the CG neurons, and the right CG received more. Vagal and sympathetic efferent endings formed various ring or string shapes that tangled closely in the myenteric plexus of the forestomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Vagal and sympathetic efferents coursed within the same nerve bundles before reaching the myenteric plexus, had in-apposition varicosities, and ran parallel with the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches. Although a complete sympathetic tracing and an incomplete tracing and/or damage to the vagal preganglionic neurons may lead to a sampling bias, the sympathetic innervations in the blood vessels and myenteric plexus are stronger than in the vagus. The in-apposition innervation varicosities of the vagal and sympathetic efferents within the same nerve bundles and in the myenteric plexus of the gut with complex innervation patterns may offer a network to automatically control gastrointestinal functions and an infection route of the Parkinson’s disease between the autonomic efferent endings.

  11. Double labeling of human leukemic cells using /sup 3/H-cytarabine and monoclonal antibody against bromodeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, A.; Preisler, H.D.

    1985-02-01

    A new technique using immunofluorescence and autoradiography is described, in which the DNA of cells in S phase are labeled with two different probes. This method makes it possible to study the relationship between DNA synthesis and the uptake and/or incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents into normal or neoplastic cells. An example is provided in which the incorporation of /sup 3/H-cytarabine into DNA is demonstrated to occur only in cells which were synthesizing DNA during exposure to /sup 3/H-cytarabine. Other radioactively labeled probes can be used as well.

  12. A label-free colorimetric isothermal cascade amplification for the detection of disease-related nucleic acids based on double-hairpin molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Xu, Huo; Shi, Haimei; Li, Weihong; Sun, Mengze; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-03-08

    K-Ras mutations at codon 12 play an important role in an early step of carcinogenesis. Here, a label-free colorimetric isothermal cascade amplification for ultrasensitive and specific detection of K-Ras point mutation is developed based on a double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB). The biosensor consists of DHMB probe and a primer-incorporated polymerization template (PPT) designed partly complementary to DHMB. In the presence of polymerase, target DNA is designed to trigger strand displacement amplification (SDA) via promote the hybridization of PPT with DHMB and subsequently initiates cascade amplification process with the help of the nicking endonuclease. During the hybridization and enzymatic reaction, G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzymes are generated, catalyzing the oxidation of ABTS(2-) by H2O2 in the presence of hemin. Utilizing the proposed facile colorimetric scheme, the target DNA can be quantified down to 4 pM with the dynamic response range of 5 orders of magnitude, indicating the substantially improved detection capability. Even more strikingly, point mutation in K-ras gene can be readily observed by the naked eye without the need for the labeling or expensive equipment. Given the high-performance for K-Ras analysis, the enhanced signal transduction capability associated with double-hairpin structure of DHMB provides a novel rout to screen biomarkers, and the descripted colorimetric biosensor seems to hold great promise for diagnostic applications of genetic diseases.

  13. Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang

    2014-01-01

    Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g−1, which compares with 0.240 g g−1 (W5) and 0.353 g g−1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

  14. Multifunctional Fe₃O₄ core/Ni-Al layered double hydroxides shell nanospheres as labels for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of subgroup J of avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Shang, Kun; Zhu, Jianying; Meng, Xiaomeng; Cheng, Ziqiang; Ai, Shiyun

    2012-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of subgroup J of avian leukosis virus (ALVs-J) was designed by using graphene sheets (GS)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites modified electrode with multifunctional Fe(3)O(4) core/Ni-Al LDHs shell (LDHs@Fe(3)O(4)) nanospheres as labels. At first, the GS-LDHs were used for the immunosensor platform for improving the electronic transmission rate as well as increasing the surface area to capture a large amount of primary antibodies (Ab(1)). After that, ferrocene (Fc), secondary antibodies (Ab(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) multifunctional LDHs@Fe(3)O(4) nanospheres were used as labels with high load amount and good biological activity. Subsequently, in presence of H(2)O(2), amplified signals were obtained by an electrochemical sandwich immunoassay protocol. To embody the signal amplification property of the protocol, the analytical properties of various immunosensor platform and labels were compared in detail. Under optimal conditions, the reduction peak currents of the electrochemical immunosensor were proportional to the ALVs-J concentration over the range from 10(2.32) to 10(5.50) TCID(50)/mL with a low detection limit (180 TCID(50)/mL, S/N=3). The resulting immunosensor also displayed a good selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  15. Label-free photoelectrochemical detection of double-stranded HIV DNA by means of a metallointercalator-functionalized electrogenerated polymer.

    PubMed

    Haddache, Fatima; Le Goff, Alan; Reuillard, Bertrand; Gorgy, Karine; Gondran, Chantal; Spinelli, Nicolas; Defrancq, Eric; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-11-17

    The design of photoactive functionalized electrodes for the sensitive transduction of double-stranded DNA hybridization is reported. Multifunctional complex [Ru(bpy-pyrrole)2 (dppn)](2+) (bpy-pyrrole=4-methyl-4'-butylpyrrole-2,2'-bipyridine, dppn=benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) exhibiting photosensitive, DNA-intercalating, and electropolymerizable properties was synthesized and characterized. The pyrrole groups undergo oxidative electropolymerization on planar electrodes forming a metallopolymer layer on the electrode. Thanks to the photoelectrochemical and intercalating properties of the immobilized Ru(II) complex, the binding of a double-stranded HIV DNA target was photoelectrochemically detected on planar electrodes. Photocurrent generation through visible irradiation was correlated to the interaction between double-stranded DNA and the metallointercalator polymer. These interactions were well fitted by using a Langmuir isotherm, which allowed a dissociation constant of 2×10(6)  L mol(-1) to be estimated. The low detection limit of 1 fmol L(-1) and sensitivity of 0.01 units per decade demonstrate excellent suitability of these modified electrodes for detection of duplex DNA.

  16. PCR synthesis of double stranded DNA labeled with 5-bromouridine. A step towards finding a bromonucleoside for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Barbara; Sobolewski, Ireneusz; Polska, Katarzyna; Zielonka, Justyna; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Skowron, Piotr; Rak, Janusz

    2011-12-05

    Incorporation of 5-bromouridine (5BrdU) into DNA makes it sensitive to UV and ionizing radiation, which opens up a prospective route for the clinical usage of 5-bromouridine and other halonucleosides. In the present work the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol, which enables a long DNA fragment (resembling DNA synthesized in the cell in the presence of halonucleosides) to be completely substituted with 5BrdU, was optimized. Using HPLC coupled to enzymatic digestion, it was demonstrated that the actual amounts of native nucleosides and 5BrdU correspond very well to those calculated from the sequence of PCR products. The synthesized DNA is photosensitive to photons of 300nm. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the photolysis of labeled PCR products leads to a significant decrease in the 5BrdU signal and the simultaneous occurrence of a uridine peak. Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggest that single strand breaks and cross-links are formed as a result of UV irradiation. The PCR protocol described in the current paper may be employed for labeling DNA not only with BrdU but also with other halonucleosides.

  17. Assessment of Denosumab in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy and safety of denosumab was compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in this phase III study. Materials and Methods Women aged 60 to 90 years with a T-score of <-2.5 and ≥-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip were randomized to a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab or placebo for the 6-month double-blind phase. Eligible subjects entered the 6-month open-label extension phase and received a single dose of denosumab 60 mg. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the 62 denosumab- and 64 placebo-treated subjects who completed the double-blind phase. Treatment favored denosumab over placebo for the primary endpoint {mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at Month 6 [3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.1%, 4.4%; p<0.0001)]}; and secondary endpoints (mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at Month 1, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at Months 1 and 6, and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6). Endpoint improvements were sustained over 12 months in the open-label extension (n=119). There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Conclusion Denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a 12-month period in Korean postmenopausal women. The findings of this study demonstrate that denosumab has beneficial effects on the measures of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:27189284

  18. Modulating fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA via the interaction between dye and nucleotides for rational design of DNA recognition based applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongduan; Wei, Hejia; Zou, Mingjian; Xu, Xiao; Xia, Bin; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2015-03-03

    Effective signal enhancement for fluorescence anisotropy in a simple manner is most desirable for fluorescence anisotropy method development. This work aimed to provide insights into the fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to facilitate a facile and universal design strategy for DNA recognition based applications. We demonstrated that fluorescence anisotropy of dsDNA could be regulated by the nature of dyes, the molecular volume, and the end structure of dsDNA. Fluorescence anisotropy ascended with the increased number of base pairs up to 18 bp and leveled off thereafter, indicating the molecular volume was not the only factor responsible for fluorescence anisotropy. By choosing dyes with the positively charged center, high fluorescence anisotropy signal was obtained due to the confinement of the segmental motion of dyes through the electrostatic interaction. By properly designing the end structure of dsDNA, fluorescence anisotropy could be further improved by enlarging the effective overall rotational volume, as supported by two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(1)H nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). With the successful enhancement of the fluorescence anisotropy for terminally labeled dsDNA, simple and universal designs were demonstrated by sensing of major classes of analytes from macromolecules (DNA and protein) to small molecules (cocaine).

  19. Digoxigenylated wheat germ agglutinin visualized with alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-digoxigenin antibodies--a new, sensitive technique with the potential for single and double tracing of neuronal connections.

    PubMed

    Veh, R W

    1991-01-02

    For double tracing experiments, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) molecules labeled with two different haptens are desirable. In the present report the suitability of digoxigenylated WGA (DIG-WGA) for retrograde tracing was investigated. For this purpose the new tracer was pressure injected into rat brains and the transported DIG-WGA visualized via its digoxigenyl group with an alkaline phosphatase linked anti DIG antibody in permanently stained sections of high quality. With fixatives containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde only few positive cells were found. However, at milder fixation conditions (4% paraformaldehyde, 0.05% glutaraldehyde 0.2% picric acid, 30 min) retrogradely labeled cells were detected with a sensitivity comparable to tetramethylbenzidine protocols for conventional WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) tracing. Preliminary experiments suggest excellent suitability for double labeling.

  20. Generation of Double-Labeled Reporter Cell Lines for Studying Co-Dynamics of Endogenous Proteins in Individual Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Eran; Cohen-Saidon, Cellina; Danon, Tamar; Cohen, Lydia; Alon, Uri

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic relationship between components of a system or pathway at the individual cell level is a current challenge. To address this, we developed an approach that allows simultaneous tracking of several endogenous proteins of choice within individual living human cells. The approach is based on fluorescent tagging of proteins at their native locus by directed gene targeting. A fluorescent tag-encoding DNA is introduced as a new exon into the intronic region of the gene of interest, resulting in expression of a full-length fluorescently tagged protein. We used this approach to establish human cell lines simultaneously expressing two components of a major antioxidant defense system, thioredoxin 1 (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), labeled with CFP and YFP, respectively. We find that the distributions of both proteins between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments were highly variable between cells. However, the two proteins did not vary independently of each other: protein levels of Trx and TrxR1 in both the whole cell and the nucleus were substantially correlated. We further find that in response to a stress-inducing drug (CPT), both Trx and TrxR1 accumulated in the nuclei in a manner that was highly temporally correlated. This accumulation considerably reduced cell-to-cell variability in nuclear content of both proteins, suggesting a uniform response of the thioredoxin system to stress. These results indicate that Trx and TrxR1 act in concert in response to stress in regard to both time course and variability. Thus, our approach provides an efficient tool for studying dynamic relationship between components of systems of interest at a single-cell level. PMID:20975952

  1. Formation of Kokumi-Enhancing γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Parmesan Cheese by Means of γ-Glutamyltransferase Activity and Stable Isotope Double-Labeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Hedda; Behr, Jürgen; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Vogel, Rudi F; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-03-02

    Recently, γ-glutamyl dipeptides (γ-GPs) were found to be responsible for the attractive kokumi flavor of Parmesan cheese (PC). Quantitation of γ-GPs and their parent amino acids in 13-, 24-, and 30-month ripened PC samples by LC-MS/MS and stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), in-cheese (13)C-labeling studies, followed by analysis of the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity revealed γ-GPs to be generated most efficiently after 24 months of ripening by a GGT-catalyzed transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety of L-glutamine onto various acceptor amino acids released upon casein proteolysis. Following the identification of milk as a potential GGT source in PC, the functionality of the milk's GGT to generate the target γ-GPs was validated by stable isotope double-labeling (SIDL) experiments. Therefore, raw and heat-treated milk samples were incubated with L-glutamine-[U-(13)C] and acceptor amino acids (X) and the hetero- (γ-Glu-[(13)C5]-X) and homotranspeptidation products (γ-Glu-Gln-[(13)C10]) were quantitated by LC-MS/MS-SIDA using γ-Glu-Ala-[(13)C3] as the internal standard. High GGT activity to generate the γ-GPs and preference for L-phenylalanine and L-methionine as acceptor amino acids were found in raw milk and milk samples heat-treated for 10 min up to a maximum of 65 °C. In comparison, GGT activity and SIDL studies performed with inoculated Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus casei identified in PC by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, did not show any significant GGT activity and unequivocally demonstrated unpasteurized cow's milk, rather than microorganisms, as a key factor in γ-glutamyl dipeptide generation in Parmesan cheese.

  2. Repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Lin, Guo-Dong; Meng, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Huang, Fei; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model. BMSCs were separated from rat bone marrow. LTR-CMVpro-RFP and LTR-CMVpro-GFP were transfected into the BMSCs for in vitro and in vivo tracking. BMSCs-RFP and BMSCs-GFP were induced into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). Rats were divided into five groups: Group A: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group B: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group C: in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group D: implantation of EPCs-RFP + implantation of with arteriovenous vascular bundle + simultaneous OBs-GFP implantation; Group E: demineralized bone matrix (DBM) grafts (blank control). Among five groups, Group A had the fastest bone regeneration and repair, and the regenerated bone highly resembled normal bone tissues; Group D also had fast bone repair, but the repair was slightly slower than Group A. Therefore, in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP plus in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle and secondary OBs-GFP implantation could be the best treatment for bone defect. PMID:28150691

  3. Neural control mechanisms of the pheromone-triggered programmed behavior in male silkmoths revealed by double-labeling of descending interneurons and a motor neuron.

    PubMed

    Wada, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2005-04-04

    Male silkmoths, Bombyx mori, exhibit a characteristic zigzagging behavior consisting of straight-line walking, zigzagging turns, and looping. The timing for shifting the turning direction is synchronized to the sideways head movements controlled by neck motor neurons (NMNs) including a cervical ventral NMN (cv1-NMN). It has been suggested that this programmed behavior is instructed by two types of activity patterns descending from the brain and the thoracic ganglion: one is a phasic excitation and the other is a state-dependent activity similar to the flipflop in electric memory circuits. These activities are shown by certain descending interneurons contained in two subsets of DNs, Group-I and -II DNs. However, it is not yet well understood which DNs are directly related to instructing this behavior. In order to understand neural control mechanisms of this programmed behavior, we investigated the morphological relationship between these DNs and the cv1-NMN, which is an index of this programmed behavior. We applied a double-labeling technique combining backfilling of the cv1-NMN and intracellular staining of single DNs. 3D confocal images revealed overlapping regions between the Group-I, -II DNs and the cv1-NMN. Group-IIA and -IID, which showed typical flipflop activities, Group-IIC DNs, which showed phasic excitation, and Group-IB DNs, which showed long-lasting inhibition had many overlapping regions on the cv1-NMNs. Our results indicate that the programmed behavior is instructed by these types of DNs.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Primary Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Model from Human Kidney by CD10/CD13 Double Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Glowacki, François; Pottier, Nicolas; Bouillez, Audrey; Maboudou, Patrice; Zini, Laurent; Leroy, Xavier; Cauffiez, Christelle; Perrais, Michaël; Aubert, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells play a central role in renal physiology and are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and xenobiotic nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries, a stable and well-characterized primary culture model of proximal tubular cells is required. An existing model of proximal tubular cells is hampered by the cellular heterogeneity of kidney; a method based on cell sorting for specific markers must therefore be developed. In this study, we present a primary culture model based on the mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of healthy tissue obtained from nephrectomy specimens. Renal epithelial cells were sorted using co-labeling for CD10 and CD13, two renal proximal tubular epithelial markers, by flow cytometry. Their purity, phenotypic stability and functional properties were evaluated over several passages. Our results demonstrate that CD10/CD13 double-positive cells constitute a pure, functional and stable proximal tubular epithelial cell population that displays proximal tubule markers and epithelial characteristics over the long term, whereas cells positive for either CD10 or CD13 alone appear to be heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study describes a method for establishing a robust renal proximal tubular epithelial cell model suitable for further experimentation. PMID:23799132

  5. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  6. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (⩽100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  7. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): a study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Elka R; Roy, Aritro S; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Borbat, Petr P; Earle, Keith A; Scholes, Charles P; Freed, Jack H

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (≤100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  8. Do open label blinded outcome studies of novel anticoagulants versus warfarin have equivalent validity to those carried out under double-blind conditions?

