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Sample records for double motor mhd-drive

  1. The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.

  2. A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun

    2012-05-01

    A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).

  3. Propellant removal from rocket motors containing double-base compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Hruby, J.; Larson, R.; Lipkin, J.; Long, B.; Schoenfelder, C.

    1992-01-01

    The uncertain environmental consequences and regulations associated with using open burning/open detonation for the disposal of energetic materials are forcing both manufacturers and users to examine alternative disposal technologies. In general, these alternatives involve a material removal operation followed by processing steps that lead to reuse of valuable constituents and/or disposal of waste. While a number of post-removal processing options appear to be viable, the initial step of removing an energetic material, such as a solid rocket motor propellant, from its container remains a significant technological challenge. Large rocket motors containing highly energetic propellant, hazard class 1.1, are of particular concern because of their inherent handling hazards. We will describe the results of a study using thermal cycling to increase the surface area of inert propellant formulations. The propellant removal method studied employs thermal cycling to cryogenic temperatures (cryocycling). Using inert propellants and liquid nitrogen we have demonstrated that this process produces multiple cracks throughout the bulk of the grain. The properties of the actual and inert propellants are being measured, and a model is being developed to relate experiments on inert material to actual propellant. Possible methods to increase thermal gradients, crack propagation and initiation are also presented.

  4. A high-temperature double-mode piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2012-08-01

    A miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor (piezoelectric vibrator sizes: 4.7 × 13.5 × 2 mm3) has been studied for precise actuation at 200 °C high-temperature. This piezoelectric linear motor was made of (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramic with a high curie temperature (428 °C) and it was operated in first longitudinal and the second bending double-mode. Our experimental results showed that the linear motor moves smoothly at the temperature as high as 200 °C with a driving force of 0.35 N and a speed up to 42 mm/s.

  5. Design and performance analysis of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor with double vibrators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaopeng; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhangqi; Xu, Liang; Meng, Fan; Ou, Wenchu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor, in which a vibrating stator and vibrating rotor are combined in one motor. The stator and rotor are designed as similar structures an elastic body and a piezoelectric ceramic ring. In exciting of the piezoelectric ceramics, the elastic body of the stator and rotor will generate respective traveling waves, which force each other forward in the contact zone. Based on the elliptical rule of particle motion and matching principle of vibration, the design rules of two vibrators are determined. The finite element method is used to design the sizes of vibrators to ensure that they operate in resonance, and the simulation is verified by measuring the vibration with an impedance analyzer. It is found out that to maintain an appropriate contact between the stator and rotor, two vibrators need to be designed with close resonance frequencies, different vibration amplitudes, and be driven by an identical driving frequency. To analyze this innovative contact mechanism, particle velocity synthesis theory and contact force analysis using Hertz contact model are carried out. Finally, a prototype is fabricated and tested to verify the theoretical results. The test results show that the output performance of the motor driven by the two vibrators is significantly improved compared to the motor driven by a sole stator or rotor, which confirms the validity of the double-vibrator motor concept.

  6. Design and performance analysis of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor with double vibrators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaopeng; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhangqi; Xu, Liang; Meng, Fan; Ou, Wenchu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor, in which a vibrating stator and vibrating rotor are combined in one motor. The stator and rotor are designed as similar structures an elastic body and a piezoelectric ceramic ring. In exciting of the piezoelectric ceramics, the elastic body of the stator and rotor will generate respective traveling waves, which force each other forward in the contact zone. Based on the elliptical rule of particle motion and matching principle of vibration, the design rules of two vibrators are determined. The finite element method is used to design the sizes of vibrators to ensure that they operate in resonance, and the simulation is verified by measuring the vibration with an impedance analyzer. It is found out that to maintain an appropriate contact between the stator and rotor, two vibrators need to be designed with close resonance frequencies, different vibration amplitudes, and be driven by an identical driving frequency. To analyze this innovative contact mechanism, particle velocity synthesis theory and contact force analysis using Hertz contact model are carried out. Finally, a prototype is fabricated and tested to verify the theoretical results. The test results show that the output performance of the motor driven by the two vibrators is significantly improved compared to the motor driven by a sole stator or rotor, which confirms the validity of the double-vibrator motor concept. PMID:27336793

