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Sample records for double labelling

  1. Transmission performance of the double-sideband SCM optical label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiqing; Jia, Zhensheng; Xie, Shizhong

    2002-09-01

    Transmission performance of the optical label with the double-sideband subcarrier multiplexing is investigated using Volterra transfer function approach. It is shown that the phase shifts of the two sideband signal is induced jointly by the interaction between SCM component and payload component due to fiber dispersion and nonlinearity. This will cause the SCM label fading, and then harm to system performance.

  2. Selenomethionine and selenocysteine double labeling strategy for crystallographic phasing.

    PubMed

    Strub, Marie Paule; Hoh, François; Sanchez, Jean Frédéric; Strub, Jean Marc; Böck, August; Aumelas, André; Dumas, Christian

    2003-11-01

    A protocol for the quantitative incorporation of both selenomethionine and selenocysteine into recombinant proteins overexpressed in Escherichia coli is described. This methodology is based on the use of a suitable cysteine auxotrophic strain and a minimal medium supplemented with selenium-labeled methionine and cysteine. The proteins chosen for these studies are the cathelin-like motif of protegrin-3 and a nucleoside-diphosphate kinase. Analysis of the purified proteins by electrospray mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography revealed that both cysteine and methionine residues were isomorphously replaced by selenocysteine and selenomethionine. Moreover, selenocysteines allowed the formation of unstrained and stable diselenide bridges in place of the canonical disulfide bonds. In addition, we showed that NDP kinase contains a selenocysteine adduct on Cys122. This novel selenium double-labeling method is proposed as a general approach to increase the efficiency of the MAD technique used for phase determination in protein crystallography.

  3. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  4. Australia's double standard on Thailand's alcohol warning labels.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Since 2010, members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), including Australia, have opposed Thailand's proposal for graphic warnings on alcohol containers. This paper aims to provide an account of the arguments for/against Thailand and to examine the arguments' legal and political validity. This paper reviews primary WTO records in relation to Thailand's proposal to reveal the arguments for/against Thailand's proposal. The paper analyses these arguments in light of WTO cases to identify the legal strengths and weaknesses of Thailand's position. The paper then considers whether the attacks on Thailand by Australia are justified in light of the Australian Government's position on (i) alcohol warning labels in Australia and (ii) tobacco plain packaging. The legal arguments against Thailand are: only harmful alcohol consumption should be prevented; there is no evidence that graphic warning labels can reduce alcohol-related harm; the labels unnecessarily restrict international trade. There are some legal weaknesses in Thailand's proposal. Yet, Australia's opposition to Thailand cannot be justified whilst Australia is (i) mandating pregnancy-related alcohol warnings in Australia and (ii) defending its plain packaging law against similar WTO attacks. No WTO member is obliged to challenge another member for being non-compliant. The case tests the willingness of WTO members like Australia to respect the autonomy of other countries to pursue their public health goals and trial novel interventions. Australia's actions suggest it is willing to protect its alcohol industry at the expense of public health in Thailand. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Double labeling autoradiography. Cell kinetic studies with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, B.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of the multiple applicability of the double labeling method with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR are demonstrated. Double labeling with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR makes it possible to determine the cycle and its phases with high precision by modifying the usual percent labeled mitoses method with a single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR. In addition, data is provided on the variances of the transit times through the cycle phases. For example, in the case of the jejunal crypt cells of the mouse, the transit times through successive cycle phases are uncorrelated. In the case of glial cells the double labeling method provides cell kinetic parameters despite the paucity of proliferating glial cells. In the adult untreated animal, glial cell mitoses are so rare that the percent labeled mitoses method can not be utilized. However, the S-phase duration can be measured by double labeling and the cycle time can be determined by the so-called method of labeled S phases. With the latter method the passage through the S phase of the /sup 3/H-TdR-labeled S phase cells can be registered by injecting /sup 14/C-TdR at different time intervals following /sup 3/H-TdR application. In this way an S-phase duration of about 10 hr and a cycle time of about 20 hr was found for glial cells in the adult untreated mouse. An exchange of glial cells between the growth fraction and the nongrowth fraction has also been shown by double labeling. A quite different application of the double labeling method with 3H- and /sup 14/C-TdR is the in vivo study of the cell cycle phase-specific effect of drugs used in chemotherapy of tumors. The effect of vincristine on these cells has been studied. Vincristine affects cells in S and G2 in such a manner that they are arrested during the next metaphase and subsequently become necrotic. It has no effect on G1 cells.

  6. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  7. Pulsed Electron Double Resonance in Structural Studies of Spin-Labeled Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, O. S.; Tsvetkov, Yu. D.

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the application of the pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) method to studies of spin-labeled DNA and RNA with complicated spatial structures, such as tetramers, aptamers, riboswitches, and three- and four-way junctions. The use of this method for studying DNA damage sites is also described. PMID:23556128

  8. Sequence-Dependent Fluorescence of Cy3- and Cy5-Labeled Double-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 dyes is strongly dependent on the nucleobase sequence of the labeled oligonucleotides. Sequence-dependent fluorescence may significantly influence the data obtained from many common experimental methods based on fluorescence detection of nucleic acids, such as sequencing, PCR, FRET, and FISH. To quantify sequence dependent fluorescence, we have measured the fluorescence intensity of Cy3 and Cy5 bound to the 5′ end of all 1024 possible double-stranded DNA 5mers. The fluorescence intensity was also determined for these dyes bound to the 5′ end of fixed-sequence double-stranded DNA with a variable sequence 3′ overhang adjacent to the dye. The labeled DNA oligonucleotides were made using light-directed, in situ microarray synthesis. The results indicate that the fluorescence intensity of both dyes is sensitive to all five bases or base pairs, that the sequence dependence is stronger for double- (vs single-) stranded DNA, and that the dyes are sensitive to both the adjacent dsDNA sequence and the 3′-ssDNA overhang. Purine-rich sequences result in higher fluorescence. The results can be used to estimate measurement error in experiments with fluorescent-labeled DNA, as well as to optimize the fluorescent signal by considering the nucleobase environment of the labeling cyanine dye. PMID:26895222

  9. Microfluidics-integrated cascaded double-microring resonators for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Li, Mingyu; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; He, Jian-Jun

    2014-11-01

    A highly-sensitive optical waveguide biosensor integrated with microfluidic channels based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) was investigated in this paper. Experimental results of the label-free detection exhibits this novel biosensor with the superior reliability for quantitative and kinetic measurement of the interaction between biological molecules, dramatically improving the sensitivity due to the Vernier effect induced by cascaded double-microring resonators.

  10. Chelator-Free Labeling of Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles for in Vivo PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sixiang; Fliss, Brianne C.; Gu, Zi; Zhu, Yian; Hong, Hao; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Hernandez, Reinier; Goel, Shreya; Luo, Haiming; Chen, Feng; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial has emerged as a novel delivery agent for biomedical applications due to its unique structure and properties. However, in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with LDH nanoparticles has not been achieved. The aim of this study is to explore chelator-free labeling of LDH nanoparticles with radioisotopes for in vivo PET imaging. Bivalent cation 64Cu2+ and trivalent cation 44Sc3+ were found to readily label LDH nanoparticles with excellent labeling efficiency and stability, whereas tetravalent cation 89Zr4+ could not label LDH since it does not fit into the LDH crystal structure. PET imaging shows that prominent tumor uptake was achieved in 4T1 breast cancer with 64Cu-LDH-BSA via passive targeting alone (7.7 ± 0.1%ID/g at 16 h post-injection; n = 3). These results support that LDH is a versatile platform that can be labeled with various bivalent and trivalent radiometals without comprising the native properties, highly desirable for PET image-guided drug delivery. PMID:26585551

  11. Double-labelled HIV-1 particles for study of virus-cell interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, Marko; Briggs, John A.G.; Endress, Thomas; Glass, Baerbel; Riegelsberger, Stefan; Kraeusslich, Hans-Georg; Lamb, Don C.; Braeuchle, Christoph; Mueller, Barbara . E-mail: Barbara_Mueller@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2007-03-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) delivers its genome to a host cell through fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane. While the viral and cellular proteins involved in entry have been analyzed in detail, the dynamics of virus-cell fusion are largely unknown. Single virus tracing (SVT) provides the unique opportunity to visualize viral particles in real time allowing direct observation of the dynamics of this stochastic process. For this purpose, we developed a double-coloured HIV derivative carrying a green fluorescent label attached to the viral matrix protein combined with a red label fused to the viral Vpr protein designed to distinguish between complete virions and subviral particles lacking MA after membrane fusion. We present here a detailed characterization of this novel tool together with exemplary live cell imaging studies, demonstrating its suitability for real-time analyses of HIV-cell interaction.

  12. A method for double-labeling sputum cells for p53 and cytokeratin

    SciTech Connect

    Neft, R.E.; Tierney, L.A.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques may enhance the usefulness of sputum cytology as a screening tool for lung cancer. These techniques may also be useful in detecting and following the early progression of disease from metaplasia to dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and finally to invasive carcinoma. Longitudinal information on the evolution of these malignant changes in the respiratory epithelium can be gained by prospective study of populations at high risk for lung cancer. This work is significant because double-labeling of cells in sputum with p53 and cytokeratin antibodies facilitates rapid screening of p53 positive neoplastic and preneoplastic lung cells by brightfield and fluorescence microscopy.

  13. Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Song, Jinyan; Tang, Longhua; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Fast and accurate quantitative measurement of biologically relevant molecules has been demonstrated for medical diagnostics and drug applications in photonic integrated circuits. Herein, we reported a highly-sensitive optical biosensor based on cascaded double-microring resonators. The sensor was integrated with microfluidic channels and investigated with its label-free detection capability. With a wavelength resolution of 0.47 nm, the measured binding capacity of the antibody on the surface exhibits reliable detection limit down to 7.10 μg/mL using human immunoglobulin G (hIgG).

  14. Avidin-biotin-immunoglucose oxidase: use in single and double labeling procedures.

    PubMed

    Gown, A M; Garcia, R; Ferguson, M; Yamanaka, E; Tippens, D

    1986-03-01

    We have investigated the use of an avidin-biotin-immunoglucose oxidase (AB-GO) technique for single and double antigen localization in conjunction with the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase (AB-P) technique in fixed, embedded specimens, using sequential monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies of the same species. The optimal technique for double labeling requires the first antibody to be applied and localized with the AB-P technique using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as the chromogen, followed by an optional elution step and/or incubation with mild detergent (0.01% Triton). The second antigen is localized with the AB-GO technique with nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) as a chromogen. Effects of antigen concentration, intermediate elution steps, and the relative efficiency of the two methodologies are described.

  15. Morphology and Immunoreactivity of Retrogradely Double-Labeled Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the specificity and reliability of a retrograde double-labeling technique that was recently established for identification of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and to characterize the morphology of displaced (d)GCs (dGs). Methods. A mixture of the gap-junction–impermeable dye Lucifer yellow (LY) and the permeable dye neurobiotin (NB) was applied to the optic nerve stump for retrograde labeling of GCs and the cells coupled with them. A confocal microscope was adopted for morphologic observation. Results. GCs were identified by LY labeling, and they were all clearly labeled by NB. Cells coupled to GCs contained a weak NB signal but no LY. LY and NB revealed axon bundles, somas and dendrites of GCs. The retrogradely identified GCs numbered approximately 50,000 per retina, and they constituted 44% of the total neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Somas of retrogradely identified dGs were usually negative for glycine, ChAT (choline acetyltransferase), bNOS (brain-type nitric oxidase), GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), and glial markers, and occasionally, they were weakly GABA-positive. dGs averaged 760 per retina and composed 1.7% of total GCs. Sixteen morphologic subtypes of dGs were encountered, three of which were distinct from known GCs. dGs sent dendrites to either sublaminas of the IPL, mostly sublamina a. Conclusions. The retrograde labeling is reliable for identification of GCs. dGs participate in ON and OFF light pathways but favor the OFF pathway. ChAT, bNOS, glycine, and GAD remain reliable AC markers in the GCL. GCs may couple to GABAergic ACs, and the gap junctions likely pass NB and GABA. PMID:21482641

  16. Transport and metabolism of double-labelled CDPcholine in mammalian tissues.

    PubMed

    Galletti, P; De Rosa, M; Nappi, M A; Pontoni, G; del Piano, L; Salluzzo, A; Zappia, V

    1985-12-01

    Double-labelled [methyl-14C,5-3H]CDPcholine has been synthesized and subjected to a pharmacokinetic analysis in several biological systems. In transport experiments with intact human erythrocytes no incorporation of radioactivity is observable. On the other hand the results obtained with perfused rat liver suggest a rapid cleavage of the pyrophosphate bridge of the molecule, followed by a rapid uptake of the hydrolytic products. The plasma half-lives of intravenously injected CDPcholine and of its metabolites have been evaluated within 60 sec range. Renal and fecal excretion of the injected radioactivity is negligible: only 2.5% of administered 14C- and 6.5% of the 3H- is excreted up to 48 hr after administration. Liver and kidney are the major CDPcholine metabolizing organs, characterized by a fast and extensive uptake of choline metabolites, followed by a slow release; conversely the rate of uptake of both 3H and 14C-labelled moieties by rat brain is significantly slower, reaching a steady-state level after 10 hr. The characterization of the labelled compounds detectable in the investigated organs provides some insights on the metabolism of the drug: the 3H-cytidine moiety in all the examined organs appears to be incorporated into the nucleic acid fraction via the cytidine nucleotide pool; the [14C]choline moiety of the molecule is in part converted, at the mitochondrial level, into betaine which accounts for about 60% of the total 14C-radioactivity associated with liver and kidney 30 min after administration; [14C]betaine in turn acts as methyl donor to homocysteine yielding [14C]methionine subsequently incorporated into proteins; the time dependent increase in labelled phospholipids is indicative of a recycling of the choline methyl-groups in this lipid fraction via CDPcholine and/or S-adenosylmethionine; the rather extensive amount of labelled methionine detectable in brain probably arises from its uptake from the blood stream, since the enzyme catalyzing the

  17. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Thomas M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron–electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package “DeerAnalysis” (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications. PMID:26477251

  18. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas M; Fanucci, Gail E

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron-electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package "DeerAnalysis" (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications.

  19. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at ~1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  20. Fluorescent vancomycin and terephthalate comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides nanoparticles: synthesis and application for bacteria labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianchao; Fan, Hai; Wang, Nan; Ai, Shiyun

    2014-09-01

    Vancomycin (Van)- and terephthalate (TA)-comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides (Van-TA-Eu-LDHs) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a two-step method, in which, TA acted as a sensitizer to enhance the fluorescent property and Van was modified on the surface of LDH to act as an affinity reagent to bacteria. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and fluorescent spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the prepared Van- and TA-comodified europium-doped layered double hydroxides (Van-TA-Eu-LDHs) nanoparticles with diameter of 50 nm in size showed highly efficient fluorescent property. Furthermore, due to the high affinity of Van to bacteria, the prepared Van-TA-Eu-LDHs nanoparticles showed efficient bacteria labelling by fluorescent property. The prepared nanoparticles may have wide applications in the biological fields, such as biomolecular labelling and cell imaging.

  1. Double-labeled donor probe can enhance the signal of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in detection of nucleic acid hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Yukio; Kondo, Satoshi; Sase, Ichiro; Suga, Takayuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Furusawa, Iwao; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2000-01-01

    A set of fluorescently-labeled DNA probes that hybridize with the target RNA and produce fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals can be utilized for the detection of specific RNA. We have developed probe sets to detect and discriminate single-strand RNA molecules of plant viral genome, and sought a method to improve the FRET signals to handle in vivo applications. Consequently, we found that a double-labeled donor probe labeled with Bodipy dye yielded a remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity compared to a single-labeled donor probe used in an ordinary FRET. This double-labeled donor system can be easily applied to improve various FRET probes since the dependence upon sequence and label position in enhancement is not as strict. Furthermore this method could be applied to other nucleic acid substances, such as oligo RNA and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (S-oligos) to enhance FRET signal. Although the double-labeled donor probes labeled with a variety of fluorophores had unexpected properties (strange UV-visible absorption spectra, decrease of intensity and decay of donor fluorescence) compared with single-labeled ones, they had no relation to FRET enhancement. This signal amplification mechanism cannot be explained simply based on our current results and knowledge of FRET. Yet it is possible to utilize this double-labeled donor system in various applications of FRET as a simple signal-enhancement method. PMID:11121494

  2. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of spin labeling and PELDOR to measure inter-rhodopsin distance in ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong decay of PELDOR signal indicated a high density (mM range) of rhodopsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decay was modeled by rhodopsin monomers dispersed in a planar membrane. -- Abstract: We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at {approx}1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  3. Studies with nonradioisotopic sodium chromate. II. Single- and double-label sup 52 Cr/ sup 51 Cr posttransfusion recovery estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, W.A.; Keegan, T.; Hanbury, C.M.; Holme, S.; Pleban, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A recently developed nonradioisotopic 52Cr technique was used to measure either red cell volume or posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells. The experimental method uses Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure red cell chromium. Results from the 52Cr method were compared with those from 51Cr single-label and 125I-albumin/51Cr double-label procedures using 49-day AS-1 red cell concentrates drawn and prepared according to standard procedures. In the first group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated concurrently with both 52Cr-labeled fresh red cells and 125I-albumin. The latter measured plasma volume from which red cell volume was estimated on the basis of the hematocrit (125I red cell volume). 51Cr-labeled stored red cells were transfused to measure posttransfusion recoveries. The correlation between 52Cr and 125I red cell volumes was significant (r = 0.68, p less than 0.01), and, in this group, the differences were not significant (p less than 0.05). Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion recoveries of 51Cr-labeled stored red cells averaged 66 +/- 5 percent when measured with the 125I/51Cr technique and 69 +/- 8 percent when measured with the 52Cr/51Cr method. In the second group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated by the 125I-albumin technique, and the posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells was quantitated by 51Cr- and 52Cr-labeled stored cells simultaneously. In this group, posttransfusion recoveries with 125I/51Cr averaged 73 +/- 7 percent; with 125I/52Cr, they averaged 75 +/- 10 percent. Using the single-label method of calculation, recoveries averaged 76 +/- 7 and 75 +/- 10 percent for the 51Cr and 52Cr methods, respectively.

  4. Dorsoventral organization of sensory nerves in the lumbar spine as indicated by double labeling of dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuzuru; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2010-07-01

    Referred pain due to lumbar disc disorders can be analyzed using the stereoscopic structure of the peripheral sensory nervous system. The rostrocaudal structure has been clarified. The dorsoventral structure of the lumbar spine would be useful for mapping areas of pain perception in spinal disorders. The neurotracer 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was applied to the lateral portion of the L5/6 intervertebral disc in rats to examine the dorsoventral organization of the sensory nervous system in the lumbar spine and related tissues. Fluorogold (FG) was applied to reference sites located at the spinous process of the L5 vertebra, the L5/6 facet joint, the psoas muscle at the L5 level, or the rectus abdominis muscle at the pubic symphysis. FG was also applied to the lateral portion of the disc (DiI application site) at L5 or at the L5 level as controls for the double labeling. Labeled neurons were counted in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) from L1 through L4. The proportion of neurons double-labeled with DiI and FG in the total number of DiI-labeled and FG-labeled neurons was 32.9% in the control group; 0% in the spinous process, 0.6% in the facet joint, 2.3% in the psoas muscle, and 0.1% in the rectus abdominis muscle. DRG neurons with dichotomizing afferent fibers were most prevalent (2.3%) between the lateral disc and the psoas muscle at the groin; they were rare or absent between the disc and other reference sites. Dorsoventral organization of the primary sensory system in the lumbar body trunk was suggested from the proportion of DRG neurons with dichotomizing afferent fibers innervating the lumbar disc and other tissues. The present findings provide a pathomechanism of groin referred pain in lumbar disc disorders.

  5. Abiotic Immobilization of Nitrate in Forest Soils: a Double Label Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, R. W.; Ollinger, S. V.; Hobbie, E. A.; Frey, S. D.; Dail, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    Mechanisms of soil nitrogen (N) retention remain a key uncertainty in the terrestrial N cycle. During recent work at the Harvard Forest Chronic N Experiment, 15N added to soils as ammonia nitrate was observed to be rapidly immobilized after addition to soil on a time scale of minutes. In published results it was hypothesized that the rapid time of immobilization could be explained by abiotic immobilization of both ammonia and nitrate. The possibility of abiotic immobilization of nitrate has been studied since the first half of the 20th century, mainly using ideal compounds and soil sterilization techniques. However, critics of these studies have argued that while in vitro studies may indicate the possibility of an abiotic reaction, they cannot demonstrate its plausibility in soils. Soil sterilization methods have been criticized, because they are not effective enough to eliminate biotic interactions within an experimental treatment. Isotopic tracer studies have also been used but also have problems differentiating biotic and abiotic reactions. This study is an attempt to demonstrate abiotic immobilization of nitrate in soil samples through the use of double labeled nitrate (15N18O3- ). The resolution of this method depends on the biochemistry of microbial immobilization of nitrate; reduction of nitrate to nitrite, then ammonia and glutamine before incorporation into microbial biomass. Reduction of 15N18O3- before microbial utilization of the 15N implies that retention of both heavy isotopes in the soil can only occur through abiotic reaction of 15N18Ox species. In biotic immobilization the 18O is lost to the system in water. While nitrate has proven unreactive in soils, its reduced product, nitrite, is known to be readily reactive with various soil compounds. Nitrite can be introduced into the soil environment naturally by both 'leakiness' in nitrification and denitrification and may possibly be generated abiotically through methods such as the proposed Ferrous

  6. Studies of double-labeled mouse thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits to estimate relative fucose content

    SciTech Connect

    Magner, J.; Papagiannes, E.

    1986-11-01

    The composition and structure of the complex oligosaccharides of thyrotropin (TSH) and free alpha-subunits are not well established, but are believed to be important determinants of the biological properties of these glycoproteins. We employed a simple double-label technique to learn the relative fucose content of mouse thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits. Thyrotropic tumor minces were incubated simultaneously with (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 3/H)fucose. Thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits were labeled with both isotopes, and the ratio of /sup 3/H//sup 35/S was higher in free alpha-subunits than in thyrotropin; free alpha-subunits were approximately fivefold richer in fucose than was thyrotropin. The /sup 3/H//sup 35/S ratio was not substantially altered in TSH or free alpha-subunits secreted after a brief incubation with 10(-7) M thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Species which incorporated (/sup 3/H)fucose were resistant to endoglycosidase H. Thus, mouse free alpha-subunits secreted by thyrotropic tumor are relatively rich in fucose. Double-isotope labeling using an amino acid and a sugar appears to be a useful technique for studies of the glycoprotein hormones.

  7. Use of a double radioactive label (54Mn and 14C) in the study of organomineral manganese compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpukhin, A. I.

    2009-06-01

    A fundamentally new approach to the study of natural organomineral materials was proposed. A procedure was developed for using a double carbon-metal label in the systemic study of organomineral complexes of soils and conjugated landscape objects. A significant effect of water-soluble organic ligands on the migration of manganese in soils was shown. It was found that mineral manganese compounds were transformed into organomineral ones differing in composition, solubility, and stability, and the complex of humus substances in podzolic soil was a peculiar matrix on which a complex system of organomineral compounds was developed. The input mechanism of organomineral complexes with different molecular weights (MWs) into plants was studied. Pot experiments using a root exudates sampling procedure and a double radioactive label (54Mn and 14C) showed that the organomineral complexes of Mn with the fulvic acid fraction (MW > 10000) came intact to corn roots. The fulvic acid fraction (MW 380) and manganese ions independently passed from the soil solution into the young plants.

  8. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syryamina, V. N.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011), 10.1063/1.3633241], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  9. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels.

    PubMed

    Syryamina, V N; Dzuba, S A

    2012-10-14

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011)], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  10. All-optical recognition method of double two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes-based labels using four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Wang, Leyang; Perumal, Sathishkumar; Qiu, Kun; Zhou, Heng

    2011-08-01

    A novel all-optical label recognition method is proposed and demonstrated experimentally which is based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs)-based encoder/decoder and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In this scheme, the optical label is firstly decoded properly, the decoded signal then generates the 1st and the 2nd order four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in different SOA, any of the frequencies achieved by the 2nd order FWM is extracted to recognize the optical label. The proposed solution can favor hardware simplicity over bandwidth efficiency in order to achieve the double two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes (2D-OOCs)-based optical label recognition in an optical packet switching (OPS) system where the bandwidth efficiency can be improved by FWM effect in SOA to achieve optical label processing and reasonable spacing of wavelengths for the payloads and optical label. The feasibility of the proposed method is validated by two experiments of the double 2D-OOCs-based optical label generation and recognition, the effect of the optical label on the payloads is also considered. These results show that the proposed method can (1) reduce effectively the code auto-correlation /cross-correlation requirements of the optical label identification and remove the cross-correlation pulses after optical decoding, (2) increase greatly the coding capacity and the number of the available optical labels, (3) improve the reliability and bandwidth efficiency of the optical label identification. The experimental results also show that the optical label has a high extinction ratio and can be operated easily.

  11. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakova, Maria V.; Shi, Ce; Armani, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms. PMID:25785307

  12. Development of a Split SNAP-CLIP Double Labeling System for Tracking Proteins Following Dissociation from Protein-Protein Complexes in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Mie, Masayasu; Naoki, Tatsuhiko; Kobatake, Eiry

    2016-08-16

    The split SNAP-tag protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) is a useful tool for imaging protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in living cells. In contrast to conventional methods employed for imaging PPIs, the split SNAP-tag PCA enables tracking of proteins following dissociation from protein-protein complexes. A limitation of this system, however, is that it only allows for labeling and tracking of one of the proteins forming the protein-protein complex. To track both proteins forming a protein-protein complex, each protein needs to be appropriately labeled. In this study, a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system is developed and applied for tracking of each protein forming a protein-protein complex. As a proof-of concept, FM protein for PPIs and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) for translocation are introduced to a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system. The results show a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system enables labeling of both proteins in a protein-protein complex and subsequent tracking of each of the proteins following dissociation from the protein-protein complexes in living cells.