    PubMed

    O'Neil, William M; Welner, Sharon A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2013-03-01

    Recent anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF have been tested in active comparator controlled studies versus warfarin using two designs: double-blind, double-dummy and prospective randomised, open blinded endpoint (PROBE). The former requires elaborate procedures to maintain blinding, while PROBE does not. Outcomes of double-blind and PROBE designed studies of novel anticoagulants for AF, focusing on warfarin controls, were explored. Major, Phase III warfarin-controlled trials for stroke prevention in AF were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) of key outcomes for active comparators versus VKA and event rates for VKA arms were compared between designs, in context of baseline demographics and inclusion criteria. Identified trials studied five novel anticoagulants in three each of PROBE and double-blind design. For ORs of results across studies and outcomes, there was little pattern differentiating the two designs. Among VKA-control subjects, event rates for the primary outcome (stroke or systemic embolism) in PROBE trials at 1.74 %/year (95% confidence interval: 1.54-1.95) was not significantly different from that in double-blind trials, at 1.88 (1.73-2.03). Among other outcomes, VKA-treated subjects in both trial designs had similar event rates, apart from higher all-cause mortality in ROCKET AF, and lower myocardial infarction rates among the PROBE study patients. Although there are differences in outcome between PROBE and double blind trials, they do not appear to be design-related. The exacting requirements of double-blinding in AF trials may not be necessary.

  9. Direct synaptic connections between superior colliculus afferents and thalamo-insular projection neurons in the feline suprageniculate nucleus: a double-labeling study with WGA-HRP and kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kaeko; Horie, Masao; Nagy, Attila; Berényi, Antal; Benedek, György; Norita, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the feline thalamus, which subserves largely unimodal sensory and orientation behavior, receives input from the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC), and projects to the suprasylvian cortical areas, such as the anterior ectosylvian visual area and the insular visual area (IVA), which contain visually responsive neurons. Through a double tract-tracing procedure involving the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the IVA and the injection of kainic acid into the SC, this study sought to determine the nature of the synaptic relationship between the SC afferents and the thalamo-cortical projection neurons. WGA-HRP injections labeled numerous neurons in the Sg, while kainic acid injections destroyed many tectothalamic terminals in the Sg. The distributions of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons and the degenerated axon terminals overlapped in the dorsal part of the Sg. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated that the degenerated axon terminals made synaptic contacts with the dendrites of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons in this overlapping region of the Sg. These results provide the first anatomical evidence that the Sg may play a role in the key relay of visual information from the SC to the IVA, within an identified extrageniculo-cortical pathway.

  10. Evidence for safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis over 4 years of treatment: Results from the 2-year, open-label, extension study of a 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Steven; Lorenc, Roman S; Wenderoth, Dietrich; Stoner, Karen J; Eusebio, Rachelle; Orwoll, Eric S

    2012-09-01

    A 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with osteoporosis demonstrated that treatment with risedronate 35mg once a week significantly decreased bone turnover markers (BTMs) and increased bone mineral density (BMD). This study was extended to include a 2-year, open-label extension to continue to assess the safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis. In the open-label extension, all patients received risedronate 35mg once a week, and 1000mg elemental calcium and 400 to 500IU vitamin D daily for up to 2 years. The safety of risedronate was evaluated based on adverse events, laboratory data, vital signs, and physical examination results. BMD, BTMs, and the incidence of new vertebral fractures were also assessed. A total of 218 (of 284) patients enrolled in the open-label extension. Risedronate continued to produce significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (7.87%) in the group of patients who took it for 4 years. Risedronate produced significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (6.27%) in the former placebo group who took it for 2 years during the open-label extension. Few new vertebral and clinical fractures occurred during the study. There were no significant differences in BTMs between the two groups at months 36 and 48. Incidences of any upper GI adverse events during the extension were low and similar in the two groups; however, the percent of moderate to severe events were higher (8% versus 2%) in the group that received placebo prior to the extension. Safety results continued to show that risedronate was well-tolerated in men with osteoporosis. Patients who received risedronate 35mg once a week for 2years in the open-label extension study showed similar safety and efficacy results compared with those who received risedronate treatment in the first 2 double-blind years of the study. Patients who received risedronate for 4 years in total showed similar safety and efficacy to that observed in

  11. Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, J T; Croghan, I T; Schroeder, D R; Offord, K P; Hurt, R D; Wolter, T D; Nides, M A; Davidson, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter environment. The years of study were 1994 to 1995. METHODS: Parallel 6-week trials were conducted: a placebo-controlled trial of no-cost 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch therapy and an open label trial of the same therapy with patches purchased by subjects. Participants (n = 958) were 18 years or older, had smoked at least 15 cigarettes daily for at least 6 months, and were enrolled at 3 study sites. The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking abstinence confirmed by expired carbon monoxide measurements. RESULTS: Smoking cessation rates in the placebo-controlled trial were 16.8% and 9.6% at week 6 and 8.7% and 4.3% at week 24 for the active patch and placebo groups, respectively. Smoking cessation rates in the open label-pay trial were 19.0% and 10.8% at weeks 6 and 24, respectively. A slight increase in adverse cardiovascular events was noted only in the open label-pay group in comparison with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In an over-the-counter environment, the 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch is effective and safe for smoking cessation treatment. PMID:10553392

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation of TMB with the double stranded DNA-SYBR Green I complex for label-free and universal colorimetric bioassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Huang, Chengpeng; Xu, Shuxia; Chen, Junbo; Zeng, Ying; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2015-10-04

    We report here the newly discovered photocatalytic activity of the dsDNA-SYBR Green I (SG) complex, which can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) under light irradiation corresponding to the excitation of the dsDNA-SG complex. The most appealing feature of the photocatalytic system here is that it can be obtained using random DNA sequences that can form a duplex. Considering the universality of the photooxidase, a label-free and universal platform was proposed for highly sensitive visual bioassays.

  13. Simple, rapid /sup 125/I-labeled cyclosporine double antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassay used in a pediatric cardiac transplant program

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.S.; Webb, G.; Imperio, N.C.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S.L.; Eby, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    We modified the Sandoz cyclosporine radioimmunoassay because of our need for frequent clinical monitoring of cyclosporine drug levels in allo- and xenograft pediatric cardiac transplant patients. With application of a commercially available (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label in place of (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine and a second antibody/polyethylene glycol (PEG) method of separation in place of charcoal separation, we simplified and enhanced the speed and precision of assay performance. Studies of 140 whole blood samples comparing this new method to the (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine radioimmunoassay (RIA) method of Berk and colleagues yielded a coefficient of correlation of 0.96 (p less than 0.00001) with means of 626 and 667 ng/ml for (/sup 3/H)RIA and (/sup 125/I)RIA, respectively, and a regression equation of y = 28 + 1.02x. The major advantages are that total assay time is reduced to approximately 1 h; (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label is used, avoiding the problems associated with liquid scintillation counting; and precision is enhanced by separating bound and free fractions with second antibody/PEG. These modifications should provide for greater ease of assay performance and improved clinical utility of cyclosporine monitoring not only in the pediatric but also in the adult transplant patient.

  14. Synaptic relationships between GABA-immunoreactive neurons and an identified uniglomerular projection neuron in the antennal lobe of Periplaneta americana: a double-labeling electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Malun, D

    1991-01-01

    Two types of central neurons in the antennal lobe of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana were labeled with a combination of two specific markers. Their synaptic contacts were characterized and their distribution on the neurons examined. A uniglomerular pheromone-sensitive projection neuron with dendritic arbor in the male-specific macroglomerulus (attractant neuron) was characterized physiologically by intracellular recording and then filled with biocytin, which was converted to a marker for this individual neuron by a preembedding procedure. In a postembedding procedure local, multiglomerular interneurons were marked by immunogold labeling of GABA. Two kinds of synaptic contacts were found on the attractant neuron. (i) Input synapses from GABA-immunoreactive profiles. There were many of these, which (together with results of previous studies) suggests that local interneurons mediate polysynaptic transmission from antennal receptor fibers to the projection neuron. (ii) Output synapses onto GABA-immunoreactive profiles and onto non-identified neurons. These contacts indicate that signals generated by the projection neurons in a given glomerulus are passed back to multiglomerular interneurons and hence are also transmitted to other glomeruli.

  15. Synaptic connections between the hindwing stretch receptor and flight motor neurones in the locust revealed by double cobalt labelling for electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.H.; Altman, J.S.; Tyrer, N.M.

    1985-03-08

    Synaptic interactions between sensory and motor neurones in the locust flight system have been investigated by using intracellular labelling with cobalt and nickel for electron microscopy. Simultaneous axonal filling of two neurones with different concentrations of metal ions produces differential labelling, so that contacts between them in the central nervous system can be recognized. We have investigated the connectivity of the hindwing stretch receptor neurone (SR) with a direct hindwing depressor motor neurone (MN 127) known from physiological experiments to receive monosynaptic input from the SR, and an indirect hindwing depressor motor neurone (MN 112/1), for which no monosynaptic connection with the SR has been reported. We have found no direct synapses between the SR and MN 112/1, although some of their branches lie close together in the neuropile. We have, however, found some evidence for polysynaptic connections between them. There are many synapses of conventional dyadic morphology from both the lateral and mediolateral branches of the SR to MN 127; the medial branch was not examined. Those from the lateral branch contact the motor neurone on branches close to the neuropilar segment, while those from the mediolateral branch contact long, thin distal twigs. We estimate that there are about 600 anatomical synapses between these two neurones. Our results suggest that a large number of widely distributed anatomical synapses constitute the physiological synaptic connection between the SR and MN 127. The dyadic arrangement of these synapses provides an anatomical correlate for the physiologically established divergence of SR outputs onto interneurones and motor neurones.

  16. Ultradeformable lipid vesicles can penetrate the skin and other semi-permeable barriers unfragmented. Evidence from double label CLSM experiments and direct size measurements.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor; Schätzlein, Andreas; Richardsen, Holger

    2002-08-19

    The stability of various aggregates in the form of lipid bilayer vesicles was tested by three different methods before and after crossing different semi-permeable barriers. First, polymer membranes with pores significantly smaller than the average aggregate diameter were used as the skin barrier model; dynamic light scattering was employed to monitor vesicle size changes after barrier passage for several lipid mixtures with different bilayer elasticities. This revealed that vesicles must adapt their size and/or shape, dependent on bilayer stability and elasto-mechanics, to overcome an otherwise confining pore. For the mixed lipid aggregates with highly flexible bilayers (Transfersomes), the change is transient and only involves vesicle shape and volume adaptation. The constancy of ultradeformable vesicle size before and after pores penetration proves this. This is remarkable in light of the very strong aggregate deformation during an enforced barrier passage. Simple phosphatidylcholine vesicles, with less flexible bilayers, lack such capability and stability. Conventional liposomes are therefore fractured during transport through a semi-permeable barrier; as reported by other researchers, liposomes are fragmented to the size of a narrow pore if sufficient pressure is applied across the barrier; otherwise, liposomes clog the pores. The precise outcome depends on trans-barrier flux and/or on relative vesicle vs. pore size. Lipid vesicles applied on the skin behave accordingly. Mixed lipid vesicles penetrate the skin if they are sufficiently deformable. If this is the case, they cross inter-cellular constrictions in the organ without significant composition or size modification. To prove this, we labelled vesicles with two different fluorescent markers and applied the suspension on intact murine skin without occlusion. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the skin then revealed a practically indistinguishable distribution of both labels in the stratum

  17. Effects of switching from olanzapine to aripiprazole on the metabolic profiles of patients with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Rayees Ahmad; Dar, Mansoor Ahmad; Chandel, Rajesh Kumar; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Haq, Inaamul; Hussain, Arshad; Malla, Altaf Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia suffer high rates of metabolic derangements on some antipsychotic medications that predispose them to cardiovascular diseases. Keeping this fact in mind, we planned this open-label study to see the effect on various metabolic parameters after switching stable schizophrenia subjects, who had developed metabolic syndrome on olanzapine, to aripiprazole. Methods Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia who were stable on olanzapine and were fulfilling modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria for the presence of metabolic syndrome were enrolled on the study. Patients were randomly assigned either to switch to aripiprazole or to stay on olanzapine, on a 1:1 basis. Cross-tapering over a period of 1 month was done while switching patients to aripiprazole. Laboratory assessment for metabolic parameters was done at baseline, 8 weeks, and 24 weeks after enrollment; efficacy assessment was done using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and 24 weeks, the Clinical Global Impressions severity subscale (CGI-S) at baseline, and the Clinical Global Impressions improvement subscale (CGI-I) at 24 weeks. Results All parameters of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride level, fasting blood glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) kept deteriorating in the stay group, compared with a continuous improvement in the switch group over time. At the end of the study, 26 patients (100%) from the stay group and 15 patients (42.8%) from switch group met the modified NCEP ATP-III criteria for presence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in psychopathology changes as measured by the PANSS total score and CGI-I scores. Conclusion Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia who are taking olanzapine and who have evidence of metabolic syndrome can be successfully switched to

  18. Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots-labeled epitope imprinted polymer with double templates via the metal chelation for specific recognition of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun-Jing; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2017-05-15

    A novel fluorescent sensor nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs)/SiO2/molecular imprinting polymer(N-GQDs/SiO2/MIP)was fabricated by surface imprinting and epitope imprinting to recognize and detect the target protein cytochrome c (Cyt C) with fluorescence quenching. In the polymerization process, the C- and N-terminal nonapeptides of Cyt C were selected as the double templates which were fixed by functional monomer (zinc acrylate) through metal chelation and steady six-membered ring. The linear range of fluorescence quenching for this receptor towards Cyt C was 0.20-60μM, and the detection limit was 0.11μM. The precision for six times replicate determination of Cyt C at 30μM was 1.20%, and the imprinting factor (IF) was 3.06. The recoveries of the material to Cyt C in urine were 99.3-114.0%. In brief, this work proposed a strategy to prepare a new type fluorescent imprinting polymer based on N-GQDs and provided an attractive perspective for the detection of protein by using the combination of N-GQDs and molecular imprinting technique.

  19. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4g study and an open-label 8g extension study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2012-05-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) represent useful models for studying multiple myeloma precursor disease, and for developing early intervention strategies. Administering a 4g dose of curcumin, we performed a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, followed by an open-label extension study using an 8g dose to assess the effect of curcumin on FLC response and bone turnover in patients with MGUS and SMM. 36 patients (19 MGUS and 17 SMM) were randomised into two groups: one received 4g curcumin and the other 4g placebo, crossing over at 3 months. At completion of the 4g arm, all patients were given the option of entering an open-label, 8g dose extension study. Blood and urine samples were collected at specified intervals for specific marker analyses. Group values are expressed as mean ± 1 SD. Data from different time intervals within groups were compared using Student's paired t-test. 25 patients completed the 4g cross-over study and 18 the 8g extension study. Curcumin therapy decreased the free light-chain ratio (rFLC), reduced the difference between clonal and nonclonal light-chain (dFLC) and involved free light-chain (iFLC). uDPYD, a marker of bone resorption, decreased in the curcumin arm and increased on the placebo arm. Serum creatinine levels tended to diminish on curcumin therapy. These findings suggest that curcumin might have the potential to slow the disease process in patients with MGUS and SMM.

  20. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the U.S. have food labels. On every food label you will see Serving size, number of servings, and number of calories per serving Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, ...

  1. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...

  2. Direct and Auger Electron-Induced, Single- and Double-Strand Breaks on Plasmid DNA Caused by 99mTc-Labeled Pyrene Derivatives and the Effect of Bonding Distance.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Falco; Mamat, Constantin; Steinbach, Joerg; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Freudenberg, Robert; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wunderlich, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that 99mTc causes radical-mediated DNA damage due to Auger electrons, which were emitted simultaneously with the known γ-emission of 99mTc. We have synthesized a series of new 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives with varied distances between the pyrene moiety and the radionuclide. The pyrene motif is a common DNA intercalator and allowed us to test the influence of the radionuclide distance on damages of the DNA helix. In general, pUC 19 plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between the radiotracers and DNA that results in single-strand breaks (SSB) or double-strand breaks (DSB). The resulting DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. Direct DNA damage and radical-induced indirect DNA damage by radiolysis products of water were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. We demonstrated that Auger electrons directly induced both SSB and DSB in high efficiency when 99mTc was tightly bound to the plasmid DNA and this damage could not be completely prevented by DMSO, a free radical scavenger. For the first time, we were able to minimize this effect by increasing the carbon chain lengths between the pyrene moiety and the 99mTc nuclide. However, a critical distance between the 99mTc atom and the DNA helix could not be determined due to the significantly lowered DSB generation resulting from the interaction which is dependent on the type of the 99mTc binding motif. The effect of variable DNA damage caused by the different chain length between the pyrene residue and the Tc-core as well as the possible conformations of the applied Tc-complexes was supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The effectiveness of the DNA-binding 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives was demonstrated by comparison to non-DNA-binding 99mTcO4-, since nearly all DNA damage caused by 99mTcO4- was prevented by incubating with DMSO.