  7. Novel tubular switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings: Design, modeling, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Li, Wei; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, I.-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The space utilization of linear switched reluctance machine is relatively low, which unavoidably constrains the improvement of system output performance. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings. The employment of double excitation helps to increase the electromagnetic force of the system. Furthermore, the installation of windings on both stator and mover can make the structure more compact and increase the system force density. The design concept and operating principle are presented. Following that, the major structure parameters of the system are determined. Subsequently, electromagnetic force and reluctance are formulated analytically based on equivalent magnetic circuits, and the result is validated with numerical computation. Then, a research prototype is developed, and experiments are conducted on the system output performance. It shows that the proposed design of electric linear machine can achieve higher thrust force compared with conventional linear switched reluctance machines.

  8. Translocation of double-stranded DNA through membrane-adapted phi29 motor protein nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, David; Jing, Peng; Geng, Jia; Subramaniam, Varuni; Lee, Tae Jin; Montemagno, Carlo; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-11-01

    Biological pores have been used to study the transport of DNA and other molecules, but most pores have channels that allow only the movement of small molecules and single-stranded DNA and RNA. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging motor, which allows double-stranded DNA to enter the virus during maturation and exit during an infection, contains a connector protein with a channel that is between 3.6 and 6 nm wide. Here we show that a modified version of this connector protein, when reconstituted into liposomes and inserted into planar lipid bilayers, allows the translocation of double-stranded DNA. The measured conductance of a single connector channel was 4.8 nS in 1 M KCl. This engineered and membrane-adapted phage connector is expected to have applications in microelectromechanical sensing, microreactors, gene delivery, drug loading and DNA sequencing.

  9. Lead-Free Double-Base Propellant for the 2.75 Inch Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magill, B. T.; Nauflett, G. W.; Furrow, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The current MK 66 2.75 inch Rocket Motor double-base propellant contains the lead-based ballistic modifier LC-12-15 to achieve the desired plateau and mesa burning rate characteristics. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and for personal safety due to the metal's toxic nature when introduced into the atmosphere by propellant manufacture, rocket motor firing, and disposal. Copper beta-resorcylate (copper 2,4-di-hydroxy-benzoate) was successfully used in propellant as a simple modifier in the mid 1970's. This and other compounds have also been mixed with lead salts to obtain more beneficial ballistic results. Synthesized complexes of lead and copper compounds soon replaced the mixtures. The complexes incorporate the lead, copper lack of organic liquids, which allows for easier propellant processing. About ten years ago, the Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), initiated an effort to develop a lead-free propellant for use in missile systems. Several lead-free propellant candidate formulations were developed. About five years ago, NSWC, in conjunction with Alliant Techsystems, Radford Army Ammunition Plant, continued ballistic modifier investigations. A four component ballistic modifier system without lead for double-base propellants that provide adequate plateau and mesa burn rate characteristics was developed and patented. The ballistic modifier's system contains bismuth subsalicylate, 1.5 percent; copper salicylate, 1.0 percent, copper stannate, 0.77 percent; and carbon black, 0.1 percent. Action time and impulse data obtained through multiple static firings indicate that the new lead-free double-base propellant, while not a match for NOSIH-AA-2, will be a very suitable replacement in the 2.75 inch Rocket Motor. Accelerated aging of the double-base propellant containing the lead-free ballistic modifier showed that it had a much higher rate of stabilizer depletion than the AA-2. A comprehensive study showed that an

  10. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  11. A double B1-mode 4-layer laminated piezoelectric linear motor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2012-12-01

    We report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor that is made of four Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layers for low-voltage work. The 4-layer piezoelectric laminate works in two orthogonal first-bending modes for producing elliptical oscillations, which are then used to drive a contacting slider into continuous linear motion. Experimental results show that the miniature linear motor (size: 4 × 4 × 12 mm, weight: 1.7 g) can generate a large driving force of 0.48 N and a linear motion speed of up to 160 mm/s, using a 40 V(pp)/mm voltage drive at its resonance frequency of 64.5 kHz. The maximum efficiency of the linear motor is 30%.