  13. Optimized RNA ISH, RNA FISH and protein-RNA double labeling (IF/FISH) in Drosophila ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sandra G; Peters, Nathaniel C; Altaras, Ariel E; Berg, Celeste A

    2014-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique for detecting nucleic acids in cells and tissues. Here we describe three ISH procedures that are optimized for Drosophila ovaries: whole-mount, digoxigenin-labeled RNA ISH; RNA fluorescent ISH (FISH); and protein immunofluorescence (IF)–RNA FISH double labeling (IF/FISH). Each procedure balances conflicting requirements for permeabilization, fixation and preservation of antigenicity to detect RNA and protein expression with high resolution and sensitivity. The ISH protocol uses alkaline phosphatase–conjugated digoxigenin antibodies followed by a color reaction, whereas FISH detection involves tyramide signal amplification (TSA). To simultaneously preserve antigens for protein detection and enable RNA probe penetration for IF/FISH, we perform IF before FISH and use xylenes and detergents to permeabilize the tissue rather than proteinase K, which can damage the antigens. ISH and FISH take 3 d to perform, whereas IF/FISH takes 5 d. Probe generation takes 1 or 2 d to perform. PMID:24113787

  14. Mapping protein conformational heterogeneity under pressure with site-directed spin labeling and double electron–electron resonance

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Michael T.; Yang, Zhongyu; Brooks, Evan K.; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2014-01-01

    The dominance of a single native state for most proteins under ambient conditions belies the functional importance of higher-energy conformational states (excited states), which often are too sparsely populated to allow spectroscopic investigation. Application of high hydrostatic pressure increases the population of excited states for study, but structural characterization is not trivial because of the multiplicity of states in the ensemble and rapid (microsecond to millisecond) exchange between them. Site-directed spin labeling in combination with double electron–electron resonance (DEER) provides long-range (20–80 Å) distance distributions with angstrom-level resolution and thus is ideally suited to resolve conformational heterogeneity in an excited state populated under high pressure. DEER currently is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Therefore, a method was developed for rapidly freezing spin-labeled proteins under pressure to kinetically trap the high-pressure conformational ensemble for subsequent DEER data collection at atmospheric pressure. The methodology was evaluated using seven doubly-labeled mutants of myoglobin designed to monitor selected interhelical distances. For holomyoglobin, the distance distributions are narrow and relatively insensitive to pressure. In apomyoglobin, on the other hand, the distributions reveal a striking conformational heterogeneity involving specific helices in the pressure range of 0–3 kbar, where a molten globule state is formed. The data directly reveal the amplitude of helical fluctuations, information unique to the DEER method that complements previous rate determinations. Comparison of the distance distributions for pressure- and pH-populated molten globules shows them to be remarkably similar despite a lower helical content in the latter. PMID:24707053

  15. Simultaneous labeling of single- and double-strand DNA breaks by DNA breakage detection-FISH (DBD-FISH).

    PubMed

    Fernández, José Luis; Cajigal, Dioleyda; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    DNA Breakage Detection-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH) permits simultaneous and selective labeling of single- and double-strand DNA breaks in individual cells, either in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. In this technique, cells are embedded into agarose microgels, lysed and subjected to electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Subsequently, the produced "comets" are exposed to a controlled denaturation step which transforms DNA breaks into single-stranded DNA regions, detected by hybridization with whole genome fluorescent probes or the probes to specific DNA sequences. This makes possible a targeted analysis of various chromatin areas for the presence of DNA breaks. The migration length of the DBD-FISH signal is proportional to the number of double strand breaks, whereas its fluorescence intensity depends on numbers of single-strand breaks.The detailed protocol for detection of two types of DNA breaks produced by ionizing radiation is presented. The technique can be used to determine intragenomic and intercellular heterogeneity in the induction and repair of DNA damage.

  16. High-sensitivity double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Amrita Kumar; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a two-dimensional double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator based neighboring hole radius modulation. By theoretical and experimental analyses, we confirmed that the quality factor (Q-factor) increases at a certain neighboring hole radius. Experimentally, we showed Q-factors of (1.93-2.02) × 105. Moreover, by using sucrose solution, we measured a sensitivity of 1571 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), which is the highest sensitivity ever reported for such a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based resonator type device. We reported the detection limit (DL) of the refractive index change of (4.15-4.34) × 10-6 RIU, which is one of the best in previous reports.

  17. Label-Free Classification of Bax/Bak Expressing vs. Double-Knockout Cells.

    PubMed

    Naser, Mohammad; Graham, Michelle T; Pierre, Kamau; Boustany, Nada N

    2016-11-01

    We combine optical scatter imaging with principal component analysis (PCA) to classify apoptosis-competent Bax/Bak-expressing, and apoptosis resistant Bax/Bak-null immortalized baby mouse kidney cells. We apply PCA to 100 stacks each containing 236 dark-field cell images filtered with an optically implemented Gabor filter with period between 0.3 and 2.9 μm. Each stack yields an "eigencell" image corresponding to the first principal component obtained at one of the 100 Gabor filter periods used. At each filter period, each cell image is multiplied by (projected onto) the eigencell image. A Feature Matrix consisting of 236 × 100 scalar values is thus constructed with significantly reduced dimension compared to the initial dataset. Utilizing this Feature Matrix, we implement a supervised linear discriminant analysis and classify successfully the Bax/Bak-expressing and Bax/Bak-null cells with 94.7% accuracy and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.993. Applying a feature selection algorithm further reveals that the Gabor filter period ranges most significant for the classification correspond to both large (likely nuclear) features as well as small sized features (likely organelles present in the cytoplasm). Our results suggest that cells with a genetic defect in their apoptosis pathway can be differentiated from their normal counterparts by label-free multi-parametric optical scatter data.

  18. DNA with Parallel Strand Orientation: A Nanometer Distance Study with Spin Labels in the Watson-Crick and the Reverse Watson-Crick Double Helix.

    PubMed

    Wunnicke, Dorith; Ding, Ping; Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2015-10-29

    Parallel-stranded (ps) DNA characterized by its sugar-phosphate backbones pointing in the same direction represents an alternative pairing system to antiparallel-stranded (aps) DNA with the potential to inhibit transcription and translation. 25-mer oligonucleotides were selected containing only dA·dT base pairs to compare spin-labeled nucleobase distances over a range of 10 or 15 base pairs in ps DNA with those in aps DNA. By means of the copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen-Meldal-Sharpless alkyne-azide cycloaddition, the spin label 4-azido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl was clicked to 7-ethynyl-7-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to yield 25-mer oligonucleotides incorporating two spin labels. The interspin distances between spin labeled residues were determined by pulse EPR spectroscopy. The results reveal that in ps DNA these distances are between 5 and 10% longer than in aps DNA when the labeled DNA segment is located near the center of the double helix. The interspin distance in ps DNA becomes shorter compared with aps DNA when one of the spin labels occupies a position near the end of the double helix.

  19. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Sarah; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Hirsch, William; Nee, Judy; Iturrino, Johanna; Hall, Kathryn T; Kelley, John M; Cheng, Vivian; Kirsch, Irving; Jacobson, Eric; Conboy, Lisa; Lembo, Anthony; Davis, Roger B

    2017-05-25

    Placebo medications, by definition, are composed of inactive ingredients that have no physiological effect on symptoms. Nonetheless, administration of placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in clinical settings has been demonstrated to have significant impact on many physical and psychological complaints. Until recently, conventional wisdom has suggested that patients must believe that placebo pills actually contain (or, at least, might possibly contain) active medication in order to elicit a response to placebo. However, several recent RCTs, including patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic low back pain, and episodic migraine, have demonstrated that individuals receiving open-label placebo (OLP) can still experience symptomatic improvement and benefit from honestly described placebo treatment. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary trial design (n = 280) that attempts to replicate and expand upon an earlier IBS OLP study. The current study will compare OLP to double-blind placebo (DBP) administration which is made possible by including a nested, double-blind RCT comparing DBP and peppermint oil. The study also examines possible genetic and psychological predictors of OLP and seeks to better understand participants' experiences with OLP and DBP through a series of extensive interviews with a randomly selected subgroup. OLP treatment is a novel strategy for ethically harnessing placebo effects. It has potential to re-frame theories of placebo and to influence how physicians can optimize watch-and-wait strategies for common, subjective symptoms. The current study aims to dramatically expand what we know about OLP by comparing, for the first time, OLP and DBP administration. Adopting a unique, multidisciplinary approach, the study also explores genetic, psychological and experiential dimensions of OLP. The paper ends with an extensive discussion of the "culture" of the trial as well as potential mechanisms of OLP and

  20. CRISPR-CAS9 D10A nickase target-specific fluorescent labeling of double strand DNA for whole genome mapping and structural variation analysis.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Jennifer; Sibert, Justin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yonggang; Hu, Wenhui; Riethman, Harold; Xiao, Ming

    2016-01-29

    We have developed a new, sequence-specific DNA labeling strategy that will dramatically improve DNA mapping in complex and structurally variant genomic regions, as well as facilitate high-throughput automated whole-genome mapping. The method uses the Cas9 D10A protein, which contains a nuclease disabling mutation in one of the two nuclease domains of Cas9, to create a guide RNA-directed DNA nick in the context of an in vitro-assembled CRISPR-CAS9-DNA complex. Fluorescent nucleotides are then incorporated adjacent to the nicking site with a DNA polymerase to label the guide RNA-determined target sequences. This labeling strategy is very powerful in targeting repetitive sequences as well as in barcoding genomic regions and structural variants not amenable to current labeling methods that rely on uneven distributions of restriction site motifs in the DNA. Importantly, it renders the labeled double-stranded DNA available in long intact stretches for high-throughput analysis in nanochannel arrays as well as for lower throughput targeted analysis of labeled DNA regions using alternative methods for stretching and imaging the labeled long DNA molecules. Thus, this method will dramatically improve both automated high-throughput genome-wide mapping as well as targeted analyses of complex regions containing repetitive and structurally variant DNA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. The lumbar cord location of the motoneurons innervating psoas and iliacus muscles: a single and double labeling study in the female Syrian golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Boers, J; Holstege, G

    1997-11-21

    The spinal cord location of the motoneurons innervating the psoas and iliacus muscles was determined in the golden hamster. The results of single and double labeling studies, using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), showed that both psoas and iliacus motoneurons were present ventrolaterally in the ventral horn in the caudal L1 to rostral L5 lumbar spinal segments with their motoneurons intermingled in one cell group. Further retrograde tracing studies demonstrated abdominal muscle motoneurons ventrolaterally in the ventral horn of the L1 and upper L2 segments. Double labeling experiments revealed that at these levels (caudal L1 and rostral L2), the abdominal muscle motoneurons were located dorsomedial to the psoas and iliacus motoneurons.

  2. Changes in axon arrangement in the retinofugal [correction of retinofungal] pathway of mouse embryos: confocal microscopy study using single- and double-dye label.

    PubMed

    Chan, S O; Chung, K Y

    1999-04-05

    The changes in quadrant-specific fiber order in the retinofugal pathway of the C57-pigmented mouse aged embryonic day 15 were investigated by using single- (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate; DiI) and double- (N-4-4-didecylaminostyryl-N-methylpyridinium iodide; 4Di-10ASP in addition to DiI) labeling techniques. At this earliest stage of development, before any fibers arrive at their targets, retinal axons display a distinct quadrant-specific order at the optic stalk close to the eye. This order gradually disappears along the stalk and is virtually lost at the chiasm, as shown in single-label preparations. The double-label preparations, in which the population peaks of fibers from two retinal quadrants are shown simultaneously in an image, show a fiber arrangement at the chiasm that is different from the pattern seen in the single-label preparations. A distinct and consistent preferential distribution of fibers from different retinal quadrants is shown in the chiasm. Before the midline, the central part of the cross section of the chiasm is dominated by dorsal fibers, whereas the rostral and caudal parts of the chiasm are dominated by ventral nasal and ventral temporal fibers, respectively. Moreover, the double-label preparations demonstrate a major reshuffling of fiber position after the fibers cross the midline. Fibers from ventral retina are shifted gradually to a rostral position at the threshold of the optic tract, whereas fibers from dorsal retina are shifted caudally. These changes in fiber position indicate a postmidline location in the chiasm, where fibers are re-sorted in accordance with their origins in the dorsal ventral axis of the retina, and suggest a change in axon response to guidance signals when the fibers cross the midline of the chiasm. These changes in fiber order may also be related to the re-sorting of fibers according to their ages at the postmidline chiasm.

  3. Label-free impedimetric immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of cancer marker Murine double minute 2 in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Elshafey, Reda; Tlili, Chaker; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Tavares, Ana C; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-01-15

    The detection of cancer biomarkers is as important tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer such as brain cancer. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) has been widely studied as prognostic marker for brain tumor. Here we describe development of a new sensitive label free impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of MDM2 based on cysteamine self assembled monolayers on a clean polycrystalline Au electrode surface. The amine-modified electrodes were further functionalized with antibody using homobifunctional 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (PDITC) linker. The assembly processes of the immunosensor had been monitored with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques using Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) solution as redox probe. The impedance changes upon binding of MDM2 protein to the sensor surface was utilized for the detection of MDM2. The increase in relative electron-transfer resistance (ΔR/R(0)%) values was linearly proportional to the concentration of tumor marker MDM2 in the wide dynamic range of 1pg/ml-1μg/ml. The limit of detection was 0.29pg/ml in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 1.3pg/ml in mouse brain tissue homogenate, respectively. The immunosensor showed a good performance in comparison with ELISA for the analysis of the MDM2 in the cancerous mouse brain tissue homogenates. Moreover, the immunosensor had a good selectivity against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein, long-storage stability and reproducibility. It might be become a promising assay for clinical diagnosis and early detection of tumors.

  4. Double labeling of vagal preganglionic and sympathetic postganglionic fibers in celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric arteries and myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Shi-Jane; Kao, Chih-Kuan; Wang, Feng-Bin

    2017-02-28

    Sympathetic efferents regulate the “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic and vagal fibers have been suggested to retrogradely and centrally spread pathogens associated with Parkinson’s disease. To examine the arrangement of the vagal and sympathetic motor fibers in the celiac ganglion (CG), gastrointestinal tract, and along the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches, we double-labeled the vagal efferents by injecting Dextran-Texas Red into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the sympathetic postganglionics with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18). The laser scanning confocal microscope was used for image analysis. Vagal nerve endings were densely distributed around the CG neurons, and the right CG received more. Vagal and sympathetic efferent endings formed various ring or string shapes that tangled closely in the myenteric plexus of the forestomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Vagal and sympathetic efferents coursed within the same nerve bundles before reaching the myenteric plexus, had in-apposition varicosities, and ran parallel with the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches. Although a complete sympathetic tracing and an incomplete tracing and/or damage to the vagal preganglionic neurons may lead to a sampling bias, the sympathetic innervations in the blood vessels and myenteric plexus are stronger than in the vagus. The in-apposition innervation varicosities of the vagal and sympathetic efferents within the same nerve bundles and in the myenteric plexus of the gut with complex innervation patterns may offer a network to automatically control gastrointestinal functions and an infection route of the Parkinson’s disease between the autonomic efferent endings.

  5. Toward a biorelevant structure of protein kinase C bound modulators: design, synthesis, and evaluation of labeled bryostatin analogues for analysis with rotational echo double resonance NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Loy, Brian A; Lesser, Adam B; Staveness, Daryl; Billingsley, Kelvin L; Cegelski, Lynette; Wender, Paul A

    2015-03-18

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulators are currently of great importance in preclinical and clinical studies directed at cancer, immunotherapy, HIV eradication, and Alzheimer's disease. However, the bound conformation of PKC modulators in a membrane environment is not known. Rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR spectroscopy could uniquely address this challenge. However, REDOR NMR requires strategically labeled, high affinity ligands to determine interlabel distances from which the conformation of the bound ligand in the PKC-ligand complex could be identified. Here we report the first computer-guided design and syntheses of three bryostatin analogues strategically labeled for REDOR NMR analysis. Extensive computer analyses of energetically accessible analogue conformations suggested preferred labeling sites for the identification of the PKC-bound conformers. Significantly, three labeled analogues were synthesized, and, as required for REDOR analysis, all proved highly potent with PKC affinities (∼1 nM) on par with bryostatin. These potent and strategically labeled bryostatin analogues are new structural leads and provide the necessary starting point for projected efforts to determine the PKC-bound conformation of such analogues in a membrane environment, as needed to design new PKC modulators and understand PKC-ligand-membrane structure and dynamics.

  6. Double labeling of human leukemic cells using /sup 3/H-cytarabine and monoclonal antibody against bromodeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, A.; Preisler, H.D.

    1985-02-01

    A new technique using immunofluorescence and autoradiography is described, in which the DNA of cells in S phase are labeled with two different probes. This method makes it possible to study the relationship between DNA synthesis and the uptake and/or incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents into normal or neoplastic cells. An example is provided in which the incorporation of /sup 3/H-cytarabine into DNA is demonstrated to occur only in cells which were synthesizing DNA during exposure to /sup 3/H-cytarabine. Other radioactively labeled probes can be used as well.

  7. A label-free colorimetric isothermal cascade amplification for the detection of disease-related nucleic acids based on double-hairpin molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Xu, Huo; Shi, Haimei; Li, Weihong; Sun, Mengze; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-03-08

    K-Ras mutations at codon 12 play an important role in an early step of carcinogenesis. Here, a label-free colorimetric isothermal cascade amplification for ultrasensitive and specific detection of K-Ras point mutation is developed based on a double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB). The biosensor consists of DHMB probe and a primer-incorporated polymerization template (PPT) designed partly complementary to DHMB. In the presence of polymerase, target DNA is designed to trigger strand displacement amplification (SDA) via promote the hybridization of PPT with DHMB and subsequently initiates cascade amplification process with the help of the nicking endonuclease. During the hybridization and enzymatic reaction, G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzymes are generated, catalyzing the oxidation of ABTS(2-) by H2O2 in the presence of hemin. Utilizing the proposed facile colorimetric scheme, the target DNA can be quantified down to 4 pM with the dynamic response range of 5 orders of magnitude, indicating the substantially improved detection capability. Even more strikingly, point mutation in K-ras gene can be readily observed by the naked eye without the need for the labeling or expensive equipment. Given the high-performance for K-Ras analysis, the enhanced signal transduction capability associated with double-hairpin structure of DHMB provides a novel rout to screen biomarkers, and the descripted colorimetric biosensor seems to hold great promise for diagnostic applications of genetic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang

    2014-01-01

    Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g−1, which compares with 0.240 g g−1 (W5) and 0.353 g g−1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

  9. Multifunctional Fe₃O₄ core/Ni-Al layered double hydroxides shell nanospheres as labels for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of subgroup J of avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Shang, Kun; Zhu, Jianying; Meng, Xiaomeng; Cheng, Ziqiang; Ai, Shiyun

    2012-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of subgroup J of avian leukosis virus (ALVs-J) was designed by using graphene sheets (GS)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites modified electrode with multifunctional Fe(3)O(4) core/Ni-Al LDHs shell (LDHs@Fe(3)O(4)) nanospheres as labels. At first, the GS-LDHs were used for the immunosensor platform for improving the electronic transmission rate as well as increasing the surface area to capture a large amount of primary antibodies (Ab(1)). After that, ferrocene (Fc), secondary antibodies (Ab(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) multifunctional LDHs@Fe(3)O(4) nanospheres were used as labels with high load amount and good biological activity. Subsequently, in presence of H(2)O(2), amplified signals were obtained by an electrochemical sandwich immunoassay protocol. To embody the signal amplification property of the protocol, the analytical properties of various immunosensor platform and labels were compared in detail. Under optimal conditions, the reduction peak currents of the electrochemical immunosensor were proportional to the ALVs-J concentration over the range from 10(2.32) to 10(5.50) TCID(50)/mL with a low detection limit (180 TCID(50)/mL, S/N=3). The resulting immunosensor also displayed a good selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  10. Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a “cocktail” of non-tumourous elements is a reliable, quick and easy technique for inferring methylation status in glioblastomas and other primary brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a new protocol for MGMT immunohistochemistry with good agreement between observers and good correlation with molecular genetic tests of tumour methylation. We examined 40 primary brain tumours (30 glioblastomas and 10 oligodendroglial tumours) with our new technique, namely double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a "cocktail" of non-tumour antigens (CD34, CD45 and CD68). We compared the results with single-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, a recognised molecular genetic technique which we applied as the gold-standard for the methylation status). Results Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT produced a visual separation of tumourous and non-tumourous elements on the same histological slide, making it quick and easy to determine whether tumour cell nuclei were MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative (and thereby infer the methylation status of the tumour). We found good agreement between observers (kappa 0.76) and within observer (kappa 0.84). Furthermore, double-labelling showed good specificity (80%), sensitivity (73.33%), positive predictive value (PPV, 83.33%) and negative predictive value (NPV, 68.75%) compared to MS-MLPA. Double-labelling was quicker and easier to assess than single-labelling and it outperformed quantitative computerised image analysis of MGMT single-labelling in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Conclusions Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a cocktail of non-tumourous elements provides a "one look" method for determining whether tumour cell nuclei are MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative. This can be used to infer the methylation status of the tumour. There is good observer agreement and good specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV compared to a molecular gold-standard. PMID:24252243

  11. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin add-on to insulin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label period.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuoki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Miyayama, Kyoko; Yokota, Shoko; Terata, Ryuji; Gouda, Maki

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period. The difference between placebo and teneligliptin in change in HbA1c in the double-blind period (least squares mean ± SE) was -0.80% ± 0.11%; teneligliptin was superior (ANCOVA, P < 0.001). The HbA1c-lowering effect of teneligliptin was maintained throughout the open-label period. The incidence of adverse events was 53.5% with placebo and 44.2% with teneligliptin in the double-blind period, 66.7% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period, and 77.9% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. The incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms was 11.1% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period and 27.3% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. Teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control. NCT02081599.

  12. Label-free photoelectrochemical detection of double-stranded HIV DNA by means of a metallointercalator-functionalized electrogenerated polymer.

    PubMed

    Haddache, Fatima; Le Goff, Alan; Reuillard, Bertrand; Gorgy, Karine; Gondran, Chantal; Spinelli, Nicolas; Defrancq, Eric; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-11-17

    The design of photoactive functionalized electrodes for the sensitive transduction of double-stranded DNA hybridization is reported. Multifunctional complex [Ru(bpy-pyrrole)2 (dppn)](2+) (bpy-pyrrole=4-methyl-4'-butylpyrrole-2,2'-bipyridine, dppn=benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) exhibiting photosensitive, DNA-intercalating, and electropolymerizable properties was synthesized and characterized. The pyrrole groups undergo oxidative electropolymerization on planar electrodes forming a metallopolymer layer on the electrode. Thanks to the photoelectrochemical and intercalating properties of the immobilized Ru(II) complex, the binding of a double-stranded HIV DNA target was photoelectrochemically detected on planar electrodes. Photocurrent generation through visible irradiation was correlated to the interaction between double-stranded DNA and the metallointercalator polymer. These interactions were well fitted by using a Langmuir isotherm, which allowed a dissociation constant of 2×10(6)  L mol(-1) to be estimated. The low detection limit of 1 fmol L(-1) and sensitivity of 0.01 units per decade demonstrate excellent suitability of these modified electrodes for detection of duplex DNA.

  13. Fluorescence labeling, purification, and immobilization of a double cysteine mutant calmodulin fusion protein for single-molecule experiments.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael W; Urbauer, Ramona J Bieber; Zaidi, Asma; Williams, Todd D; Urbauer, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Carey K

    2004-02-15

    We present a method of labeling and immobilizing a low-molecular-weight protein, calmodulin (CaM), by fusion to a larger protein, maltose binding protein (MBP), for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Immobilization in an agarose gel matrix eliminates potential interactions of the protein and the fluorophore(s) with a glass surface and allows prolonged monitoring of protein dynamics. The small size of CaM hinders its immobilization in low-weight-percentage agarose gels; however, fusion of CaM to MBP via a flexible linker provides sufficient restriction of translational mobility in 1% agarose gels. Cysteine residues were engineered into MBP.CaM (MBP-T34C,T110C-CaM) and labeled with donor and acceptor fluorescent probes yielding a construct (MBP.CaM-DA) which can be used for single-molecule single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments. Mass spectrometry was used to verify the mass of MBP.CaM-DA. Assays measuring the activity of CaM reveal minimal activity differences between wild-type CaM and MBP.CaM-DA. Single-molecule fluorescence images of the donor and acceptor dyes were fit to a two-dimensional Gaussian function to demonstrate colocalization of donor and acceptor dyes. FRET is demonstrated both in bulk fluorescence spectra and in fluorescence trajectories of single MBP.CaM-DA molecules. The extension of this method to other biomolecules is also proposed.

  14. PCR synthesis of double stranded DNA labeled with 5-bromouridine. A step towards finding a bromonucleoside for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Barbara; Sobolewski, Ireneusz; Polska, Katarzyna; Zielonka, Justyna; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Skowron, Piotr; Rak, Janusz

    2011-12-05

    Incorporation of 5-bromouridine (5BrdU) into DNA makes it sensitive to UV and ionizing radiation, which opens up a prospective route for the clinical usage of 5-bromouridine and other halonucleosides. In the present work the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol, which enables a long DNA fragment (resembling DNA synthesized in the cell in the presence of halonucleosides) to be completely substituted with 5BrdU, was optimized. Using HPLC coupled to enzymatic digestion, it was demonstrated that the actual amounts of native nucleosides and 5BrdU correspond very well to those calculated from the sequence of PCR products. The synthesized DNA is photosensitive to photons of 300nm. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the photolysis of labeled PCR products leads to a significant decrease in the 5BrdU signal and the simultaneous occurrence of a uridine peak. Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggest that single strand breaks and cross-links are formed as a result of UV irradiation. The PCR protocol described in the current paper may be employed for labeling DNA not only with BrdU but also with other halonucleosides.

  15. Assessment of Denosumab in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy and safety of denosumab was compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in this phase III study. Materials and Methods Women aged 60 to 90 years with a T-score of <-2.5 and ≥-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip were randomized to a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab or placebo for the 6-month double-blind phase. Eligible subjects entered the 6-month open-label extension phase and received a single dose of denosumab 60 mg. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the 62 denosumab- and 64 placebo-treated subjects who completed the double-blind phase. Treatment favored denosumab over placebo for the primary endpoint {mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at Month 6 [3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.1%, 4.4%; p<0.0001)]}; and secondary endpoints (mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at Month 1, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at Months 1 and 6, and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6). Endpoint improvements were sustained over 12 months in the open-label extension (n=119). There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Conclusion Denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a 12-month period in Korean postmenopausal women. The findings of this study demonstrate that denosumab has beneficial effects on the measures of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:27189284

  16. Modulating fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA via the interaction between dye and nucleotides for rational design of DNA recognition based applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongduan; Wei, Hejia; Zou, Mingjian; Xu, Xiao; Xia, Bin; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2015-03-03

    Effective signal enhancement for fluorescence anisotropy in a simple manner is most desirable for fluorescence anisotropy method development. This work aimed to provide insights into the fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to facilitate a facile and universal design strategy for DNA recognition based applications. We demonstrated that fluorescence anisotropy of dsDNA could be regulated by the nature of dyes, the molecular volume, and the end structure of dsDNA. Fluorescence anisotropy ascended with the increased number of base pairs up to 18 bp and leveled off thereafter, indicating the molecular volume was not the only factor responsible for fluorescence anisotropy. By choosing dyes with the positively charged center, high fluorescence anisotropy signal was obtained due to the confinement of the segmental motion of dyes through the electrostatic interaction. By properly designing the end structure of dsDNA, fluorescence anisotropy could be further improved by enlarging the effective overall rotational volume, as supported by two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(1)H nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). With the successful enhancement of the fluorescence anisotropy for terminally labeled dsDNA, simple and universal designs were demonstrated by sensing of major classes of analytes from macromolecules (DNA and protein) to small molecules (cocaine).

  17. Methylphenidate treatment of adult male prison inmates with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in prison inmates, but pharmacological treatment has not yet been evaluated in this group. To evaluate osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate in adult male long-term prison inmates with ADHD. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 5-week trial, followed by 47-week open-label extension in 30 prison inmates with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Primary outcome was level of ADHD symptoms after 5 weeks, evaluated by a masked assessor. Secondary outcomes were self-reported ADHD symptoms, global severity and global functioning throughout the 52-week trial, and post hoc treatment response and numbers needed to treat (NNT) (trial registration: NCT00482313.) Treatment significantly improved ADHD during the trial (P<0.001; Cohen's d = 2.17), with reduced symptom severity and improved global functioning. The placebo response, cardiovascular measures and adverse events were non-significant; the NNT was 1.1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, global severity and global functioning continued to improve during the open-label extension. Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate is an effective treatment for adult male prison inmates with ADHD.

  18. Location of motoneurons supplying the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of rats. Horseradish peroxidase and fluorescence double-labeling study.