  3. Direct and Auger Electron-Induced, Single- and Double-Strand Breaks on Plasmid DNA Caused by 99mTc-Labeled Pyrene Derivatives and the Effect of Bonding Distance

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Falco; Mamat, Constantin; Steinbach, Joerg; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Freudenberg, Robert; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wunderlich, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that 99mTc causes radical-mediated DNA damage due to Auger electrons, which were emitted simultaneously with the known γ-emission of 99mTc. We have synthesized a series of new 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives with varied distances between the pyrene moiety and the radionuclide. The pyrene motif is a common DNA intercalator and allowed us to test the influence of the radionuclide distance on damages of the DNA helix. In general, pUC 19 plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between the radiotracers and DNA that results in single-strand breaks (SSB) or double-strand breaks (DSB). The resulting DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. Direct DNA damage and radical-induced indirect DNA damage by radiolysis products of water were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. We demonstrated that Auger electrons directly induced both SSB and DSB in high efficiency when 99mTc was tightly bound to the plasmid DNA and this damage could not be completely prevented by DMSO, a free radical scavenger. For the first time, we were able to minimize this effect by increasing the carbon chain lengths between the pyrene moiety and the 99mTc nuclide. However, a critical distance between the 99mTc atom and the DNA helix could not be determined due to the significantly lowered DSB generation resulting from the interaction which is dependent on the type of the 99mTc binding motif. The effect of variable DNA damage caused by the different chain length between the pyrene residue and the Tc-core as well as the possible conformations of the applied Tc-complexes was supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The effectiveness of the DNA-binding 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives was demonstrated by comparison to non-DNA-binding 99mTcO4–, since nearly all DNA damage caused by 99mTcO4– was prevented by incubating with DMSO. PMID:27583677

  4. Binding of tissue-specific forms of alpha A-CRYBP1 to their regulatory sequence in the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene: double-label immunoblotting of UV-crosslinked complexes.

    PubMed

    Kantorow, M; Becker, K; Sax, C M; Ozato, K; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-09-15

    The alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sequence (alpha A-CRYBP1RS), at nucleotides -66 to -57 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha A-CRY) promoter, is an important control element involved in the regulation of mouse alpha A-CRY expression. The gene encoding a protein (alpha A-CRYBP1) that specifically binds to the alpha A-CRYBP1RS sequence has been cloned from a cultured mouse lens cell line. In the present study, we have used an antibody (specific to the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and made against a synthetic peptide) to directly identify UV-crosslinked protein-DNA complexes via a double-label immunoblotting technique. Multiple alpha A-CRYB1 antigenically related proteins interacted with alpha A-CRYBP1RS in nuclear extracts from both a cloned mouse lens cell line (alpha TN4-1) that expresses alpha A-CRY and a mouse fibroblast line (L929) that does not express the gene. Two sizes (50 kDa and 90 kDa) of proteins reacting with the alpha A-CRYBP1-specific Ab were detected in both cell lines and, in addition, a > 200-kDa protein reacting with the Ab was unique to the fibroblast line. Thus, alpha A-CRYBP1 antigenically related proteins interact with alpha A-CRYBP1RS regardless of alpha A-CRY expression. Moreover, differential processing of the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and/or alternative splicing of the alpha A-CRY transcript may affect expression of alpha A-CRY.

  5. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  6. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Brad

    2011-01-01

    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  7. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  8. The efficacy and long-term safety of a triple combination of 80 mg telmisartan, 5 mg amlodipine and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide in Japanese patients with essential hypertension: a randomized, double-blind study with open-label extension

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Jitsuo; Komuro, Issei; Shiki, Kosuke; Ugai, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Daisuke; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Ogihara, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 80 mg telmisartan/5 mg amlodipine/12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (T80/A5/H12.5) with 80 mg telmisartan/12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (T80/H12.5) to determine their relative blood pressure (BP) lowering effects in essential hypertensive patients with inadequate control and to evaluate the long-term safety of T80/A5/H12.5 in a 52-week extension period. Patients (n=132) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatment with T80/A5/H12.5 or T80/H12.5 for 8 weeks after a 6-week run-in-period of T80/H12.5. All 126 patients who completed the double-blind period entered the 52-week open-label extension and received T80/A5/H12.5. The adjusted mean changes from the reference baseline of the trough-seated systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) at week 8 were significantly larger in the T80/A5/H12.5 group (−10.6/−8.8 mm Hg) than in the T80/H12.5 group (−2.3/−1.3 mm Hg) (P<0.0001). The BP-lowering effect of T80/A5/H12.5 was maintained over the 52-week extension period. The adverse events (AEs) during both treatment periods were generally mild. Drug-related AEs were reported in one patient in each group in the double-blind period and in five patients exposed to T80/A5/H12.5 in the double-blind and/or open-label extension period. T80/A5/H12.5 therapy was clinically and statistically superior to T80/H12.5 therapy for the reduction of BP in patients with essential hypertension uncontrolled with T80/H12.5, and its BP-lowering effect was maintained in the long term. T80/A5/H12.5 was generally well-tolerated. PMID:27581533

  9. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  10. (15)N Double-labeled guanosine from inosine through ring-opening-ring-closing and one-pot Pd-catalyzed C-O and C-N cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Caner, Joaquim; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2010-07-16

    [N,1-(15)N(2)]-Guanosine, or [1,NH(2)-(15)N(2)]-guanosine, and derivatives were prepared from tri-O-acetylinosine, via N-nitration and reaction with (15)NH(2)OH, followed by conversion of the (15)N-labeled 1-hydroxyinosine to the corresponding 2,6-dichloropurine riboside. The sequential one-pot C-O and C-N key couplings of this dichloro derivative with PhCH(2)OH and PhCO(15)NH(2) or (i)PrCO(15)NH(2) was achieved in good overall yields, with Pd(0)-Xantphos as the best choice of five different catalytic systems examined.

  11. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  13. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  14. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  15. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  16. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  17. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  6. Magnetic Relaxation Detector for Microbead Labels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Paul Peng; Skucha, Karl; Duan, Yida; Megens, Mischa; Kim, Jungkyu; Izyumin, Igor I.; Gambini, Simone; Boser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A compact and robust magnetic label detector for biomedical assays is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS. Detection relies on the magnetic relaxation signature of a microbead label for improved tolerance to environmental variations and relaxed dynamic range requirement, eliminating the need for baseline calibration and reference sensors. The device includes embedded electromagnets to eliminate external magnets and reduce power dissipation. Correlated double sampling combined with offset servo loops and magnetic field modulation, suppresses the detector offset to sub-μT. Single 4.5-μm magnetic beads are detected in 16 ms with a probability of error <0.1%. PMID:25308988

  7. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  8. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  9. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  10. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  11. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  12. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  13. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  14. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  16. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign up for Email Policies ...

  17. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  18. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  19. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  20. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  1. Are Luxury Brand Labels and “Green” Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a “green” label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status. PMID:28170399

  2. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk dairy products also contribute to cholesterol level. Sodium Sodium, a component of salt, is listed on the Nutrition Facts label in milligrams. Small amounts of sodium are necessary for keeping proper body fluid balance, ...

  3. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  5. 16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels 10, 11, and 12 in... labeled may add the ENERGY STAR logo to those labels. (g) Distribution of labels. For each...

  6. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  7. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  8. 2'-Alkynylnucleotides: A Sequence- and Spin Label-Flexible Strategy for EPR Spectroscopy in DNA.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Marius M; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Porter, Rachel J; Peña, Javier; Brown, Tom; Anderson, Edward A; Lovett, Janet E

    2016-07-27

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful method to elucidate molecular structure through the measurement of distances between conformationally well-defined spin labels. Here we report a sequence-flexible approach to the synthesis of double spin-labeled DNA duplexes, where 2'-alkynylnucleosides are incorporated at terminal and internal positions on complementary strands. Post-DNA synthesis copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions with a variety of spin labels enable the use of double electron-electron resonance experiments to measure a number of distances on the duplex, affording a high level of detailed structural information.

  9. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  10. Effects of teriparatide on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in Japanese subjects with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture in a 24-month clinical study: 12-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and 12-month open-label phases.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Tsujimoto, Mika; Warner, Margaret R; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2010-09-01

    This multicenter study assessed the safety and efficacy of teriparatide 20 microg/day in Japanese men and women with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture during a 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment period followed by second and third treatment periods (to 18 and 24 months, respectively,) in which all subjects received open-label teriparatide. Subjects (93% female; median age 70 years) were randomized 2:1 to teriparatide versus placebo (randomized at baseline, teriparatide n=137, placebo-teriparatide n=70; entering the second period, teriparatide n=119, placebo-teriparatide n=59; entering the third period, teriparatide n=102, placebo-teriparatide n=50). For subjects with measurements at 12 months, teriparatide significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine L2-L4 (mean percent change+/-SD, teriparatide 10.04+/-5.23% versus placebo-teriparatide 0.19+/-4.33%), the femoral neck (teriparatide 2.01+/-4.63% versus placebo-teriparatide 0.44+/-3.97%), and the total hip (teriparatide 2.72+/-4.04% versus placebo-teriparatide -0.26+/-3.42%). In the placebo-teriparatide group at 24 months (12-month teriparatide dosing) BMD increased by 9.11+/-5.14% at the lumbar spine, 2.19+/-4.81% at the femoral neck and 2.46+/-3.54% at the total hip. In the teriparatide group at 18 and 24 months, BMD increased from baseline at the lumbar spine by 11.93+/-5.79% and 13.42+/-6.12%, respectively; at the femoral neck by 2.68+/-4.45% and 3.26+/-4.25%, respectively; and at the total hip by 3.02+/-3.79% and 3.67+/-3.98%, respectively. Serum procollagen I N-terminal pro-peptide (PINP) increased rapidly with teriparatide treatment (P<0.001 versus placebo at 1 month) and changed from baseline in the teriparatide and placebo-teriparatide groups at 12 months by a median of 78.95% and -17.23%, respectively, (P<0.001) and at 24 months by 49.24% and 76.12%, respectively. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, and

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  12. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  13. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  14. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  15. A Note on the Total Number of Double Eulerian Circuits in Multigraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskovets, Valery

    2002-12-01

    We formulate explicitly and discuss a simple new enumerative formula for double (directed) eulerian circuits in n-edged labeled multigraphs. The formula follows easily from a recent 2-parametric formula of B. Lass.

  16. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  17. [A double gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Mink van der Molen, A B; Salu, M K

    1991-04-06

    A 59-year-old woman is described with symptomatic cholelithiasis. A double gallbladder was incidentally found during abdominal surgery. The literature on a double gallbladder is reviewed with respect to incidence, anatomy, diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  19. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  20. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  1. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf < slafmak), but once doubling in form is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., slaf = ball, slaflaf = balls), the doubling aversion shifts into a reliable (morphological) preference. We next show that sign-naive speakers spontaneously project these principles to novel signs in American Sign Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  2. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  3. Sequential and parallel dual labeling of nanoparticles using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zong, Hong; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Chang, Huai-Ning; Otis, James B; Baker, James R

    2014-11-01

    Bioorthogonal 'click' reactions have recently emerged as promising tools for chemistry and biological applications. By using a combination of two different 'click' reactions, 'double-click' strategies have been developed to attach multiple labels onto biomacromolecules. These strategies require multi-step modifications of the biomacromolecules that can lead to heterogeneity in the final conjugates. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of three trifunctional linkers. The linkers having alkyne and cyclooctyne moieties that are capable of participating in sequential copper(I)-catalyzed and copper-free cycloaddition reactions with azides. We have also prepared a linker comprised of an alkyne and a 1,2,4,5-terazine moiety that allows for simultaneous cycloaddition reactions with azides and trans-cyclooctenes, respectively. These linkers can be attached to synthetic or biological macromolecules to create a platform capable of sequential or parallel 'double-click' labeling in biological systems. We show this potential using a generation 5 (G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer in combination with the clickable linkers. The dendrimers were successfully modified with these linkers and we demonstrate both sequential and parallel 'double-click' labeling with fluorescent reporters. We anticipate that these linkers will have a variety of application including molecular imaging and monitoring of macromolecule interactions in biological systems.

  4. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  5. Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.

  6. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  7. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically approve the labels of meat and poultry products. The Agency also is consolidating the regulations that provide for the approval of labels for meat products and poultry products into a new Code of...

  8. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... amend the meat and poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically approve the labels of meat and poultry products. The Agency also is proposing to combine the regulations that provide for the approval of labels for meat products and poultry...

  9. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  10. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  11. Combined Labelled and Label-free SERS Probes for Triplex Three-dimensional Cellular Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Bai, Xiangru; Su, Le; Du, Zhanwei; Shen, Aiguo; Materny, Arnulf; Hu, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Cells are complex chemical systems, where the molecular composition at different cellular locations and specific intracellular chemical interactions determine the biological function. An in-situ nondestructive characterization of the complicated chemical processes (like e.g. apoptosis) is the goal of our study. Here, we present the results of simultaneous and three-dimensional imaging of double organelles (nucleus and membrane) in single HeLa cells by means of either labelled or label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This combination of imaging with and without labels is not possible when using fluorescence microscopy. The SERS technique is used for a stereoscopic description of the intrinsic chemical nature of nuclei and the precise localization of folate (FA) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on the membrane under highly confocal conditions. We also report on the time-dependent changes of cell nuclei as well as membrane receptor proteins during apoptosis analyzed by statistical multivariate methods. The multiplex three-dimensional SERS imaging technique allows for both temporal (real time) and spatial (multiple organelles and molecules in three-dimensional space) live-cell imaging and therefore provides a new and attractive 2D/3D tracing method in biomedicine on subcellular level.

  12. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  13. Structural analysis of uniformly (13)C-labelled solids from selective angle measurements at rotational resonance.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G; Edwards, Rachel; Middleton, David A

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that individual H-C-C-H torsional angles in uniformly labelled organic solids can be estimated by selective excitation of (13)C double-quantum coherences under magic-angle spinning at rotational resonance. By adapting a straightforward one-dimensional experiment described earlier [T. Karlsson, M. Eden, H. Luhman, M.H. Levitt, J. Magn. Reson. 145 (2000) 95-107], a double-quantum filtered spectrum selective for Calpha and Cbeta of uniformly labelled L-[(13)C,(15)N]valine is obtained with 25% efficiency. The evolution of Calpha-Cbeta double-quantum coherence under the influence of the dipolar fields of bonded protons is monitored to provide a value of the Halpha-Calpha-Cbeta-Hbeta torsional angle that is consistent with the crystal structure. In addition, double-quantum filtration selective for C6 and C1' of uniformly labelled [(13)C,(15)N]uridine is achieved with 12% efficiency for a (13)C-(13)C distance of 2.5A, yielding a reliable estimate of the C6-H and C1'-H projection angle defining the relative orientations of the nucleoside pyrimidine and ribose rings. This procedure will be useful, in favourable cases, for structural analysis of fully labelled small molecules such as receptor ligands that are not readily synthesised with labels placed selectively at structurally diagnostic sites.

  14. Structural analysis of uniformly 13C-labelled solids from selective angle measurements at rotational resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patching, Simon G.; Edwards, Rachel; Middleton, David A.

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that individual H-C-C-H torsional angles in uniformly labelled organic solids can be estimated by selective excitation of 13C double-quantum coherences under magic-angle spinning at rotational resonance. By adapting a straightforward one-dimensional experiment described earlier [T. Karlsson, M. Eden, H. Luhman, M.H. Levitt, J. Magn. Reson. 145 (2000) 95-107], a double-quantum filtered spectrum selective for Cα and Cβ of uniformly labelled L-[ 13C, 15N]valine is obtained with 25% efficiency. The evolution of Cα-Cβ double-quantum coherence under the influence of the dipolar fields of bonded protons is monitored to provide a value of the Hα-Cα-Cβ-Hβ torsional angle that is consistent with the crystal structure. In addition, double-quantum filtration selective for C6 and C1' of uniformly labelled [ 13C, 15N]uridine is achieved with 12% efficiency for a 13C- 13C distance of 2.5 Å, yielding a reliable estimate of the C6-H and C1'-H projection angle defining the relative orientations of the nucleoside pyrimidine and ribose rings. This procedure will be useful, in favourable cases, for structural analysis of fully labelled small molecules such as receptor ligands that are not readily synthesised with labels placed selectively at structurally diagnostic sites.