  12. Investigating optimal technique in the presence of motor system noise: application to the double layout somersault dismount on high bar.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Minimising joint torque is often used as an optimisation criterion when investigating human movement. Alternatively, an aspect of performance may be chosen to be maximised when investigating sporting movements. The aim of the study was to optimise the technique in the backward giant circle prior to a double layout somersault dismount from the high bar using various criteria to determine which best characterised the technique adopted by a gymnast. Ten recorded gymnast trials were used to determine bar release parameters and the level of noise in the gymnast's movements. A computer simulation model of a gymnast and bar was used to optimise giant circle technique under three criteria: minimising joint torques, maximising the release window and maximising success in the presence of motor system noise. Local and global optimisations of technique were performed using the three criteria starting from the average technique of the 10 recorded trials. All global optimum solutions diverged from the gymnast's technique. The local optimum for maximising success in the presence of noise had a success rate comparable with the global optimum (98% vs. 100%, respectively). It is concluded that the gymnast's technique is characterised by maximising success despite operating with motor system noise.

  13. Elastic deformations of the rotary double motor of single F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases detected in real time by Förster resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G; Zarrabi, Nawid; Dunn, Stanley D; Börsch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Elastic conformational changes of the protein backbone are essential for catalytic activities of enzymes. To follow relative movements within the protein, Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two specifically attached fluorophores can be applied. FRET provides a precise ruler between 3 and 8nm with subnanometer resolution. Corresponding submillisecond time resolution is sufficient to identify conformational changes in FRET time trajectories. Analyzing single enzymes circumvents the need for synchronization of various conformations. F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase is a rotary double motor which catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A proton-driven 10-stepped rotary F(O) motor in the Escherichia coli enzyme is connected to a 3-stepped F(1) motor, where ATP is synthesized. To operate the double motor with a mismatch of step sizes smoothly, elastic deformations within the rotor parts have been proposed by W. Junge and coworkers. Here we extend a single-molecule FRET approach to observe both rotary motors simultaneously in individual F(O)F(1)-ATP synthases at work. We labeled this enzyme with two fluorophores specifically, that is, on the ε- and c-subunits of the two rotors. Alternating laser excitation was used to select the FRET-labeled enzymes. FRET changes indicated associated transient twisting within the rotors of single enzyme molecules during ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. Supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the FRET experiments, these studies reveal that the rotor twisting is greater than 36° and is largely suppressed in the presence of the rotation inhibitor DCCD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  14. An Arginine Finger Regulates the Sequential Action of Asymmetrical Hexameric ATPase in the Double-Stranded DNA Translocation Motor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhengyi; De-Donatis, Gian Marco; Schwartz, Chad; Fang, Huaming; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Biological motors are ubiquitous in living systems. Currently, how the motor components coordinate the unidirectional motion is elusive in most cases. Here, we report that the sequential action of the ATPase ring in the DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ϕ29 is regulated by an arginine finger that extends from one ATPase subunit to the adjacent unit to promote noncovalent dimer formation. Mutation of the arginine finger resulted in the interruption of ATPase oligomerization, ATP binding/hydrolysis, and DNA translocation. Dimer formation reappeared when arginine mutants were mixed with other ATPase subunits that can offer the arginine to promote their interaction. Ultracentrifugation and virion assembly assays indicated that the ATPase was presenting as monomers and dimer mixtures. The isolated dimer alone was inactive in DNA translocation, but the addition of monomer could restore the activity, suggesting that the hexameric ATPase ring contained both dimer and monomers. Moreover, ATP binding or hydrolysis resulted in conformation and entropy changes of the ATPase with high or low DNA affinity. Taking these observations together, we concluded that the arginine finger regulates sequential action of the motor ATPase subunit by promoting the formation of the dimer inside the hexamer. The finding of asymmetrical hexameric organization is supported by structural evidence of many other ATPase systems showing the presence of one noncovalent dimer and four monomer subunits. All of these provide clues for why the asymmetrical hexameric ATPase gp16 of ϕ29 was previously reported as a pentameric configuration by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) since the contact by the arginine finger renders two adjacent ATPase subunits closer than other subunits. Thus, the asymmetrical hexamer would appear as a pentamer by cryo-EM, a technology that acquires the average of many images. PMID:27457616

  15. Rotigotine Effects on Early Morning Motor Function and Sleep in Parkinson's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, pLacebo-Controlled Study (RECOVER)