    PubMed

    Portillo, F; Pásaro, R

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative and quantitative investigation of the location of the motoneurons innervating the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of rats. Injections of horseradish peroxidase, Diamidino Yellow and True Blue were made either in one or, simultaneously, in three laryngeal muscles. Unlike those in cats and rabbits, the motoneurons that make up the nucleus ambiguus (NA) in rats are not arranged in two separate subgroups, that is one belonging to the cricothyroid (CT) motoneurons and the other to the rest of the intrinsic laryngeal motoneurons. Instead, a superimposition of CT and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) motoneurons was observed in the rostral third of the NA. Motoneurons innervating the PCA, thyroarytenoid (TA) and lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscle overlap in the medial third of the NA. Finally, in the region of the NA caudal to the obex, the TA and LCA motoneurons also overlap. Labeled motoneurons were located in the ipsilateral side to the injected muscle in all cases.

  19. Digoxigenylated wheat germ agglutinin visualized with alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-digoxigenin antibodies--a new, sensitive technique with the potential for single and double tracing of neuronal connections.

    PubMed

    Veh, R W

    1991-01-02

    For double tracing experiments, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) molecules labeled with two different haptens are desirable. In the present report the suitability of digoxigenylated WGA (DIG-WGA) for retrograde tracing was investigated. For this purpose the new tracer was pressure injected into rat brains and the transported DIG-WGA visualized via its digoxigenyl group with an alkaline phosphatase linked anti DIG antibody in permanently stained sections of high quality. With fixatives containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde only few positive cells were found. However, at milder fixation conditions (4% paraformaldehyde, 0.05% glutaraldehyde 0.2% picric acid, 30 min) retrogradely labeled cells were detected with a sensitivity comparable to tetramethylbenzidine protocols for conventional WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) tracing. Preliminary experiments suggest excellent suitability for double labeling.

  20. Striatal Distribution and Cytoarchitecture of Dopamine Receptor Subtype 1 and 2: Evidence from Double-Labeling Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Keke; Guo, Baolin; Dai, Chunqiu; Yao, Han; Sun, Tangna; Liu, Xia; Bai, Zhantao; Wang, Wenting; Wu, Shengxi

    2017-01-01

    As the main input nucleus of the basal ganglion, the striatum executes different functions, including motivation, reward and attention. The functions of the striatum highly rely on its subregions that receive projections from various cortical areas and the distribution of striatonigral neurons that express D1 dopamine (DA) receptors (or D1 medium-sized spiny neurons, D1 MSNs) and striatopallidal neurons that express D2 DA receptors (or D2 MSNs). Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, several studies have recently been performed on the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 MSNs. However, these studies mainly focused on enumeration of either D1-enhanced fluorescent protein (eGFP) or D2-eGFP in mice. In the present work, we used Drd1a-tdTamato and Drd2-eGFP double BAC transgenic mice to evaluate the spatial pattern of D1 MSNs (red fluorescence) and D2 MSNs (green fluorescence) along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal striatum. The dorsal striatum was divided into three subregions: rostral caudoputamen (CPr), intermediate CP (CPi), and caudal CP (CPc) across the rostral–caudal extent of the striatum. The results demonstrate that D1 and D2 MSNs were intermingled with each other in most of these regions. The cell density of D1 MSNs was slightly higher than D2 MSNs through CPr, CPi, and CPc, though it did not reach significance. However, in CPi, the ratio of D1/D2 in the ventromedial CPi group was significantly higher than those in dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral CPi. There was similar proportion of cells that co-expressed D1 and D2 receptors. Moreover, we demonstrated a pathway-specific activation pattern of D1 MSNs and D2 MSNs in a manic like mouse model induced by D-Amphetamine by utilizing this double transgenic mice and c-fos immunoreactivity. Our results may provide a morphological basis for the function or pathophysiology of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons with diverse cortical inputs to the dorsal striatum. PMID

  1. Generation of Double-Labeled Reporter Cell Lines for Studying Co-Dynamics of Endogenous Proteins in Individual Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Eran; Cohen-Saidon, Cellina; Danon, Tamar; Cohen, Lydia; Alon, Uri

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic relationship between components of a system or pathway at the individual cell level is a current challenge. To address this, we developed an approach that allows simultaneous tracking of several endogenous proteins of choice within individual living human cells. The approach is based on fluorescent tagging of proteins at their native locus by directed gene targeting. A fluorescent tag-encoding DNA is introduced as a new exon into the intronic region of the gene of interest, resulting in expression of a full-length fluorescently tagged protein. We used this approach to establish human cell lines simultaneously expressing two components of a major antioxidant defense system, thioredoxin 1 (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), labeled with CFP and YFP, respectively. We find that the distributions of both proteins between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments were highly variable between cells. However, the two proteins did not vary independently of each other: protein levels of Trx and TrxR1 in both the whole cell and the nucleus were substantially correlated. We further find that in response to a stress-inducing drug (CPT), both Trx and TrxR1 accumulated in the nuclei in a manner that was highly temporally correlated. This accumulation considerably reduced cell-to-cell variability in nuclear content of both proteins, suggesting a uniform response of the thioredoxin system to stress. These results indicate that Trx and TrxR1 act in concert in response to stress in regard to both time course and variability. Thus, our approach provides an efficient tool for studying dynamic relationship between components of systems of interest at a single-cell level. PMID:20975952

  2. Biotin radioligand assay with an /sup 125/I-labeled biotin derivative, avidin, and avidin double-antibody reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Livaniou, E.; Evangelatos, G.P.; Ithakissios, D.S.

    1987-11-01

    We describe a new radioligand assay for determining biotin in biological fluids by using a mixture of N-(beta-(4-OH-3-125I-phenyl)ethyl)- and N-(beta-(4-OH-3,5-di-125I-phenyl)ethyl)biotinamides as radiotracer, avidin as a binding protein, and an avidin double-antibody as a separation reagent. The radiotracer is synthesized by coupling (at pH 8.5, 20-22 degrees C, 90 min) N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin to radioiodinated tyramine. The assay curve is linear and the assay itself is sensitive (less than 10 ng/L), reproducible (intra- and interassay CVs 4.1% and 7.0%, respectively), and allows the simultaneous handling of more than 100 samples in less than 4 h. Serum samples from apparently normal subjects contained 100-840 ng of biotin per liter (mean 340 ng/L). Pregnant women had low concentrations of biotin (100-300 ng/L) in their serum. Patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis treatment showed high concentrations (0.5-3.0 micrograms/L), which may be ascribable to the inability of avidin, which was used as the assay binding protein, to distinguish biotin from biotinyl derivatives with an intact ureido ring.

  3. Formation of Kokumi-Enhancing γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Parmesan Cheese by Means of γ-Glutamyltransferase Activity and Stable Isotope Double-Labeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Hedda; Behr, Jürgen; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Vogel, Rudi F; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-03-02

    Recently, γ-glutamyl dipeptides (γ-GPs) were found to be responsible for the attractive kokumi flavor of Parmesan cheese (PC). Quantitation of γ-GPs and their parent amino acids in 13-, 24-, and 30-month ripened PC samples by LC-MS/MS and stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), in-cheese (13)C-labeling studies, followed by analysis of the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity revealed γ-GPs to be generated most efficiently after 24 months of ripening by a GGT-catalyzed transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety of L-glutamine onto various acceptor amino acids released upon casein proteolysis. Following the identification of milk as a potential GGT source in PC, the functionality of the milk's GGT to generate the target γ-GPs was validated by stable isotope double-labeling (SIDL) experiments. Therefore, raw and heat-treated milk samples were incubated with L-glutamine-[U-(13)C] and acceptor amino acids (X) and the hetero- (γ-Glu-[(13)C5]-X) and homotranspeptidation products (γ-Glu-Gln-[(13)C10]) were quantitated by LC-MS/MS-SIDA using γ-Glu-Ala-[(13)C3] as the internal standard. High GGT activity to generate the γ-GPs and preference for L-phenylalanine and L-methionine as acceptor amino acids were found in raw milk and milk samples heat-treated for 10 min up to a maximum of 65 °C. In comparison, GGT activity and SIDL studies performed with inoculated Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus casei identified in PC by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, did not show any significant GGT activity and unequivocally demonstrated unpasteurized cow's milk, rather than microorganisms, as a key factor in γ-glutamyl dipeptide generation in Parmesan cheese.

  4. Label-Free and Separation-Free Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry-Based Bioassay: Sensitive Determination of Single-Strand DNA, Protein, and Double-Strand DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Piaopiao; Wu, Peng; Chen, Junbo; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Xinfeng; Zheng, Chengbin; Hou, Xiandeng

    2016-02-16

    Based on selective and sensitive determination of Hg(2+) released from mercury complex by cold vapor generation (CVG) atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) using SnCl2 as a reductant, a novel label-free and separation-free strategy was proposed for DNA and protein bioassay. To construct the DNA bioassay platform, an Hg(2+)-mediated molecular beacon (hairpin) without labeling but possessing several thymine (T) bases at both ends was employed as the probe. It is well-known that Hg(2+) could trigger the formation of the hairpin structure through T-Hg(2+)-T connection. In the presence of a specific target, the hairpin structure could be broken and the captured Hg(2+) was released. Interestingly, it was found that SnCl2 could selectively reduce only free Hg(2+) to Hg(0) vapor in the presence of T-Hg(2+)-T complex, which could be separated from sample matrices for sensitive AFS detection. Three different types of analyte, namely, single-strand DNA (ssDNA), protein, and double-strand DNA (dsDNA), were investigated as the target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, this bioassay provided high sensitivity for ssDNA, protein, and dsDNA determination with the limits of detection as low as 0.2, 0.08, and 0.3 nM and the linear dynamic ranges of 10-150, 5-175, and 1-250 nM, respectively. The analytical performance for these analytes compares favorably with those by previously reported methods, demonstrating the potential usefulness and versatility of this new AFS-based bioassay. Moreover, the bioassay retains advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and sensitivity compared to most of the conventional methods.

  5. Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs in bovine calf extraocular muscle studied by means of double-fluorescent labeling, electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Roland; Konakci, Kadriye Zeynep; Brugger, Peter Christian; Blumer, Michael Josef Franz; Moser, Doris; Schoefer, Christian; Lukas, Julius-Robert; Streicher, Johannes

    2003-10-01

    In the present study muscle spindles (MSps) and Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) in bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) were analyzed in detail. The innervation pattern of these proprioceptors was investigated with transmission electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope after double-fluorescent labeling. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were performed of GTOs. Muscle spindles. MSps are numerous, each containing two nuclear bag fibers and up to eight nuclear chain fibers. In the equatorial region and paraequatorial region thin axons enwrapping the intrafusal muscle fibers form numerous nerve contacts on the muscle fiber surface. Double staining of such nerve terminals with synaptophysin and alpha-bungarotoxin and their fine structural features confirm their sensory nature. In the encapsulated part of the polar region neuromuscular contacts have structural features of motor nerve terminals and stain positively with alpha-bungarotoxin. Golgi tendon organs. GTOs are numerous in bovine EOMs. Each GTO contains collagen bundles but frequently also intracapsular muscle fibers. Intracapsular muscle fibers either terminate inside the GTO in collagen bundles or pass through the proprioceptor. GTOs are richly supplied with sensory nerve terminals which intermingle with the collagen bundles. Nerve terminals on intracapsular muscle fibers exhibit fine structural characteristics of motor nerve terminals and are alpha-bungarotoxin positive. The 3D images of GTOs show the detailed spatial arrangement of the GTO tissue components. These new insights in the complex and specific morphology of MSps and GTOs in bovine EOMs indicate that we deal with highly developed proprioceptors. These are supposed to provide important information for EOM innervation.

  6. Beta-lactamase-catalyzed aminolysis of depsipeptides: Proof of the nonexistence of a specific D-phenylalanine/enzyme complex by double-label isotope trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Pazhanisamy, S.; Pratt, R.F. )

    1989-08-22

    The steady-state kinetics of the Enterobacter cloacae P99 beta-lactamase-catalyzed aminolysis of the depsipeptide m-(((phenylacetyl)glycyl)oxy)benzoic acid by D-phenylalanine were consistent with an ordered sequential mechanism with D-phenylalanine binding first. In terms of this mechanism, the kinetics data required that in 20 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5, the dissociation constant of the initially formed enzyme/D-phenylalanine complex be around 1.3 mM; at pH 9.0 in 0.1 M carbonate buffer, the complex should be somewhat more stable. Attempts to detect this complex in a binary mixture by spectroscopic methods (fluorescence, circular dichroic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra) failed. Kinetic methods were also unsuccessful--the presence of 20 mM D-phenylalanine did not appear to affect beta-lactamase activity nor inhibition of the enzyme by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, phenylboronic acid, or (3-dansylamidophenyl)boronic acid. Equilibrium dialysis experiments appeared to indicate that the dissociation constant of any binary enzyme/D-phenylalanine complex must be somewhat higher than the kinetics allowed (greater than 2 mM). Since the kinetics also required that, at high depsipeptide concentrations, and again with the assumption of the ordered sequential mechanism, the reaction of the enzyme/D-phenylalanine complex to aminolysis products be faster than its reversion to enzyme and D-phenylalanine, a double-label isotope-trapping experiment was performed.

  7. Measurement and 3D-Visualization of Cell-Cycle Length Using Double Labelling with Two Thymidine Analogues Applied in Early Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Alexandre T.; de Boer, Piet A. J.; Hagoort, Jaco; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Organ development is a complex spatial process in which local differences in cell proliferation rate play a key role. Understanding this role requires the measurement of the length of the cell cycle at every position of the three-dimensional (3D) structure. This measurement can be accomplished by exposing the developing embryo to two different thymidine analogues for two different durations immediately followed by tissue fixation. This paper presents a method and a dedicated computer program to measure the resulting labelling indices and subsequently calculate and visualize local cell cycle lengths within the 3D morphological context of a developing organ. By applying this method to the developing heart, we show a large difference in cell cycle lengths between the early heart tube and the adjacent mesenchyme of the pericardial wall. Later in development, a local increase in cell size was found to be associated with a decrease in cell cycle length in the region where the chamber myocardium starts to develop. The combined application of halogenated-thymidine double exposure and image processing enables the automated study of local cell cycle parameters in single specimens in a full 3D context. It can be applied in a wide range of research fields ranging from embryonic development to tissue regeneration and cancer research. PMID:23091641

  8. Neural control mechanisms of the pheromone-triggered programmed behavior in male silkmoths revealed by double-labeling of descending interneurons and a motor neuron.

    PubMed

    Wada, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2005-04-04

    Male silkmoths, Bombyx mori, exhibit a characteristic zigzagging behavior consisting of straight-line walking, zigzagging turns, and looping. The timing for shifting the turning direction is synchronized to the sideways head movements controlled by neck motor neurons (NMNs) including a cervical ventral NMN (cv1-NMN). It has been suggested that this programmed behavior is instructed by two types of activity patterns descending from the brain and the thoracic ganglion: one is a phasic excitation and the other is a state-dependent activity similar to the flipflop in electric memory circuits. These activities are shown by certain descending interneurons contained in two subsets of DNs, Group-I and -II DNs. However, it is not yet well understood which DNs are directly related to instructing this behavior. In order to understand neural control mechanisms of this programmed behavior, we investigated the morphological relationship between these DNs and the cv1-NMN, which is an index of this programmed behavior. We applied a double-labeling technique combining backfilling of the cv1-NMN and intracellular staining of single DNs. 3D confocal images revealed overlapping regions between the Group-I, -II DNs and the cv1-NMN. Group-IIA and -IID, which showed typical flipflop activities, Group-IIC DNs, which showed phasic excitation, and Group-IB DNs, which showed long-lasting inhibition had many overlapping regions on the cv1-NMNs. Our results indicate that the programmed behavior is instructed by these types of DNs.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Primary Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Model from Human Kidney by CD10/CD13 Double Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Glowacki, François; Pottier, Nicolas; Bouillez, Audrey; Maboudou, Patrice; Zini, Laurent; Leroy, Xavier; Cauffiez, Christelle; Perrais, Michaël; Aubert, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells play a central role in renal physiology and are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and xenobiotic nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries, a stable and well-characterized primary culture model of proximal tubular cells is required. An existing model of proximal tubular cells is hampered by the cellular heterogeneity of kidney; a method based on cell sorting for specific markers must therefore be developed. In this study, we present a primary culture model based on the mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of healthy tissue obtained from nephrectomy specimens. Renal epithelial cells were sorted using co-labeling for CD10 and CD13, two renal proximal tubular epithelial markers, by flow cytometry. Their purity, phenotypic stability and functional properties were evaluated over several passages. Our results demonstrate that CD10/CD13 double-positive cells constitute a pure, functional and stable proximal tubular epithelial cell population that displays proximal tubule markers and epithelial characteristics over the long term, whereas cells positive for either CD10 or CD13 alone appear to be heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study describes a method for establishing a robust renal proximal tubular epithelial cell model suitable for further experimentation. PMID:23799132

  10. Analysis of proteins synthesized by fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and double label autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, C; Lecocq, R; Lamy, F; Defleur, V; Dedobeleer, G; Baran, D; Rodesch, F; Dumont, J E

    1985-12-01

    Mucoviscidosis, the most frequently lethal genetic syndrome of Caucasian population, is a recessive disease with multiple tissue involvement. Although the major pathological changes are observed in lungs and pancreas, abnormalities have also been detected in several other exocrine glands. For many reasons, such as the ready availability of tissue material, the absence of secondary changes and the potential for prenatal diagnosis, cultured skin fibroblasts could be the tissue of choice to search for the primary defect. Several abnormalities have been reported in CF fibroblasts, suggesting that the genetic abnormality is expressed in these cells. To search for potentially mutant protein(s) we have compared the protein composition of normal and CF fibroblasts by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and double-labeling autoradiography using 35S and 75Se methionine as tracer. The results demonstrate the power of the method; however, we have not found one protein spot consistently missing in CF cells. Possible reasons for the absence of a single common identifiable defect are discussed.

  11. Repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Lin, Guo-Dong; Meng, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Huang, Fei; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the repair of bone defects with prefabricated vascularized bone grafts and double-labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model. BMSCs were separated from rat bone marrow. LTR-CMVpro-RFP and LTR-CMVpro-GFP were transfected into the BMSCs for in vitro and in vivo tracking. BMSCs-RFP and BMSCs-GFP were induced into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). Rats were divided into five groups: Group A: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group B: in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group C: in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle + secondary OBs-GFP implantation; Group D: implantation of EPCs-RFP + implantation of with arteriovenous vascular bundle + simultaneous OBs-GFP implantation; Group E: demineralized bone matrix (DBM) grafts (blank control). Among five groups, Group A had the fastest bone regeneration and repair, and the regenerated bone highly resembled normal bone tissues; Group D also had fast bone repair, but the repair was slightly slower than Group A. Therefore, in vitro prefabrication with EPCs-RFP plus in vivo prefabrication with arteriovenous vascular bundle and secondary OBs-GFP implantation could be the best treatment for bone defect. PMID:28150691

  12. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  13. Double labelling immunohistochemistry on the sympathetic trunk ganglia neurons projecting to the extrinsic penile smooth musculature of the pig: an experimental study on the retractor penis muscle.

    PubMed

    Botti, Maddalena; Gazza, Ferdinando; Ragionieri, Luisa; Minelli, Luisa Bo; Panu, Rino

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde neuronal tracing and double labelling immunofluorescence methods were used to define the neurochemical content of sympathetic trunk ganglia neurons projecting to the pig retractor penis muscle, which was taken as an experimental model of the male genital smooth musculature. After the injection of Fast Blue into the bulbo-penile portion of the retractor penis muscle, the eventual co-existence of the catecholaminergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase with calcitonine gene related peptide, leu-enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or vesicular acetylcholine transporter was studied in the ipsilateral S1 sympathetic trunk ganglia, which resulted to contain the greatest number of autonomic retractor penis muscle projecting cells. The observation of Fast Blue positive neurons under the fluorescent microscope allowed the identification of different subpopulations of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic retractor penis muscle-projecting neurons. The majority of catecholaminergic cells contained tyrosine hydroxylase alone, while the remaining part showed co-localization of tyrosine hydroxylase with all the other tested markers. These last neurons were immunoreactive, in decreasing percentages, for neuropeptide Y, leu-enkephalin, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, calcitonine gene related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. The majority of non-catecholaminergic neurons were immunonegative for all the tested markers. The remaining non-catecholaminergic cells contained, in decreasing percentages, neuropeptide Y, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, leu-enkephalin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, substance P and calcitonine gene related peptide. Our findings documented the complexity of the neurochemical interactions that regulate both the motor functions of RPM and the blood flow through the muscle.

  14. Nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J; Fortina, Paolo; Park, Jason Y

    2017-03-01

    Important and emerging trends at the interface of luminescence, nucleic acids and nanotechnology are: (i) the conventional luminescence labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. DNA tetrahedron); (ii) the labeling of bulk nucleic acids (e.g. single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. copper nanoclusters); and (iii) the labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. origami DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. silver nanoclusters). This review surveys recent advances in these three different approaches to the generation of nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids, and includes both direct and indirect labeling methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Intersubunit distances in full-length, dimeric, bacterial phytochrome Agp1, as measured by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) between different spin label positions, remain unchanged upon photoconversion.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Sylwia; Njimona, Ibrahim; Renz, Anja; Feng, Juan; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Krauss, Norbert; Scheerer, Patrick; Nagano, Soshichiro; Lamparter, Tilman; Weber, Stefan

    2017-05-05

    Bacterial phytochromes are dimeric light-regulated histidine kinases that convert red light into signaling events. Light absorption by the N-terminal photosensory core module (PCM) causes the proteins to switch between two spectrally distinct forms, Pr and Pfr, thus resulting in a conformational change that modulates the C-terminal histidine kinase region. To provide further insights into structural details of photoactivation, we investigated the full-length Agp1 bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum using a combined spectroscopic and modeling approach. We generated seven mutants suitable for spin labeling to enable application of pulsed EPR techniques. The distances between attached spin labels were measured using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy to probe the arrangement of the subunits within the dimer. We found very good agreement of experimental and calculated distances for the histidine-kinase region when both subunits are in a parallel orientation. However, experimental distance distributions surprisingly showed only limited agreement with either parallel- or antiparallel-arranged dimer structures when spin labels were placed into the PCM region. This observation indicates that the arrangements of the PCM subunits in the full-length protein dimer in solution differ significantly from that in the PCM crystals. The pulsed electron-electron double resonance data presented here revealed either no or only minor changes of distance distributions upon Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Double-labelled in situ hybridization reveals the lack of co-localization of mRNAs for the circadian neuropeptide PDF and FMRFamide in brains of the flies Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ayami; Takano, Katsuhiro; Yoshida, Taichi; Takeda, Yukimasa; Yokotani, Satoru; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2007-06-01

    Many lines of evidence have suggested that neuropeptides other than pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved in regulating insect circadian rhythms, and FMRFamide-related peptides are additional candidates acting as such neuromodulators. Double-immunolabelling in insect brains with anti-crustacean beta-PDH and anti-FMRFamide antibodies had previously suggested that insect PDF and FMRFamide-like peptides may coexist in the same cells. However, it is critical for this kind of comparative investigations to use antibodies of proven specificity, to eliminate the possibility of both reciprocal cross-reactivity and the detection of unknown peptides. In the present study, we achieved the cDNA cloning of an fmrf mRNA from the housefly Musca domestica, for which co-localization of FMRFamide and PDF peptides was previously suggested. In order to examine the possible co-expression of this gene with the pdf gene, we carried out double-labelled in situ hybridization for simultaneous detection of both pdf and fmrf mRNAs in housefly, Musca brains. The results clearly indicated that they occur in distinctly different cells. This was also proven for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by similar double-labelled in situ hybridization. The results thus revealed no reason to evoke the physiological release of FMRFamide and PDF peptides from the same neurons.

  17. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  18. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L; Landbloom, Ronald P; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Mathews, Maju

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12-17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (-4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; -5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean -0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by -16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by -11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were maintained in the OLE, the primary end-point did not achieve

  19. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): a study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Elka R; Roy, Aritro S; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Borbat, Petr P; Earle, Keith A; Scholes, Charles P; Freed, Jack H

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (≤100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  20. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Distances and Their Distributions Derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A Study of Doubly-Spin-Labeled T4 Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (≤100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions. PMID:22341208

  1. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (⩽100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  2. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  3. Efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with insulin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled trial with a 36-week open-label extension.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Muto, Satsuki; Ouchi, Yoshiumi; Shimazaki, Ryutaro; Seino, Yutaka

    2017-10-12

    We examined the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin as an add-on to insulin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We randomized 240 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy to 5-mg saxagliptin or placebo as add-on therapy for a 16-week, double-blind period. All patients received 5-mg saxagliptin and insulin for an additional 36 weeks (open-label extension). Change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at Week 16 was the main endpoint. At Week 16, the adjusted change in HbA1c from baseline increased by 0.51% with placebo and decreased by 0.40% with saxagliptin (difference -0.92% [95% confidence interval -1.07%, -0.76%; p < 0.001]). In patients receiving saxagliptin, reductions in HbA1c at Week 16 were maintained to Week 52, while switching from placebo to saxagliptin resulted in a similar reduction in HbA1c. The incidence of hypoglycemia was not markedly increased with saxagliptin versus placebo in the double-blind period and did not increase substantially during the open-label extension period. The efficacy and safety of saxagliptin was similar between the elderly and non-elderly patient groups. Adding saxagliptin to ongoing insulin therapy improved glycemic control and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Do open label blinded outcome studies of novel anticoagulants versus warfarin have equivalent validity to those carried out under double-blind conditions?

    PubMed

    O'Neil, William M; Welner, Sharon A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2013-03-01

    Recent anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF have been tested in active comparator controlled studies versus warfarin using two designs: double-blind, double-dummy and prospective randomised, open blinded endpoint (PROBE). The former requires elaborate procedures to maintain blinding, while PROBE does not. Outcomes of double-blind and PROBE designed studies of novel anticoagulants for AF, focusing on warfarin controls, were explored. Major, Phase III warfarin-controlled trials for stroke prevention in AF were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) of key outcomes for active comparators versus VKA and event rates for VKA arms were compared between designs, in context of baseline demographics and inclusion criteria. Identified trials studied five novel anticoagulants in three each of PROBE and double-blind design. For ORs of results across studies and outcomes, there was little pattern differentiating the two designs. Among VKA-control subjects, event rates for the primary outcome (stroke or systemic embolism) in PROBE trials at 1.74 %/year (95% confidence interval: 1.54-1.95) was not significantly different from that in double-blind trials, at 1.88 (1.73-2.03). Among other outcomes, VKA-treated subjects in both trial designs had similar event rates, apart from higher all-cause mortality in ROCKET AF, and lower myocardial infarction rates among the PROBE study patients. Although there are differences in outcome between PROBE and double blind trials, they do not appear to be design-related. The exacting requirements of double-blinding in AF trials may not be necessary.

  5. Direct synaptic connections between superior colliculus afferents and thalamo-insular projection neurons in the feline suprageniculate nucleus: a double-labeling study with WGA-HRP and kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kaeko; Horie, Masao; Nagy, Attila; Berényi, Antal; Benedek, György; Norita, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the feline thalamus, which subserves largely unimodal sensory and orientation behavior, receives input from the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC), and projects to the suprasylvian cortical areas, such as the anterior ectosylvian visual area and the insular visual area (IVA), which contain visually responsive neurons. Through a double tract-tracing procedure involving the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the IVA and the injection of kainic acid into the SC, this study sought to determine the nature of the synaptic relationship between the SC afferents and the thalamo-cortical projection neurons. WGA-HRP injections labeled numerous neurons in the Sg, while kainic acid injections destroyed many tectothalamic terminals in the Sg. The distributions of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons and the degenerated axon terminals overlapped in the dorsal part of the Sg. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated that the degenerated axon terminals made synaptic contacts with the dendrites of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons in this overlapping region of the Sg. These results provide the first anatomical evidence that the Sg may play a role in the key relay of visual information from the SC to the IVA, within an identified extrageniculo-cortical pathway.