  15. Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance methods to determine distances between spin labels on human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Harbridge, J R; Hammarström, P; Mitri, R; Mårtensson, L G; Carlsson, U; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S

    2001-01-01

    Four doubly spin-labeled variants of human carbonic anhydrase II and corresponding singly labeled variants were prepared by site-directed spin labeling. The distances between the spin labels were obtained from continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra by analysis of the relative intensity of the half-field transition, Fourier deconvolution of line-shape broadening, and computer simulation of line-shape changes. Distances also were determined by four-pulse double electron-electron resonance. For each variant, at least two methods were applicable and reasonable agreement between methods was obtained. Distances ranged from 7 to 24 A. The doubly spin-labeled samples contained some singly labeled protein due to incomplete labeling. The sensitivity of each of the distance determination methods to the non-interacting component was compared. PMID:11371461

  16. Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J

    1976-12-01

    Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (Localizabión de receptores para lectinas durante el ciclo celular). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 100-104, 1976. The topographic distribution of specific cell surface receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied by ultrastructural labeling in the course of the cell cycle. C12TSV5 cells were synchronized by double thymidine block or mechanical selection (shakeoff). They were labeled by means of lectin-peroxidase techniques while in G1 S, G2 and M phases of the cycle. The results obtained were similar for both lectins employed. Interphase cells (G1 S, G2) present a stlihtly discontinous labeling pattern that is similar to the one observed on unsynchronized cells of the same line. Cells in mitosis, on the contrary, present a highly discontinous distribution of reaction product. This pattern disappears after the cells enters G1 and is not present on mitotic cells fixed in aldehyde prior to labeling.

  17. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the following... with black text. The label text shall comply with the following format requirements: (1) All... as needed for varying information. The label must be white with black text. The label shall...

  18. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  1. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  2. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  7. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  8. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  11. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  13. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  14. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  15. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  16. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  17. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  18. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  19. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  7. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  8. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  9. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  10. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  11. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  12. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  13. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  14. 16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels in appendix L. The logo must be 0.375″ wide... Environmental Protection Agency covering the televisions to be labeled may add the ENERGY STAR logo to...

  15. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  16. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  17. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  18. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  19. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  20. Labeling cytoskeletal F-actin with rhodamine phalloidin or fluorescein phalloidin for imaging.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Brad

    2010-05-01

    The eukaryotic cell has evolved to compartmentalize its functions and transport various metabolites among cellular compartments. Therefore, in cell biology, the study of organization and structure/function relationships is of great importance. The cytoskeleton is composed of a series of filamentous structures, including intermediate filaments, actin filaments, and microtubules. Immunofluorescent staining has been most frequently used to study cytoskeletal components. However, it is also possible to fluorescently label isolated cytoskeletal proteins and either microinject them back into the cell or add them to fixed, permeabilized cells. Alternatively, it is possible to use the mushroom-derived fluorescinated toxins, phalloidin or phallacidin, to label F-actin of the cytoskeleton, as is described in this article. Phalloidin is available labeled with different fluorophores. The choice of the specific fluorophore should depend on whether phalloidin labeling for actin is part of a double-label experiment. In most cells, the abundance of actin filaments should provide a very strong signal. In double-label experiments, the fluorophore should be chosen to take this into account. In general, rhodamine labels are more resistant to photobleaching and can be subjected to the longer exposures required for finer structures.

  1. Approximation Algorithms for Free-Label Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Mark; Gerrits, Dirk H. P.

    Inspired by air traffic control and other applications where moving objects have to be labeled, we consider the following (static) point labeling problem: given a set P of n points in the plane and labels that are unit squares, place a label with each point in P in such a way that the number of free labels (labels not intersecting any other label) is maximized. We develop efficient constant-factor approximation algorithms for this problem, as well as PTASs, for various label-placement models.

  2. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  3. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  4. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Connecticut Attorney General for possible promotion and marketing of the off-label uses of the drug. ... cited improved energy and quality of life. The marketing of these three drugs and the doses used ...

  5. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...

  6. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Healthy Aging > Drugs and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version ... html Connect with other organizations National Institute on Aging, NIH, HHS http://www.nia.nih.gov/ U.S. ...

  7. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  8. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  9. Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D

    1997-11-01

    A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.

  10. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on luminol functionalized gold nanoparticle labeling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dayong; Duan, Chunfeng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Hua

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on luminol functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) labeling was developed using human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) as a model analyte. The primary antibody biotin-conjugated goat-anti-human IgG was first immobilized on a streptavidin coated AuNP modified electrode, then the antigen (human IgG) and the luminol functionalized AuNP-labeled second antibody were conjugated successively to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex, i.e. immunosensor. ECL was carried out with a double-step potential in carbonate buffer solution containing 1.0 mmol/L H(2)O(2). Since thousand of luminol molecules were coated on the surface of AuNPs to realize labeling of multiple molecules with CL activity at a single antibody and the amplification of AuNPs and biotin-streptavidin system was utilized, luminol ECL signal could be enhanced greatly, finally resulting in extremely high sensitivity. The ECL method shows a detection limit of 1.0 pg/mL (S/N=3) for hIgG, which is superior to all previously reported methods for the determination of hIgG. Moreover, the proposed method is also simple, stable, specific, and time-saving, avoiding the complicated stripping procedure during CL detection and the uncontrollable synthesis of irregular nanoparticles compared with other chemiluminescence immunoassay based on AuNP labeling. Additionally, the labeling procedure is also superior to that of other reported multilabeling strategies, such as Ru complex-encapsulated polymer microspheres, and most of Ru complex-encapsulated liposomes in simplicity, stability, labeling property and practical applicability. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the detection of hIgG in human serums.

  11. Emerging double helical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-08-21

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  12. Nuclease stability of boron-modified nucleic acids: application to label-free mismatch detection.

    PubMed

    Reverte, Maëva; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Smietana, Michael

    2015-11-21

    5'-End boronic acid-modified oligonucleotides were evaluated against various nucleases at single and double stranded levels. The results show that these modifications induce a high resistance to degradation by calf-spleen and snake venom phosphodiesterases. More importantly, this eventually led to the development of a new label-free enzyme-assisted fluorescence-based method for single mismatch detection.

  13. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  14. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  15. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  16. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  17. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  18. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device... person(s) responsible for the labeling or advertising of the device specifying: (1) The deception or risk... labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device, necessary to correct the...

  19. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every pesticide product shall bear a label containing the...

  1. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every pesticide product shall bear a label containing the...

  2. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... color scheme may be used for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label O Blue A... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Additional Labeling Standards for Blood and Blood Components § 606.121 Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed...

  3. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  4. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  5. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  6. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  7. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  9. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label....

  10. Room-Temperature Distance Measurements of Immobilized Spin-Labeled Protein by DEER/PELDOR

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Virginia; Swanson, Michael A.; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Stein, Richard A.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Rajca, Andrzej; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide spin labels are used for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements of distances between sites in biomolecules. Rotation of gem-dimethyls in commonly used nitroxides causes spin echo dephasing times (Tm) to be too short to perform DEER measurements at temperatures between ∼80 and 295 K, even in immobilized samples. A spirocyclohexyl spin label has been prepared that has longer Tm between 80 and 295 K in immobilized samples than conventional labels. Two of the spirocyclohexyl labels were attached to sites on T4 lysozyme introduced by site-directed spin labeling. Interspin distances up to ∼4 nm were measured by DEER at temperatures up to 160 K in water/glycerol glasses. In a glassy trehalose matrix the Tm for the doubly labeled T4 lysozyme was long enough to measure an interspin distance of 3.2 nm at 295 K, which could not be measured for the same protein labeled with the conventional 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-(methyl)methanethio-sulfonate label. PMID:25762332

  11. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  12. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  13. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  14. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  15. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  16. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  17. Pulse dipolar ESR of doubly labeled mini TAR DNA and its annealing to mini TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

    2015-02-17

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ~35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present.

  18. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  19. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  20. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  1. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  2. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  3. Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA).

  4. A New Component Labelling And Merging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochovsky, Amelia F.

    1987-10-01

    Component labelling is an important part of region analysis in image processing. Component labelling consists of assigning labels to pixels in the image such that adjacent pixels are given the same labels. There are various approaches to component labelling. Some require random access to the processed image; some assume special structure of the image such as a quad tree. Algorithms based on sequential scan of the image are attractive to hardware implementation. One method of labelling is based on a fixed size local window which includes the previous line. Due to the fixed size window and the sequential fashion of the labelling process, different branches of the same object may be given different labels and later found to be connected to each other. These labels are con-sidered to be equivalent and must later be collected to correctly represent one single object. This approach can be found in [F,FE,R]. Assume an input binary image of size NxM. Using these labelling algorithms, the number of equivalent pair generated is bounded by O(N*M). The number of distinct labels is also bounded by O(N*M). There is no known algorithm that merge the equivalent label pairs in time linear to the number of pairs, that is in time bounded by O(N*M). We propose a new labelling algorithm which interleaves the labelling with the merging process. The labelling and the merging are combined in one algorithm. Merged label information is kept in an equivalent table which is used to guide the labelling. In general , the algorithm produces fewer equivalent label pairs. The combined labelling and merging algorithm is O(N*M), where NxM is the size of the image. Section II describes the algorithm. Section III gives some examples We discuss implementation issues in section IV and further discussion and conclusion are given in Section V.

  5. Simultaneous quantitation of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies by double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Aggerbeck, H; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Heron, I

    1996-04-19

    A dual, double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antibodies in sera has been developed. In the double antigen format one arm of the antibody binds to antigen coated microtitre wells and the other arm binds to labelled antigen to provide a fluorescent signal. This assay was found to be functionally specific for IgG antibodies and showed a good correlation with established toxin neutralization assays. Furthermore, the double antigen set-up was species independent, permitting the direct use of existing international references of animal origin to measure protective antibody levels in humans in international units (IU/ml). The detection limit corresponded to 0.0003 IU/ml with Eu(3+)-labelled toxoids and to 0.0035 IU/ml using Sm(3+)-labelled toxoids. The assay was fast with a high capacity making it a suitable method for serological surveillance studies.

  6. Genetically Encoded Spin Labels for In Vitro and In-Cell EPR Studies of Native Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M J; Fedoseev, A; Summerer, D; Drescher, M

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful approach to study the structure, dynamics, and interactions of proteins. The genetic encoding of the noncanonical amino acid spin-labeled lysine 1 (SLK-1) eliminates the need for any chemical labeling steps in SDSL-EPR studies and enables the investigation of native, endogenous proteins with minimal structural perturbation, and without the need to create unique reactive sites for chemical labeling. We report detailed experimental procedures for the efficient synthesis of SLK-1, the expression and purification of SLK-1-containing proteins under conditions that ensure maximal integrity of the nitroxide radical moiety, and procedures for intramolecular EPR distance measurements in proteins by double electron-electron resonance.

  7. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 liters) cooked. If you eat 2 cups (0.48 liters) at a meal, you are eating 2 servings. That is 2 times the amount of the calories, fats, and other items listed on the label. Calorie information tells you the number of calories in ...

  8. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  9. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  10. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  11. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... These eight foods are: Milk Eggs Peanuts Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts) Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder) Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp) Soy Wheat U.S. food labels take ... the type of tree nut (almond, walnut) or the type of crustacean shellfish ( ...

  12. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  13. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  14. Double checking: a second look

    PubMed Central

    Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: ‘How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?’ Method This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi‐structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Results Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time‐consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand‐alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in‐family approach, and resilience. Conclusion(s) Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. PMID:26568537

  15. Sulphur tracer experiments in laboratory animals using 34S-labelled yeast.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sierra, J Giner; Moreno Sanz, F; Herrero Espílez, P; Marchante Gayón, J M; Rodríguez Fernández, J; García Alonso, J I

    2013-03-01

    We have evaluated the use of (34)S-labelled yeast to perform sulphur metabolic tracer experiments in laboratory animals. The proof of principle work included the selection of the culture conditions for the preparation of sulphur labelled yeast, the study of the suitability of this labelled yeast as sulphur source for tracer studies using in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and the administration of the (34)S-labelled yeast to laboratory animals to follow the fate and distribution of (34)S in the organism. For in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the combination of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) showed that labelled methionine, cysteine and other low molecular weight sulphur-containing biomolecules were the major components in the digested extracts of the labelled yeast. Next, in vivo kinetic experiments were performed in healthy Wistar rats after the oral administration of (34)S-labelled yeast. The isotopic composition of total sulphur in tissues, urine and faeces was measured by double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. It was observed that measurable isotopic enrichments were detected in all samples. Finally, initial investigations on sulphur isotopic composition of serum and urine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS have been carried out. For serum samples, no conclusive data were obtained. Interestingly, chromatographic analysis of urine samples showed differential isotope enrichment for several sulphur-containing biomolecules.

  16. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  17. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  18. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  19. Conformational dynamics of nucleic acid molecules studied by PELDOR spectroscopy with rigid spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisner, T. F.; Marko, A.; Sigurdsson, S. Th.

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid molecules can adopt a variety of structures and exhibit a large degree of conformational flexibility to fulfill their various functions in cells. Here we describe the use of Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER) to investigate nucleic acid molecules where two cytosine analogs have been incorporated as spin probes. Because these new types of spin labels are rigid and incorporated into double stranded DNA and RNA molecules, there is no additional flexibility of the spin label itself present. Therefore the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between both spin labels encodes for the distance as well as for the mutual orientation between the spin labels. All of this information can be extracted by multi-frequency/multi-field PELDOR experiments, which gives very precise and valuable information about the structure and conformational flexibility of the nucleic acid molecules. We describe in detail our procedure to obtain the conformational ensembles and show the accuracy and limitations with test examples and application to double-stranded DNA.

  20. Conformational dynamics of nucleic acid molecules studied by PELDOR spectroscopy with rigid spin labels.

    PubMed

    Prisner, T F; Marko, A; Sigurdsson, S Th

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid molecules can adopt a variety of structures and exhibit a large degree of conformational flexibility to fulfill their various functions in cells. Here we describe the use of Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER) to investigate nucleic acid molecules where two cytosine analogs have been incorporated as spin probes. Because these new types of spin labels are rigid and incorporated into double stranded DNA and RNA molecules, there is no additional flexibility of the spin label itself present. Therefore the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between both spin labels encodes for the distance as well as for the mutual orientation between the spin labels. All of this information can be extracted by multi-frequency/multi-field PELDOR experiments, which gives very precise and valuable information about the structure and conformational flexibility of the nucleic acid molecules. We describe in detail our procedure to obtain the conformational ensembles and show the accuracy and limitations with test examples and application to double-stranded DNA.

  1. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  2. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  3. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  4. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  5. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  6. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  7. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  8. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  9. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  10. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  12. Logos and Graphics on Pesticide Product Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are several logos that pesticide companies can add to their labels with EPA approval. The requirements and process vary, so review the guidance carefully before applying to add a logo to a product label.

  13. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  14. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  15. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  16. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  17. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  18. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  19. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  20. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  1. Multilabel Image Annotation Based on Double-Layer PLSA Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Da; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhihua; Yuan, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    Due to the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts, automatic image annotation has become a difficult issue in computer vision recently. We propose a new image multilabel annotation method based on double-layer probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) in this paper. The new double-layer PLSA model is constructed to bridge the low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts of images for effective image understanding. The low-level features of images are represented as visual words by Bag-of-Words model; latent semantic topics are obtained by the first layer PLSA from two aspects of visual and texture, respectively. Furthermore, we adopt the second layer PLSA to fuse the visual and texture latent semantic topics and achieve a top-layer latent semantic topic. By the double-layer PLSA, the relationships between visual features and semantic concepts of images are established, and we can predict the labels of new images by their low-level features. Experimental results demonstrate that our automatic image annotation model based on double-layer PLSA can achieve promising performance for labeling and outperform previous methods on standard Corel dataset. PMID:24999490

  2. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  3. Fluorescently labelled glycans and their applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongbin; Yalagala, Ravi Shekar; Yan, Fengyang

    2015-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on the synthesis and applications of fluorescently labelled carbohydrates. Due to the sensitivity of fluorescent detection, this approach provides a useful tool to study processes involving glycans. A few general categories of labelling are presented, in situ labelling of carbohydrates with fluorophores, fluorescently labelled glycolipids, fluorogenic glycans, pre-formed fluorescent glycans for intracellular applications, glycan-decorated fluorescent polymers, fluorescent glyconanoparticles, and other functional fluorescent glycans.

  4. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the…

  5. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  6. Rosette (Double Blossom)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosette, or double blossom, is a serious disease of erect blackberries that is limited to the genus Rubus. Rosette may occur on trailing blackberries and dewberries, but rarely on red and black raspberries. In the United States, rosette occurs from New Jersey to Illinois and southwest to Texas and i...