    PubMed Central

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Kies, Bryan; Rudzinska, Monika; Fine, Jennifer; Nikl, Janos; Honczarenko, Krystyna; Dioszeghy, Peter; Hill, Dennis; Anderson, Tim; Myllyla, Vilho; Kassubek, Jan; Steiger, Malcolm; Zucconi, Marco; Tolosa, Eduardo; Poewe, Werner; Surmann, Erwin; Whitesides, John; Boroojerdi, Babak; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray

    2011-01-01

    In a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00474058), 287 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and unsatisfactory early-morning motor symptom control were randomized 2:1 to receive rotigotine (2–16 mg/24 hr [n = 190]) or placebo (n = 97). Treatment was titrated to optimal dose over 1–8 weeks with subsequent dose maintenance for 4 weeks. Early-morning motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbance were assessed as coprimary efficacy endpoints using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III (Motor Examination) measured in the early morning prior to any medication intake and the modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2) (mean change from baseline to end of maintenance [EOM], last observation carried forward). At EOM, mean UPDRS Part III score had decreased by −7.0 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 29.6 [standard deviation (SD) 12.3] and by −3.9 points with placebo (baseline 32.0 [13.3]). Mean PDSS-2 total score had decreased by −5.9 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 19.3 [SD 9.3]) and by −1.9 points with placebo (baseline 20.5 [10.4]). This represented a significantly greater improvement with rotigotine compared with placebo on both the UPDRS Part III (treatment difference: −3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) −5.37, −1.73]; P = 0.0002) and PDSS-2 (treatment difference: −4.26 [95% CI −6.08, −2.45]; P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (placebo, 9%; rotigotine, 21%), application site reactions (placebo, 4%; rotigotine, 15%), and dizziness (placebo, 6%; rotigotine 10%). Twenty-four-hour transdermal delivery of rotigotine to PD patients with early-morning motor dysfunction resulted in significant benefits in control of both motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbances. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society PMID:21322021

  16. Motor coordination in mice with hotfoot, Lurcher, and double mutations of the Grid2 gene encoding the delta-2 excitatory amino acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Hayzoun, K; Selimi, F; Mariani, J; Strazielle, C

    2003-11-01

    Grid2(ho/ho) is a loss of function gene mutation resulting in abnormal dendritic arborizations of Purkinje cells. These mutants were compared in a series of motor coordination tests requiring balance and equilibrium to nonataxic controls (Grid2(ho/+)) and to a double mutant (Grid2(ho/Lc)) with an inserted Lc mutation. The performance of Grid2(ho/ho) mutant mice was poorer than that of controls on stationary beam, coat hanger, unsteady platform, and rotorod tests. Grid2(ho/Lc) did not differ from Grid2(Lc/+) mice. However, the insertion of the Lc mutation in Grid2(ho/Lc) potentiated the deficits found in Grid2(ho/ho) in stationary beam, unsteady platform, and rotorod tests. These results indicate a deleterious effect of the Lc mutation on Grid2-deficient mice.

  17. Potential of M-Wave Elicited by Double Pulse for Muscle Fatigue Evaluation in Intermittent Muscle Activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation for Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Naoto; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES. PMID:27110556

  18. Variation in the electrical properties of 100 V/100 a rated mesh and stripe TDMOSFETs (Trench Double-Diffused MOSFETs) for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kyoung-Il; Kah, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sang-Gi; Koo, Jin-Gun; Kim, Jongdae; Yang, Yil-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho

    2012-05-01

    The vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with deep trench structures are the most promising candidates to overcome the trade-off relationship between the ON-resistance (R ON ) and the blocking voltage (BV DS ). Especially, 100 V/100 A rated trench power MOSFETs are used in components of many power systems, such as motors and LED lighting drive ICs, DC-DC converters in electric vehicles, and so on. In this work, we studied variations of the electrical characteristics, such as threshold voltage (V TH ), BV DS , and drain current drivability, with p-well doping concentration via the SILVACO simulator. From simulation results, we found the BV DS and the drain current (I D ) as functions of the p-well doping concentration at an ion implantation energy of 80 keV. With increasing of p-well doping concentration in the guard ring region, both V TH and BV DS slowly increased, but I D decreased, because the boron lateral diffusion during the fabrication process below gate trench region affected the doping concentration of the p-body at the active region. Additionally, 100 V/100 A rated trench double-diffused MOSFETs (TDMOSFETs) with meshes and stripes were successfully developed by using a silicon deep etching process. The variations in the electrical properties, such as V TH , BV DS , and drain current drivability, of the two different kinds of fabricated devices, with cell design and density in TDMOSFETs were also studied. The BV DS and the V TH in the stripe-type TDMOSFET were 110 and 3 V, respectively. However, the V TH of mesh-type device was smaller 0.5 V than that of stripe-type because of corner effect. The BV DS improved about 20 V compared to stripe-type TDMOSFET due to edge termination, and the maximum drain current (I D.MAX ) was improved by about 10% due to an increase in the gate width at the same chip size. These effects were reflected in devices with different cell densities. When the cell density was increased, however

  19. Non-motoneurons in the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei projecting to the cerebellar flocculus in the cat. A fluorescent double-labelling and WGA-HRP study.

    PubMed

    Røste, G K

    1989-01-01

    The cerebellar projection from the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei was studied in the cat by means of retrograde axonal transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent tracers. The feline facial nucleus was cytoarchitectonically subdivided into ventromedial, ventrolateral, lateral, dorsal, intermediate and medial divisions (see Papez 1927), and the motor trigeminal nucleus into medial, ventral, intermediate, lateral and dorsal divisions. The neurons in the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei were classified as small (ovoid to round cells with a maximum diameter of the cell body of about 20 microns) or large (polygonal to round cells with maximum diameter of about 40 microns). After floccular injections of the wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase complex, retrogradely labelled cells were found throughout the facial nucleus, but especially in its medial and dorsal divisions. In the motor trigeminal nucleus, labelled neurons were found only in the ventral, intermediate and lateral divisions. Cases with tracer deposition (implants or injections) in other parts of the cerebellar cortex or nuclei were all negative. All facial and motor trigeminal neurons labelled after floccular injections were smaller than the neurons labelled after injections in the facial mimic and masticatory muscles, and only single-labelled neurons were found following floccular injections of Fluoro-Gold and muscular injections of rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate in the same animals. These observations strongly suggest that the neurons in the facial and motor trigeminal nuclei which project to flocculus are of the non-motoneuron type. PMID:2470610

  20. Synaptic connections between the hindwing stretch receptor and flight motor neurones in the locust revealed by double cobalt labelling for electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.H.; Altman, J.S.; Tyrer, N.M.

    1985-03-08

    Synaptic interactions between sensory and motor neurones in the locust flight system have been investigated by using intracellular labelling with cobalt and nickel for electron microscopy. Simultaneous axonal filling of two neurones with different concentrations of metal ions produces differential labelling, so that contacts between them in the central nervous system can be recognized. We have investigated the connectivity of the hindwing stretch receptor neurone (SR) with a direct hindwing depressor motor neurone (MN 127) known from physiological experiments to receive monosynaptic input from the SR, and an indirect hindwing depressor motor neurone (MN 112/1), for which no monosynaptic connection with the SR has been reported. We have found no direct synapses between the SR and MN 112/1, although some of their branches lie close together in the neuropile. We have, however, found some evidence for polysynaptic connections between them. There are many synapses of conventional dyadic morphology from both the lateral and mediolateral branches of the SR to MN 127; the medial branch was not examined. Those from the lateral branch contact the motor neurone on branches close to the neuropilar segment, while those from the mediolateral branch contact long, thin distal twigs. We estimate that there are about 600 anatomical synapses between these two neurones. Our results suggest that a large number of widely distributed anatomical synapses constitute the physiological synaptic connection between the SR and MN 127. The dyadic arrangement of these synapses provides an anatomical correlate for the physiologically established divergence of SR outputs onto interneurones and motor neurones.