  6. Evidence for safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis over 4 years of treatment: Results from the 2-year, open-label, extension study of a 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Steven; Lorenc, Roman S; Wenderoth, Dietrich; Stoner, Karen J; Eusebio, Rachelle; Orwoll, Eric S

    2012-09-01

    A 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with osteoporosis demonstrated that treatment with risedronate 35mg once a week significantly decreased bone turnover markers (BTMs) and increased bone mineral density (BMD). This study was extended to include a 2-year, open-label extension to continue to assess the safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis. In the open-label extension, all patients received risedronate 35mg once a week, and 1000mg elemental calcium and 400 to 500IU vitamin D daily for up to 2 years. The safety of risedronate was evaluated based on adverse events, laboratory data, vital signs, and physical examination results. BMD, BTMs, and the incidence of new vertebral fractures were also assessed. A total of 218 (of 284) patients enrolled in the open-label extension. Risedronate continued to produce significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (7.87%) in the group of patients who took it for 4 years. Risedronate produced significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (6.27%) in the former placebo group who took it for 2 years during the open-label extension. Few new vertebral and clinical fractures occurred during the study. There were no significant differences in BTMs between the two groups at months 36 and 48. Incidences of any upper GI adverse events during the extension were low and similar in the two groups; however, the percent of moderate to severe events were higher (8% versus 2%) in the group that received placebo prior to the extension. Safety results continued to show that risedronate was well-tolerated in men with osteoporosis. Patients who received risedronate 35mg once a week for 2years in the open-label extension study showed similar safety and efficacy results compared with those who received risedronate treatment in the first 2 double-blind years of the study. Patients who received risedronate for 4 years in total showed similar safety and efficacy to that observed in

  7. Double-labeling techniques demonstrate that rod bipolar cells are under GABAergic control in the inner plexiform layer of the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Kim, I B; Lee, M Y; Oh, S; Kim, K Y; Chun, M

    1998-04-01

    The synaptic connectivity between rod bipolar cells and GABAergic neurons in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina was studied using two immunocytochemical markers. Rod bipolar cells were stained with an antibody specific for protein kinase C (PKC, alpha isoenzyme), and GABAergic neurons were stained with an antiserum specific for glutamic-acid decarboxylase (GAD). Some amacrine cells were also labeled with the anti-PKC antiserum. All PKC-labeled amacrine cells examined showed GABA immunoreactivity, indicating that PKC-labeled amacrine cells constitute a subpopulation of GABAergic amacrine cells in the rat retina. A total of 150 ribbon synapses established by rod bipolar cells were observed in the IPL. One member of the postsynaptic dyads was always an unlabeled AII amacrine cell process, and the other belonged to an amacrine-cell process showing GAD immunoreactivity. The majority (n=92) (61.3%) of these processes made reciprocal synapses back to the axon terminals of rod bipolar cells. In addition, 78 conventional synapses onto rod bipolar axons were observed, and among them 52 (66.7%) were GAD-immunoreactive. Thus GABA provides the major inhibitory input to rod bipolar cells.

  8. Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, J T; Croghan, I T; Schroeder, D R; Offord, K P; Hurt, R D; Wolter, T D; Nides, M A; Davidson, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter environment. The years of study were 1994 to 1995. METHODS: Parallel 6-week trials were conducted: a placebo-controlled trial of no-cost 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch therapy and an open label trial of the same therapy with patches purchased by subjects. Participants (n = 958) were 18 years or older, had smoked at least 15 cigarettes daily for at least 6 months, and were enrolled at 3 study sites. The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking abstinence confirmed by expired carbon monoxide measurements. RESULTS: Smoking cessation rates in the placebo-controlled trial were 16.8% and 9.6% at week 6 and 8.7% and 4.3% at week 24 for the active patch and placebo groups, respectively. Smoking cessation rates in the open label-pay trial were 19.0% and 10.8% at weeks 6 and 24, respectively. A slight increase in adverse cardiovascular events was noted only in the open label-pay group in comparison with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In an over-the-counter environment, the 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch is effective and safe for smoking cessation treatment. PMID:10553392

  9. Detection of single- and double-strand DNA breaks after traumatic brain injury in rats: comparison of in situ labeling techniques using DNA polymerase I, the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Clark RSB; Chen, M; Kochanek, P M; Watkins, S C; Jin, K L; Draviam, R; Nathaniel, P D; Pinto, R; Marion, D W; Graham, S H

    2001-07-01

    DNA damage is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Available techniques for the in situ identification of DNA damage include DNA polymerase I-mediated biotin-dATP nick-translation (PANT), the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I-mediated biotin-dATP nick-end labeling (Klenow), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). While TUNEL has been widely utilized to detect primarily double-strand DNA breaks, the use of PANT to detect primarily single-strand DNA breaks and Klenow to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks has not been reported after TBI. Accordingly, coronal brain sections from naive rats and rats at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 24, and 72 h (n = 3-5/group) after controlled cortical impact with imposed secondary insult were processed using the PANT, Klenow, and TUNEL methods. Cells with DNA breaks were detected by PANT in the ipsilateral hemisphere as early as 0.5 h after injury and were maximal at 6 h (cortex = 66.3+/-15.8, dentate gyrus 58.6+/-12.8, CA1 = 15.8+/-5.9, CA3 = 12.8+/-4.2 cells/x 400 field, mean +/- SEM, all p < 0.05 versus naive). Cells with DNA breaks were detected by Klenow as early as 30 min and were maximal at 24 h (cortex = 56.3+/-14.3, dentate gyrus 78.0+/-16.7, CA1 = 25.8+/-4.7, CA3 = 29.3+/-15.1 cells/x 400 field, all p < 0.05 versus naive). Cells with DNA breaks were not detected by TUNEL until 2 h and were maximal at 24 h (cortex = 47.7+/-21.4, dentate gyrus 63.0+/-11.9, CA1 = 5.6+/-5.4, CA3 = 6.9+/-3.7 cells/x 400 field, cortex and dentate gyrus p < 0.05 versus naive). Dual-label immunofluorescence revealed that PANT-positive cells were predominately neurons. These data demonstrate that TBI results in extensive DNA damage, which includes both single- and double-strand breaks in injured cortex and hippocampus. The presence of multiple types of DNA breaks implicate several pathways in the evolution of DNA damage after TBI.

  10. Photocatalytic oxidation of TMB with the double stranded DNA-SYBR Green I complex for label-free and universal colorimetric bioassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Huang, Chengpeng; Xu, Shuxia; Chen, Junbo; Zeng, Ying; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2015-10-04

    We report here the newly discovered photocatalytic activity of the dsDNA-SYBR Green I (SG) complex, which can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) under light irradiation corresponding to the excitation of the dsDNA-SG complex. The most appealing feature of the photocatalytic system here is that it can be obtained using random DNA sequences that can form a duplex. Considering the universality of the photooxidase, a label-free and universal platform was proposed for highly sensitive visual bioassays.

  11. Simple, rapid /sup 125/I-labeled cyclosporine double antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassay used in a pediatric cardiac transplant program

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.S.; Webb, G.; Imperio, N.C.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S.L.; Eby, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    We modified the Sandoz cyclosporine radioimmunoassay because of our need for frequent clinical monitoring of cyclosporine drug levels in allo- and xenograft pediatric cardiac transplant patients. With application of a commercially available (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label in place of (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine and a second antibody/polyethylene glycol (PEG) method of separation in place of charcoal separation, we simplified and enhanced the speed and precision of assay performance. Studies of 140 whole blood samples comparing this new method to the (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine radioimmunoassay (RIA) method of Berk and colleagues yielded a coefficient of correlation of 0.96 (p less than 0.00001) with means of 626 and 667 ng/ml for (/sup 3/H)RIA and (/sup 125/I)RIA, respectively, and a regression equation of y = 28 + 1.02x. The major advantages are that total assay time is reduced to approximately 1 h; (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label is used, avoiding the problems associated with liquid scintillation counting; and precision is enhanced by separating bound and free fractions with second antibody/PEG. These modifications should provide for greater ease of assay performance and improved clinical utility of cyclosporine monitoring not only in the pediatric but also in the adult transplant patient.

  12. Synaptic relationships between GABA-immunoreactive neurons and an identified uniglomerular projection neuron in the antennal lobe of Periplaneta americana: a double-labeling electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Malun, D

    1991-01-01

    Two types of central neurons in the antennal lobe of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana were labeled with a combination of two specific markers. Their synaptic contacts were characterized and their distribution on the neurons examined. A uniglomerular pheromone-sensitive projection neuron with dendritic arbor in the male-specific macroglomerulus (attractant neuron) was characterized physiologically by intracellular recording and then filled with biocytin, which was converted to a marker for this individual neuron by a preembedding procedure. In a postembedding procedure local, multiglomerular interneurons were marked by immunogold labeling of GABA. Two kinds of synaptic contacts were found on the attractant neuron. (i) Input synapses from GABA-immunoreactive profiles. There were many of these, which (together with results of previous studies) suggests that local interneurons mediate polysynaptic transmission from antennal receptor fibers to the projection neuron. (ii) Output synapses onto GABA-immunoreactive profiles and onto non-identified neurons. These contacts indicate that signals generated by the projection neurons in a given glomerulus are passed back to multiglomerular interneurons and hence are also transmitted to other glomeruli.

  13. A Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Safety and Efficacy Study of Lenalidomide in Lumbar Radicular Pain with a Long-Term Open-Label Extension Phase.

    PubMed

    Manning, Donald C; Gimbel, Joseph; Wertz, Robert; Rauck, Richard; Cooper, Alyse; Zeldis, Jerome B; Levinsky, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    This phase II study assessed lenalidomide efficacy and safety. Three-phase core study: 14-day prerandomization, 12-week treatment, and 52-week open-label extension. Fourteen US centers from July 2005 to July 2007. Chronic lumbar radicular pain patients without history of nerve injury or deficit. Subjects were randomized (1:1) to double-blind treatment with lenalidomide 10 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 52-week open-label extension. A 12-week, single-center, randomized-withdrawal (1:2, lenalidomide:placebo), exploratory study with open-label extension was undertaken in 12 subjects from the core extension who were naïve to neuropathic medications and with at least a two-point decrease from baseline average daily Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale score. Of 180 subjects enrolled, 176 had at least one postbaseline measure; 132 completed the 12-week treatment phase. In the core study, no statistically significant difference in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale mean change (-0.02, P  =   0.958) was observed at week 12 between lenalidomide and placebo; proportions achieving pain reduction at week 12 and other secondary measures were comparable between lenalidomide and placebo. In the exploratory study, week 12 mean changes in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale scores were -0.05 (lenalidomide: N = 3) and 2.11 (placebo: N = 8). Mean changes in Brief Pain Inventory-short form interference scores were -3.33 and 8.38, respectively; scores at six months were maintained or decreased in 10 of 12 subjects. While this study does not support lenalidomide use in an unselected lumbar radicular pain population, an immunomodulating agent may relieve pain in select subjects naïve to neuropathic pain medications. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00120120.

  14. Synaptic connections between the hindwing stretch receptor and flight motor neurones in the locust revealed by double cobalt labelling for electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.H.; Altman, J.S.; Tyrer, N.M.

    1985-03-08

    Synaptic interactions between sensory and motor neurones in the locust flight system have been investigated by using intracellular labelling with cobalt and nickel for electron microscopy. Simultaneous axonal filling of two neurones with different concentrations of metal ions produces differential labelling, so that contacts between them in the central nervous system can be recognized. We have investigated the connectivity of the hindwing stretch receptor neurone (SR) with a direct hindwing depressor motor neurone (MN 127) known from physiological experiments to receive monosynaptic input from the SR, and an indirect hindwing depressor motor neurone (MN 112/1), for which no monosynaptic connection with the SR has been reported. We have found no direct synapses between the SR and MN 112/1, although some of their branches lie close together in the neuropile. We have, however, found some evidence for polysynaptic connections between them. There are many synapses of conventional dyadic morphology from both the lateral and mediolateral branches of the SR to MN 127; the medial branch was not examined. Those from the lateral branch contact the motor neurone on branches close to the neuropilar segment, while those from the mediolateral branch contact long, thin distal twigs. We estimate that there are about 600 anatomical synapses between these two neurones. Our results suggest that a large number of widely distributed anatomical synapses constitute the physiological synaptic connection between the SR and MN 127. The dyadic arrangement of these synapses provides an anatomical correlate for the physiologically established divergence of SR outputs onto interneurones and motor neurones.

  15. Expression of Gal4-dependent transgenes in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system labeled with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein using Csf1r-Gal4VP16/UAS-ECFP double-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; van Zuylen, Wendy J M; DeBats, Claire E E; Alexander, Kylie A; Kellie, Stuart; Hume, David A

    2008-02-01

    We generated double-transgenic mice carrying cointegrated tissue-specific Gal4 and Gal4 reporter transgenes to direct transgene overexpression in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). A modified promoter of the Csf1r (c-fms) gene, containing a deletion of the trophoblast-specific promoter, was used to drive the expression of Gal4VP16 transcriptional activator specifically in macrophages. This module was cointegrated with a fluorescent reporter, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), driven by a Gal4-dependent promoter. ECFP fluorescence was first detected in forming blood islands of the yolk sac at 8 dpc, then in macrophages in the yolk sac and the embryo proper. In adult mice ECFP was detected primarily in monocytes, tissue macrophages, microglia, and dendritic cells, including Langerhans cells of the skin. Crossing of these mice to transgenics containing tagged protein under control of a Gal4-dependent promoter directed expression of that protein in mononuclear phagocytes of double-transgenic animals. The new mouse line provides a useful tool for overexpression of transgenes in cells of the myeloid lineage, while simultaneously labeling them by ECFP expression.

  16. Ultradeformable lipid vesicles can penetrate the skin and other semi-permeable barriers unfragmented. Evidence from double label CLSM experiments and direct size measurements.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor; Schätzlein, Andreas; Richardsen, Holger

    2002-08-19

    The stability of various aggregates in the form of lipid bilayer vesicles was tested by three different methods before and after crossing different semi-permeable barriers. First, polymer membranes with pores significantly smaller than the average aggregate diameter were used as the skin barrier model; dynamic light scattering was employed to monitor vesicle size changes after barrier passage for several lipid mixtures with different bilayer elasticities. This revealed that vesicles must adapt their size and/or shape, dependent on bilayer stability and elasto-mechanics, to overcome an otherwise confining pore. For the mixed lipid aggregates with highly flexible bilayers (Transfersomes), the change is transient and only involves vesicle shape and volume adaptation. The constancy of ultradeformable vesicle size before and after pores penetration proves this. This is remarkable in light of the very strong aggregate deformation during an enforced barrier passage. Simple phosphatidylcholine vesicles, with less flexible bilayers, lack such capability and stability. Conventional liposomes are therefore fractured during transport through a semi-permeable barrier; as reported by other researchers, liposomes are fragmented to the size of a narrow pore if sufficient pressure is applied across the barrier; otherwise, liposomes clog the pores. The precise outcome depends on trans-barrier flux and/or on relative vesicle vs. pore size. Lipid vesicles applied on the skin behave accordingly. Mixed lipid vesicles penetrate the skin if they are sufficiently deformable. If this is the case, they cross inter-cellular constrictions in the organ without significant composition or size modification. To prove this, we labelled vesicles with two different fluorescent markers and applied the suspension on intact murine skin without occlusion. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the skin then revealed a practically indistinguishable distribution of both labels in the stratum

  17. Effects of switching from olanzapine to aripiprazole on the metabolic profiles of patients with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Rayees Ahmad; Dar, Mansoor Ahmad; Chandel, Rajesh Kumar; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Haq, Inaamul; Hussain, Arshad; Malla, Altaf Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia suffer high rates of metabolic derangements on some antipsychotic medications that predispose them to cardiovascular diseases. Keeping this fact in mind, we planned this open-label study to see the effect on various metabolic parameters after switching stable schizophrenia subjects, who had developed metabolic syndrome on olanzapine, to aripiprazole. Methods Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia who were stable on olanzapine and were fulfilling modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria for the presence of metabolic syndrome were enrolled on the study. Patients were randomly assigned either to switch to aripiprazole or to stay on olanzapine, on a 1:1 basis. Cross-tapering over a period of 1 month was done while switching patients to aripiprazole. Laboratory assessment for metabolic parameters was done at baseline, 8 weeks, and 24 weeks after enrollment; efficacy assessment was done using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and 24 weeks, the Clinical Global Impressions severity subscale (CGI-S) at baseline, and the Clinical Global Impressions improvement subscale (CGI-I) at 24 weeks. Results All parameters of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride level, fasting blood glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) kept deteriorating in the stay group, compared with a continuous improvement in the switch group over time. At the end of the study, 26 patients (100%) from the stay group and 15 patients (42.8%) from switch group met the modified NCEP ATP-III criteria for presence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in psychopathology changes as measured by the PANSS total score and CGI-I scores. Conclusion Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia who are taking olanzapine and who have evidence of metabolic syndrome can be successfully switched to

  18. Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots-labeled epitope imprinted polymer with double templates via the metal chelation for specific recognition of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun-Jing; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2017-05-15

    A novel fluorescent sensor nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs)/SiO2/molecular imprinting polymer(N-GQDs/SiO2/MIP)was fabricated by surface imprinting and epitope imprinting to recognize and detect the target protein cytochrome c (Cyt C) with fluorescence quenching. In the polymerization process, the C- and N-terminal nonapeptides of Cyt C were selected as the double templates which were fixed by functional monomer (zinc acrylate) through metal chelation and steady six-membered ring. The linear range of fluorescence quenching for this receptor towards Cyt C was 0.20-60μM, and the detection limit was 0.11μM. The precision for six times replicate determination of Cyt C at 30μM was 1.20%, and the imprinting factor (IF) was 3.06. The recoveries of the material to Cyt C in urine were 99.3-114.0%. In brief, this work proposed a strategy to prepare a new type fluorescent imprinting polymer based on N-GQDs and provided an attractive perspective for the detection of protein by using the combination of N-GQDs and molecular imprinting technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  20. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4g study and an open-label 8g extension study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2012-05-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) represent useful models for studying multiple myeloma precursor disease, and for developing early intervention strategies. Administering a 4g dose of curcumin, we performed a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, followed by an open-label extension study using an 8g dose to assess the effect of curcumin on FLC response and bone turnover in patients with MGUS and SMM. 36 patients (19 MGUS and 17 SMM) were randomised into two groups: one received 4g curcumin and the other 4g placebo, crossing over at 3 months. At completion of the 4g arm, all patients were given the option of entering an open-label, 8g dose extension study. Blood and urine samples were collected at specified intervals for specific marker analyses. Group values are expressed as mean ± 1 SD. Data from different time intervals within groups were compared using Student's paired t-test. 25 patients completed the 4g cross-over study and 18 the 8g extension study. Curcumin therapy decreased the free light-chain ratio (rFLC), reduced the difference between clonal and nonclonal light-chain (dFLC) and involved free light-chain (iFLC). uDPYD, a marker of bone resorption, decreased in the curcumin arm and increased on the placebo arm. Serum creatinine levels tended to diminish on curcumin therapy. These findings suggest that curcumin might have the potential to slow the disease process in patients with MGUS and SMM.

  1. Pimecrolimus 1% cream for oral erosive lichen planus: a 6-week randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study with a 6-week open-label extension to assess efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, C; Machan, M; Bennett, R; Zone, J J; Hull, C M

    2011-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of oral erosive lichen planus. A 6-week randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled phase followed by a 6-week open-label phase. Outpatients of the Department of Dermatology, University of Utah. Twenty-one patients with oral erosive lichen planus were randomized and treated with either pimecrolimus 1% cream or vehicle cream. Pimecrolimus 1% cream, or its vehicle, were applied twice daily for 6 weeks to each side of the mouth with a 2×2 inch gauze pad folded in half and placed directly on the erosive lesion. Efficacy was based on clinical evaluation of Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) of the overall severity of the disease, erythema, measurement of the size of any target erosion in millimetres, and assessment of spontaneous pain. Blood levels of pimecrolimus were monitored in all subjects on day 0 and repeated on day 7. Pimecrolimus 1% cream was superior to vehicle cream in reducing mean IGA, pain, and erosion size. For the vehicle group that entered the open-label phase, pimecrolimus 1% cream improved the mean IGA, pain, erosion size, and erythema. Pimecrolimus levels were detected in nine out of 10 of the pimecrolimus-treated subjects. These levels were consistently low. The pimecrolimus cream was well-tolerated. No clinically relevant, drug-related adverse events were reported. Pimecrolimus 1% cream was superior to vehicle in reducing pain, erythema, decreasing erosion size, and improving overall severity of disease when compared with vehicle treatment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Celecoxib in Chinese Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A 6-Week Randomized, Double-Blinded Study with 6-Week Open-Label Extension Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng; Gu, Jieruo; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Zheng, Yi; Fu, Jin; Pan, Sharon; Le, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the first-line option for treating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in China. However, no large-scale controlled trials have been conducted in this ethnic population. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 6 weeks’ treatment with celecoxib in patients with AS in China. Methods This Phase 3, double-blind, parallel-group study randomized patients with AS aged ≥18 to 65 years 1:1 to receive celecoxib 200 mg once daily or diclofenac sustained release 75 mg once daily. After 6 weeks, patients could use celecoxib 400 mg once daily or maintain blinded therapy. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline at Week 6 for Patient’s Global Assessment of Pain Intensity score (100-mm visual analog scale). Noninferiority was established if the upper bound of the CI was <10 mm. Secondary objectives included patients’ and physicians’ assessments of disease activity, change from baseline in C-reactive protein level, and safety. Results In the per-protocol analysis set the least squares mean change from baseline in the Patient’s Global Assessment of Pain Intensity score at Week 6 was –23.8 mm and –27.1 mm in patients receiving celecoxib (n = 111) and diclofenac (n = 108), respectively. The 2-sided 95% CI for the treatment difference (celecoxib – diclofenac) was –2.2 to 8.8. Overall, 4.2% and 6.7% of patients in the celecoxib and diclofenac groups, respectively, reported treatment-related adverse events. All were mild to moderate in severity. Conclusions Celecoxib 200 mg once daily is noninferior to diclofenac sustained release 75 mg once daily for pain treatment in Chinese patients with AS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00762463. PMID:25516774

  3. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin added to glimepiride in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with an open-label, long-term extension.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, T; Kondo, K

    2014-05-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in combination with glimepiride in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with glimepiride monotherapy. In the initial 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group period, 194 patients [haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): 8.4 ± 0.8%; fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 164.2 ± 28.1 mg/dl] were randomized to either teneligliptin 20 mg or placebo once daily while continuing stable glimepiride therapy. This randomized period was then followed by a 40-week, open-label period, where all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline to week 12. Teneligliptin reduced HbA1c significantly compared with placebo at week 12. The placebo-subtracted change in HbA1c was -1.0 ± 0.1% [least-squares (LS) mean ± s.e., p < 0.001]. Teneligliptin also significantly reduced FPG and 2-h postprandial glucose (PPG) as compared with placebo at week 12; the placebo-subtracted changes were -27.1 ± 3.2 and -49.1 ± 6.2 mg/dl (LS mean ± s.e., both p < 0.001), respectively. The blood glucose-lowering effects were sustained throughout the 40-week open-label period. The incidence rates of adverse events and adverse drug reactions, including hypoglycaemia, during the double-blind randomized period were similar in both groups. Therefore, teneligliptin was generally well tolerated when used in combination with glimepiride. The addition of teneligliptin was effective and generally well tolerated in Japanese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with glimepiride monotherapy. The improvements in glycaemic control were maintained for up to 52 weeks. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone for treatment of severe restless legs syndrome after failure of previous treatment: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label extension.

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Beneš, Heike; Grote, Ludger; García-Borreguero, Diego; Högl, Birgit; Hopp, Michael; Bosse, Björn; Oksche, Alexander; Reimer, Karen; Winkelmann, Juliane; Allen, Richard P; Kohnen, Ralf

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are a potential new treatment for severe restless legs syndrome. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone for patients with severe restless legs syndrome inadequately controlled by previous, mainly dopaminergic, treatment. This multicentre study consisted of a 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and 40-week open-label extension phase done at 55 sites in Austria, Germany, Spain, and Sweden. Patients had symptoms for at least 6 months and an International RLS Study Group severity rating scale sum score of at least 15; patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or a history of sleep apnoea syndrome were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either study drug or matched placebo with a validated interactive response technology system in block sizes of four. Study drug was oxycodone 5·0 mg, naloxone 2·5 mg, twice per day, which was up-titrated according to investigator's opinion to a maximum of oxycodone 40 mg, naloxone 20 mg, twice per day; in the extension, all patients started on oxycodone 5·0 mg, naloxone 2·5 mg, twice per day, which was up-titrated to a maximum of oxycodone 40 mg, naloxone 20 mg, twice per day. The primary outcome was mean change in severity of symptoms according to the International RLS Study Group severity rating scale sum score at 12 weeks. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01112644) and with EudraCT (number 2009-011107-23). We screened 495 patients, of whom 306 were randomly assigned and 276 included in the primary analysis (132 to prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone vs 144 to placebo). 197 patients participated in the open-label extension. Mean International RLS Study Group rating scale sum score at randomisation was 31·6 (SD 4·5); mean change after 12 weeks was -16·5 (SD 11·3) in the prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone group and -9·4 (SD 10·9) in the placebo group (mean difference

  5. Direct and Auger Electron-Induced, Single- and Double-Strand Breaks on Plasmid DNA Caused by 99mTc-Labeled Pyrene Derivatives and the Effect of Bonding Distance

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Falco; Mamat, Constantin; Steinbach, Joerg; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Freudenberg, Robert; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wunderlich, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that 99mTc causes radical-mediated DNA damage due to Auger electrons, which were emitted simultaneously with the known γ-emission of 99mTc. We have synthesized a series of new 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives with varied distances between the pyrene moiety and the radionuclide. The pyrene motif is a common DNA intercalator and allowed us to test the influence of the radionuclide distance on damages of the DNA helix. In general, pUC 19 plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between the radiotracers and DNA that results in single-strand breaks (SSB) or double-strand breaks (DSB). The resulting DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. Direct DNA damage and radical-induced indirect DNA damage by radiolysis products of water were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. We demonstrated that Auger electrons directly induced both SSB and DSB in high efficiency when 99mTc was tightly bound to the plasmid DNA and this damage could not be completely prevented by DMSO, a free radical scavenger. For the first time, we were able to minimize this effect by increasing the carbon chain lengths between the pyrene moiety and the 99mTc nuclide. However, a critical distance between the 99mTc atom and the DNA helix could not be determined due to the significantly lowered DSB generation resulting from the interaction which is dependent on the type of the 99mTc binding motif. The effect of variable DNA damage caused by the different chain length between the pyrene residue and the Tc-core as well as the possible conformations of the applied Tc-complexes was supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The effectiveness of the DNA-binding 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives was demonstrated by comparison to non-DNA-binding 99mTcO4–, since nearly all DNA damage caused by 99mTcO4– was prevented by incubating with DMSO. PMID:27583677

  6. Direct and Auger Electron-Induced, Single- and Double-Strand Breaks on Plasmid DNA Caused by 99mTc-Labeled Pyrene Derivatives and the Effect of Bonding Distance.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Falco; Mamat, Constantin; Steinbach, Joerg; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Freudenberg, Robert; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wunderlich, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that 99mTc causes radical-mediated DNA damage due to Auger electrons, which were emitted simultaneously with the known γ-emission of 99mTc. We have synthesized a series of new 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives with varied distances between the pyrene moiety and the radionuclide. The pyrene motif is a common DNA intercalator and allowed us to test the influence of the radionuclide distance on damages of the DNA helix. In general, pUC 19 plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between the radiotracers and DNA that results in single-strand breaks (SSB) or double-strand breaks (DSB). The resulting DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. Direct DNA damage and radical-induced indirect DNA damage by radiolysis products of water were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. We demonstrated that Auger electrons directly induced both SSB and DSB in high efficiency when 99mTc was tightly bound to the plasmid DNA and this damage could not be completely prevented by DMSO, a free radical scavenger. For the first time, we were able to minimize this effect by increasing the carbon chain lengths between the pyrene moiety and the 99mTc nuclide. However, a critical distance between the 99mTc atom and the DNA helix could not be determined due to the significantly lowered DSB generation resulting from the interaction which is dependent on the type of the 99mTc binding motif. The effect of variable DNA damage caused by the different chain length between the pyrene residue and the Tc-core as well as the possible conformations of the applied Tc-complexes was supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The effectiveness of the DNA-binding 99mTc-labeled pyrene derivatives was demonstrated by comparison to non-DNA-binding 99mTcO4-, since nearly all DNA damage caused by 99mTcO4- was prevented by incubating with DMSO.