  7. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  8. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  9. Teaching the Double Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various methods for teaching the double layer in electrochemistry courses. Topics addressed include measuring change in absolute potential difference (PD) at interphase, conventional electrode potential scale, analyzing absolute PD, metal-metal and overlap electron PDs, accumulation of material at interphase, thermodynamics of electrified…

  10. Design for Double Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  11. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  12. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  13. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  14. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  15. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  16. Labeling Nodes Using Three Degrees of Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sara; Goldenberg, Anna; Morris, Quaid

    2012-01-01

    The properties (or labels) of nodes in networks can often be predicted based on their proximity and their connections to other labeled nodes. So-called “label propagation algorithms” predict the labels of unlabeled nodes by propagating information about local label density iteratively through the network. These algorithms are fast, simple and scale to large networks but nonetheless regularly perform better than slower and much more complex algorithms on benchmark problems. We show here, however, that these algorithms have an intrinsic limitation that prevents them from adapting to some common patterns of network node labeling; we introduce a new algorithm, 3Prop, that retains all their advantages but is much more adaptive. As we show, 3Prop performs very well on node labeling problems ill-suited to label propagation, including predicting gene function in protein and genetic interaction networks and gender in friendship networks, and also performs slightly better on problems already well-suited to label propagation such as labeling blogs and patents based on their citation networks. 3Prop gains its adaptability by assigning separate weights to label information from different steps of the propagation. Surprisingly, we found that for many networks, the third iteration of label propagation receives a negative weight. Availability The code is available from the authors by request. PMID:23284828

  17. Learning Words from Labeling and Directive Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…

  18. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  19. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  20. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  1. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  2. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  3. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  4. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  5. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  6. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  7. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  8. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  9. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... All type is centered. The band at the top of the label contains either: (A) The capital letter “B... at the top of the label shall contain the capital letter “B” followed immediately by the numerical... the black band at the top of the label shall contain the phrase “B-100 Biodiesel.” In addition,...

  10. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  11. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  14. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  15. 75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... comment. SUMMARY: The Commission proposes changing the effective date for its new light bulb labeling... the new label for incandescent bulbs (e.g., 75 watt bulbs) that, as of 2013, will not meet federal... current labeling requirements for ``lamps,'' commonly referred to as light bulbs, and alternative...

  16. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission extends the effective date for its new light bulb labeling... Commission exempts from the new label requirements incandescent bulbs that will not be produced after January... proposing to extend the effective date of new labeling rules for light bulbs to January 1, 2012.\\1\\ The...

  17. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  18. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  19. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  20. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  1. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301 Labeling... each dealer shall maintain or cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy... vehicle for which a specific label is requested which has a combined FTP/HFET-based fuel economy value,...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  3. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  4. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  5. 16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.17... manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels 10, 11, and 12...

  6. Labels and Children's Perceptions of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    1973-01-01

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed in second- and sixth-grade children. Labels associated with color increased color perception, whereas labels based on expressiveness increased differentiation of expression variations, but not color perception. (ST)

  7. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  8. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  9. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  10. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  11. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.212 Labeling. (a) General... new marine engine modified from a base engine by post-manufacture marinizers in accordance with the... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading:...

  12. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  13. Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?

    PubMed

    Variyam, Jayachandran N

    2008-06-01

    The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.

  14. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity....

  15. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  16. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  17. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  18. Isotope Labeling in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Krishna; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen remarkable progress in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to proteins that have traditionally been difficult to study due to issues with folding, posttranslational modification, and expression levels or combinations thereof. In particular, insect cells have proved useful in allowing large quantities of isotope-labeled, functional proteins to be obtained and purified to homogeneity, allowing study of their structures and dynamics by using NMR. Here, we provide protocols that have proven successful in such endeavors. PMID:22167667

  19. CD-ROM Labeling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    was allowed to dry thoroughly before application to the disc, so that the solvent used would have dispersed. Use of this, or any adhesive is risky if...the chemical composition and solvents used are not known. Some acid based adhesives have been reported to have eaten through the disc’s protective...been specially manufactured with suitable adhesive ( beeswax ) for use with CD-ROM. Both foils can be printed with customer-labeled, generic

  20. Site-specific insertion of nitroxide-spin labels into DNA probes by click chemistry for structural analyses by ELDOR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Flaender, M; Sicoli, G; Fontecave, Th; Mathis, G; Saint-Pierre, C; Boulard, Y; Gambarelli, S; Gasparutto, D

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for the insertion of nitroxide spin-labels at specific positions within DNA oligomers. The latter bioconjugaison strategy is based on a click chemistry 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a spin-labeling reagent, namely the 4-azido-TEMPO, and alkyne modified uridine-containing oligonucleotides. This highly efficient labeling method was applied for site-specific incorporation of two TEMPO units within a set of double-stranded DNA constructs. Then the determination of the inter-nitroxide distances was achieved by using a four-pulses DEER technique that successfully validates the new site-directed spin labeling strategy.

  1. Memory, double, shadow, and evil.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P

    1994-04-01

    In order to examine shadow dynamics the author explores the phenomenology and mythological associations of the 'double' or Doppelgänger. Current Jungian-inspired theories concerning relations of shadow and double are found to be limited because they do not explain (1) the process of personification of the psychic complex which gives rise to the double, (2) the immediate conditions under which doubling occurs, (3) the conditions which lead to the assignment of evil qualities to the double as shadow. The paper seeks to remedy each of the above limitations by redescribing shadow/double phenomena in terms of autonomous memory phenomena, both personal and trans-personal.

  2. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Labels and Carton Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance focuses on safety... use of the product to minimize medication errors. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance...

  3. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  4. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  5. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  6. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  7. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  8. Synthesis and NMR studies of (13)C-labeled vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Okamura, William H; Zhu, Gui-Dong; Hill, David K; Thomas, Richard J; Ringe, Kerstin; Borchardt, Daniel B; Norman, Anthony W; Mueller, Leonard J

    2002-03-08

    Isotope-labeled drug molecules may be useful for probing by NMR spectroscopy the conformation of ligand associated with biological hosts such as membranes and proteins. Triple-labeled [7,9,19-(13)C(3)]-vitamin D(3) (56), its 25-hydroxylated and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxylated metabolites (58 and 68, respectively), and other labeled materials have been synthesized via coupling of [9-(13)C]-Grundmann's ketone 39 or its protected 25-hydroxy derivative 43 with labeled A ring enyne fragments 25 or 26. The labeled CD-ring fragment 39 was prepared by a sequence involving Grignard addition of [(13)C]-methylmagnesium iodide to Grundmann's enone 28, oxidative cleavage, functional group modifications leading to seco-iodide 38, and finally a kinetic enolate S(N)2 cycloalkylation. The C-7,19 double labeling of the A-ring enyne was achieved by the Corey-Fuchs/Wittig processes on keto aldehyde 11. By employing these labeled fragments in the Wilson-Mazur route, the C-7,9,19 triple-(13)C-labeled metabolites 56, 58, and 68 as well as other (13)C-labeled metabolites have been prepared. In an initial NMR investigation of one of the labeled metabolites prepared in this study, namely [7,9,19-(13)C(3)]-25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (58), the three (13)C-labeled carbons of the otherwise water insoluble steroid could be clearly detected by (13)C NMR analysis at 0.1 mM in a mixture of CD(3)OD/D(2)O (60/40) or in aqueous dimethylcyclodextrin solution and at 2 mM in 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous micellar solution. In the SDS micellar solution, a double half-filter NOESY experiment revealed that the distance between the H(19Z) and H(7) protons is significantly shorter than that of the corresponding distance calculated from the solid state (X-ray) structure of the free ligand. The NMR data in micelles reveals that 58 exists essentially completely in the alpha-conformer with the 3 beta-hydroxyl equatorially oriented, just as in the solid state. The shortened distance (H(19Z))-H(7)) in micellar

  9. Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

  10. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  11. Double Degrees: Double the Trouble or Twice the Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy; Dolnicar, Sara; Ayoub, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Double degrees (also called joint or combined degrees)--programs of study combining two bachelor degrees--are increasingly popular in Australian universities, particularly among women. A case study using qualitative and quantitative surveys of current and past double degree students is presented. The study indicates that double degrees benefit…

  12. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  13. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  14. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  15. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  16. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  17. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FORMAT) ER19JY10.019 PROTOTYPE LABEL 7 LIGHTING FACTS LABEL FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS CONTAINING MERCURY... MERCURY ER19JY10.021 SAMPLE LABEL 11 LIGHTING FACTS LABEL FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMP CONTAINING MERCURY... MERCURY (TALL ORIENTATION) ER19JY10.023 SAMPLE LABEL 13 LIGHTING FACTS LABEL FOR GENERAL SERVICE...

  18. Label-free and high-sensitive detection for genetic point mutation based on hyperspectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongxin; Li, Qi; Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Ruliang; Lin, Xue; Xue, Ning; Su, Ya; Jiang, Kai; Huang, Guoliang

    2016-10-01

    Label free point mutation detection is particularly momentous in the area of biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since gene mutations naturally occur and bring about highly fatal diseases. In this paper, a label free and high sensitive approach is proposed for point mutation detection based on hyperspectral interferometry. A hybridization strategy is designed to discriminate a single-base substitution with sequence-specific DNA ligase. Double-strand structures will take place only if added oligonucleotides are perfectly paired to the probe sequence. The proposed approach takes full use of the inherent conformation of double-strand DNA molecules on the substrate and a spectrum analysis method is established to point out the sub-nanoscale thickness variation, which benefits to high sensitive mutation detection. The limit of detection reach 4pg/mm2 according to the experimental result. A lung cancer gene point mutation was demonstrated, proving the high selectivity and multiplex analysis capability of the proposed biosensor.

  19. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century.

  20. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain.

    PubMed

    Miyanoiri, Yohei; Ishida, Yojiro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Inouye, Masayori; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-06-01

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively (13)C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used (13)C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  1. Chemical kin label in seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Célérier, Aurélie; Bon, Cécile; Malapert, Aurore; Palmas, Pauline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Chemical signals yield critical socio-ecological information in many animals, such as species, identity, social status or sex, but have been poorly investigated in birds. Recent results showed that chemical signals are used to recognize their nest and partner by some petrel seabirds whose olfactory anatomy is well developed and which possess a life-history propitious to olfactory-mediated behaviours. Here, we investigate whether blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) produce some chemical labels potentially involved in kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance. To overcome methodological constraints of chemical analysis and field behavioural experiments, we used an indirect behavioural approach, based on mice olfactory abilities in discriminating odours. We showed that mice (i) can detect odour differences between individual petrels, (ii) perceive a high odour similarity between a chick and its parents, and (iii) perceive this similarity only before fledging but not during the nestling developmental stage. Our results confirm the existence of an individual olfactory signature in blue petrels and show for the first time, to our knowledge, that birds may exhibit an olfactory kin label, which may have strong implications for inbreeding avoidance. PMID:21525047

  2. Label-free molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junqi; Li, Qi; Fu, Rongxin; Wang, Tongzhou; Wang, Ruliang; Huang, Guoliang

    2014-03-01

    Optical microscopy technology has achieved great improvements in the 20th century. The detection limit has reached about twenty nanometers (with near-field optics, STED, PALM and STORM). But in the application areas such as life science, medical science, clinical treatment and especially in vivo dynamic measurement, mutual restrictions still exist between numeric aperture/magnification and working distance, fluorescent dependent, and between resolution and frame rate/field size, etc. This paper explores a hyperspectral scanning super-resolution label free molecules imaging method based on the white light interferometry. The vertical detection resolution was approximate to 1 nm which is the thickness of a single molecular layer and dynamic measuring range of thickness reaches to 10 μm. The spectrum-shifting algorithm is developed for robust restructure of images when the pixels are overlapped. Micro-biochip with protein binding and DNA amplification could be detected by using this spectral scanning super-resolution molecules imaging in label free. This method has several advantages as following: Firstly, the decoding and detecting steps are combined into one step. It makes tests faster and easier. Secondly, we used thickness-coded, minimized chips instead of a large microarray chip to carry the probes. This accelerates the interaction of the biomolecules. Thirdly, since only one kind of probes are attached to our thickness-coded, minimized chip, users can only pick out the probes they are interested in for a test without wasting unnecessary probes and chips.

  3. Shigella flexneri Spa15 Crystal Structure Verified in Solution by Double Electron Electron Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Lillington, James E.D.; Lovett, Janet E.; Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro; Timmel, Christiane R.; Lea, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Shigella flexneri Spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. One of these effectors is IpgB1, a mimic of the human Ras-like Rho guanosine triphosphatase RhoG. In this study, Spa15 alone and in complex with IpgB1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. This distance is explained by determining the crystal structure of the spin-labeled Spa15 where labels are seen to be buried in hydrophobic pockets. The double electron electron resonance experiment on the Spa15 complex with IpgB1 shows that IpgB1 does not bind Spa15 in the same way as is seen in the homologous Salmonella sp. chaperone:effector complex InvB:SipA. PMID:21075116

  4. DNA and chromosome breaks induced by iodine-123-labeled estrogen in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.L. |; Mustafi, R.; Hughes, A.; DeSombre, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The effects of the Auger electron-emitting isotope {sup 123}I, covalently bound to estrogen, on DNA single- and double-strand breakage and on chromosome breakage was determined in estrogen receptor-positive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-ER) cells. Exposure to the {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen induced both single- and double-strand breaks with a ratio of single- to double-strand breaks of 2.8. The corresponding ratio with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays was 15.6. The dose response was biphasic, suggesting either that receptor sites are saturated at high doses, or that there is a nonrandom distribution of breaks induced by the {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen. The {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen treatment induced chromosome aberrations with an efficiency of about 1 aberration for each 1000 disintegrations per cell. This corresponds to the mean lethal dose of {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen for these cells, suggesting that the lethal event induced by the Auger electron emitter bound to estrogen is a chromosome aberration. Most of the chromosome-type aberrations were dicentrics and rings, suggesting that {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen-induced chromosome breaks are rejoined. The F ratio, the ratio of dicentrics to centric rings, was 5.8 {+-} 1.7, which is similar to that seen with high-LET radiations. Our results suggest that {sup 123}I bound to estrogen is an efficient clastogenic agent, the cytotoxic damage produced by {sup 123}I bound to estrogen is very like damage induced by high-LET radiation, and the {sup 123}I in the estrogen receptor-DNA complex is probably in proximity to the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong

    2015-07-01

    Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended.

  6. Pre-malbrancheamide: Synthesis, Isotopic Labeling, Biosynthetic Incorporation, and Detection in Cultures of Malbranchea aurantiaca

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yousong; Greshock, Thomas J.; Miller, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    An advanced metabolite, named pre-malbrancheamide, involved in the biosynthesis of malbrancheamide (1) and malbrancheamide B (2) has been synthesized in double 13C-labeled form and was incorporated into the indole alkaloid 2 by Malbranchea aurantiaca. In addition, pre-malbrancheamide has been detected as a natural metabolite in cultures of M. aurantiaca. The biosynthetic implications of these experiments are discussed. PMID:18844365

  7. External detection of pulmonary accumulation of indium-113m labelled transferrin in the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Hultkvist-Bengtsson, U; Mårtensson, L

    1990-01-01

    Accumulation of radioisotope labelled transferrin in the lungs of guinea pigs was determined with an external detection system. The method is based on the intravascular and extravascular distribution of indium-113m labelled transferrin compared with the intravascular distribution of technetium-99m labelled red blood cells. Guinea pigs were given iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue and potent pulmonary vasodilator, and noradrenaline, a pulmonary vasoconstrictor, in an attempt to increase and decrease respectively the blood volume in the lungs. Neither agent altered transferrin accumulation in the lung by comparison with a saline infusion. Iloprost infused before and after oleic acid infusion reduced macro-molecular leakage when compared with oleic acid alone. These data suggest that the double isotope method can distinguish between hydrostatic and injury induced pulmonary oedema. PMID:1699294

  8. Enhanced labeling of microalgae cellular lipids by application of an electric field generated by alternating current.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Chien; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2012-05-01

    An alternating current was used to generate an electric field to enhance the fluorescent labeling of microalgae cellular lipids with Nile red and LipidTOX. The decay of the fluorescence intensity of Chlorella vulgaris cells in 0 V/cm was more than 50% after 10 min, and the intensity variation was as high as 7% in 20s. At 2000 V/cm, the decay rate decreased to 1.22% per minute and the intensity fluctuation was less than 1% for LipidTOX-labeled cells. For Spirulina sp. cells at 0 V/cm, the fluorescence intensity increased by 10% after 10 min, whereas at 2000 V/cm, labeling was more rapid and fluorescence intensity doubled. These results show that applying an electric field can improve the quality of fluorescence detection by alleviating decay and fluctuation or by enhancing signal intensity.