  1. Three-color Förster resonance energy transfer within single F₀F₁-ATP synthases: monitoring elastic deformations of the rotary double motor in real time.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G; Zarrabi, Nawid; Börsch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic activities of enzymes are associated with elastic conformational changes of the protein backbone. Förster-type resonance energy transfer, commonly referred to as FRET, is required in order to observe the dynamics of relative movements within the protein. Förster-type resonance energy transfer between two specifically attached fluorophores provides a ruler with subnanometer resolution between 3 and 8 nm, submillisecond time resolution for time trajectories of conformational changes, and single-molecule sensitivity to overcome the need for synchronization of various conformations. F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase is a rotary molecular machine which catalyzes the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The Escherichia coli enzyme comprises a proton driven 10 stepped rotary F(O) motor connected to a 3-stepped F(1) motor, where ATP is synthesized. This mismatch of step sizes will result in elastic deformations within the rotor parts. We present a new single-molecule FRET approach to observe both rotary motors simultaneously in a single F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase at work. We labeled this enzyme with three fluorophores, specifically at the stator part and at the two rotors. Duty cycle-optimized with alternating laser excitation, referred to as DCO-ALEX, allowed to control enzyme activity and to unravel associated transient twisting within the rotors of a single enzyme during ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the rotor twisting is larger than 36 deg.

  2. Effects of 4-aminopyridine on motor evoked potentials in patients with spinal cord injury: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, D L; Hayes, K C; Hsieh, J T; Potter, P J

    2001-08-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a potassium (K+) channel blocking agent that has been shown to reduce the latency and increase the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These effects on MEPs are thought to reflect enhanced conduction in long tract axons brought about by overcoming conduction deficits due to focal demyelination and/or by enhancing neuroneuronal transmission at one or more sites of the neuraxis. The present study was designed to obtain further evidence of reduced central motor conduction time (CMCT) and to determine whether MEPs could be recorded from paretic muscles in which they were not normally elicited. MEPs were elicited with TMS being delivered to subjects (n = 25) pre- and post-administration of 4-AP (10 mg capsule) or placebo. The principal finding was that 4-AP lowered the stimulation threshold, increased the amplitude and reduced the latency of MEPs in all muscles tested, including those that were unimpaired, but did not alter measures of the peripheral nervous system (i.e., M-wave, H-reflex, F-wave). These 4-AP-induced changes in MEPs were significantly greater than those seen with placebo (p < 0.05). The primary implication of these results is that a low dose of 4-AP (immediate-release formulation) appears to improve the impaired central motor conduction of some patients with incomplete SCI. This is most likely attributable to overcoming conduction deficits at the site of injury but may also involve an increase in cortical excitability.

  3. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Seonwoo; Choi, Dongil; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal). Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV), proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal. Results Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively). However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034). In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures). Conclusion Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635 PMID:26402448

  4. Single Pore Translocation of Folded, Double-Stranded, and Tetra-stranded DNA through Channel of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farzin; Wang, Shaoying; Stites, Chris; Chen, Li; Wang, Chi; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    The elegant architecture of the channel of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has inspired the development of biomimetics for biophysical and nanobiomedical applications. The reengineered channel inserted into a lipid membrane exhibits robust electrophysiological properties ideal for precise sensing and fingerprinting of dsDNA at the single-molecule level. Herein, we used single channel conduction assays to quantitatively evaluate the translocation dynamics of dsDNA as a function of the length and conformation of dsDNA. We extracted the speed of dsDNA translocation from the dwell time distribution and estimated the various forces involved in the translocation process. A ~35-fold slower speed of translocation per base pair was observed for long dsDNA, a significant contrast to the speed of dsDNA crossing synthetic pores. It was found that the channel could translocate both dsDNA with ~32% of channel current blockage and ~64% for tetra-stranded DNA (two parallel dsDNA). The calculation of both cross-sectional areas of the dsDNA and tetra-stranded DNA suggested that the blockage was purely proportional to the physical space of the channel lumen and the size of the DNA substrate. Folded dsDNA configuration was clearly reflected in their characteristic current signatures. The finding of translocation of tetra-stranded DNA with 64% blockage is in consent with the recently elucidated mechanism of viral DNA packaging via a revolution mode that requires a channel larger than the dsDNA diameter of 2 nm to provide room for viral DNA revolving without rotation. The understanding of the dynamics of dsDNA translocation in the phi29 system will enable us to design more sophisticated single pore DNA translocation devices for future applications in nanotechnology and personal medicine. PMID:25890769