  7. Accuracy of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for assessing energy expenditure in free-living adults during a double-blind crossover caffeine trial using doubly labeled water as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Santos, D A; Matias, C N; Júdice, P B; Magalhães, J P; Ekelund, U; Sardinha, L B

    2015-01-01

    A combined heart rate (HR) and motion sensor (Actiheart) has been proposed as an accurate method for assessing total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). However, the extent to which factors such as caffeine may affect the accuracy by which the estimated HR-related PAEE contribution will affect TEE and PAEE estimates is unknown. Therefore, we examined the validity of Actiheart in estimating TEE and PAEE in free-living adults under a caffeine trial compared with doubly labeled water (DLW) as reference criterion. Using a double-blind crossover trial (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: #NCT01477294) with two conditions (4-day each with a 3-day-washout period), randomly ordered as caffeine (5 mg/kg per day) and placebo (malt-dextrine) intake, TEE was measured by DLW in 17 physically active men (20-38 years) who were non-caffeine users. In each condition, resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed by indirect calorimetry and PAEE was calculated as (TEE-(REE+0.1 TEE)). Simultaneously, PAEE and TEE were estimated by Actiheart using an individual calibration (ACC+HRstep). Under caffeine, ACC+HRstep explained 76 and 64% of TEE and PAEE from DLW, respectively; corresponding results for the placebo condition were 82 and 66%. No mean bias was found between ACC+HRstep and DLW for TEE (caffeine:-468 kJ per day; placebo:-407 kJ per day), although PAEE was slightly underestimated (caffeine:-856 kJ per day; placebo:-1147 kJ per day). Similar limits of agreement were observed in both conditions ranging from -2066 to 3002 and from -3488 to 1776 kJ per day for TEE and PAEE, respectively. Regardless of caffeine intake, the combined HR and motion sensor is valid for estimating free-living energy expenditure in a group of healthy men but is less accurate for an individual assessment.

  8. Binding of tissue-specific forms of alpha A-CRYBP1 to their regulatory sequence in the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene: double-label immunoblotting of UV-crosslinked complexes.

    PubMed

    Kantorow, M; Becker, K; Sax, C M; Ozato, K; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-09-15

    The alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sequence (alpha A-CRYBP1RS), at nucleotides -66 to -57 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha A-CRY) promoter, is an important control element involved in the regulation of mouse alpha A-CRY expression. The gene encoding a protein (alpha A-CRYBP1) that specifically binds to the alpha A-CRYBP1RS sequence has been cloned from a cultured mouse lens cell line. In the present study, we have used an antibody (specific to the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and made against a synthetic peptide) to directly identify UV-crosslinked protein-DNA complexes via a double-label immunoblotting technique. Multiple alpha A-CRYB1 antigenically related proteins interacted with alpha A-CRYBP1RS in nuclear extracts from both a cloned mouse lens cell line (alpha TN4-1) that expresses alpha A-CRY and a mouse fibroblast line (L929) that does not express the gene. Two sizes (50 kDa and 90 kDa) of proteins reacting with the alpha A-CRYBP1-specific Ab were detected in both cell lines and, in addition, a > 200-kDa protein reacting with the Ab was unique to the fibroblast line. Thus, alpha A-CRYBP1 antigenically related proteins interact with alpha A-CRYBP1RS regardless of alpha A-CRY expression. Moreover, differential processing of the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and/or alternative splicing of the alpha A-CRY transcript may affect expression of alpha A-CRY.

  9. Determination of the mutual orientation of the 15N and 13C NMR chemical shift tensors of 13- 15N double labeled model peptides for silk fibroin from the dipolar-coupled powder patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Yasunobu; Seng, Koo Wey; Demura, Makoto

    1998-05-01

    The 15N and 13C chemical shift tensors, and the orientation of the principal axis system relative to the molecular symmetry axes were determined for 15N and 13C carbonyl carbon sites of 13C 15N double labeled model peptides for Bombyx mori silk fibroin, that is, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly-OMe, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac, Boc-AlaGly[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac, Boc-[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]AlaGlyAla-OPac, Boc-GlyAla[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]AlaGlyAla-OPac and Boc-[1- 13C]Gly[ 15N]ValGlyAla-OPac, where Boc is t-butoxycarbonyl, OMe is methyl ester, OPac is phenacyl ester, Ala is alanine, Gly is glycine and Val is valine. From the comparisons of the 15N chemical shift tensors and the orientations of the principal axis system relative to the molecular symmetry axes among three compounds having [1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly units, it is concluded that the intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding are different between Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]Gly-OMe and two compounds, Boc-[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac and Boc-AlaGly[1- 13C]Ala[ 15N]GlyAlaGly-OPac although the latter two compounds have similar structures. A similar conclusion has also been obtained from the 13C chemical shift tensors of these compounds.

  10. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed making changes to the food labels that may correct these problems. AMOUNTS PER SERVING The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients includes ...

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of a Vi polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV) in healthy infants, children, and adults in typhoid endemic areas: a multicenter, 2-cohort, open-label, double-blind, randomized controlled phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vadrevu Krishna; Varanasi, Vineeth; Singh, Anit; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Ella, Krishna M

    2015-08-01

    Enteric fever caused by Salmonella Typhi remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Typbar-TCV is a single-dose typhoid Vi polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for persons ≥6 months of age. Six hundred fifty-four healthy subjects aged 2-45 years enrolled in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) received a single dose of Typbar-TCV or comparator "Vi polysaccharide" (Typbar), and 327 healthy subjects aged 6-23 months received a single dose of Typbar-TCV in an open-label trial (OLT); both received single- or multidose presentations from different lots. After 2 years, subsets in each group received a booster dose. The primary objective included analysis of geometric mean titer (GMTs) and 4-fold rise of anti-Vi serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers over baseline (seroconversion [SCN]) 42 days after immunization. Typbar-TCV recipients in the RCT attained higher anti-Vi IgG GMTs 42 days after immunization (SCN, 97%; GMT, 1293 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1153-1449]) than recipients of Typbar (SCN, 93%; GMT, 411 [95% CI, 359-471]) (P < .001). Typbar-TCV was highly immunogenic in the OLT (SCN, 98%; GMT, 1937 [95% CI, 1785-2103]). Two years after vaccination, anti-Vi titers remained higher in Typbar-TCV subjects (GMT, 82 [95% CI, 73-92]); and exhibited higher avidity (geometric mean avidity index [GMAI], 60%) than in Typbar recipients (GMT, 46 [95% CI, 40-53]; GMAI 46%) in the RCT (P < .001). OLT Typbar-TCV recipients achieved GMT of 48 (95% CI, 42-55) and GMAI of 57%. Typbar-TCV induced multiple IgG subclasses and strong booster responses in all ages. No serious vaccine-attributable adverse events were observed. Single-dose Typbar-TCV is well tolerated and induces robust and long-lasting serum anti-Vi IgG across age groups. CTRI/2011/08/001957, CTRI/2014/01/004341. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

  12. Mavoglurant in adolescents with fragile X syndrome: analysis of Clinical Global Impression-Improvement source data from a double-blind therapeutic study followed by an open-label, long-term extension study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Merrien, Florence; Ricart, Javier; Koumaras, Barbara; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Tomlinson, Mark; von Raison, Florian; Apostol, George

    2016-01-01

    A phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study and subsequent open-label extension study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mavoglurant (AFQ056), a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype-5 antagonist, in treating behavioral symptoms in adolescent patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). A novel method was applied to analyze changes in symptom domains in patients with FXS using the narratives associated with the clinician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. In the core study, patients were randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg BID) or placebo over 12 weeks. In the extension, patients received 100 mg BID mavoglurant (or the highest tolerated dose) for up to 32 months. Global improvement, as a measure of treatment response, was assessed using the CGI-I scale. Investigators assigning CGI-I scores of 1 (very much improved), 2 (much improved), 6 (much worse), or 7 (very much worse) were provided a standard narrative template to collect further information about the changes observed in patients. Investigator feedback was coded and clustered into categories of improvement or worsening to identify potential areas of improvement with mavoglurant. Treatment effect in each category was characterized using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. A total of 134 and 103 patients had reached 2 weeks or more of core and extension study treatment, respectively, by the pre-assigned cutoff date for investigator feedback. In the core study, 34 CGI-I scores of 1 or 2 were reported in 28 patients; one patient scored 6. Analysis of the CGI-I narratives did not indicate greater treatment response in patients receiving mavoglurant compared with placebo in any specific improvement domain. There were 54 CGI-I scores of 1 or 2 in 47 patients in the extension study. The most frequently reported categories of improvement were behavior and mood (79.3 and 76.6 % in core and extension studies, respectively), engagement

  13. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  14. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Brad

    2011-01-01

    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  15. Evidence for two types of GABA-containing interneurons in the A-laminae of the cat lateral geniculate nucleus: a double-label HRP and GABA-immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Montero, V M; Zempel, J

    1985-01-01

    Neurons containing GABA immunoreactivity were analyzed in the A-laminae of normal cat LGN and of LGN retrogradely labeled with HRP from the visual cortex. In contrast to retrograde labeling of relay cells, GABA+ cells were devoid of HRP label, providing additional evidence for the interneuronal nature of GABAergic cells in the cat LGN. Cell body area measurements showed that the population of GABA+ cells is composed of a large proportion of small (beta) cells and a smaller proportion of medium size (alpha) cells. The proportion of alpha GABA+ cells increases from medial to lateral parts of the A-laminae, resembling a similar medio-lateral increase of physiologically defined Y cells and of morphologically defined type 1 cells in these laminae. This suggests that the alpha and beta GABAergic cells are related to the Y and X geniculo-cortical relay cells, respectively.

  16. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  17. Rilotumumab in combination with epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine as first-line treatment for gastric or oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: an open-label, dose de-escalation phase 1b study and a double-blind, randomised phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Iveson, Timothy; Donehower, Ross C; Davidenko, Irina; Tjulandin, Sergey; Deptala, Andrzej; Harrison, Mark; Nirni, Somanath; Lakshmaiah, Kuntegowdanahalli; Thomas, Anne; Jiang, Yizhou; Zhu, Min; Tang, Rui; Anderson, Abraham; Dubey, Sarita; Oliner, Kelly S; Loh, Elwyn

    2014-08-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway promotes tumour growth and metastasis. Rilotumumab is a fully human, monoclonal antibody that neutralises HGF. We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, biomarkers, and pharmacokinetics of rilotumumab combined with epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECX) in patients with advanced gastric or oesophagogastric junction cancer. We recruited patients (≥18 years old) with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic gastric or oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, who had not received previous systemic therapy, from 43 sites worldwide. Phase 1b was an open-label, dose de-escalation study to identify a safe dose of rilotumumab (initial dose 15 mg/kg intravenously on day 1) plus ECX (epirubicin 50 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1, cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1, capecitabine 625 mg/m(2) twice a day orally on days 1-21, respectively), administered every 3 weeks. The phase 1b primary endpoint was the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities in all phase 1b patients who received at least one dose of rilotumumab and completed the dose-limiting toxicity assessment window (first cycle of therapy). Phase 2 was a double-blind study that randomly assigned patients (1:1:1) using an interactive voice response system to receive rilotumumab 15 mg/kg, rilotumumab 7·5 mg/kg, or placebo, plus ECX (doses as above), stratified by ECOG performance status and disease extent. The phase 2 primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), analysed by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00719550. Seven of the nine patients enrolled in the phase 1b study received at least one dose of rilotumumab 15 mg/kg, only two of whom had three dose-limiting toxicities: palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, cerebral ischaemia, and deep-vein thrombosis. In phase 2, 121 patients were randomly assigned (40 to

  18. Use of ChAd3-EBO-Z Ebola virus vaccine in Malian and US adults, and boosting of Malian adults with MVA-BN-Filo: a phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial, a phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial, and a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Lyke, Kirsten E; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Traore, Awa; Coulibaly, Flanon; Kodio, Mamoudou; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sztein, Marcelo B; Wahid, Rezwanul; Campbell, James D; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Moorthy, Vasee; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Rampling, Tommy; Roman, Francois; De Ryck, Iris; Bellamy, Abbie R; Dally, Len; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Ploquin, Aurélie; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Bailer, Robert; Koup, Richard A; Roederer, Mario; Ledgerwood, Julie; Hill, Adrian V S; Ballou, W Ripley; Sullivan, Nancy; Graham, Barney; Levine, Myron M

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 west African Zaire Ebola virus epidemic prompted worldwide partners to accelerate clinical development of replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vector vaccine expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (ChAd3-EBO-Z). We aimed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Malian and US adults, and assess the effect of boosting of Malians with modified vaccinia Ankara expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein and other filovirus antigens (MVA-BN-Filo). In the phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in the USA, we recruited adults aged 18-65 years from the University of Maryland medical community and the Baltimore community. In the phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Mali, we recruited adults 18-50 years of age from six hospitals and health centres in Bamako (Mali), some of whom were also eligible for a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MVA-BN-Filo. For randomised segments of the Malian trial and for the US trial, we randomly allocated participants (1:1; block size of six [Malian] or four [US]; ARB produced computer-generated randomisation lists; clinical staff did randomisation) to different single doses of intramuscular immunisation with ChAd3-EBO-Z: Malians received 1 × 10(10) viral particle units (pu), 2·5 × 10(10) pu, 5 × 10(10) pu, or 1 × 10(11) pu; US participants received 1 × 10(10) pu or 1 × 10(11) pu. We randomly allocated Malians in the nested trial (1:1) to receive a single dose of 2 × 10(8) plaque-forming units of MVA-BN-Filo or saline placebo. In the double-blind segments of the Malian trial, investigators, clinical staff, participants, and immunology laboratory staff were masked, but the study pharmacist (MK), vaccine administrator, and study statistician (ARB) were unmasked. In the US trial, investigators were not masked, but participants were. Analyses were per protocol. The primary outcome was safety, measured

  19. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  20. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  1. Remeasuring the double helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, Rebecca S.; Das, Rhiju; Harbury, Pehr A.B.

    2008-10-20

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  2. The efficacy and long-term safety of a triple combination of 80 mg telmisartan, 5 mg amlodipine and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide in Japanese patients with essential hypertension: a randomized, double-blind study with open-label extension

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Jitsuo; Komuro, Issei; Shiki, Kosuke; Ugai, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Daisuke; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Ogihara, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 80 mg telmisartan/5 mg amlodipine/12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (T80/A5/H12.5) with 80 mg telmisartan/12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (T80/H12.5) to determine their relative blood pressure (BP) lowering effects in essential hypertensive patients with inadequate control and to evaluate the long-term safety of T80/A5/H12.5 in a 52-week extension period. Patients (n=132) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatment with T80/A5/H12.5 or T80/H12.5 for 8 weeks after a 6-week run-in-period of T80/H12.5. All 126 patients who completed the double-blind period entered the 52-week open-label extension and received T80/A5/H12.5. The adjusted mean changes from the reference baseline of the trough-seated systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) at week 8 were significantly larger in the T80/A5/H12.5 group (−10.6/−8.8 mm Hg) than in the T80/H12.5 group (−2.3/−1.3 mm Hg) (P<0.0001). The BP-lowering effect of T80/A5/H12.5 was maintained over the 52-week extension period. The adverse events (AEs) during both treatment periods were generally mild. Drug-related AEs were reported in one patient in each group in the double-blind period and in five patients exposed to T80/A5/H12.5 in the double-blind and/or open-label extension period. T80/A5/H12.5 therapy was clinically and statistically superior to T80/H12.5 therapy for the reduction of BP in patients with essential hypertension uncontrolled with T80/H12.5, and its BP-lowering effect was maintained in the long term. T80/A5/H12.5 was generally well-tolerated. PMID:27581533

  3. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  4. Double helicenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrach, Steven M.

    2016-12-01

    The even double helicenes with 4-12 phenyl groups in each helix were examined at B3LYP-D3/6-311G(d). The double helicenes with 4-10 phenyl rings are less than twice as strained as their component helicenes; the strain results from twisting about the shared naphthyl moiety, with accompanying loss of aromaticity. These compounds should be reasonable synthetic targets, and computed NMR shifts are provided to aid in their characterization.

  5. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  6. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  7. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  8. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  11. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  12. The Labelling of Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on chemistry laboratories and teachers in the United Kingdom of the Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1978. These regulations require suppliers to label containers in particular ways. (HM)

  13. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  14. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind dose-ranging study of glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler compared to the monocomponents and open-label tiotropium dry powder inhaler in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Martinez, Fernando J; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Fogarty, Charles; Gotfried, Mark; Denenberg, Michael; Gottschlich, Gregory; Donohue, James F; Orevillo, Chad; Darken, Patrick; St Rose, Earl; Strom, Shannon; Fischer, Tracy; Golden, Michael; Reisner, Colin

    2016-11-01

    This study formed part of the dose selection for a glycopyrrolate (GP)/formoterol fumarate (FF) fixed-dose combination formulated using novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology and delivered via a metered dose inhaler (GFF MDI). The study aimed to confirm the optimal dose of GP to formulate with FF 9.6 μg in the fixed-dose combination product, GFF MDI. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, chronic-dosing, balanced incomplete block, crossover study (NCT01587079) compared five doses of GFF MDI (18/9.6, 9/9.6, 4.6/9.6, 2.4/9.6 and 1.2/9.6 μg, twice daily [BID]) with its monocomponents FF MDI 9.6 μg and GP MDI 18 μg (both BID) and open-label tiotropium (18 μg once daily) as the active control. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s area under the curve from 0 to 12 h (FEV1 AUC0-12) on Day 7. In total, 159 patients were randomized to treatment and 132 patients (52.2% male, mean age 62.8 years) were included in the intent-to-treat population. All doses of GFF MDI (except 1.2/9.6 μg) resulted in statistically significant improvements in FEV1 AUC0-12 versus monocomponents and open-label tiotropium. GFF MDI 18/9.6 μg consistently showing the greatest improvement over monocomponents and open-label tiotropium. Adverse events for each GFF MDI dose were similar versus GP MDI 18 μg, FF MDI 9.6 μg and open-label tiotropium. These findings further support selection of GP 18 μg as the optimal dose to combine with FF MDI 9.6 μg for advancement into Phase III clinical trials of GFF MDI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.N.; Haber, G.; Aquino, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis.

  16. Magnetic Relaxation Detector for Microbead Labels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Paul Peng; Skucha, Karl; Duan, Yida; Megens, Mischa; Kim, Jungkyu; Izyumin, Igor I.; Gambini, Simone; Boser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A compact and robust magnetic label detector for biomedical assays is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS. Detection relies on the magnetic relaxation signature of a microbead label for improved tolerance to environmental variations and relaxed dynamic range requirement, eliminating the need for baseline calibration and reference sensors. The device includes embedded electromagnets to eliminate external magnets and reduce power dissipation. Correlated double sampling combined with offset servo loops and magnetic field modulation, suppresses the detector offset to sub-μT. Single 4.5-μm magnetic beads are detected in 16 ms with a probability of error <0.1%. PMID:25308988

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  9. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  10. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  11. Evidence for safety of retreatment with a single intra-articular injection of Gel-200 for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee from the double-blind pivotal and open-label retreatment clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Strand, Vibeke; Lim, Sooyeol; Takamura, Junko

    2016-06-01

    Gel-200 is a cross-linked hyaluronate single-injection device for treatment of osteoarthritis pain in the knee. This report summarizes new analyses of the safety of retreatment with Gel-200 from the 13-week, pivotal, multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) followed by an open-label extension trial (OLE). 379 patients were enrolled in the RCT [Gel-200; phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)]. Safety of retreatment with Gel-200 was assessed by comparing adverse events (AEs) and device-related AEs reported through Week 4 following retreatment with Gel-200 to those reported in patients receiving their first injection in the OLE. 350 patients completed the initial RCT (231 Gel-200; 119 PBS); 258 patients enrolled in the OLE (162 Gel-200; 96 PBS). In total, 202 patients (125 Gel-200; 77 PBS) qualified for retreatment, while 56 (37 Gel-200; 19 PBS) did not. There were no significant demographic or disease characteristic differences between Gel-200 patients who were and were not retreated; those who were not eligible for retreatment experienced greater pain relief from Gel-200 in the RCT by all effectiveness endpoints (all p < 0.001), without differences in their safety profile. In the OLE, the safety of Gel-200, including percentages of patients who experienced any AEs (p = 0.547) and device-related AEs (p = 0.521), did not significantly differ between those receiving a second versus a first injection of Gel-200 following PBS in the RCT. In the OLE, the safety of a second injection of Gel-200 was comparable to that of a first injection and effectiveness was similar, as previously reported. ClinicalTrials.gov identification numbers NTC 00449696 and NTC 00450112.

  12. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  13. Double Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-23

    A double crater, called a crater doublet, is seen in the bottom right part of this image from NASA Dawn spacecraft of asteroid Vesta. This crater doublet was likely formed by the simultaneous impact of two fragments of a split projectile.

  14. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  15. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  16. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (recombinant human arylsulfatase B or rhASB) and follow-on, open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Harmatz, Paul; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida; Guffon, Nathalie; Teles, Elisa Leão; Miranda, M Clara Sá; Wraith, J Edmond; Beck, Michael; Arash, Laila; Scarpa, Maurizio; Yu, Zi-Fan; Wittes, Janet; Berger, Kenneth I; Newman, Mary S; Lowe, Ann M; Kakkis, Emil; Swiedler, Stuart J

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this Phase 3 study was to confirm the efficacy and safety of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome), a rare, fatal lysosomal storage disease with no effective treatment. Thirty-nine patients with MPS VI were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational study for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the distance walked in a 12-minute walk test (12MWT), whereas the secondary efficacy variables were the number of stairs climbed in a 3-minute stair climb (3MSC) and the level of urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion. All patients received drug in an open-label extension period for an additional 24 weeks. After 24 weeks, patients receiving rhASB walked on average 92 meters (m) more in the 12MWT (p=.025) and 5.7 stairs per minute more 3MSC (p=.053) than patients receiving placebo. Continued improvement was observed during the extension study. Urinary GAG declined by -227+/-18 microg/mg more with rhASB than placebo (p<.001). Infusions were generally safe and well tolerated. Patients exposed to drug experienced positive clinical benefit despite the presence of antibody to the protein. rhASB significantly improves endurance, reduces GAG, and has an acceptable safety profile.

  17. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    printers in each clinic to print labels .JDI Capt Cutter Research compatible printer, Cost, Time Frame Develop standard training for all clinics...Standardize label content, automate with inkless printers once process is proven c . Place visual reminders for providers and support staff 2. Event

  18. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  19. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  20. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  1. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  4. Long-term (1 year) safety and efficacy of methylphenidate modified-release long-acting formulation (MPH-LA) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 26-week, flexible-dose, open-label extension to a 40-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled core study.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Y; Arngrim, T; Philipsen, A; Gandhi, P; Chen, C-W; Kumar, V; Huss, M

    2014-10-01

    Previously, in a 40-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled core study comprising three phases (9-week dose confirmation, 5-week open-label dose optimisation and 6-month maintenance of effect) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate modified-release long-acting formulation (MPH-LA) at 40-80 mg/day controlled ADHD symptoms as well as decreased functional impairment with a good tolerability profile (NCT01259492). Here, we report the long-term efficacy and safety from a 26-week, open-label extension phase of the same study (NCT01338818). Patients in the extension study (n = 298) initiated treatment with MPH-LA (20 mg/day), up-titrated in increments of 20 mg/week to reach individual patient's daily optimal dose of 40-80 mg. Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported at the end of extension study for events monitored from (1) maintenance of effect phase baseline (core study; 12 months) and (2) extension study baseline (6 months). Mean changes in DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DSM-IV ADHD RS) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total scores are reported for both the timelines. Efficacy was also evaluated using clinician-rated instruments, namely Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S). No unexpected AEs were reported in the extension study. Incidence of SAEs reported during 6 months and 12 months were similar (0.7 %), and no deaths were reported. No SAEs were considered attributable to the drug at the end of 12 months. There were no reports of patients with QT, QTcB or QTcF >500 ms. The mean improvement in DSM-IV ADHD RS and SDS total scores at the end of 12 months were 0.9 and 1.4 points, respectively; and at the end of 6 months were 7.2 and 4.8, respectively. The proportion of patients with improvement in CGI-S scale was 31.4 % and 52.1 % at the end of 12 and 6 months, respectively. Overall, 69.4 % of patients showed clinical

  5. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  6. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign Up for Email Policies ...

  7. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  8. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  9. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  10. Are Luxury Brand Labels and “Green” Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a “green” label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status. PMID:28170399

  11. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  12. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  13. Labeling of multiple cell markers and mRNA using automated apparatus.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jennifer C; Ballabio, Erica; Mattsson, Göran; Turner, Susan H; Mason, David Y; Marafioti, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Double immunoenzymatic labeling of 2 different molecules in tissue sections is a widely used technique. However, it is time consuming since the 2 immunoenzymatic procedures are carried out in sequence, and they must also be optimally performed to avoid unwanted background labeling. In this paper, we report that double immunoenzymatic staining performed using automated immunostaining apparatus considerably reduces the requirements in terms of time and is also highly reproducible and free of background. Three tissue markers can also be visualized by performing (after immunoperoxidase labeling) 2 sequential immuno-alkaline phosphatase procedures using different substrates. Furthermore, single or double detection of mRNA by in situ hybridization can be combined with immunoenzymatic labeling. Finally, automated labeling could also be performed on peripheral blood and bone marrow smears, opening the possibility of using this procedure in the analysis of hematologic/cytology samples.

  14. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, DOUBLE QUICK, 09/24 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... Thi. pe.ticid. i. toxic to wildlif.. K •• p out of lak •• , pond. or .tr..... Do not cont •• inat. wat.rb, cl.aning ot .quip •• nt or di.~o.al ot wa.te. Apply thi. p •• ticid. ...

  15. Routing and Label Space Reduction in Label Switching Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Fernando; Caro, Luis Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas; Papadimitriou, Dimitri

    This chapter is devoted to the analysis and modeling of some problems related to the optimal usage of the label space in label switching networks. Label space problems concerning three different technologies and architectures - namely Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Ethernet VLAN-Label Switching (ELS) and All-Optical Label Switching (AOLS) - are discussed in this chapter. Each of these cases yields to different constraints of the general label space reduction problem. We propose a generic optimization model and, then, we describe some adaptations aiming at modeling each particular case. Simulation results are briefly discussed at the end of this chapter.

  16. Double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  18. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity. Labels... accuracy including, where applicable, the correct expiration date, control number, storage instructions...