  9. Detecting Pyronin Y labeled RNA transcripts in live cell microenvironments by phasor-FLIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Laura M; Jones, Mark R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Pyronin Y is an environment-sensitive probe which labels all double-stranded RNA in live cells. Methods to determine which RNA species Pyronin Y may be labeling are limited due to the lack of studies aimed at determining whether this probe has different spectroscopic properties when bound to specific transcripts. A major issue is that transcripts are difficult to isolate and study individually. We detected transcripts directly in their biological environment allowing us to identify RNA species on the basis of their location in the cell. We show that the phasor approach to lifetime analysis has the sensitivity to determine at least six different RNA species in live fibroblast cells. The detected lifetime differences were consistent among cells. To our knowledge this is the first application of a spectroscopic technique aimed at identifying Pyronin Y labeled RNA subtypes in living cells.

  10. Detecting Pyronin Y labeled RNA transcripts in live cell microenvironments by phasor-FLIM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Laura M.; Jones, Mark R.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Pyronin Y is an environment-sensitive probe which labels all double-stranded RNA in live cells. Methods to determine which RNA species Pyronin Y may be labeling are limited due to the lack of studies aimed at determining whether this probe has different spectroscopic properties when bound to specific transcripts. A major issue is that transcripts are difficult to isolate and study individually. We detected transcripts directly in their biological environment allowing us to identify RNA species on the basis of their location in the cell. We show that the phasor approach to lifetime analysis has the sensitivity to determine at least six different RNA species in live fibroblast cells. The detected lifetime differences were consistent among cells. To our knowledge this is the first application of a spectroscopic technique aimed at identifying Pyronin Y labeled RNA subtypes in living cells.

  11. Complementary-addressed site-directed spin labeling of long natural RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Babaylova, Elena S.; Malygin, Alexey A.; Lomzov, Alexander A.; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Krumkacheva, Olesya A.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Karpova, Galina G.; Bagryanskaya, Elena G.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale distance measurements by pulse dipolar Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy allow new insights into the structure and dynamics of complex biopolymers. EPR detection requires site directed spin labeling (SDSL) of biomolecule(s), which remained challenging for long RNAs up-to-date. Here, we demonstrate that novel complementary-addressed SDSL approach allows efficient spin labeling and following structural EPR studies of long RNAs. We succeeded to spin-label Hepatitis C Virus RNA internal ribosome entry site consisting of ≈330 nucleotides and having a complicated spatial structure. Application of pulsed double electron–electron resonance provided spin–spin distance distribution, which agrees well with the results of molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. Thus, novel SDSL approach in conjunction with EPR and MD allows structural studies of long natural RNAs with nanometer resolution and can be applied to systems of biological and biomedical significance. PMID:27269581

  12. Fluorescent labelling of in situ hybridisation probes through the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Susann; Manetto, Antonio; Cassinelli, Valentina; Fuchs, Jörg; Ma, Lu; Raddaoui, Nada; Houben, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    In situ hybridisation is a powerful tool to investigate the genome and chromosome architecture. Nick translation (NT) is widely used to label DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). However, NT is limited to the use of long double-stranded DNA and does not allow the labelling of single-stranded and short DNA, e.g. oligonucleotides. An alternative technique is the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), at which azide and alkyne functional groups react in a multistep process catalysed by copper(I) ions to give 1,4-distributed 1,2,3-triazoles at a high yield (also called 'click reaction'). We successfully applied this technique to label short single-stranded DNA probes as well as long PCR-derived double-stranded probes and tested them by FISH on plant chromosomes and nuclei. The hybridisation efficiency of differently labelled probes was compared to those obtained by conventional labelling techniques. We show that copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition-labelled probes are reliable tools to detect different types of repetitive sequences on chromosomes opening new promising routes for the detection of single copy gene. Moreover, a combination of FISH using such probes with other techniques, e.g. immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cell proliferation assays using 5-ethynyl-deoxyuridine, is herein shown to be easily feasible.

  13. Off-label use of medicine: Perspective of physicians, patients, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa Prasad

    2014-04-01

    Off-label prescribing of medicines is prevalent worldwide because it gives freedom to physicians to apply new therapeutic options based on the latest evidence. Although physicians may lawfully prescribe approved drugs for any use consistent with available scientific data and proper medical practice, but unfortunately, usually this is done without adequate scientific data. Often, when the best available therapeutic option fails, patients demand new approach or new treatment which ultimately leads to off-label uses. Major concerns about efficacy and safety have been raised by inappropriate use of off-label drugs because it leads to drug being used without risk-benefit analysis by the regulatory agency. Although the regulatory approval process requires ample proof of efficacy and safety for granting approval for specific indications of prescription drugs but unfortunately, more clarity is required about regulations governing off-label use of medicine. Above all because of the financial aspects involved it is highly impractical to expect that pharmaceutical companies will restrict or stop off-label promotion. Off-label use might be compared to double-edged sword which might be very useful for some patients while it can also expose them to unrestricted experimentation, unknown health risks, or ineffective medicine. Hence, there is an urgent need for guidance to encourage proper off-label use of medicine by the distribution of scientifically valid and authentic information from the pharmaceutical companies. In fact, few countries such as the USA and France have taken an initiative and have come up with the regulations about off-label use of medicine.

  14. Off-label use of medicine: Perspective of physicians, patients, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Off-label prescribing of medicines is prevalent worldwide because it gives freedom to physicians to apply new therapeutic options based on the latest evidence. Although physicians may lawfully prescribe approved drugs for any use consistent with available scientific data and proper medical practice, but unfortunately, usually this is done without adequate scientific data. Often, when the best available therapeutic option fails, patients demand new approach or new treatment which ultimately leads to off-label uses. Major concerns about efficacy and safety have been raised by inappropriate use of off-label drugs because it leads to drug being used without risk-benefit analysis by the regulatory agency. Although the regulatory approval process requires ample proof of efficacy and safety for granting approval for specific indications of prescription drugs but unfortunately, more clarity is required about regulations governing off-label use of medicine. Above all because of the financial aspects involved it is highly impractical to expect that pharmaceutical companies will restrict or stop off-label promotion. Off-label use might be compared to double-edged sword which might be very useful for some patients while it can also expose them to unrestricted experimentation, unknown health risks, or ineffective medicine. Hence, there is an urgent need for guidance to encourage proper off-label use of medicine by the distribution of scientifically valid and authentic information from the pharmaceutical companies. In fact, few countries such as the USA and France have taken an initiative and have come up with the regulations about off-label use of medicine. PMID:24799811

  15. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is centered. The band at the top of the label contains the name of the fuel. This band should measure 1″ (2.54 cm) deep. Spacing of the fuel name is 1/4″ (.64 cm) from the top of the label and 3/16.... “Helvetica black” type is used throughout. All type is centered. The band at the top of the label...

  16. Fluorescent labeling and tracking of nanoclay.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carlos A; Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael; Jayaraman, Krishnamurthy; Hotchkiss, Joseph

    2013-01-07

    We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems.

  17. Component Labeling Algorithm For Video Rate Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Masumi; Shirai, Yoshio

    1987-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a raster scanning algorithm for component labeling, which enables processing under pipeline architecture. In the raster scanning algorithm, labels are provisionally assigned to each pixel of components and, at the same time, the connectivities of labels are detected at first scan. Those labels are classified into groups based on the connectivities. Finally provisional labels are updated using the result of classification and a unique label is assigned to each pixel of components. However, in the conventional algorithm, the classification process needs a vast number of operations. This prevents realizing pipeline processing. We have developed a method of preprocessing to reduce the number of provisional labels, which limits the number of label connectivities. We have also developed a new classification method whose operation is proportionate to only the number of label connectivities itself. We have made experiments with computer simulation to verify this algorithm. The experimental results show that we can process 512 x 512 x 8 bit images at video rate(1/30 sec. per 1 image) when this algorithm is implemented on hardware.

  18. Optimal design of isotope labeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Mandy, Dominic E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling experiments (ILE) constitute a powerful methodology for estimating metabolic fluxes. An optimal label design for such an experiment is necessary to maximize the precision with which fluxes can be determined. But often, precision gained in the determination of one flux comes at the expense of the precision of other fluxes, and an appropriate label design therefore foremost depends on the question the investigator wants to address. One could liken ILE to shadows that metabolism casts on products. Optimal label design is the placement of the lamp; creating clear shadows for some parts of metabolism and obscuring others.An optimal isotope label design is influenced by: (1) the network structure; (2) the true flux values; (3) the available label measurements; and, (4) commercially available substrates. The first two aspects are dictated by nature and constrain any optimal design. The second two aspects are suitable design parameters. To create an optimal label design, an explicit optimization criterion needs to be formulated. This usually is a property of the flux covariance matrix, which can be augmented by weighting label substrate cost. An optimal design is found by using such a criterion as an objective function for an optimizer. This chapter uses a simple elementary metabolite units (EMU) representation of the TCA cycle to illustrate the process of experimental design of isotope labeled substrates.

  19. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice.

    PubMed

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2010-10-15

    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.

  20. Simultaneous Segmentation and Statistical Label Fusion.

    PubMed

    Asman, Andrew J; Landmana, Bennett A

    2012-02-23

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi- atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  1. Double Eclipsing Binary Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagas, P.; Pejcha, O.

    2012-06-01

    The parameters of the mutual orbit of eclipsing binaries that are physically connected can be obtained by precision timing of minima over time through light travel time effect, apsidal motion or orbital precession. This, however, requires joint analysis of data from different sources obtained through various techniques and with insufficiently quantified uncertainties. In particular, photometric uncertainties are often underestimated, which yields too small uncertainties in minima timings if determined through analysis of a χ2 surface. The task is even more difficult for double eclipsing binaries, especially those with periods close to a resonance such as CzeV344, where minima get often blended with each other. This code solves the double binary parameters simultaneously and then uses these parameters to determine minima timings (or more specifically O-C values) for individual datasets. In both cases, the uncertainties (or more precisely confidence intervals) are determined through bootstrap resampling of the original data. This procedure to a large extent alleviates the common problem with underestimated photometric uncertainties and provides a check on possible degeneracies in the parameters and the stability of the results. While there are shortcomings to this method as well when compared to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, the ease of the implementation of bootstrapping is a significant advantage.

  2. Firewalls from double purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  3. Labeled nucleotide phosphate (NP) probes

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2009-02-03

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  4. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 11

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  10. Correction for inhomogeneous line broadening in spin labels, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Barney L.

    Our methods to correct for inhomogeneous line broadening in the EPR of nitroxide spin labels are extended. Previously, knowledge of the hyperfine pattern of the nuclei responsible for the inhomogeneous broadening was necessary in order to carry out the corrections. This normally meant that either a separate NMR experiment or EPR spectral simulation was needed. Here a very simple method is developed, based upon measurement of four points on the experimental EPR spectrum itself, that allows one to carry out the correction procedure with precision rivaling that attained using NMR or spectral simulation. Two associated problems are solved: (1) the EPR signal strength is estimated without the need to carry out double integrations and (2) linewidth ratios, important in calculating rotational correlation times, are corrected. In all cases except one, the corrections are effected from the four measured points using only a hand-held programmable calculator. Experimental examples illustrate the methods and show them to be amazingly accurate.

  11. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37/sup 0/C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty.

  12. REDOR NMR of stable-isotope-labeled protein binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, J.

    1994-12-01

    Rotational-echo, double resonance (REDOR) NMR, a new analytical spectroscopic technique for solids spinning at the magic angle, has been developed over the last 5 years. REDOR provides a direct measure of heteronuclear dipolar coupling between isolated pairs of labeled nuclei. In a solid with a {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N labeled pair, for example, the {sup 13}C rotational echoes that form each rotor period following a{sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization transfer can be prevented from reaching full intensity by insertion of a {sup 15}N {pi} pulse each half rotor period. The REDOR difference (the difference between a {sup 13}C NMR spectrum obtained under these conditions and one obtained with no {sup 15}N {pi} pulses) has a strong dependence on the {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N dipolar coupling, and hence, the {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N internuclear distance. REDOR is described as double-resonance even though three radio frequencies (typically {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N) are used because the protons are removed from the important evolution part of the experiment by resonant decoupling. The dephasing of magnetization in REDOR arises from a local dipolar {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N field gradient and involves no polarization transfer. REDOR has no dependence on {sup 13}C or {sup 15}N chemical-shift tensors and does not require resolution of a {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N coupling in the chemical-shift dimension.

  13. A light microscope-based double retrograde tracer strategy to chart central neuronal connections.

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, Tom J H; Apps, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes a double retrograde tracing method to chart divergent projections in the CNS using light microscope techniques. It is based on immunohistochemical visualization of retrograde transport of cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb) and silver enhancement of a gold-lectin conjugate. Production of the gold-lectin is explained in detail, and a technique is offered to record through the injection pipettes, to help guide accurate placement of injections. Visualization of the two tracers results in light brown staining of CTb-labeled neurons and labeling by black particles of gold-lectin-containing neurons. Both types of label are easily recognized in the same neuron. The labeling is permanent and is well suited for studies in which large areas of the brain need to be surveyed. The whole procedure (excluding survival time) takes approximately 5-7 d to complete.

  14. Electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) with a loop-gap resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, James S.; Yin, Jun-Jie; Froncisz, W.; Feix, Jimmy B.

    Electron-electron double-resonance (ELDOR) experiments on nitroxide-radical-spin-labeled liposomes have been performed using a loop-gap resonator. The signal-to-noise ratio expressed on a molarity basis is 20-fold over the best that has been achieved using a bimodal cavity. This improvement permits ELDOR experiments on spin-labeled plasma membranes of intact cells, as illustrated by a prototype experiment on red blood cells labeled with stearic acid spin label. Moreover, 20 times greater pumping energy density at the sample is achievable for a given incident pump power, permitting ELDOR experiments on less readily saturated systems. Pump and observing frequencies are introduced directly into the loop-gap resonator, which has a relatively low Q, and the pump electron paramagnetic resonance signal is isolated from the receiver using a high Q trap microwave filter.

  15. Double-Resonance Facilitated Decomposion of Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryota; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2016-06-01

    Emission spectra provide us with rich information about the excited-state processes such as proton-transfer, charge-transfer and so on. In the cases that more than one excited states are involved, emission spectra from different excited states sometimes overlap and a decomposition of the overlapped spectra is desired. One of the methods to perform a decomposition is a time-resolved fluorescence technique. It uses a difference in time evolutions of components involved. However, in the gas-phase, a concentration of the sample is frequently too small to carry out this method. On the other hand, double-resonance technique is a very powerful tool to discriminate or identify a common species in the spectra in the gas-phase. Thus, in the present study, we applied the double-resonance technique to resolve the overlapped emission spectra. When transient IR absorption spectra of the excited state are available, we can label the population of the certain species by the IR excitation with a proper selection of the IR wavenumbers. Thus, we can obtain the emission spectra of labeled species by subtracting the emission spectra with IR labeling from that without IR. In the present study, we chose the charge-transfer emission spectra of cyanophenyldisilane (CPDS) as a test system. One of us reported that two charge-transfer (CT) states are involved in the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process of CPDS-water cluster and recorded the transient IR spectra. As expected, we have succeeded in resolving the CT emission spectra of CPDS-water cluster by the double resonance facilitated decomposion technique. In the present paper, we will report the details of the experimental scheme and the results of the decomposition of the emission spectra. H. Ishikawa, et al., Chem. Phys. Phys. Chem., 9, 117 (2007).

  16. Using Genetically Encodable Self-Assembling Gd(III) Spin Labels To Make In-Cell Nanometric Distance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mascali, Florencia C; Ching, H Y Vincent; Rasia, Rodolfo M; Un, Sun; Tabares, Leandro C

    2016-09-05

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) can be used to study the structure of a protein in its native cellular environment. Until now, this has required isolation, in vitro labeling, and reintroduction of the protein back into the cells. We describe a completely biosynthetic approach that avoids these steps. It exploits genetically encodable lanthanide-binding tags (LBT) to form self-assembling Gd(III) metal-based spin labels and enables direct in-cell measurements. This approach is demonstrated using a pair of LBTs encoded one at each end of a 3-helix bundle expressed in E. coli grown on Gd(III) -supplemented medium. DEER measurements directly on these cells produced readily detectable time traces from which the distance between the Gd(III) labels could be determined. This work is the first to use biosynthetically produced self-assembling metal-containing spin labels for non-disruptive in-cell structural measurements.