  5. Single pore translocation of folded, double-stranded, and tetra-stranded DNA through channel of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farzin; Wang, Shaoying; Stites, Chris; Chen, Li; Wang, Chi; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    The elegant architecture of the channel of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has inspired the development of biomimetics for biophysical and nanobiomedical applications. The reengineered channel inserted into a lipid membrane exhibits robust electrophysiological properties ideal for precise sensing and fingerprinting of dsDNA at the single-molecule level. Herein, we used single channel conduction assays to quantitatively evaluate the translocation dynamics of dsDNA as a function of the length and conformation of dsDNA. We extracted the speed of dsDNA translocation from the dwell time distribution and estimated the various forces involved in the translocation process. A ∼35-fold slower speed of translocation per base-pair was observed for long dsDNA, a significant contrast to the speed of dsDNA crossing synthetic pores. It was found that the channel could translocate both dsDNA with ∼32% of channel current blockage and with ∼64% for tetra-stranded DNA (two parallel dsDNA). The calculation of both cross-sectional areas of the dsDNA and tetra-stranded DNA suggested that the blockage was purely proportional to the physical space of the channel lumen and the size of the DNA substrate. Folded dsDNA configuration was clearly reflected in their characteristic current signatures. The finding of translocation of tetra-stranded DNA with 64% blockage is in consent with the recently elucidated mechanism of viral DNA packaging via a revolution mode that requires a channel larger than the dsDNA diameter of 2 nm to provide room for viral DNA revolving without rotation. The understanding of the dynamics of dsDNA translocation in the phi29 system will enable us to design more sophisticated single pore DNA translocation devices for future applications in nanotechnology and personal medicine.

  6. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  7. Motor Starters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  8. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  9. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  10. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  11. Motor neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Laplane, D; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of activity. Predominance of left sided neglect by right sided lesions suggests that the left hemisphere is dominant for deliberate activity; hemispheric dominance could be applied to sensory neglect where conscious awareness would play the role of deliberate activity. PMID:6842219

  12. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1998-01-01

    A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.

  13. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. 49 CFR 380.203 - LCV Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false LCV Doubles. 380.203 Section 380.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... REQUIREMENTS LCV Driver-Training Program § 380.203 LCV Doubles. (a) To qualify for the training necessary...

  15. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. PMID:20541489

  16. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  17. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis.

  18. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  19. Double space with double line

    SciTech Connect

    Cheltsov, I A

    2004-10-31

    For a singular double cover of P{sup 3} ramified in a sextic with double line, its birational maps into Fano 3-folds with canonical singularities, elliptic fibrations, and fibrations on surfaces of Kodaira dimension zero are described.

  20. Double space with double line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheltsov, I. A.

    2004-10-01

    For a singular double cover of \\mathbb P^3 ramified in a sextic with double line, its birational maps into Fano 3-folds with canonical singularities, elliptic fibrations, and fibrations on surfaces of Kodaira dimension zero are described.

  1. [Double teeth].

    PubMed

    Schuurs, A H B; van Loveren, C

    2002-04-01

    Double teeth are not really rare, but it is still enigmatic why and how they develop. Based upon the clinical, morphological and anatomical appearance and the number of teeth in mouths with double teeth, the double teeth are labelled as products of 'fusion' and 'clefting', but the criteria to attach such etiological names are lacking. It is assumed that heredity is involved in the development of double teeth. Therefore it is attempted to explain why only one of a homozygotic twin had a double tooth. PMID:11982209

  2. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...

  3. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  4. Siphon motor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    A siphon motor comprises the combination of siphon means and generating means for generating electrical energy from a water source located below the generating means and a water discharge at a lower level than the water source. Water rises by siphonic action upward from the water source to a sealed working region maintained under partial vacuum, and descends to the water discharge. The working region contains the generating means. The system has particular utility as a source of power generation in remote locations having a water table within about 30 feet of the ground.