  19. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  20. 2'-Alkynylnucleotides: A Sequence- and Spin Label-Flexible Strategy for EPR Spectroscopy in DNA.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Marius M; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Porter, Rachel J; Peña, Javier; Brown, Tom; Anderson, Edward A; Lovett, Janet E

    2016-07-27

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful method to elucidate molecular structure through the measurement of distances between conformationally well-defined spin labels. Here we report a sequence-flexible approach to the synthesis of double spin-labeled DNA duplexes, where 2'-alkynylnucleosides are incorporated at terminal and internal positions on complementary strands. Post-DNA synthesis copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions with a variety of spin labels enable the use of double electron-electron resonance experiments to measure a number of distances on the duplex, affording a high level of detailed structural information.

  1. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  2. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  3. From Labels to Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The author argues that to truly help young students who struggle with reading and writing--including those with identified disabilities or conditions that effect building literacy--teachers should avoid the approach of focusing on a student's deficits and creating labels for him or her (dyslexic, English language learner, and so on). A rush to…

  4. Photoaffinity-labeled Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Skoog, Folke

    1976-01-01

    Two new azidopurine derivatives, 2-azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and 2-azido-N6-benzyladenine, have been synthesized as potential photoaffinity labels for probing cytokinin-binding sites. The preparation and the biological activity of these compounds are described. PMID:16659772

  5. Maintenance of Clinical and Radiographic Benefit With Intravenous Golimumab Therapy in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Despite Methotrexate Therapy: Week-112 Efficacy and Safety Results of the Open-Label Long-Term Extension of a Phase III, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Clifton O; Mendelsohn, Alan M; Kim, Lilianne; Xu, Zhenhua; Leu, Jocelyn; Han, Chenglong; Lo, Kim Hung; Westhovens, Rene; Weinblatt, Michael E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and radiographic progression through 2 years of treatment with intravenous (IV) golimumab plus methotrexate (MTX) in an open-label extension of a phase III trial of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite MTX therapy. In the phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled GO-FURTHER trial, 592 patients with active RA were randomized (2:1) to intravenous golimumab 2 mg/kg plus MTX (Group 1) or placebo plus MTX (Group 2) at weeks 0 and 4, then every 8 weeks thereafter; placebo patients crossed over to golimumab at week 16 (early escape) or week 24 (crossover). The final golimumab infusion was at week 100. Assessments included American College of Rheumatology 20%, 50%, 70% (ACR20, ACR50, ACR70) response criteria, 28-joint count disease activity score using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP), physical function and quality of life measures, and changes in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde scores (SHS). Safety was monitored through week 112. In total, 486 patients (82.1%) continued treatment through week 100, and 68.1%, 43.8%, and 23.5% had an ACR20/50/70 response, respectively, at week 100. Clinical response and improvements in physical function and quality of life were generally maintained from week 24 through 2 years. Mean change from baseline to week 100 in SHS score was 0.74 in Group 1 and 2.10 in Group 2 (P = 0.005); progression from week 52 to week 100 was clinically insignificant in both groups. A total of 481 patients completed the safety followup through week 112; 79.1% had an adverse event, and 18.2% had a serious adverse event. Clinical response to IV golimumab plus MTX was maintained through week 100. Radiographic progression following golimumab treatment was clinically insignificant between week 52 and week 100. No unexpected adverse events occurred through week 112, and the safety profile was consistent with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. © 2015 The

  6. Effects of teriparatide on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in Japanese subjects with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture in a 24-month clinical study: 12-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and 12-month open-label phases.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Tsujimoto, Mika; Warner, Margaret R; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2010-09-01

    This multicenter study assessed the safety and efficacy of teriparatide 20 microg/day in Japanese men and women with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture during a 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment period followed by second and third treatment periods (to 18 and 24 months, respectively,) in which all subjects received open-label teriparatide. Subjects (93% female; median age 70 years) were randomized 2:1 to teriparatide versus placebo (randomized at baseline, teriparatide n=137, placebo-teriparatide n=70; entering the second period, teriparatide n=119, placebo-teriparatide n=59; entering the third period, teriparatide n=102, placebo-teriparatide n=50). For subjects with measurements at 12 months, teriparatide significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine L2-L4 (mean percent change+/-SD, teriparatide 10.04+/-5.23% versus placebo-teriparatide 0.19+/-4.33%), the femoral neck (teriparatide 2.01+/-4.63% versus placebo-teriparatide 0.44+/-3.97%), and the total hip (teriparatide 2.72+/-4.04% versus placebo-teriparatide -0.26+/-3.42%). In the placebo-teriparatide group at 24 months (12-month teriparatide dosing) BMD increased by 9.11+/-5.14% at the lumbar spine, 2.19+/-4.81% at the femoral neck and 2.46+/-3.54% at the total hip. In the teriparatide group at 18 and 24 months, BMD increased from baseline at the lumbar spine by 11.93+/-5.79% and 13.42+/-6.12%, respectively; at the femoral neck by 2.68+/-4.45% and 3.26+/-4.25%, respectively; and at the total hip by 3.02+/-3.79% and 3.67+/-3.98%, respectively. Serum procollagen I N-terminal pro-peptide (PINP) increased rapidly with teriparatide treatment (P<0.001 versus placebo at 1 month) and changed from baseline in the teriparatide and placebo-teriparatide groups at 12 months by a median of 78.95% and -17.23%, respectively, (P<0.001) and at 24 months by 49.24% and 76.12%, respectively. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, and

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  8. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  9. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  10. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  11. Collective Multi-Label Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    there is one output random variable . We begin by de- scribing this traditional classifier, then we describe its common ex- tension to the multi- label ...dependencies among the output variables . In addition to having feature for each label -term pair, CML main- tains features accounting for label co...over all possible multi- labelings — that is, over all subsets of Y . This method is intuitively appealing: it is easy to explain, and it is informative

  12. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Labels are overlaid on a photo (0003837) of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  13. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  14. A Note on the Total Number of Double Eulerian Circuits in Multigraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskovets, Valery

    2002-12-01

    We formulate explicitly and discuss a simple new enumerative formula for double (directed) eulerian circuits in n-edged labeled multigraphs. The formula follows easily from a recent 2-parametric formula of B. Lass.

  15. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  16. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  17. Map labeling and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S. |; Marathe, M.V.; Mirzaian, A.; Moret, B.M.E.; Zhu, B. |

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  18. A double-double/double-single computation package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-01

    The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems) to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.

  19. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  20. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the fuel economy label required by 15 U.S.C. 2006, or a separate label. A separate label may... case of a label that is included as part of the Monroney price information label or fuel economy label... motor vehicle equipment and that, to the best of the requester's knowledge, the outside supplier is...

  1. [A double gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Mink van der Molen, A B; Salu, M K

    1991-04-06

    A 59-year-old woman is described with symptomatic cholelithiasis. A double gallbladder was incidentally found during abdominal surgery. The literature on a double gallbladder is reviewed with respect to incidence, anatomy, diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Food labels: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Fraser, Joy

    2014-03-01

    Foods sold in packages have both front-of-package (FOP) labels and back-of-package (BOP) labels. The aim of this review is to determine the role they play in informing consumers as to the composition of foods in order to help select a healthy diet. Recent literature was evaluated and findings combined with assessments made by the authors of food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research shows that most consumers have difficulty understanding the information provided by both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research has evaluated the merits of alternative designs. FOP labels should be based on a clear and simple design. They should present information on key nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium or salt) and also energy value. They should have color and words that indicate "high," "medium," and "low" levels. Labels can also state quantity per serving. The traffic light system is the best example of this design. An extra traffic light indicating the overall health value of the food should be added. A clearer BOP label also is needed. Implementation of a new food labeling system will probably be opposed by the food industry. More research is needed into which food label designs are most effective, especially for persuading consumers to select healthier food. Both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada need to be redesigned using a traffic light system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  4. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf < slafmak), but once doubling in form is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., slaf = ball, slaflaf = balls), the doubling aversion shifts into a reliable (morphological) preference. We next show that sign-naive speakers spontaneously project these principles to novel signs in American Sign Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  5. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-01-16

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 {approx} 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  6. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  7. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  8. Sequential and parallel dual labeling of nanoparticles using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zong, Hong; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Chang, Huai-Ning; Otis, James B; Baker, James R

    2014-11-01

    Bioorthogonal 'click' reactions have recently emerged as promising tools for chemistry and biological applications. By using a combination of two different 'click' reactions, 'double-click' strategies have been developed to attach multiple labels onto biomacromolecules. These strategies require multi-step modifications of the biomacromolecules that can lead to heterogeneity in the final conjugates. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of three trifunctional linkers. The linkers having alkyne and cyclooctyne moieties that are capable of participating in sequential copper(I)-catalyzed and copper-free cycloaddition reactions with azides. We have also prepared a linker comprised of an alkyne and a 1,2,4,5-terazine moiety that allows for simultaneous cycloaddition reactions with azides and trans-cyclooctenes, respectively. These linkers can be attached to synthetic or biological macromolecules to create a platform capable of sequential or parallel 'double-click' labeling in biological systems. We show this potential using a generation 5 (G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer in combination with the clickable linkers. The dendrimers were successfully modified with these linkers and we demonstrate both sequential and parallel 'double-click' labeling with fluorescent reporters. We anticipate that these linkers will have a variety of application including molecular imaging and monitoring of macromolecule interactions in biological systems.

  9. Label Structured Cell Proliferation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    variable as a mass-like quantity. The specific model for the dynamics of life and death processes of a population of cells labeled with CFSE is proposed in... variables = + where < 0 is label degradation velocity. Because we really don’t understand completely the degradation process (there appears to be...little agreement as to what variables on which this velocity might depend) and to allow for generality (other labels that might be used may well

  10. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  11. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  12. Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.

  13. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  14. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  15. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  16. Combined Labelled and Label-free SERS Probes for Triplex Three-dimensional Cellular Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Bai, Xiangru; Su, Le; Du, Zhanwei; Shen, Aiguo; Materny, Arnulf; Hu, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Cells are complex chemical systems, where the molecular composition at different cellular locations and specific intracellular chemical interactions determine the biological function. An in-situ nondestructive characterization of the complicated chemical processes (like e.g. apoptosis) is the goal of our study. Here, we present the results of simultaneous and three-dimensional imaging of double organelles (nucleus and membrane) in single HeLa cells by means of either labelled or label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This combination of imaging with and without labels is not possible when using fluorescence microscopy. The SERS technique is used for a stereoscopic description of the intrinsic chemical nature of nuclei and the precise localization of folate (FA) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on the membrane under highly confocal conditions. We also report on the time-dependent changes of cell nuclei as well as membrane receptor proteins during apoptosis analyzed by statistical multivariate methods. The multiplex three-dimensional SERS imaging technique allows for both temporal (real time) and spatial (multiple organelles and molecules in three-dimensional space) live-cell imaging and therefore provides a new and attractive 2D/3D tracing method in biomedicine on subcellular level.

  17. Interferometric label-free biomolecular detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hradetzky, David; Mueller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger

    2006-07-01

    This work presents a simple evanescent wave sensing system based on an interferometric approach, suitable to meet the requirements of label-free sensor systems for detecting biomolecular interactions. It represents a basic concept towards label-free detection systems in various applications. The basic objectives of transducers for evanescent wave sensing are discussed. An optical detection system based on a interferometric approach using Young's double slit configuration is discussed, set-up and characterized. With refractometric measurements of various sucrose dilutions, the performance of the pure optical set-up is evaluated. A mean resolution of the effective refractive index of 3\\sigma (\\overline {\\Delta n}_{\\mathrm {eff}})=0.9 \\times 10^{-6} without averaging was obtained and a reproducibility below σr(neff) = 0.1 × 10-6 was achieved. Furthermore basic experiments were carried out, for proofing the concept's suitability as a highly sensitive biosensor by detecting the hybridization of 21-mer DNA with an immobilized counterpart on the surface.

  18. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  19. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  20. Health claims on food labels.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, L

    1994-03-01

    Food and drug law requires that the ingredients in most foods be disclosed on their labels, but until recently there was no requirement that nutrition information be provided. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA), passed on November 8, 1990, mandated the Food and Drug Administration to establish regulations requiring most foods to have a uniform nutrition label showing the amount of calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, protein, and sodium. The Act also establishes the circumstances under which content claims and disease claims may be made about nutrients in food. This paper briefly discusses recent changes in the food label brought about by the NLEA and focuses on health claims on food labels.

  1. Structural analysis of uniformly (13)C-labelled solids from selective angle measurements at rotational resonance.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G; Edwards, Rachel; Middleton, David A

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that individual H-C-C-H torsional angles in uniformly labelled organic solids can be estimated by selective excitation of (13)C double-quantum coherences under magic-angle spinning at rotational resonance. By adapting a straightforward one-dimensional experiment described earlier [T. Karlsson, M. Eden, H. Luhman, M.H. Levitt, J. Magn. Reson. 145 (2000) 95-107], a double-quantum filtered spectrum selective for Calpha and Cbeta of uniformly labelled L-[(13)C,(15)N]valine is obtained with 25% efficiency. The evolution of Calpha-Cbeta double-quantum coherence under the influence of the dipolar fields of bonded protons is monitored to provide a value of the Halpha-Calpha-Cbeta-Hbeta torsional angle that is consistent with the crystal structure. In addition, double-quantum filtration selective for C6 and C1' of uniformly labelled [(13)C,(15)N]uridine is achieved with 12% efficiency for a (13)C-(13)C distance of 2.5A, yielding a reliable estimate of the C6-H and C1'-H projection angle defining the relative orientations of the nucleoside pyrimidine and ribose rings. This procedure will be useful, in favourable cases, for structural analysis of fully labelled small molecules such as receptor ligands that are not readily synthesised with labels placed selectively at structurally diagnostic sites.

  2. Structural analysis of uniformly 13C-labelled solids from selective angle measurements at rotational resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patching, Simon G.; Edwards, Rachel; Middleton, David A.

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that individual H-C-C-H torsional angles in uniformly labelled organic solids can be estimated by selective excitation of 13C double-quantum coherences under magic-angle spinning at rotational resonance. By adapting a straightforward one-dimensional experiment described earlier [T. Karlsson, M. Eden, H. Luhman, M.H. Levitt, J. Magn. Reson. 145 (2000) 95-107], a double-quantum filtered spectrum selective for Cα and Cβ of uniformly labelled L-[ 13C, 15N]valine is obtained with 25% efficiency. The evolution of Cα-Cβ double-quantum coherence under the influence of the dipolar fields of bonded protons is monitored to provide a value of the Hα-Cα-Cβ-Hβ torsional angle that is consistent with the crystal structure. In addition, double-quantum filtration selective for C6 and C1' of uniformly labelled [ 13C, 15N]uridine is achieved with 12% efficiency for a 13C- 13C distance of 2.5 Å, yielding a reliable estimate of the C6-H and C1'-H projection angle defining the relative orientations of the nucleoside pyrimidine and ribose rings. This procedure will be useful, in favourable cases, for structural analysis of fully labelled small molecules such as receptor ligands that are not readily synthesised with labels placed selectively at structurally diagnostic sites.

  3. Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance methods to determine distances between spin labels on human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Harbridge, J R; Hammarström, P; Mitri, R; Mårtensson, L G; Carlsson, U; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S

    2001-01-01

    Four doubly spin-labeled variants of human carbonic anhydrase II and corresponding singly labeled variants were prepared by site-directed spin labeling. The distances between the spin labels were obtained from continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra by analysis of the relative intensity of the half-field transition, Fourier deconvolution of line-shape broadening, and computer simulation of line-shape changes. Distances also were determined by four-pulse double electron-electron resonance. For each variant, at least two methods were applicable and reasonable agreement between methods was obtained. Distances ranged from 7 to 24 A. The doubly spin-labeled samples contained some singly labeled protein due to incomplete labeling. The sensitivity of each of the distance determination methods to the non-interacting component was compared. PMID:11371461

  4. Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J

    1976-12-01

    Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (Localizabión de receptores para lectinas durante el ciclo celular). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 100-104, 1976. The topographic distribution of specific cell surface receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied by ultrastructural labeling in the course of the cell cycle. C12TSV5 cells were synchronized by double thymidine block or mechanical selection (shakeoff). They were labeled by means of lectin-peroxidase techniques while in G1 S, G2 and M phases of the cycle. The results obtained were similar for both lectins employed. Interphase cells (G1 S, G2) present a stlihtly discontinous labeling pattern that is similar to the one observed on unsynchronized cells of the same line. Cells in mitosis, on the contrary, present a highly discontinous distribution of reaction product. This pattern disappears after the cells enters G1 and is not present on mitotic cells fixed in aldehyde prior to labeling.

  5. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  6. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  7. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  8. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the following... with black text. The label text shall comply with the following format requirements: (1) All... as needed for varying information. The label must be white with black text. The label shall contain...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  11. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  12. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium content...

  14. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium content...

  15. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium content...

  16. Double-Bounce Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    module. Adjustments provided to investigate double- bounce switching are noted. limitation is at a higher level and occurs in the conventionally...To be presented at the 4th IEEE PUlsed Power Conference, June 6-8, 1983, Albuquerque, NM. DOUBLE- BOUNCE SWITCHING* George B. Frazier and Steven R...Ashby Physics International Company 2700 Merced Street San Leandro, California 94577 Abstract Double- bounce switching is a technique for

  17. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  18. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  19. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  20. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Protection Reference Center was launched as a Web page in February 1999. The Web page includes a PowerPoint presentation titled ``Labeling 101,'' which is used by the Agency as a teaching tool at workshops on meat and...

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  9. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  10. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  11. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  12. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  13. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  14. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  15. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  16. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  17. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  18. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  19. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  20. Labeling cytoskeletal F-actin with rhodamine phalloidin or fluorescein phalloidin for imaging.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Brad

    2010-05-01

    The eukaryotic cell has evolved to compartmentalize its functions and transport various metabolites among cellular compartments. Therefore, in cell biology, the study of organization and structure/function relationships is of great importance. The cytoskeleton is composed of a series of filamentous structures, including intermediate filaments, actin filaments, and microtubules. Immunofluorescent staining has been most frequently used to study cytoskeletal components. However, it is also possible to fluorescently label isolated cytoskeletal proteins and either microinject them back into the cell or add them to fixed, permeabilized cells. Alternatively, it is possible to use the mushroom-derived fluorescinated toxins, phalloidin or phallacidin, to label F-actin of the cytoskeleton, as is described in this article. Phalloidin is available labeled with different fluorophores. The choice of the specific fluorophore should depend on whether phalloidin labeling for actin is part of a double-label experiment. In most cells, the abundance of actin filaments should provide a very strong signal. In double-label experiments, the fluorophore should be chosen to take this into account. In general, rhodamine labels are more resistant to photobleaching and can be subjected to the longer exposures required for finer structures.

  1. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  2. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Labels and Carton Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance focuses on safety aspects of the container label and carton labeling design for prescription drug and biological products...

  3. The double life of double effect.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alison

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's majority opinion in Vacco v. Quill assumes that the principle of double effect explains the permissibility of hastening death in the context of ordinary palliative care and in extraordinary cases in which painkilling drugs have failed to relieve especially intractable suffering and terminal sedation has been adopted as a last resort. The traditional doctrine of double effect, understood as providing a prohibition on instrumental harming as opposed to incidental harming or harming as a side effect, must be distinguished from other ways in which the claim that a result is not intended might be offered as part of a justification for it. Although double effect might appropriately be invoked as a constraint on ordinary palliative care, it is not clear that it can be coherently extended to justify such practices as terminal sedation. A better approach would reconsider double effect's traditional prohibition on hastening death as a means to relieve suffering in the context of acute palliative care.

  4. Double metalization for VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Postsintering process increases yield of double-layer metal conductors to almost 100 percent. When wafers containing double-metalized chips are sintered, metal layers react with oxide film remaining in insulation layer holes, breaking it up so that it no longer impedes electric current. Cooling also mechanically disrupts oxide film.

  5. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  6. Approximation Algorithms for Free-Label Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Mark; Gerrits, Dirk H. P.

    Inspired by air traffic control and other applications where moving objects have to be labeled, we consider the following (static) point labeling problem: given a set P of n points in the plane and labels that are unit squares, place a label with each point in P in such a way that the number of free labels (labels not intersecting any other label) is maximized. We develop efficient constant-factor approximation algorithms for this problem, as well as PTASs, for various label-placement models.

  7. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  8. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  9. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Healthy Aging > Drugs and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version ... html Connect with other organizations National Institute on Aging, NIH, HHS http://www.nia.nih.gov/ U.S. ...

  10. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...

  11. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a single ailment. This is simply the nature of both drug devel- opment and clinical medicine. ... off-label use of cancer drugs. Given the nature of cancer and cancer drugs, this approach sounds ...

  12. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  13. Label-Free Receptor Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Label-free biosensors offer integrated, kinetic and multi-parametric measures of receptor biology and ligand pharmacology in whole cells. Being highly sensitive and pathway-unbiased, label-free receptor assays can be used to probe the systems cell biology including pleiotropic signaling of receptors, and to characterize the functional selectivity and phenotypic pharmacology of ligand molecules. These assays provide a new dimension for elucidating receptor biology and for facilitating drug discovery. PMID:21221420

  14. Label-Free Receptor Assays.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors offer integrated, kinetic and multi-parametric measures of receptor biology and ligand pharmacology in whole cells. Being highly sensitive and pathway-unbiased, label-free receptor assays can be used to probe the systems cell biology including pleiotropic signaling of receptors, and to characterize the functional selectivity and phenotypic pharmacology of ligand molecules. These assays provide a new dimension for elucidating receptor biology and for facilitating drug discovery.

  15. Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D

    1997-11-01

    A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.

  16. Availability of Spanish prescription labels.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Iman; Lo, Sarah; Ozuah, Philip O

    2006-02-01

    The research team conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of all pharmacies in the Bronx, New York (99.4% participation rate) to determine availability of Spanish prescription labels. One hundred twenty five pharmacies (78%) were small independent pharmacies; 36 (22%) were large-chain pharmacies. Overall, 111 (69%) stated that they could provide prescription labels in Spanish. Overall, for all the pharmacy ZIP codes, the mean proportion of the population that was Spanish-speaking was 46.8% (range 11% to 71.6%). Seventy-eight (48%) pharmacies were located in areas where more than 50% of the population were Spanish-speaking, 48 (30%) were located in areas with 25.1-50% Spanish-speakers, and 35 (22%) were in areas with up to 25% Spanish-speakers. Small independent pharmacies were more likely than large chain pharmacies to provide prescription labels in Spanish (71% vs. 61%, p=0.25). All the pharmacists commented that a patient must specifically request a Spanish prescription label in order to receive one. Pharmacies located in areas with the highest proportion of Spanish speakers were more likely to provide prescription labels in Spanish (82% vs. 62% vs. 49%; p=.001). Of the 111 pharmacies that could provide Spanish labels, 95 (86%) used a computer program to perform the translation and 16(14%) used a lay employee. Of pharmacies using a computer program, only one had a Spanish-speaking pharmacist who could check and correct the computer translations.

  17. Calorimetric evidence for phase transitions in spin-label lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Sturtevant, J M; Conklin, K; Gaffney, B J

    1982-09-28

    Dispersions of pure, spin-label phosphatidylcholines in aqueous buffer have been investigated with the Privalov high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter. The lipids studied are mixed-chain ones in which C-2 of glycerol bears a spin-label derivative of stearic acid and the fatty acid group at C-1 is palmitate. A well-defined phase transition is observed at 30.3-30.7 degrees C for the phosphatidylcholine labeled near the polar end of the stearate chain (label at C-5). A sharp transition (32-34 degrees C) is also observed for the lipid spin-labeled near the terminal methyl of stearate (label at C-16), but the thermodynamic parameters for this lipid depend strongly on the history of the sample. Calorimetric evidence for hysteresis in the phase transition of the C-16-labeled lipid is presented. In contrast to the above spin-label lipids, the lipid labeled at C-12 does not show a sharp transition in the region 5-35 degrees C. In general, therefore, the thermal behavior of the spin-label phosphatidylcholines resembles that of phosphatidylcholines bearing double bonds or branched methyl groups at similar locations on acyl chains. During synthesis of mixed-chain lipids, migration of acyl chains occurs. Methyl esterification procedures which are compatible with the acid-labile spin-label group are described. Gas chromatographic analysis of methyl esters shows that chain migration during synthesis gives 15-20% of the spin-label fatty acid at the glycerol C-1 position.

  18. Emerging double helical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-07-01

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on `bottom-up' and `top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  19. Emerging double helical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-08-21

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  20. Topological Quantum Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, Philippe

    Following a preceding paper showing how the introduction of a t.v.s. topology on quantum groups led to a remarkable unification and rigidification of the different definitions, we adapt here, in the same way, the definition of quantum double. This topological double is dualizable and reflexive (even for infinite dimensional algebras). In a simple case we show, considering the double as the "zero class" of an extension theory, the uniqueness of the double structure as a quasi-Hopf algebra. A la suite d'un précédent article montrant comment l'introduction d'une topologie d'e.v.t. sur les groupes quantiques permet une unification et une rigidification remarquables des différentes définitions, on adapte ici de la même manière la définition du double quantique. Ce double topologique est alors dualisable et reflexif (même pour des algèbres de dimension infinie). Dans un cas simple on montre, en considérant le double comme la "classe zéro" d'une théorie d'extensions, l'unicité de cette structure comme algèbre quasi-Hopf.

  1. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on luminol functionalized gold nanoparticle labeling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dayong; Duan, Chunfeng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Hua

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on luminol functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) labeling was developed using human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) as a model analyte. The primary antibody biotin-conjugated goat-anti-human IgG was first immobilized on a streptavidin coated AuNP modified electrode, then the antigen (human IgG) and the luminol functionalized AuNP-labeled second antibody were conjugated successively to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex, i.e. immunosensor. ECL was carried out with a double-step potential in carbonate buffer solution containing 1.0 mmol/L H(2)O(2). Since thousand of luminol molecules were coated on the surface of AuNPs to realize labeling of multiple molecules with CL activity at a single antibody and the amplification of AuNPs and biotin-streptavidin system was utilized, luminol ECL signal could be enhanced greatly, finally resulting in extremely high sensitivity. The ECL method shows a detection limit of 1.0 pg/mL (S/N=3) for hIgG, which is superior to all previously reported methods for the determination of hIgG. Moreover, the proposed method is also simple, stable, specific, and time-saving, avoiding the complicated stripping procedure during CL detection and the uncontrollable synthesis of irregular nanoparticles compared with other chemiluminescence immunoassay based on AuNP labeling. Additionally, the labeling procedure is also superior to that of other reported multilabeling strategies, such as Ru complex-encapsulated polymer microspheres, and most of Ru complex-encapsulated liposomes in simplicity, stability, labeling property and practical applicability. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the detection of hIgG in human serums.

  2. Nuclease stability of boron-modified nucleic acids: application to label-free mismatch detection.

    PubMed

    Reverte, Maëva; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Smietana, Michael

    2015-11-21

    5'-End boronic acid-modified oligonucleotides were evaluated against various nucleases at single and double stranded levels. The results show that these modifications induce a high resistance to degradation by calf-spleen and snake venom phosphodiesterases. More importantly, this eventually led to the development of a new label-free enzyme-assisted fluorescence-based method for single mismatch detection.

  3. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  4. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  5. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  6. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  7. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  8. 7 CFR 70.45 - Misleading labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 70.45 Section 70.45 Agriculture... Misleading labeling. The use of the terms “Government Graded” and “Federal-State Graded” or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of any product without stating in the labeling or advertisement the...

  9. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  10. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  11. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  12. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  13. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  14. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB15 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission..., clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online energy label disclosures, and.... Appliance Labeling Rule The Commission issued the Appliance Labeling Rule pursuant to the Energy Policy...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games, and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  16. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  17. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The...