  17. The reappropriation of stigmatizing labels: the reciprocal relationship between power and self-labeling.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Wang, Cynthia S; Whitson, Jennifer A; Anicich, Eric M; Hugenberg, Kurt; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical model of reappropriation--taking possession of a slur previously used exclusively by dominant groups to reinforce another group's lesser status. Ten experiments tested this model and established a reciprocal relationship between power and self-labeling with a derogatory group term. We first investigated precursors to self-labeling: Group, but not individual, power increased participants' willingness to label themselves with a derogatory term for their group. We then examined the consequences of such self-labeling for both the self and observers. Self-labelers felt more powerful after self-labeling, and observers perceived them and their group as more powerful. Finally, these labels were evaluated less negatively after self-labeling, and this attenuation of stigma was mediated by perceived power. These effects occurred only for derogatory terms (e.g., queer, bitch), and not for descriptive (e.g., woman) or majority-group (e.g., straight) labels. These results suggest that self-labeling with a derogatory label can weaken the label's stigmatizing force.

  18. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. 1302.04 Section 1302.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on...

  19. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. 1302.04 Section 1302.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on...

  20. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  1. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. 1302.04 Section 1302.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on...

  2. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J.; Quesada, Mark A.; Randesi, Matthew

    1999-10-19

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  3. Apple Valley Double Star Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The High Desert Astronomical Society hosts an annual double star workshop, where participants measure the position angles and separations of double stars. Following the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), adopted by the California State Board of Education, participants are assigned to teams where they learn the process of telescope set-up and operation, the gathering of data, and the reduction of the data. Team results are compared to the latest epoch listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and papers are written for publication in the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Each team presents a PowerPoint presentation to their peers about actual hands-on astronomical research.

  4. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  5. Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Myers, William K.; Freed, Jack H.; Scholes, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3′- and 5′-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26–27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ∼35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

  6. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2007-06-01

    The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.

  7. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  8. Double integrated laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2003-10-01

    The layout of integrated optical system compromising the basis of proposed solution of double laser interferometer composed of two integrated Michelson's interferometers is presented and shortly discussed. Such an integrated system is designed for work with two lasers of different wavelength. It may serve for mapping surfaces and deformations of objects under investigation with the use of simultaneous recording of two mutually orthogonal gratings, each one composed of equidistant, parallel interference fringes projected onto the surface of such an object. The picture resulting two-coloured is recorded with the digital camera and may be used for obtaining these maps and deformations directly or in the indirect way after suitable digital processing applied to each colour component separately.

  9. 7 CFR 60.300 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling. 60.300 Section 60.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 60.300 Labeling....

  10. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.171 Labeling requirements. (a) After August 27, 1990, manufacturers, importers, and processors of all asbestos-containing products that...

  11. 16 CFR 1615.5 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 1615.5 Section 1615.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 0 THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) The Standard § 1615.5 Labeling...

  12. 16 CFR 1616.6 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 1616.6 Section 1616.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 7 THROUGH 14 (FF 5-74) The Standard § 1616.6 Labeling...

  13. 78 FR 18272 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... CFR Part 305 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission''). ACTION... in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Energy Label Ranges, Matter No. R611004'' on... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) until April 1, 2013. In the NPRM, the Commission proposed to amend the...

  14. 16 CFR 1630.5 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) The Standard § 1630.5 Labeling. If the carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant treatment, it shall be labeled...

  15. 16 CFR 1630.5 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) The Standard § 1630.5 Labeling. If the carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant treatment, it shall be labeled...

  16. 16 CFR 1630.5 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) The Standard § 1630.5 Labeling. If the carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant treatment, it shall be labeled...

  17. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... identification described in § 2.1074 of this chapter and the following logo: (i) If the product is authorized... peripheral device, the text associated with the logo may be placed in a prominent location in the instruction...) and the logo must be displayed on the device. (4) The label shall not be a stick-on, paper label....

  18. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification described in § 2.1074 of this chapter and the following logo: (i) If the product is authorized... peripheral device, the text associated with the logo may be placed in a prominent location in the instruction...) and the logo must be displayed on the device. (4) The label shall not be a stick-on, paper label....

  19. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Label requirements. 583.5 Section 583.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.5...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... permanently attached to the locomotive. (ii) The label must be lettered in the English language using a color... same engine part. (ii) The label must be lettered in the English language using a color that contrasts... to Tier 0+ line-haul locomotives.” (3) “This locomotive conforms to U.S. EPA regulations...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permanently attached to the locomotive. (ii) The label must be lettered in the English language using a color... same engine part. (ii) The label must be lettered in the English language using a color that contrasts... to Tier 0+ line-haul locomotives.” (3) “This locomotive conforms to U.S. EPA regulations...

  2. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optionally for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label paper O Blue A Yellow B Pink AB... color scheme may be used for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label O Blue A... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Finished Product Control §...

  3. 21 CFR 640.70 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.70 Labeling. Link to an amendment published... information shall appear on the label affixed to each container of Source Plasma: (1) The proper name of the... shall follow the proper name in the same size and type of print as the proper name. If the Source...

  4. 27 CFR 20.134 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exceeds 8-fluid ounces, the label shall also show the information required by paragraph (b) (1) or (2) of... the manufacturer, and the permit number or numbers of the place or places of manufacture. However, in... minimal identifying information (name, address and a phrase such as “distributed by”) on the label of...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  6. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... banned the distribution in U.S. commerce of this product under section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control... ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.171 Labeling requirements. (a)...

  7. Linguistic Labels: Conceptual Markers or Object Features?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic labels affect inductive generalization; however, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. According to one similarity-based model, SINC (similarity, induction, naming, and categorization), early in development labels are features of objects contributing to the overall similarity of compared entities, with early induction…

  8. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labeling requirements. 600.301 Section 600.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301...

  9. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling requirements. 600.301 Section 600.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301...

  10. 16 CFR 1631.5 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 1631.5 Section 1631.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) The Standard § 1631.5 Labeling requirements....

  11. 16 CFR 1630.5 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling. 1630.5 Section 1630.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) The Standard § 1630.5 Labeling. If the carpet or rug has had a...

  12. 16 CFR 1631.5 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 1631.5 Section 1631.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) The Standard § 1631.5 Labeling requirements....

  13. 16 CFR 1630.5 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling. 1630.5 Section 1630.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) The Standard § 1630.5 Labeling. If the carpet or rug has had a...

  14. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section with the statement; “For Export Only”. (c) Any competition motorcycle as defined in § 205.151(a)(3... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.158 Labeling requirements. (a)(1) The manufacturer of any vehicle subject to this subpart must, at the time of manufacture, affix a label, of...

  15. 16 CFR 1209.9 - Labeling requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.9 Labeling requirement. (a) Manufacturers, importers, and private labelers of cellulose insulation shall place on all containers of cellulose... corrosiveness of cellulose insulation. To meet this requirement manufacturers, importers, and private...

  16. 16 CFR 1209.9 - Labeling requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.9 Labeling requirement. (a) Manufacturers, importers, and private labelers of cellulose insulation shall place on all containers of cellulose... corrosiveness of cellulose insulation. To meet this requirement manufacturers, importers, and private...

  17. 16 CFR 1209.9 - Labeling requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.9 Labeling requirement. (a) Manufacturers, importers, and private labelers of cellulose insulation shall place on all containers of cellulose... corrosiveness of cellulose insulation. To meet this requirement manufacturers, importers, and private...

  18. 16 CFR 1209.9 - Labeling requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.9 Labeling requirement. (a) Manufacturers, importers, and private labelers of cellulose insulation shall place on all containers of cellulose... corrosiveness of cellulose insulation. To meet this requirement manufacturers, importers, and private...

  19. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications... alternative vehicle fuel (other than electricity) labels with disclosure of principal component only. The... the reasons that you want to use it. (2) Non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other than...

  20. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications... alternative vehicle fuel (other than electricity) labels with disclosure of principal component only. The... the reasons that you want to use it. (2) Non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other than...

  1. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications... alternative vehicle fuel (other than electricity) labels with disclosure of principal component only. The... the reasons that you want to use it. (2) Non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other than...

  2. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications... alternative vehicle fuel (other than electricity) labels with disclosure of principal component only. The... the reasons that you want to use it. (2) Non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other than...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.11 - Certification label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approximately 2 in. by 4 in. in size and shall be permanently attached to the manufactured home by means of 4... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.11 Certification label. (a) A permanent label shall be affixed to each transportable section of each manufactured...

  4. Luminogenic "clickable" lanthanide complexes for protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Candelon, Nicolas; Hădade, Niculina D; Matache, Mihaela; Canet, Jean-Louis; Cisnetti, Federico; Funeriu, Daniel P; Nauton, Lionel; Gautier, Arnaud

    2013-10-14

    Development of lanthanide-based luminescent "switch-on" systems via azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition is described. We used these for non-specific protein labeling and as tags for specific and selective activity-based protein labeling.

  5. Reversibility of cell surface label rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Cell surface labeling can cause rearrangements of randomly distributed membrane components. Removal of the label bound to the cell surface allows the membrane components to return to their original random distribution, demonstrating that label is necessary to maintain as well as to induce rearrangements. With scanning electron microscopy, the rearrangement of concanavalin A (con A) and ricin binding sites on LA-9 cells has been followed by means of hemocyanin, a visual label. The removal of con A from its binding sites at the cell surface with alpha- methyl mannoside, and the return of these sites to their original distribution are also followed in this manner. There are labeling differences with con A and ricin. Under some conditions, however, the same rearrangements are seen with both lectins. The disappearance of labeled sites from areas of ruffling activity is a major feature of the rearrangements seen. Both this ruffling activity and the rearrangement of label are sensitive to cytochalasin B, and ruffling activity, perhaps along with other cytochalasin-sensitive structure, may play a role in the rearrangements of labeled sites. PMID:1025154

  6. The anatomy of a laser label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  7. 40 CFR 205.169 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems or exhaust system components to be distributed in commerce. (b) The labels or marks shall be... readily visible position when the exhaust system or exhaust system component is installed on all... language in block letters and numerals in a color that contrasts with its background. (e) The label or...

  8. Labels and Children's Perception of Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed. Sixty-four second and sixth grade Ss were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions in which various kinds of labeling training were associated with four purple and green smiling and frowning faces. Ss then judged the similarity of pairs of the faces. Results revealed…

  9. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each...

  10. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each...

  11. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... number on octane labels, which is in Franklin gothic type. All type is centered. Spacing of the label is... Helvetica series or equivalent type is used for all numbers and letters with the exception of the octane... set in 10 point Helvetica Bold, all capitals, with letterspace set at 101/2 points. The octane...

  12. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... number on octane labels, which is in Franklin gothic type. All type is centered. Spacing of the label is... Helvetica series or equivalent type is used for all numbers and letters with the exception of the octane... set in 10 point Helvetica Bold, all capitals, with letterspace set at 101/2 points. The octane...

  13. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... number on octane labels, which is in Franklin gothic type. All type is centered. Spacing of the label is... Helvetica series or equivalent type is used for all numbers and letters with the exception of the octane... set in 10 point Helvetica Bold, all capitals, with letterspace set at 101/2 points. The octane...

  14. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  15. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  16. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  17. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  18. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  19. 9 CFR 412.1 - Label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label approval. 412.1 Section 412.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT LABEL APPROVAL...

  20. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Ranjita

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  1. 40 CFR 92.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Certification Provisions § 92.212 Labeling. (a) General requirements. Each new locomotive and new locomotive engine, subject to the emission standards of this part and... readily visible after installation of the engine in the locomotive. (ii) The label shall be attached to...

  2. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Label requirements. 583.5 Section 583.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.5...

  3. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Label requirements. 583.5 Section 583.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.5...

  4. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Label requirements. 583.5 Section 583.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.5...

  5. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Label requirements. 583.5 Section 583.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.5...

  6. 16 CFR 1209.9 - Labeling requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.9 Labeling requirement. (a) Manufacturers, importers, and private labelers of cellulose insulation shall place on all containers of cellulose... corrosiveness of cellulose insulation. To meet this requirement manufacturers, importers, and private...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... number and permanently affix, engrave, or stamp the number on the locomotive and engine in a legible way... 0 and Tier 1 locomotives, the label may be made up of more than one piece, as long as all pieces are.... The label may be made up of more than one piece, as long as all pieces are permanently attached to...

  8. 47 CFR 95.1017 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 95.1017 Section 95.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1017 Labeling requirements. (a) Each...

  9. 47 CFR 95.1017 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 95.1017 Section 95.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1017 Labeling requirements. (a) Each...

  10. 47 CFR 95.1017 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 95.1017 Section 95.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1017 Labeling requirements. (a) Each...

  11. 47 CFR 95.1017 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 95.1017 Section 95.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1017 Labeling requirements. (a) Each...

  12. 47 CFR 95.1017 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 95.1017 Section 95.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1017 Labeling requirements. (a) Each...

  13. 75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 APPLIANCE LABELING RULE AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... Notice contains a technical correction to Sample Label 13 in Appendix L in 16 CFR Part 305 published...

  14. An efficient on-column expressed protein ligation strategy: Application to segmental triple labeling of human apolipoprotein E3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wentao; Zhang, Yonghong; Cui, Chunxian; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is an intein-based approach that has been used for protein engineering and biophysical studies of protein structures. One major problem of the EPL is the low yield of final ligation product, primarily due to the complex procedure of the EPL, preventing EPL from gaining popularity in the research community. Here we report an efficient on-column EPL strategy, which focuses on enhancing the expression level of the intein-fusion protein that generates thioester for the EPL. We applied this EPL strategy to human apolipoprotein E (apoE) and routinely obtained 25–30 mg segmental, triple-labeled apoE from 1-L cell culture. The approaches reported here are general approaches that are not specific for apoE, thus providing a general strategy for a highly efficient EPL. In addition, we also report an isotopic labeling scheme that double-labels one domain and keeps the other domain of apoE deuterated. Such an isotopic labeling scheme can only be achieved using the EPL strategy. Our data indicated that the segmental triple-labeled apoEs using this labeling scheme produced high-quality, simplified NMR spectra, facilitating NMR spectral assignment. For large proteins, such as apoE, perdeuterated protein samples have to be used to reduce the linewidth of NMR signals, causing a major problem for the NOE-based NMR method, since perdeuterated proteins lack protons for NOE measurement. The new labeling strategy solves this problem and provides 13C/15N double-labeled, protonated protein domains, allowing for determination of high-resolution NMR structure of these large proteins. PMID:18305193

  15. Robust and Discriminative Labeling for Multi-Label Active Learning Based on Maximum Correntropy Criterion.

    PubMed

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-04-01

    Multi-label learning draws great interests in many real world applications. It is a highly costly task to assign many labels by the oracle for one instance. Meanwhile, it is also hard to build a good model without diagnosing discriminative labels. Can we reduce the label costs and improve the ability to train a good model for multi-label learning simultaneously? Active learning addresses the less training samples problem by querying the most valuable samples to achieve a better performance with little costs. In multi-label active learning, some researches have been done for querying the relevant labels with less training samples or querying all labels without diagnosing the discriminative information. They all cannot effectively handle the outlier labels for the measurement of uncertainty. Since maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) provides a robust analysis for outliers in many machine learning and data mining algorithms, in this paper, we derive a robust multi-label active learning algorithm based on an MCC by merging uncertainty and representativeness, and propose an efficient alternating optimization method to solve it. With MCC, our method can eliminate the influence of outlier labels that are not discriminative to measure the uncertainty. To make further improvement on the ability of information measurement, we merge uncertainty and representativeness with the prediction labels of unknown data. It cannot only enhance the uncertainty but also improve the similarity measurement of multi-label data with labels information. Experiments on benchmark multi-label data sets have shown a superior performance than the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms.

  17. A region labeling algorithm based on block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2009-10-01

    The time performance of region labeling algorithm is important for image process. However, common region labeling algorithms cannot meet the requirements of real-time image processing. In this paper, a technique using block to record the connective area is proposed. By this technique, connective closure and information related to the target can be computed during a one-time image scan. It records the edge pixel's coordinate, including outer side edges and inner side edges, as well as the label, and then it can calculate connecting area's shape center, area and gray. Compared to others, this block based region labeling algorithm is more efficient. It can well meet the time requirements of real-time processing. Experiment results also validate the correctness and efficiency of the algorithm. Experiment results show that it can detect any connecting areas in binary images, which contains various complex and quaint patterns. The block labeling algorithm is used in a real-time image processing program now.

  18. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Base-specific spin-labeling of RNA for structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Piton, Nelly; Mu, Yuguang; Stock, Gerhard; Prisner, Thomas F.; Engels, Joachim W.