  18. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle Texas Adult Congenital Heart Center (TACH) www.bcm.edu/ ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  19. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  20. [Double scleral covering evisceration].

    PubMed

    Sanz López, A; Sales Sanz, M

    2003-05-01

    To describe a surgical technique for evisceration that allows the use of large size implants, reducing risk of exposure. We analize the results of 22 eviscerations with Medpor implants with double scleral covering. We managed to use implants of 20 and 22 mm, sometimes in very small anophthalmic cavities, without complications. Double scleral covering evisceration is a surgical technique that allows the use of large size implants, reducing the risk of exposure.

  1. Room-Temperature Distance Measurements of Immobilized Spin-Labeled Protein by DEER/PELDOR

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Virginia; Swanson, Michael A.; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Stein, Richard A.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Rajca, Andrzej; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide spin labels are used for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements of distances between sites in biomolecules. Rotation of gem-dimethyls in commonly used nitroxides causes spin echo dephasing times (Tm) to be too short to perform DEER measurements at temperatures between ∼80 and 295 K, even in immobilized samples. A spirocyclohexyl spin label has been prepared that has longer Tm between 80 and 295 K in immobilized samples than conventional labels. Two of the spirocyclohexyl labels were attached to sites on T4 lysozyme introduced by site-directed spin labeling. Interspin distances up to ∼4 nm were measured by DEER at temperatures up to 160 K in water/glycerol glasses. In a glassy trehalose matrix the Tm for the doubly labeled T4 lysozyme was long enough to measure an interspin distance of 3.2 nm at 295 K, which could not be measured for the same protein labeled with the conventional 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-(methyl)methanethio-sulfonate label. PMID:25762332

  2. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...Section 321 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires the Commission to consider the effectiveness of current labeling requirements for lamps (commonly referred to as light bulbs) and alternative labeling approaches. After holding a public meeting, conducting consumer research, issuing proposed changes to existing labeling requirements, and reviewing public comments, the Commission announces final amendments to the lamp labeling requirements in the Appliance Labeling Rule. The Commission also seeks further comment on several issues for consideration in any subsequent rulemaking.

  3. Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  5. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  6. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  7. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  8. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  9. Pulse dipolar ESR of doubly labeled mini TAR DNA and its annealing to mini TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

    2015-02-17

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26-27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ~35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... 11 and 101 Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Proposed Rule #0... Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: To implement the vending machine labeling provisions of the...

  11. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  12. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  13. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  14. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  15. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  16. Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays.

    PubMed

    Huber, François; Hegner, Martin; Gerber, Christoph; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Hans Peter

    2006-02-15

    We report the measurement of protein interaction with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using cantilever microarray technology. We investigated two different DNA-binding proteins, the transcription factors SP1 and NF-kappaB, using cantilever arrays as they allow label-free measurement of different biomolecular interactions in parallel. Double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing a specific binding site for a transcription factor were sensitized on gold-coated cantilevers. The binding of the transcription factor creates a surface stress, resulting in a bending of the cantilevers. Both transcription factors could be detected independently at concentrations of 80-100 nM. A concentration dependence of the bending signal was measured using concentrations from 100 to 400 nM of NF-kappaB. The experiments show that the recognition sequence of one transcription factor can serve as a reference for the other, highlighting the sequence specificity of transcription factor binding.

  17. Simultaneous quantitation of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies by double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Aggerbeck, H; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Heron, I

    1996-04-19

    A dual, double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antibodies in sera has been developed. In the double antigen format one arm of the antibody binds to antigen coated microtitre wells and the other arm binds to labelled antigen to provide a fluorescent signal. This assay was found to be functionally specific for IgG antibodies and showed a good correlation with established toxin neutralization assays. Furthermore, the double antigen set-up was species independent, permitting the direct use of existing international references of animal origin to measure protective antibody levels in humans in international units (IU/ml). The detection limit corresponded to 0.0003 IU/ml with Eu(3+)-labelled toxoids and to 0.0035 IU/ml using Sm(3+)-labelled toxoids. The assay was fast with a high capacity making it a suitable method for serological surveillance studies.

  18. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... product as ``organic'' or containing organic ingredients; (3) claims that are undefined in FSIS... labeling errors resulted from production mistakes, such as packaging the product in the wrong box. More... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically...

  19. Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA).

  20. A New Component Labelling And Merging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochovsky, Amelia F.

    1987-10-01

    Component labelling is an important part of region analysis in image processing. Component labelling consists of assigning labels to pixels in the image such that adjacent pixels are given the same labels. There are various approaches to component labelling. Some require random access to the processed image; some assume special structure of the image such as a quad tree. Algorithms based on sequential scan of the image are attractive to hardware implementation. One method of labelling is based on a fixed size local window which includes the previous line. Due to the fixed size window and the sequential fashion of the labelling process, different branches of the same object may be given different labels and later found to be connected to each other. These labels are con-sidered to be equivalent and must later be collected to correctly represent one single object. This approach can be found in [F,FE,R]. Assume an input binary image of size NxM. Using these labelling algorithms, the number of equivalent pair generated is bounded by O(N*M). The number of distinct labels is also bounded by O(N*M). There is no known algorithm that merge the equivalent label pairs in time linear to the number of pairs, that is in time bounded by O(N*M). We propose a new labelling algorithm which interleaves the labelling with the merging process. The labelling and the merging are combined in one algorithm. Merged label information is kept in an equivalent table which is used to guide the labelling. In general , the algorithm produces fewer equivalent label pairs. The combined labelling and merging algorithm is O(N*M), where NxM is the size of the image. Section II describes the algorithm. Section III gives some examples We discuss implementation issues in section IV and further discussion and conclusion are given in Section V.

  1. Genetically Encoded Spin Labels for In Vitro and In-Cell EPR Studies of Native Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M J; Fedoseev, A; Summerer, D; Drescher, M

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful approach to study the structure, dynamics, and interactions of proteins. The genetic encoding of the noncanonical amino acid spin-labeled lysine 1 (SLK-1) eliminates the need for any chemical labeling steps in SDSL-EPR studies and enables the investigation of native, endogenous proteins with minimal structural perturbation, and without the need to create unique reactive sites for chemical labeling. We report detailed experimental procedures for the efficient synthesis of SLK-1, the expression and purification of SLK-1-containing proteins under conditions that ensure maximal integrity of the nitroxide radical moiety, and procedures for intramolecular EPR distance measurements in proteins by double electron-electron resonance.

  2. A method to label biological molecules with dsDNA coated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ming; Li, Fangliang; Dong, Yingshan; Yu, Zhenxiang; Chen, Xia

    2015-03-01

    We described a new method to label biological molecules using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and double stranded DNA. Researchers can conveniently label their own samples with GNPs using this method. The label is based on dsDNA with a 93.5% coverage of GNPs (dsDNA:GNP = 303:1). Antigens, streptavidin and biotin were labeled on GNPs and the success of the method was investigated with agarose gel electrophoresis, laser particle size analysis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. These analyses confirmed that biological molecules were successfully bound to the GNPs. These molecules retained their biological activity and were able to detect targets on PVDF and NC membranes with excellent selectivity and low levels of background. Modified GNPs were also able to detect targets on nylon membranes, but with some degree of false positives. The maximum limit of detection was 25 ng proteins.

  3. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  4. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  5. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 liters) cooked. If you eat 2 cups (0.48 liters) at a meal, you are eating 2 servings. That is 2 times the amount of the calories, fats, and other items listed on the label. Calorie information tells you the number of calories in ...

  6. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  7. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  8. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  9. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  10. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  11. Revisting the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taekjip

    2010-12-08

    Properties of DNA double helix have been studied for over 60 years. Yet as more sensitive tools become available, fundamental assumptions in our understanding of these properties are being challenged. One such question is over the flexibility of DNA. Looping or bending of DNA on short length scales is essential for many cellular processes but it is highly controversial exactly how flexible the DNA is. Using a new, single-molecule based method, we found that DNA of lengths as short as 50 base pairs can form a circle more than 108 times faster than theoretical predictions. Another question concerns the physical principles governing the reversible, helix-coil transitions of DNA between the double helix and single strands. Using porous nanocontainers, we found that the rate of double helix formation shows an abrupt 100 fold change depending on whether there are 7 or more contiguous base pairs or not.

  12. Double checking: a second look.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Tanya; Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: 'How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?' This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi-structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time-consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand-alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in-family approach, and resilience. Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Double checking: a second look

    PubMed Central

    Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: ‘How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?’ Method This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi‐structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Results Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time‐consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand‐alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in‐family approach, and resilience. Conclusion(s) Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. PMID:26568537

  14. Affinity Labeling of the Acetylcholine Receptor in the Electroplax: Electrophoretic Separation in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Michael J.; Cowburn, David A.; Prives, Joav M.; Karlin, Arthur

    1972-01-01

    Electroplax, single cells dissected from electric tissue of Electrophorus, are labeled in a two-step procedure: reduction by dithiothreitol followed by alkylation by the affinity label 4-(N-maleimido)-α-benzyltri-[methyl-3H]methylammonium iodide, either alone or in combination with [2,3-14C]N-ethylmaleimide. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate on polyacrylamide gel of an extract, prepared with this detergent, of single-labeled or of double-labeled cells results in a major peak of 3H activity, with a mobility corresponding to a polypeptide of molecular weight 42,000. In addition, in the double-labeled samples, there is a unique peak in the ratio of 3H to 14C that is coincident with the 3H peak. The electrophoretic patterns of extracts of cells in which affinity alkylation of the reduced receptor has been suppressed by dithiobischoline, an affinity oxidizing agent, by cobratoxin, an irreversible ligand, or by hexamethonium, a reversible ligand, show a considerably diminished peak of 3H activity in the region of molecular weight 42,000. This is the predominant difference between the electrophoretic patterns of extracts of unprotected and of protected cells. Furthermore, extracts of cells protected with dithiobischoline before labeling with both tritiated affinity label and [14C]N-ethylmaleimide do not show the peak in the 3H to 14C ratio seen in the absence of protection. Thus, by several diverse criteria, the peak of 3H activity corresponding to a molecular weight of 42,000 contains affinity-labeled acetylcholine receptor or receptor subunit. PMID:4504331

  15. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  16. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  17. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  18. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  19. Sulphur tracer experiments in laboratory animals using 34S-labelled yeast.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sierra, J Giner; Moreno Sanz, F; Herrero Espílez, P; Marchante Gayón, J M; Rodríguez Fernández, J; García Alonso, J I

    2013-03-01

    We have evaluated the use of (34)S-labelled yeast to perform sulphur metabolic tracer experiments in laboratory animals. The proof of principle work included the selection of the culture conditions for the preparation of sulphur labelled yeast, the study of the suitability of this labelled yeast as sulphur source for tracer studies using in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and the administration of the (34)S-labelled yeast to laboratory animals to follow the fate and distribution of (34)S in the organism. For in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the combination of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) showed that labelled methionine, cysteine and other low molecular weight sulphur-containing biomolecules were the major components in the digested extracts of the labelled yeast. Next, in vivo kinetic experiments were performed in healthy Wistar rats after the oral administration of (34)S-labelled yeast. The isotopic composition of total sulphur in tissues, urine and faeces was measured by double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. It was observed that measurable isotopic enrichments were detected in all samples. Finally, initial investigations on sulphur isotopic composition of serum and urine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS have been carried out. For serum samples, no conclusive data were obtained. Interestingly, chromatographic analysis of urine samples showed differential isotope enrichment for several sulphur-containing biomolecules.

  20. Multilabel Image Annotation Based on Double-Layer PLSA Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Da; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhihua; Yuan, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    Due to the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts, automatic image annotation has become a difficult issue in computer vision recently. We propose a new image multilabel annotation method based on double-layer probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) in this paper. The new double-layer PLSA model is constructed to bridge the low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts of images for effective image understanding. The low-level features of images are represented as visual words by Bag-of-Words model; latent semantic topics are obtained by the first layer PLSA from two aspects of visual and texture, respectively. Furthermore, we adopt the second layer PLSA to fuse the visual and texture latent semantic topics and achieve a top-layer latent semantic topic. By the double-layer PLSA, the relationships between visual features and semantic concepts of images are established, and we can predict the labels of new images by their low-level features. Experimental results demonstrate that our automatic image annotation model based on double-layer PLSA can achieve promising performance for labeling and outperform previous methods on standard Corel dataset. PMID:24999490

  1. Conformational dynamics of nucleic acid molecules studied by PELDOR spectroscopy with rigid spin labels.

    PubMed

    Prisner, T F; Marko, A; Sigurdsson, S Th

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid molecules can adopt a variety of structures and exhibit a large degree of conformational flexibility to fulfill their various functions in cells. Here we describe the use of Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER) to investigate nucleic acid molecules where two cytosine analogs have been incorporated as spin probes. Because these new types of spin labels are rigid and incorporated into double stranded DNA and RNA molecules, there is no additional flexibility of the spin label itself present. Therefore the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between both spin labels encodes for the distance as well as for the mutual orientation between the spin labels. All of this information can be extracted by multi-frequency/multi-field PELDOR experiments, which gives very precise and valuable information about the structure and conformational flexibility of the nucleic acid molecules. We describe in detail our procedure to obtain the conformational ensembles and show the accuracy and limitations with test examples and application to double-stranded DNA.

  2. Conformational dynamics of nucleic acid molecules studied by PELDOR spectroscopy with rigid spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisner, T. F.; Marko, A.; Sigurdsson, S. Th.

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid molecules can adopt a variety of structures and exhibit a large degree of conformational flexibility to fulfill their various functions in cells. Here we describe the use of Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER) to investigate nucleic acid molecules where two cytosine analogs have been incorporated as spin probes. Because these new types of spin labels are rigid and incorporated into double stranded DNA and RNA molecules, there is no additional flexibility of the spin label itself present. Therefore the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between both spin labels encodes for the distance as well as for the mutual orientation between the spin labels. All of this information can be extracted by multi-frequency/multi-field PELDOR experiments, which gives very precise and valuable information about the structure and conformational flexibility of the nucleic acid molecules. We describe in detail our procedure to obtain the conformational ensembles and show the accuracy and limitations with test examples and application to double-stranded DNA.

  3. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  4. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  5. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the…

  6. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the…

  7. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  8. Teaching the Double Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various methods for teaching the double layer in electrochemistry courses. Topics addressed include measuring change in absolute potential difference (PD) at interphase, conventional electrode potential scale, analyzing absolute PD, metal-metal and overlap electron PDs, accumulation of material at interphase, thermodynamics of electrified…

  9. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  10. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  11. Design for Double Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  12. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  13. Rosette (Double Blossom)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosette, or double blossom, is a serious disease of erect blackberries that is limited to the genus Rubus. Rosette may occur on trailing blackberries and dewberries, but rarely on red and black raspberries. In the United States, rosette occurs from New Jersey to Illinois and southwest to Texas and i...

  14. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  15. Design for Double Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  16. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  17. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  18. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  19. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  20. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  1. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  2. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Display appropriate hazard warnings; (c) Use a chemical identity that permits cross-referencing between the list of hazardous chemicals, a chemical's label, and its MSDS; and (d) Include on labels for... information about the hazardous chemical....

  3. WaterSense Labeled New Homes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Homes built to meet EPA’s specification can earn the WaterSense label. EPA criteria include WaterSense labeled plumbing fixtures, efficient hot water delivery systems, water-smart landscape design, and other features.

  4. Logos and Graphics on Pesticide Product Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are several logos that pesticide companies can add to their labels with EPA approval. The requirements and process vary, so review the guidance carefully before applying to add a logo to a product label.

  5. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  6. Read the Label First! Protect Your Household

    MedlinePlus

    ... is labeled for your specific pest. EPA encourages consumers to consider using EPA-registered biopesticides and products with EPA’s Safer Choice label , which are generally less harmful. Simply reading ...

  7. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  8. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  9. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  10. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  11. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  12. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  13. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package in...

  14. Requirements for Access to Pesticide Labeling Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Employers of pesticide handlers must make sure that the handlers are given information from the pesticide labeling and have access to the labeling itself, before they do any handling task. Learn about the information employers must provide.

  15. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  16. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  17. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  18. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  19. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  20. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  1. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  2. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  3. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  4. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  5. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma, and...

  6. Disrupting the sexual double standard: young women's talk about heterosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Susan M; Cram, Fiona

    2003-03-01

    Despite significant changes in the social landscape over the past two decades, much ethnographic research suggests that young women's negotiations of (hetero)sexuality remain dominated by the sexual double standard. Within the sexual double standard, an active, desiring sexuality is positively regarded in men, but denigrated and regulated by negative labelling in women. This article analyses young women's talk on the subject of negotiating (hetero)sexual relationships, drawn from focus-group interviews with six groups of young women aged 16-18 years. A feminist, post-structuralist form of discourse analysis is used to analyse the material, the aim being to examine young women's talk about (hetero)sexuality from the standpoints of agency and resistance. Analyses identified various ways in which the sexual double standard was disrupted, including challenging the language of the sexual double standard, articulating sexual desire, and positioning of self and (hetero)sex within alternative discourses. The findings also suggest, however, that voices of resistance to the sexual double standard may be muted and individual rather than collective, and that, accordingly, every effort should be made by those working with young women to recognize and support attempts to disrupt the sexual double standard.

  7. Evolution of paediatric off-label use after new significant medicines become available for adults: a study on triptans in Finnish children 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lindkvist, Johanna; Airaksinen, Marja; Kaukonen, Ann Marie; Klaukka, Timo; Hoppu, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    AIM To investigate the evolution of paediatric off-label use after a therapeutically new group of medicines for a common condition becomes available for adults but is labelled for children with a delay of several years. METHODS Triptans were used as a model, because migraine is common in children, and is the only indication for triptans. Data on all triptan prescriptions 1994–2007 were extracted from the nationwide Finnish Prescription Register. Prescriptions for children were compared over time. RESULTS Paediatric patients with triptan prescriptions increased from 204 in 1994 to 2618 in 2007. Sumatriptan accounted for 64% of all paediatric triptan prescriptions. When sumatriptan in a nasal formulation was labelled for children ≥12 years in 2003, off-label prescribing to younger children (6–11 years) doubled in 2003–2004. Sumatriptan on-label prescriptions increased to 728 adolescents (45% of sumatriptan in the age group) in 2007, but its off-label use continued also to increase to 1119 (61% of paediatric sumatriptan prescriptions) in 2007. In that year 72% of paediatric triptan use was off-label, 28% on-label. CONCLUSIONS When a new significant medicine becomes available in adults, off-label use in children starts slowly but continues to extend to younger children reaching a market size which is little influenced by late appearance of a labelled product. Paediatric treatment remains dominated by off-label use despite labelling of a product in an age appropriate formulation to the most relevant age group. PMID:21564161

  8. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  9. Fluorescently labelled glycans and their applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongbin; Yalagala, Ravi Shekar; Yan, Fengyang

    2015-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on the synthesis and applications of fluorescently labelled carbohydrates. Due to the sensitivity of fluorescent detection, this approach provides a useful tool to study processes involving glycans. A few general categories of labelling are presented, in situ labelling of carbohydrates with fluorophores, fluorescently labelled glycolipids, fluorogenic glycans, pre-formed fluorescent glycans for intracellular applications, glycan-decorated fluorescent polymers, fluorescent glyconanoparticles, and other functional fluorescent glycans.

  10. Memory, double, shadow, and evil.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P

    1994-04-01

    In order to examine shadow dynamics the author explores the phenomenology and mythological associations of the 'double' or Doppelgänger. Current Jungian-inspired theories concerning relations of shadow and double are found to be limited because they do not explain (1) the process of personification of the psychic complex which gives rise to the double, (2) the immediate conditions under which doubling occurs, (3) the conditions which lead to the assignment of evil qualities to the double as shadow. The paper seeks to remedy each of the above limitations by redescribing shadow/double phenomena in terms of autonomous memory phenomena, both personal and trans-personal.

  11. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  12. Adaptive optical label packet switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shilin; Liu, Zhixin; Liang, Zheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Qu, Kefeng

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces a kind of Adaptive Optical Label Packet Switching (AOLPS) technology. Based on Optical Packet Switching (OPS), AOLPS uses optical label to achieve self-routing, and the size of optical packet is self-adaptive. At the edge nodes, IP packets are fist classified into different first-in-fist-out memories (FIFOs) according to their priority levels and destinations, and then being encapsulated into optical packets. The traffic at each FIFO is real-time monitored, and the controller in edge node employs an optimal strategy to generate suitable sized packets for transmission. Large sized packets will be adopted when traffic is heavy, and small sized packets will be used when traffic is light. This self-adaptive switching granularity can greatly improve the network performance.

  13. Pre-embedding labeling methods.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal gold conjugates generally do not readily penetrate cells, even after permeabilization. Therefore, their use in pre-embedding immunostaining has been largely restricted to labeling cell-surface antigens for scanning or transmission electron microscopy or for tracing endocytic pathways in living cells. One nanometer gold conjugates that do penetrate cells and tissues much more readily have also been used successfully to immunolabel intracellular structures. For pre-embedding labeling, all of the immunostaining is done prior to embedding the tissue in resin or preparing the samples for scanning electron microscopy. This chapter provides methods for pre-embedding staining with unconjugated primary antibody or with primary antibody conjugated to colloidal gold. The use of colloidal gold for tracing endocytic pathways is also given.

  14. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  15. CD-ROM Labeling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    was allowed to dry thoroughly before application to the disc, so that the solvent used would have dispersed. Use of this, or any adhesive is risky if...the chemical composition and solvents used are not known. Some acid based adhesives have been reported to have eaten through the disc’s protective...been specially manufactured with suitable adhesive ( beeswax ) for use with CD-ROM. Both foils can be printed with customer-labeled, generic

  16. Isotope Labeling in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Krishna; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen remarkable progress in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to proteins that have traditionally been difficult to study due to issues with folding, posttranslational modification, and expression levels or combinations thereof. In particular, insect cells have proved useful in allowing large quantities of isotope-labeled, functional proteins to be obtained and purified to homogeneity, allowing study of their structures and dynamics by using NMR. Here, we provide protocols that have proven successful in such endeavors. PMID:22167667

  17. 40 CFR 204.55-4 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.55-4 Labeling. (a)(1) The manufacturer... label: (i) The label heading: Compressor Noise Emission Control Information; (ii) Full corporate name...

  18. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  19. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 895.25 Section 895.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device...

  20. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 895.25 Section 895.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device...

  1. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  2. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  3. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  4. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.212 Labeling. (a) General... new marine engine modified from a base engine by post-manufacture marinizers in accordance with the... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading:...

  5. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public): (1...

  6. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public): (1...

  7. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biodiesel, biomass-based diesel, biodiesel blends, and biomass-based diesel blends. The label is 3 inches (7... the black band. Directly underneath the black band, the label shall read “contains biomass-based... the side edges of the label. (5) For biomass-based diesel blends containing more than 5 percent and no...

  8. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity....

  9. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  10. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design...

  13. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must design...

  14. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) All required label text must: (A) Be set in 6-point or larger type; (B) Appear on a clear contrasting background; and (C) Not be obscured or crowded. (3) Language to be used. All required label or labeling text... additional text in other languages as is considered necessary to protect the public. When additional text...

  15. Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?

    PubMed

    Variyam, Jayachandran N

    2008-06-01

    The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.

  16. Labels and Children's Perceptions of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    1973-01-01

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed in second- and sixth-grade children. Labels associated with color increased color perception, whereas labels based on expressiveness increased differentiation of expression variations, but not color perception. (ST)

  17. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301 Labeling... each dealer shall maintain or cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy... vehicle for which a specific label is requested which has a combined FTP/HFET-based fuel economy value,...

  18. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  19. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  20. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  1. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  2. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label records. (a) Each licensee and permittee shall maintain a list of all approved labels currently being used... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3...

  3. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label records. (a) Each licensee and permittee shall maintain a list of all approved labels currently being used... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3...

  4. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  5. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  7. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  9. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  10. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  11. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  12. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  13. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  14. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  15. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  16. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  17. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  18. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  19. Learning Words from Labeling and Directive Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…

  20. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission extends the effective date for its new light bulb labeling... Commission exempts from the new label requirements incandescent bulbs that will not be produced after January... proposing to extend the effective date of new labeling rules for light bulbs to January 1, 2012.\\1\\ The new...

  1. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  2. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  3. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  4. Labeling Nodes Using Three Degrees of Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sara; Goldenberg, Anna; Morris, Quaid

    2012-01-01

    The properties (or labels) of nodes in networks can often be predicted based on their proximity and their connections to other labeled nodes. So-called “label propagation algorithms” predict the labels of unlabeled nodes by propagating information about local label density iteratively through the network. These algorithms are fast, simple and scale to large networks but nonetheless regularly perform better than slower and much more complex algorithms on benchmark problems. We show here, however, that these algorithms have an intrinsic limitation that prevents them from adapting to some common patterns of network node labeling; we introduce a new algorithm, 3Prop, that retains all their advantages but is much more adaptive. As we show, 3Prop performs very well on node labeling problems ill-suited to label propagation, including predicting gene function in protein and genetic interaction networks and gender in friendship networks, and also performs slightly better on problems already well-suited to label propagation such as labeling blogs and patents based on their citation networks. 3Prop gains its adaptability by assigning separate weights to label information from different steps of the propagation. Surprisingly, we found that for many networks, the third iteration of label propagation receives a negative weight. Availability The code is available from the authors by request. PMID:23284828

  5. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  6. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  7. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  8. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall...

  9. Nutrition Label Viewing during a Food-Selection Task: Front-of-Package Labels vs Nutrition Facts Labels.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Heidrick, Charles; Hodgin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Earlier research has identified consumer characteristics associated with viewing Nutrition Facts labels; however, little is known about those who view front-of-package nutrition labels. Front-of-package nutrition labels might appeal to more consumers than do Nutrition Facts labels, but it might be necessary to provide consumers with information about how to locate and use these labels. This study quantifies Nutrition Facts and front-of-package nutrition label viewing among American adult consumers. Attention to nutrition information was measured during a food-selection task. One hundred and twenty-three parents (mean age=38 years, mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=28) and one of their children (aged 6 to 9 years) selected six foods from a university laboratory-turned-grocery aisle. Participants were randomized to conditions in which front-of-package nutrition labels were present or absent, and signage explaining front-of-package nutrition labels was present or absent. Adults' visual attention to Nutrition Facts labels and front-of-package nutrition labels was objectively measured via eye-tracking glasses. To examine whether there were significant differences in the percentages of participants who viewed Nutrition Facts labels vs front-of-package nutrition labels, McNemar's tests were conducted across all participants, as well as within various sociodemographic categories. To determine whether hypothesized factors, such as health literacy and education, had stronger relationships with front-of-package nutrition label vs Nutrition Facts label viewing, linear regression assessed the magnitude of relationships between theoretically and empirically derived factors and each type of label viewing. Overall, front-of-package nutrition labels were more likely to be viewed than Nutrition Facts labels; however, for all subgroups, higher rates of front-of-package nutrition label viewership occurred only when signage was present drawing attention to the presence and

  10. Site-specific insertion of nitroxide-spin labels into DNA probes by click chemistry for structural analyses by ELDOR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Flaender, M; Sicoli, G; Fontecave, Th; Mathis, G; Saint-Pierre, C; Boulard, Y; Gambarelli, S; Gasparutto, D

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for the insertion of nitroxide spin-labels at specific positions within DNA oligomers. The latter bioconjugaison strategy is based on a click chemistry 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a spin-labeling reagent, namely the 4-azido-TEMPO, and alkyne modified uridine-containing oligonucleotides. This highly efficient labeling method was applied for site-specific incorporation of two TEMPO units within a set of double-stranded DNA constructs. Then the determination of the inter-nitroxide distances was achieved by using a four-pulses DEER technique that successfully validates the new site-directed spin labeling strategy.

  11. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    PubMed

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Double Degrees: Double the Trouble or Twice the Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy; Dolnicar, Sara; Ayoub, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Double degrees (also called joint or combined degrees)--programs of study combining two bachelor degrees--are increasingly popular in Australian universities, particularly among women. A case study using qualitative and quantitative surveys of current and past double degree students is presented. The study indicates that double degrees benefit…

  14. Double Degrees: Double the Trouble or Twice the Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy; Dolnicar, Sara; Ayoub, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Double degrees (also called joint or combined degrees)--programs of study combining two bachelor degrees--are increasingly popular in Australian universities, particularly among women. A case study using qualitative and quantitative surveys of current and past double degree students is presented. The study indicates that double degrees benefit…

  15. 40 CFR 85.530 - Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. 85.530 Section 85.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Conversions From Tampering Prohibition § 85.530 Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. (a) The following...

  16. 40 CFR 85.530 - Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. 85.530 Section 85.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Conversions From Tampering Prohibition § 85.530 Vehicle/engine labels and packaging labels. (a) The following...

  17. Synthesis and NMR studies of (13)C-labeled vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Okamura, William H; Zhu, Gui-Dong; Hill, David K; Thomas, Richard J; Ringe, Kerstin; Borchardt, Daniel B; Norman, Anthony W; Mueller, Leonard J

    2002-03-08

    Isotope-labeled drug molecules may be useful for probing by NMR spectroscopy the conformation of ligand associated with biological hosts such as membranes and proteins. Triple-labeled [7,9,19-(13)C(3)]-vitamin D(3) (56), its 25-hydroxylated and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxylated metabolites (58 and 68, respectively), and other labeled materials have been synthesized via coupling of [9-(13)C]-Grundmann's ketone 39 or its protected 25-hydroxy derivative 43 with labeled A ring enyne fragments 25 or 26. The labeled CD-ring fragment 39 was prepared by a sequence involving Grignard addition of [(13)C]-methylmagnesium iodide to Grundmann's enone 28, oxidative cleavage, functional group modifications leading to seco-iodide 38, and finally a kinetic enolate S(N)2 cycloalkylation. The C-7,19 double labeling of the A-ring enyne was achieved by the Corey-Fuchs/Wittig processes on keto aldehyde 11. By employing these labeled fragments in the Wilson-Mazur route, the C-7,9,19 triple-(13)C-labeled metabolites 56, 58, and 68 as well as other (13)C-labeled metabolites have been prepared. In an initial NMR investigation of one of the labeled metabolites prepared in this study, namely [7,9,19-(13)C(3)]-25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (58), the three (13)C-labeled carbons of the otherwise water insoluble steroid could be clearly detected by (13)C NMR analysis at 0.1 mM in a mixture of CD(3)OD/D(2)O (60/40) or in aqueous dimethylcyclodextrin solution and at 2 mM in 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous micellar solution. In the SDS micellar solution, a double half-filter NOESY experiment revealed that the distance between the H(19Z) and H(7) protons is significantly shorter than that of the corresponding distance calculated from the solid state (X-ray) structure of the free ligand. The NMR data in micelles reveals that 58 exists essentially completely in the alpha-conformer with the 3 beta-hydroxyl equatorially oriented, just as in the solid state. The shortened distance (H(19Z))-H(7)) in micellar

  18. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  19. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  20. Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

  1. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  2. Double shell liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    1997-05-05

    Experiments on the double shell liner (DSL) implosions with and without an initial axial magnetic were performed on the SNOP-3 pulse generator (1.1 MA, 100 ns). In implosions of a DSL without an initial axial magnetic field, high radial compressions of the inner shell were observed, as in previous experiments with an initial axial magnetic field. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the initial azimuthal magnetic field are discussed.

  3. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  4. 46 CFR 160.133-17 - Marking and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking and labeling. (a) Each hook body of a release mechanism must be marked with a plate or label...) The plate or label must be in English, but may also be in other languages. (c) The plate or label must...

  5. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  6. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  7. DNA Labeling Using DNA Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Tomkuvienė, Miglė; Kriukienė, Edita; Klimašauskas, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases) uniquely combine the ability to recognize and covalently modify specific target sequences in DNA using the ubiquitous cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). Although DNA methylation plays important roles in biological signaling, the transferred methyl group is a poor reporter and is highly inert to further biocompatible derivatization. To unlock the biotechnological power of these enzymes, two major types of cofactor AdoMet analogs were developed that permit targeted MTase-directed attachment of larger moieties containing functional or reporter groups onto DNA. One such approach (named sequence-specific methyltransferase-induced labeling, SMILing) uses reactive aziridine or N-mustard mimics of the cofactor AdoMet, which render targeted coupling of a whole cofactor molecule to the target DNA. The second approach (methyltransferase-directed transfer of activated groups, mTAG) uses AdoMet analogs with a sulfonium-bound extended side chain replacing the methyl group, which permits MTase-directed covalent transfer of the activated side chain alone. As the enlarged cofactors are not always compatible with the active sites of native MTases, steric engineering of the active site has been employed to optimize their alkyltransferase activity. In addition to the described cofactor analogs, recently discovered atypical reactions of DNA cytosine-5 MTases involving non-cofactor-like compounds can also be exploited for targeted derivatization and labeling of DNA. Altogether, these approaches offer new powerful tools for sequence-specific covalent DNA labeling, which not only pave the way to developing a variety of useful techniques in DNA research, diagnostics, and nanotechnologies but have already proven practical utility for optical DNA mapping and epigenome studies.

  8. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  9. The effect of 125I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling on murine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. J.; Sheridan, J. W.; Donald, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Labelling with 125IUdR at radioactivity concentrations commonly employed in studied with i.v. injected tumour cells (1.0-0.1 microCi/ml) was shown to reduce considerably the in vitro reproductive viability of mastocytoma tumour cells. Velocity sedimentation cell separation studies on mastocytoma cells that had been labelled for 12 h with 0.8 microCi/ml 125IUdR yielded a population that varied markedly between fraction with respect to distribution of label and, in parallel, with respect to induced loss of reproductive viability. A similar population of mastocytoma cells that had been labelled for 36 h with 0.01 microCi/ml 125IUdR yielded fractions where distribution of label was not associated with reduced reproductive viability. Although in vivo survival (as distinct from reproductive viability) of tumour cells injected i.v. and i.p. was not significantly altered within 7 h and 30 h respectively by the commonly used concentrations of 125IUdR, it is suggested that in studies of the fate of injected tumour cells exponentially growing cells be labelled with 125IUdR for intervals well in excess of population doubling times at concentrations less than or equal to 0.025 microCi/ml. PMID:6784742

  10. Label-free and high-sensitive detection for genetic point mutation based on hyperspectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongxin; Li, Qi; Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Ruliang; Lin, Xue; Xue, Ning; Su, Ya; Jiang, Kai; Huang, Guoliang

    2016-10-01

    Label free point mutation detection is particularly momentous in the area of biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since gene mutations naturally occur and bring about highly fatal diseases. In this paper, a label free and high sensitive approach is proposed for point mutation detection based on hyperspectral interferometry. A hybridization strategy is designed to discriminate a single-base substitution with sequence-specific DNA ligase. Double-strand structures will take place only if added oligonucleotides are perfectly paired to the probe sequence. The proposed approach takes full use of the inherent conformation of double-strand DNA molecules on the substrate and a spectrum analysis method is established to point out the sub-nanoscale thickness variation, which benefits to high sensitive mutation detection. The limit of detection reach 4pg/mm2 according to the experimental result. A lung cancer gene point mutation was demonstrated, proving the high selectivity and multiplex analysis capability of the proposed biosensor.

  11. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    PubMed

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P < .05) were found for nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P < .05) with nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shigella flexneri Spa15 Crystal Structure Verified in Solution by Double Electron Electron Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Lillington, James E.D.; Lovett, Janet E.; Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro; Timmel, Christiane R.; Lea, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Shigella flexneri Spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. One of these effectors is IpgB1, a mimic of the human Ras-like Rho guanosine triphosphatase RhoG. In this study, Spa15 alone and in complex with IpgB1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. This distance is explained by determining the crystal structure of the spin-labeled Spa15 where labels are seen to be buried in hydrophobic pockets. The double electron electron resonance experiment on the Spa15 complex with IpgB1 shows that IpgB1 does not bind Spa15 in the same way as is seen in the homologous Salmonella sp. chaperone:effector complex InvB:SipA. PMID:21075116

  13. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century.

  14. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain.

    PubMed

    Miyanoiri, Yohei; Ishida, Yojiro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Inouye, Masayori; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-06-01

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively (13)C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used (13)C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  15. Chemical kin label in seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Célérier, Aurélie; Bon, Cécile; Malapert, Aurore; Palmas, Pauline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Chemical signals yield critical socio-ecological information in many animals, such as species, identity, social status or sex, but have been poorly investigated in birds. Recent results showed that chemical signals are used to recognize their nest and partner by some petrel seabirds whose olfactory anatomy is well developed and which possess a life-history propitious to olfactory-mediated behaviours. Here, we investigate whether blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) produce some chemical labels potentially involved in kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance. To overcome methodological constraints of chemical analysis and field behavioural experiments, we used an indirect behavioural approach, based on mice olfactory abilities in discriminating odours. We showed that mice (i) can detect odour differences between individual petrels, (ii) perceive a high odour similarity between a chick and its parents, and (iii) perceive this similarity only before fledging but not during the nestling developmental stage. Our results confirm the existence of an individual olfactory signature in blue petrels and show for the first time, to our knowledge, that birds may exhibit an olfactory kin label, which may have strong implications for inbreeding avoidance. PMID:21525047

  16. Label-free molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junqi; Li, Qi; Fu, Rongxin; Wang, Tongzhou; Wang, Ruliang; Huang, Guoliang

    2014-03-01

    Optical microscopy technology has achieved great improvements in the 20th century. The detection limit has reached about twenty nanometers (with near-field optics, STED, PALM and STORM). But in the application areas such as life science, medical science, clinical treatment and especially in vivo dynamic measurement, mutual restrictions still exist between numeric aperture/magnification and working distance, fluorescent dependent, and between resolution and frame rate/field size, etc. This paper explores a hyperspectral scanning super-resolution label free molecules imaging method based on the white light interferometry. The vertical detection resolution was approximate to 1 nm which is the thickness of a single molecular layer and dynamic measuring range of thickness reaches to 10 μm. The spectrum-shifting algorithm is developed for robust restructure of images when the pixels are overlapped. Micro-biochip with protein binding and DNA amplification could be detected by using this spectral scanning super-resolution molecules imaging in label free. This method has several advantages as following: Firstly, the decoding and detecting steps are combined into one step. It makes tests faster and easier. Secondly, we used thickness-coded, minimized chips instead of a large microarray chip to carry the probes. This accelerates the interaction of the biomolecules. Thirdly, since only one kind of probes are attached to our thickness-coded, minimized chip, users can only pick out the probes they are interested in for a test without wasting unnecessary probes and chips.

  17. A Biochemical Double Slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominis, Iannis

    2011-03-01

    Radical-ion-pair reactions, fundamental in photosynthesis and at the basis of the avian magnetic compass mechanism, have been recently shown to offer a rich playground for applying methods and concepts from quantum measurement/quantum information science. We will demonstrate that radical-ion-pair reactions are almost the exact analog of the optical double slit experiment, i.e. Nature has already engineered biochemical reactions performing the act of quantum interference. We will further elaborate on the non-trivial quantum effects pertaining in these reactions and the recent debate on their fundamental theoretical description that these effects have sparked.

  18. DNA and chromosome breaks induced by iodine-123-labeled estrogen in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.L. |; Mustafi, R.; Hughes, A.; DeSombre, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The effects of the Auger electron-emitting isotope {sup 123}I, covalently bound to estrogen, on DNA single- and double-strand breakage and on chromosome breakage was determined in estrogen receptor-positive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-ER) cells. Exposure to the {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen induced both single- and double-strand breaks with a ratio of single- to double-strand breaks of 2.8. The corresponding ratio with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays was 15.6. The dose response was biphasic, suggesting either that receptor sites are saturated at high doses, or that there is a nonrandom distribution of breaks induced by the {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen. The {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen treatment induced chromosome aberrations with an efficiency of about 1 aberration for each 1000 disintegrations per cell. This corresponds to the mean lethal dose of {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen for these cells, suggesting that the lethal event induced by the Auger electron emitter bound to estrogen is a chromosome aberration. Most of the chromosome-type aberrations were dicentrics and rings, suggesting that {sup 123}I-labeled estrogen-induced chromosome breaks are rejoined. The F ratio, the ratio of dicentrics to centric rings, was 5.8 {+-} 1.7, which is similar to that seen with high-LET radiations. Our results suggest that {sup 123}I bound to estrogen is an efficient clastogenic agent, the cytotoxic damage produced by {sup 123}I bound to estrogen is very like damage induced by high-LET radiation, and the {sup 123}I in the estrogen receptor-DNA complex is probably in proximity to the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong

    2015-07-01

    Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended.

  20. Pre-malbrancheamide: Synthesis, Isotopic Labeling, Biosynthetic Incorporation, and Detection in Cultures of Malbranchea aurantiaca

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yousong; Greshock, Thomas J.; Miller, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    An advanced metabolite, named pre-malbrancheamide, involved in the biosynthesis of malbrancheamide (1) and malbrancheamide B (2) has been synthesized in double 13C-labeled form and was incorporated into the indole alkaloid 2 by Malbranchea aurantiaca. In addition, pre-malbrancheamide has been detected as a natural metabolite in cultures of M. aurantiaca. The biosynthetic implications of these experiments are discussed. PMID:18844365

  1. Detecting Pyronin Y labeled RNA transcripts in live cell microenvironments by phasor-FLIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Laura M; Jones, Mark R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Pyronin Y is an environment-sensitive probe which labels all double-stranded RNA in live cells. Methods to determine which RNA species Pyronin Y may be labeling are limited due to the lack of studies aimed at determining whether this probe has different spectroscopic properties when bound to specific transcripts. A major issue is that transcripts are difficult to isolate and study individually. We detected transcripts directly in their biological environment allowing us to identify RNA species on the basis of their location in the cell. We show that the phasor approach to lifetime analysis has the sensitivity to determine at least six different RNA species in live fibroblast cells. The detected lifetime differences were consistent among cells. To our knowledge this is the first application of a spectroscopic technique aimed at identifying Pyronin Y labeled RNA subtypes in living cells.

  2. Detecting Pyronin Y labeled RNA transcripts in live cell microenvironments by phasor-FLIM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Laura M.; Jones, Mark R.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Pyronin Y is an environment-sensitive probe which labels all double-stranded RNA in live cells. Methods to determine which RNA species Pyronin Y may be labeling are limited due to the lack of studies aimed at determining whether this probe has different spectroscopic properties when bound to specific transcripts. A major issue is that transcripts are difficult to isolate and study individually. We detected transcripts directly in their biological environment allowing us to identify RNA species on the basis of their location in the cell. We show that the phasor approach to lifetime analysis has the sensitivity to determine at least six different RNA species in live fibroblast cells. The detected lifetime differences were consistent among cells. To our knowledge this is the first application of a spectroscopic technique aimed at identifying Pyronin Y labeled RNA subtypes in living cells.

  3. Complementary-addressed site-directed spin labeling of long natural RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Babaylova, Elena S.; Malygin, Alexey A.; Lomzov, Alexander A.; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Krumkacheva, Olesya A.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Karpova, Galina G.; Bagryanskaya, Elena G.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale distance measurements by pulse dipolar Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy allow new insights into the structure and dynamics of complex biopolymers. EPR detection requires site directed spin labeling (SDSL) of biomolecule(s), which remained challenging for long RNAs up-to-date. Here, we demonstrate that novel complementary-addressed SDSL approach allows efficient spin labeling and following structural EPR studies of long RNAs. We succeeded to spin-label Hepatitis C Virus RNA internal ribosome entry site consisting of ≈330 nucleotides and having a complicated spatial structure. Application of pulsed double electron–electron resonance provided spin–spin distance distribution, which agrees well with the results of molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. Thus, novel SDSL approach in conjunction with EPR and MD allows structural studies of long natural RNAs with nanometer resolution and can be applied to systems of biological and biomedical significance. PMID:27269581

  4. External detection of pulmonary accumulation of indium-113m labelled transferrin in the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Hultkvist-Bengtsson, U; Mårtensson, L

    1990-01-01

    Accumulation of radioisotope labelled transferrin in the lungs of guinea pigs was determined with an external detection system. The method is based on the intravascular and extravascular distribution of indium-113m labelled transferrin compared with the intravascular distribution of technetium-99m labelled red blood cells. Guinea pigs were given iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue and potent pulmonary vasodilator, and noradrenaline, a pulmonary vasoconstrictor, in an attempt to increase and decrease respectively the blood volume in the lungs. Neither agent altered transferrin accumulation in the lung by comparison with a saline infusion. Iloprost infused before and after oleic acid infusion reduced macro-molecular leakage when compared with oleic acid alone. These data suggest that the double isotope method can distinguish between hydrostatic and injury induced pulmonary oedema. PMID:1699294

  5. Enhanced labeling of microalgae cellular lipids by application of an electric field generated by alternating current.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Chien; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2012-05-01

    An alternating current was used to generate an electric field to enhance the fluorescent labeling of microalgae cellular lipids with Nile red and LipidTOX. The decay of the fluorescence intensity of Chlorella vulgaris cells in 0 V/cm was more than 50% after 10 min, and the intensity variation was as high as 7% in 20s. At 2000 V/cm, the decay rate decreased to 1.22% per minute and the intensity fluctuation was less than 1% for LipidTOX-labeled cells. For Spirulina sp. cells at 0 V/cm, the fluorescence intensity increased by 10% after 10 min, whereas at 2000 V/cm, labeling was more rapid and fluorescence intensity doubled. These results show that applying an electric field can improve the quality of fluorescence detection by alleviating decay and fluctuation or by enhancing signal intensity.

  6. Fluorescent labelling of in situ hybridisation probes through the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Susann; Manetto, Antonio; Cassinelli, Valentina; Fuchs, Jörg; Ma, Lu; Raddaoui, Nada; Houben, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    In situ hybridisation is a powerful tool to investigate the genome and chromosome architecture. Nick translation (NT) is widely used to label DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). However, NT is limited to the use of long double-stranded DNA and does not allow the labelling of single-stranded and short DNA, e.g. oligonucleotides. An alternative technique is the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), at which azide and alkyne functional groups react in a multistep process catalysed by copper(I) ions to give 1,4-distributed 1,2,3-triazoles at a high yield (also called 'click reaction'). We successfully applied this technique to label short single-stranded DNA probes as well as long PCR-derived double-stranded probes and tested them by FISH on plant chromosomes and nuclei. The hybridisation efficiency of differently labelled probes was compared to those obtained by conventional labelling techniques. We show that copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition-labelled probes are reliable tools to detect different types of repetitive sequences on chromosomes opening new promising routes for the detection of single copy gene. Moreover, a combination of FISH using such probes with other techniques, e.g. immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cell proliferation assays using 5-ethynyl-deoxyuridine, is herein shown to be easily feasible.

  7. Double Eclipsing Binary Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagas, P.; Pejcha, O.

    2012-06-01

    The parameters of the mutual orbit of eclipsing binaries that are physically connected can be obtained by precision timing of minima over time through light travel time effect, apsidal motion or orbital precession. This, however, requires joint analysis of data from different sources obtained through various techniques and with insufficiently quantified uncertainties. In particular, photometric uncertainties are often underestimated, which yields too small uncertainties in minima timings if determined through analysis of a χ2 surface. The task is even more difficult for double eclipsing binaries, especially those with periods close to a resonance such as CzeV344, where minima get often blended with each other. This code solves the double binary parameters simultaneously and then uses these parameters to determine minima timings (or more specifically O-C values) for individual datasets. In both cases, the uncertainties (or more precisely confidence intervals) are determined through bootstrap resampling of the original data. This procedure to a large extent alleviates the common problem with underestimated photometric uncertainties and provides a check on possible degeneracies in the parameters and the stability of the results. While there are shortcomings to this method as well when compared to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, the ease of the implementation of bootstrapping is a significant advantage.

  8. Doubling an investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2004-01-01

    We study the issue of optimal long-term portfolio management in continuous time multi-asset financial markets. Rather than following the abstract notion of ‘utility’ and its implied paradigm of ‘maximization of expected utility’ we suggest a different approach: The investor sets a goal-such as reaching a desired fortune level, or doubling the initial investment-and then operates to minimize the expected time-to-goal, i.e., achieving the goal as quick as possible. We assume the ‘standard model’ of multi-asset financial markets where assets are governed by correlated Geometric Brownian motion dynamics, and study optimality under the criteria of ‘minimization of the expected time-to-goal’. We explicitly compute: (i) the optimal holding strategies; (ii) the dynamics and behavior of the optimal investment portfolios; and, (iii) the statistics-mean, variance, and Laplace transform-of the time-to-goal (under the optimal investment strategy). Also, an investment paradox arising in this context-in which some portfolios have exponential mean growth but have a positive probability of never doubling their initial value-is discussed and explained.

  9. Firewalls from double purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  10. Off-label use of medicine: Perspective of physicians, patients, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Off-label prescribing of medicines is prevalent worldwide because it gives freedom to physicians to apply new therapeutic options based on the latest evidence. Although physicians may lawfully prescribe approved drugs for any use consistent with available scientific data and proper medical practice, but unfortunately, usually this is done without adequate scientific data. Often, when the best available therapeutic option fails, patients demand new approach or new treatment which ultimately leads to off-label uses. Major concerns about efficacy and safety have been raised by inappropriate use of off-label drugs because it leads to drug being used without risk-benefit analysis by the regulatory agency. Although the regulatory approval process requires ample proof of efficacy and safety for granting approval for specific indications of prescription drugs but unfortunately, more clarity is required about regulations governing off-label use of medicine. Above all because of the financial aspects involved it is highly impractical to expect that pharmaceutical companies will restrict or stop off-label promotion. Off-label use might be compared to double-edged sword which might be very useful for some patients while it can also expose them to unrestricted experimentation, unknown health risks, or ineffective medicine. Hence, there is an urgent need for guidance to encourage proper off-label use of medicine by the distribution of scientifically valid and authentic information from the pharmaceutical companies. In fact, few countries such as the USA and France have taken an initiative and have come up with the regulations about off-label use of medicine. PMID:24799811

  11. Off-label use of medicine: Perspective of physicians, patients, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa Prasad

    2014-04-01

    Off-label prescribing of medicines is prevalent worldwide because it gives freedom to physicians to apply new therapeutic options based on the latest evidence. Although physicians may lawfully prescribe approved drugs for any use consistent with available scientific data and proper medical practice, but unfortunately, usually this is done without adequate scientific data. Often, when the best available therapeutic option fails, patients demand new approach or new treatment which ultimately leads to off-label uses. Major concerns about efficacy and safety have been raised by inappropriate use of off-label drugs because it leads to drug being used without risk-benefit analysis by the regulatory agency. Although the regulatory approval process requires ample proof of efficacy and safety for granting approval for specific indications of prescription drugs but unfortunately, more clarity is required about regulations governing off-label use of medicine. Above all because of the financial aspects involved it is highly impractical to expect that pharmaceutical companies will restrict or stop off-label promotion. Off-label use might be compared to double-edged sword which might be very useful for some patients while it can also expose them to unrestricted experimentation, unknown health risks, or ineffective medicine. Hence, there is an urgent need for guidance to encourage proper off-label use of medicine by the distribution of scientifically valid and authentic information from the pharmaceutical companies. In fact, few countries such as the USA and France have taken an initiative and have come up with the regulations about off-label use of medicine.

  12. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... each side having a solid line inner border 5.0 to 6.3 mm (0.2 to 0.25 inches) from the edge. (2) The....7 mm (0.5 inches). (4) When text indicating a hazard is displayed on a label, the label name must be... least 5.1 mm (0.2 inches) in height. (5) The symbol on each label must be proportionate in size to...

  13. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each side having a solid line inner border 5.0 to 6.3 mm (0.2 to 0.25 inches) from the edge. (2) The....7 mm (0.5 inches). (4) When text indicating a hazard is displayed on a label, the label name must be... least 5.1 mm (0.2 inches) in height. (5) The symbol on each label must be proportionate in size to...

  14. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each side having a solid line inner border 5.0 to 6.3 mm (0.2 to 0.25 inches) from the edge. (2) The....7 mm (0.5 inches). (4) When text indicating a hazard is displayed on a label, the label name must be... least 5.1 mm (0.2 inches) in height. (5) The symbol on each label must be proportionate in size to...

  15. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each side having a solid line inner border 5.0 to 6.3 mm (0.2 to 0.25 inches) from the edge. (2) The....7 mm (0.5 inches). (4) When text indicating a hazard is displayed on a label, the label name must be... least 5.1 mm (0.2 inches) in height. (5) The symbol on each label must be proportionate in size to...

  16. Efficient Methods for Multi-Label Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    annotation and retrieval of music and sound effects . IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing 16(2), 467–476 (2008) 19. Vens, C., Struyf...advertising [2] and music categorization [18]. In these applications there are usually tens or hundreds of thousands of labels, while the number is...Efficient Methods for Multi-label Classiffication 165 and testing efficiency, memory usage is also a bottleneck as the number of labels becoming larger

  17. Improving the accuracy of specimen labeling.

    PubMed

    Dock, Bobbi

    2005-01-01

    Accurate specimen identification is a challenge in all hospitals. A mislabeled specimen can lead to devastating consequences for a patient. In an effort to decrease the risk of potential harm caused by labeling errors, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota successfully implemented a Zero Tolerance Laboratory Specimen Labeling process. After months of studying, charting, networking, and communicating with all stakeholders the new process led to a 75% reduction in laboratory specimen labeling errors.

  18. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is centered. The band at the top of the label contains the name of the fuel. This band should measure 1″ (2.54 cm) deep. Spacing of the fuel name is 1/4″ (.64 cm) from the top of the label and 3/16.... “Helvetica black” type is used throughout. All type is centered. The band at the top of the label...

  19. Multiple-labelling immunoEM using different sizes of colloidal gold: alternative approaches to test for differential distribution and colocalization in subcellular structures.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Terry M; Lucocq, John M

    2011-03-01

    Various methods for quantifying cellular immunogold labelling on transmission electron microscope thin sections are currently available. All rely on sound random sampling principles and are applicable to single immunolabelling across compartments within a given cell type or between different experimental groups of cells. Although methods are also available to test for colocalization in double/triple immunogold labelling studies, so far, these have relied on making multiple measurements of gold particle densities in defined areas or of inter-particle nearest neighbour distances. Here, we present alternative two-step approaches to codistribution and colocalization assessment that merely require raw counts of gold particles in distinct cellular compartments. For assessing codistribution over aggregate compartments, initial statistical evaluation involves combining contingency table and chi-squared analyses to provide predicted gold particle distributions. The observed and predicted distributions allow testing of the appropriate null hypothesis, namely, that there is no difference in the distribution patterns of proteins labelled by different sizes of gold particle. In short, the null hypothesis is that of colocalization. The approach for assessing colabelling recognises that, on thin sections, a compartment is made up of a set of sectional images (profiles) of cognate structures. The approach involves identifying two groups of compartmental profiles that are unlabelled and labelled for one gold marker size. The proportions in each group that are also labelled for the second gold marker size are then compared. Statistical analysis now uses a 2 × 2 contingency table combined with the Fisher exact probability test. Having identified double labelling, the profiles can be analysed further in order to identify characteristic features that might account for the double labelling. In each case, the approach is illustrated using synthetic and/or experimental datasets and can

  20. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice.

    PubMed

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2010-10-15

    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.