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate the measurement of intramolecular distances in solvated RNA systems, a combination of spin-labeling, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is presented. The fairly rigid spin label 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolin-1-yloxyl-3-acetylene (TPA) was base and site specifically introduced into RNA through a Sonogashira palladium catalyzed cross-coupling on column. For this purpose 5-iodo-uridine, 5-iodo-cytidine and 2-iodo-adenosine phosphoramidites were synthesized and incorporated into RNA-sequences. Application of the recently developed ACE® chemistry presented the main advantage to limit the reduction of the nitroxide to an amine during the oligonucleotide automated synthesis and thus to increase substantially the reliability of the synthesis and the yield of labeled oligonucleotides. 4-Pulse Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) was then successfully used to measure the intramolecular spin–spin distances in six doubly labeled RNA-duplexes. Comparison of these results with our previous work on DNA showed that A- and B-Form can be differentiated. Using an all-atom force field with explicit solvent, MD simulations gave results in good agreement with the measured distances and indicated that the RNA A-Form was conserved despite a local destabilization effect of the nitroxide label. The applicability of the method to more complex biological systems is discussed. PMID:17452362

  20. Dual-Quantum-Dots-Labeled Lateral Flow Strip Rapidly Quantifies Procalcitonin and C-reactive Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, XiaoPing; Huang, YunYe; Lin, ZhongShi; Xu, Liang; Yu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    In the article, a dual-quantum-dots-labeled (dual-QDs-labeled) lateral flow strip (LFS) method was developed for the simultaneous and rapid quantitative detection of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood. Two QD-antibody conjugates with different fluorescence emission spectra were produced and sprayed on the LFS to capture PCT and CRP in the blood. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich method for PCT and, meanwhile, a competitive inhibition method for CRP were employed in the LFS. For PCT and CRP in serum assayed by the dual-QDs-labeled LFS, their detection sensitivities reached 0.1 and 1 ng/mL, respectively, and their linear quantitative detection ranges were from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL and from 50 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. There was little evidence that the PCT and CRP assays would be interfered with each other. The correlations for testing CRP and PCT in clinical samples were 99.75 and 97.02 %, respectively, between the dual-QDs-labeled LFS we developed and commercial methods. The rapid quantification of PCT and CRP on dual-QDs-labeled LFS is of great clinical value to distinguish inflammation, bacterial infection, or viral infection and to provide guidance for the use of antibiotics or other medicines.

  1. Increased cholecystokinin labeling in the hippocampus of a mouse model of epilepsy maps to spines and glutamatergic terminals

    PubMed Central

    Wyeth, Megan S.; Zhang, Nianhui; Houser, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is abundant in the central nervous system and expressed in a subset of inhibitory interneurons, particularly in their axon terminals. The expression profile of CCK undergoes numerous changes in several models of temporal lobe epilepsy. Previous studies in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy have shown that CCK immunohistochemical labeling is substantially reduced in several regions of the hippocampal formation, consistent with decreased CCK expression as well as selective neuronal degeneration. However, in a mouse pilocarpine model of recurrent seizures, increases in CCK-labeling also occur and are especially striking in the hippocampal dendritic layers of strata oriens and radiatum. Characterizing these changes and determining the cellular basis of the increased labeling were the major goals of the current study. One possibility was that the enhanced CCK labeling could be associated with an increase in GABAergic terminals within these regions. However, in contrast to the marked increase in CCK-labeled structures, labeling of GABAergic axon terminals was decreased in the dendritic layers. Likewise, cannabinoid receptor 1-labeled axon terminals, many of which are CCK-containing GABAergic terminals, were also decreased. These findings suggested that the enhanced CCK labeling was not due to an increase in GABAergic axon terminals. The subcellular localization of CCK immunoreactivity was then examined using electron microscopy, and the identities of the structures that formed synaptic contacts were determined. In pilocarpine-treated mice, CCK was observed in dendritic spines and these were proportionally increased relative to controls, whereas the proportion of CCK-labeled terminals forming symmetric synapses was decreased. In addition, CCK-positive axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses were readily observed in these mice. Double labeling with vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and CCK revealed co-localization in numerous

  2. 9 CFR 317.5 - Generically approved labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section), or guarantees, or which is not a domestic product labeled in a foreign language; (2) Labeling... not a domestic product labeled with a foreign language; (3) Labeling for containers of products sold... necessary the application of labeling not otherwise required); (v) A change in the language or...

  3. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers, repackers, relabelers, and private label distributors of...

  4. 16 CFR 300.30 - Deceptive labeling in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive labeling in general. 300.30... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.30 Deceptive labeling... stamp, tag, label, mark or representation which is false, misleading or deceptive in any...

  5. 16 CFR 300.30 - Deceptive labeling in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive labeling in general. 300.30... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.30 Deceptive labeling... stamp, tag, label, mark or representation which is false, misleading or deceptive in any...

  6. 16 CFR 300.30 - Deceptive labeling in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive labeling in general. 300.30... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.30 Deceptive labeling... stamp, tag, label, mark or representation which is false, misleading or deceptive in any...

  7. 16 CFR 300.30 - Deceptive labeling in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive labeling in general. 300.30... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.30 Deceptive labeling... stamp, tag, label, mark or representation which is false, misleading or deceptive in any...

  8. 75 FR 82011 - Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...EPA is considering an initiative to make portions of pesticide labeling for certain products available electronically. Web-distributed labeling would allow users to download streamlined labeling specific to the use and state in which the application will occur. More concise labeling should increase users' comprehension and compliance with pesticide labeling, thereby improving protection of......

  9. 21 CFR 500.51 - Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. 500.51... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Animal Drug Labeling Requirements § 500.51 Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. (a) Among the representations on the label or labeling of an...

  10. 21 CFR 500.51 - Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. 500.51... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Animal Drug Labeling Requirements § 500.51 Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. (a) Among the representations on the label or labeling of an...

  11. 21 CFR 500.51 - Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. 500.51... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Animal Drug Labeling Requirements § 500.51 Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. (a) Among the representations on the label or labeling of an...

  12. 21 CFR 500.51 - Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. 500.51... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Animal Drug Labeling Requirements § 500.51 Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. (a) Among the representations on the label or labeling of an...

  13. 21 CFR 500.51 - Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. 500.51... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Animal Drug Labeling Requirements § 500.51 Labeling of animal drugs; misbranding. (a) Among the representations on the label or labeling of an...

  14. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  15. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  16. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  17. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  18. A new class of macrocyclic lanthanide complexes for cell labeling and magnetic resonance imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan; Dai, Houquan; Merritt, Matthew E; Malloy, Craig; Pan, Cai Yuan; Li, Wen-Hong

    2005-11-23

    Lanthanide complexes have wide applications in biochemical research and biomedical imaging. We have designed and synthesized a new class of macrocyclic lanthanide chelates, Ln/DTPA-PDA-C(n), for cell labeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. Two lipophilic Gd3+ complexes, Gd/DTPA-PDA-C(n) (n = 10, 12), labeled a number of cultured mammalian cells noninvasively at concentrations as low as a few micromolar. Cells took up these agents rapidly and showed robust intensity increases in T1-weighed MR images. Labeled cells showed normal morphology and doubling time as control cells. In addition to cultured cells, these agents also labeled primary cells in tissues such as dissected pancreatic islets. To study the mechanism of cellular uptake, we applied the technique of diffusion enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (DEFRET) to determine the cellular localization of these lipophilic lanthanide complexes. After loading cells with a luminescent complex, Tb/DTPA-PDA-C10, we observed DEFRET between the Tb3+ complex and extracellular, but not intracellular, calcein. We concluded that these cyclic lanthanide complexes label cells by inserting two hydrophobic alkyl chains into cell membranes with the hydrophilic metal binding site facing the extracellular medium. As the first imaging application of these macrocyclic lanthanide chelates, we labeled insulin secreting beta-cells with Gd/DTPA-PDA-C12. Labeled cells were encapsulated in hollow fibers and were implanted in a nude mouse. MR imaging of implanted beta-cells showed that these cells could be followed in vivo for up to two weeks. The combined advantages of this new class of macrocyclic contrast agents ensure future imaging applications to track cell movement and localization in different biological systems.

  19. Empirically Unbinding the Double Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David H.

    The theoretical concept of the double bind and the possibilities for researching it are discussed. The author has observed that theory and research, which should be reciprocal and mutually beneficial, have been working, as concerns the double bind, at odds with one another. Two approaches to empirically investigating the concept are considered via…

  20. Measurement of Internuclear Distances in Solids Using Variations of Rotational-Echo Double-Resonance NMR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Susan Mueller

    Rotational-echo, double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to measure internuclear distances in solids in many isotopically labeled biological solids. The goals of my research have been to adapt this technique to make it suitable for some special systems, such as samples with low isotopic label concentrations, samples with NMR resonances that have large chemical shift anisotropies, non-biological samples with high NMR-active spin concentrations but no isotopic spin labels, and samples having interactions between a nuclear spin and an electron. This work has included the development of multiple-resonance, background suppression techniques, such as double REDOR, rotational-echo, triple-resonance (RETRO) and transferred -echo, double-resonance (TEDOR), to be used in conjunction with REDOR on labeled biological solids. These methods have enabled the determination of a ^{13 }C-^{15}N one-bond distance of 1.48 A in glyphosate by double REDOR, and a ^{13}C- ^{19}F internuclear distance of 8.0 A in emerimicin using TEDOR-REDOR. Semiconductor materials are more difficult to specifically label than biological samples because they are made by solid-state, high-temperature methods. Using REDOR and a simple statistical model, accurate one-bond internuclear distances in cadmium phosphide ranging from 2.55 to 2.58 A were measured. The lattice contractions of crystalline domains in a mixed-phase (part amorphous, part crystalline) sample were measured to be four to five percent using REDOR. The multiple resonance, magic-angle spinning, solid-state NMR techniques described in this dissertation require up to four radiofrequency channels in the same experiment.

  1. Double valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Stassano, Paolo; Mannacio, Vito; Musumeci, Antonino; Golino, Alessandro; Maida, Piero; Ferrigno, Vincenzo; Buonocore, Gaetano; Spampinato, Nicola

    1991-01-01

    From January 1976 through December 1987, 194 patients with a mean age of 43.3 ± 13.7 years (range, 11 to 74 years) underwent double (mitral and aortic) replacement of native valves with 8 types of bioprostheses: Carpentier-Edwards, 127 valves; Hancock, 76 valves; Liotta-Bioimplant, 57 valves; Ionescu-Shiley, 53 valves; Vascor, 27 valves; Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial, 22 valves; Angell-Shiley, 20 valves; and Implamedic, 6 valves. Concomitant cardiac procedures were performed in 25 patients (12.8%). There were 18 operative deaths (9.27%). Our retrospective analysis was restricted to 352 bioprostheses implanted in the 176 patients who survived surgery and were considered at risk for valve tissue failure. The overall cumulative duration of follow-up was 1,174.1 patient-years (range, 1 to 13 years). The durations of follow-up for specific valves were: Carpentier-Edwards, 920.2 valve-years; Hancock, 383.8 valve-years; Liotta-Bioimplant, 310.2 valve-years; Ionescu-Shiley, 357.7 valve-years; Vascor, 131.2 valve-years; Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial, 52.0 valve-years; Angell-Shiley, 167.0 valve-years; and Implamedic, 31.0 valve-years. Thirty patients had thromboembolic accidents, for a linearized incidence of 2.5% per patient-year. At 13 years, the actuarial freedom from thromboembolic accidents was 85.8% ± 10.7%. Nine patients had endocarditis, for a linearized incidence of 0.7% per patient-year. At 13 years, the actuarial freedom from endocarditis was 92.0% ± 1.5%. Twenty-four patients had valve tissue failure, for a cumulative linearized incidence of 1.87% per valve-year. The cumulative actuarial probability of freedom from valve tissue failure was 78.6% ± 3.7% at 10 years and 51.2% ± 10.7% at 13 years. The 24 patients with valve tissue failure all underwent reoperation: 20 of these had double valve replacement, 3 had aortic valve replacement alone, and 1 had mitral valve replacement alone. The mean interval between initial valve implantation and reoperation was

  2. Theory of nonmonotonic double layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.

    1987-12-01

    A simple graphic method of solving the Vlasov--Poisson system associated with nonlinear eigenvalue conditions for arbitrary potential structures is presented. A general analytic formulation for nonmonotonic double layers is presented and illustrated with some particular closed form solutions. This class of double layers satisfies the time stationary Vlasov--Poisson system while requiring a Sagdeev potential, which is a double-valued function of the physical potential. It follows that any distribution function having a density representation as any integer or noninteger power series of potential can never satisfy the nonmonotonic double-layer boundary conditions. A Korteweg--de Vries-like equation is found showing a relationship among the speed of the nonmonotonic double layer, its scale length, and its degree of asymmetry.

  3. The Visual Double Star Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.

    2015-08-01

    In visual double star work, production of the first comprehensive attempt to list all discovered pairs in his accessible sky was prepared by S.W. Burnham in 1906. A double star catalog for the southern hemisphere was prepared by R.T.A. Innes et al. in 1927 and the northern hemisphere catalog was updated by R.G. Aitken and E. Doolittle in 1932. Eventually, this led to Lick Observatory maintaining what became known as the Index Catalogue, an all-sky visual double star database.In 1964, under the aegis of Commission 26, the Lick double star database was transferred to the U.S. Naval Observatory where it was redesignated the Washington Double Star Catalog where it and it's ancillary catalogs, have been maintained for over half a century. The current statistics of the catalog and it's supplements are presented as are the enhancements currently under consideration.

  4. A run-based two-scan labeling algorithm.

    PubMed

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji

    2008-05-01

    We present an efficient run-based two-scan algorithm for labeling connected components in a binary image. Unlike conventional label-equivalence-based algorithms, which resolve label equivalences between provisional labels, our algorithm resolves label equivalences between provisional label sets. At any time, all provisional labels that are assigned to a connected component are combined in a set, and the smallest label is used as the representative label. The corresponding relation of a provisional label and its representative label is recorded in a table. Whenever different connected components are found to be connected, all provisional label sets concerned with these connected components are merged together, and the smallest provisional label is taken as the representative label. When the first scan is finished, all provisional labels that were assigned to each connected component in the given image will have a unique representative label. During the second scan, we need only to replace each provisional label by its representative label. Experimental results on various types of images demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms all conventional labeling algorithms.

  5. A test of different menu labeling presentations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Liu, Linda J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-12-01

    Chain restaurants will soon need to disclose calorie information on menus, but research on the impact of calorie labels on food choices is mixed. This study tested whether calorie information presented in different formats influenced calories ordered and perceived restaurant healthfulness. Participants in an online survey were randomly assigned to a menu with either (1) no calorie labels (No Calories); (2) calorie labels (Calories); (3) calorie labels ordered from low to high calories (Rank-Ordered Calories); or (4) calorie labels ordered from low to high calories that also had red/green circles indicating higher and lower calorie choices (Colored Calories). Participants ordered items for dinner, estimated calories ordered, and rated restaurant healthfulness. Participants in the Rank-Ordered Calories condition and those in the Colored Calories condition ordered fewer calories than the No Calories group. There was no significant difference in calories ordered between the Calories and No Calories groups. Participants in each calorie label condition were significantly more accurate in estimating calories ordered compared to the No Calories group. Those in the Colored Calories group perceived the restaurant as healthier. The results suggest that presenting calorie information in the modified Rank-Ordered or Colored Calories formats may increase menu labeling effectiveness.

  6. Robust statistical fusion of image labels.

    PubMed

    Landman, Bennett A; Asman, Andrew J; Scoggins, Andrew G; Bogovic, John A; Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L

    2012-02-01

    Image labeling and parcellation (i.e., assigning structure to a collection of voxels) are critical tasks for the assessment of volumetric and morphometric features in medical imaging data. The process of image labeling is inherently error prone as images are corrupted by noise and artifacts. Even expert interpretations are subject to subjectivity and the precision of the individual raters. Hence, all labels must be considered imperfect with some degree of inherent variability. One may seek multiple independent assessments to both reduce this variability and quantify the degree of uncertainty. Existing techniques have exploited maximum a posteriori statistics to combine data from multiple raters and simultaneously estimate rater reliabilities. Although quite successful, wide-scale application has been hampered by unstable estimation with practical datasets, for example, with label sets with small or thin objects to be labeled or with partial or limited datasets. As well, these approaches have required each rater to generate a complete dataset, which is often impossible given both human foibles and the typical turnover rate of raters in a research or clinical environment. Herein, we propose a robust approach to improve estimation performance with small anatomical structures, allow for missing data, account for repeated label sets, and utilize training/catch trial data. With this approach, numerous raters can label small, overlapping portions of a large dataset, and rater heterogeneity can be robustly controlled while simultaneously estimating a single, reliable label set and characterizing uncertainty. The proposed approach enables many individuals to collaborate in the construction of large datasets for labeling tasks (e.g., human parallel processing) and reduces the otherwise detrimental impact of rater unavailability.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 37

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 34

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 35

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 40

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  15. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  16. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  17. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  18. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  19. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  20. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 20

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.