  5. Training voluntary motor suppression with real-time feedback of motor evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Majid, D. S. Adnan; Lewis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Training people to suppress motor representations voluntarily could improve response control. We evaluated a novel training procedure of real-time feedback of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over motor cortex. On each trial, a cue instructed participants to use a mental strategy to suppress a particular finger representation without overt movement. A single pulse of TMS was delivered over motor cortex, and an MEP-derived measure of hand motor excitability was delivered visually to the participant within 500 ms. In experiment 1, we showed that participants learned to reduce the excitability of a particular finger beneath baseline (selective motor suppression) within 30 min of practice. In experiment 2, we performed a double-blind study with 2 training groups (1 with veridical feedback and 1 with matched sham feedback) to show that selective motor suppression depends on the veridical feedback itself. Experiment 3 further demonstrated the importance of veridical feedback by showing that selective motor suppression did not arise from mere mental imagery, even when incentivized with reward. Thus participants can use real-time feedback of TMS-induced MEPs to discover an effective mental strategy for selective motor suppression. This high-temporal-resolution, trial-by-trial-feedback training method could be used to help people better control response tendencies and may serve as a potential therapy for motor disorders such as Tourette's and dystonia. PMID:25744889

  6. Training voluntary motor suppression with real-time feedback of motor evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Majid, D S Adnan; Lewis, Christina; Aron, Adam R

    2015-05-01

    Training people to suppress motor representations voluntarily could improve response control. We evaluated a novel training procedure of real-time feedback of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over motor cortex. On each trial, a cue instructed participants to use a mental strategy to suppress a particular finger representation without overt movement. A single pulse of TMS was delivered over motor cortex, and an MEP-derived measure of hand motor excitability was delivered visually to the participant within 500 ms. In experiment 1, we showed that participants learned to reduce the excitability of a particular finger beneath baseline (selective motor suppression) within 30 min of practice. In experiment 2, we performed a double-blind study with 2 training groups (1 with veridical feedback and 1 with matched sham feedback) to show that selective motor suppression depends on the veridical feedback itself. Experiment 3 further demonstrated the importance of veridical feedback by showing that selective motor suppression did not arise from mere mental imagery, even when incentivized with reward. Thus participants can use real-time feedback of TMS-induced MEPs to discover an effective mental strategy for selective motor suppression. This high-temporal-resolution, trial-by-trial-feedback training method could be used to help people better control response tendencies and may serve as a potential therapy for motor disorders such as Tourette's and dystonia.

  7. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  8. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  9. The dissociable effects of punishment and reward on motor learning.

    PubMed

    Galea, Joseph M; Mallia, Elizabeth; Rothwell, John; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    A common assumption regarding error-based motor learning (motor adaptation) in humans is that its underlying mechanism is automatic and insensitive to reward- or punishment-based feedback. Contrary to this hypothesis, we show in a double dissociation that the two have independent effects on the learning and retention components of motor adaptation. Negative feedback, whether graded or binary, accelerated learning. While it was not necessary for the negative feedback to be coupled to monetary loss, it had to be clearly related to the actual performance on the preceding movement. Positive feedback did not speed up learning, but it increased retention of the motor memory when performance feedback was withdrawn. These findings reinforce the view that independent mechanisms underpin learning and retention in motor adaptation, reject the assumption that motor adaptation is independent of motivational feedback, and raise new questions regarding the neural basis of negative and positive motivational feedback in motor learning. PMID:25706473

  10. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings—like wheels on an axle—demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  11. Differential effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal, motor and somatosensory cortices on cortical excitability and pain perception - a double-blind randomised sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2015-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) over cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix, including the primary motor (M1), sensory (S1) and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices on M1/S1 excitability, sensory (STh), and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to evaluate the placebo effects of c-tDCS on induced cortical and behavioural changes. Before, immediately after and 30 min after c-tDCS the amplitude of N20-P25 components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and peak-to-peak amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured under four different experimental conditions. STh and PTh for peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were also evaluated. c-tDCS of 0.3 mA was applied for 20 min. A blinded assessor evaluated all outcome measures. c-tDCS of M1, S1 and DLPFC significantly decreased the corticospinal excitability of M1 (P < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following the application of c-tDCS over S1, M1 and DLPFC, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs decreased for at least 30 min (P < 0.05). Compared with baseline values, significant STh and PTh increases were observed after c-tDCS of these three sites. Decreasing the level of S1 and M1 excitability, following S1, M1 and DLPFC stimulation, confirmed the functional connectivities between these cortical sites involved in pain processing. Furthermore, increasing the level of STh/PTh after c-tDCS of these sites indicated that stimulation of not only M1 but also S1 and DLPFC could be considered a technique to decrease the level of pain in patients. PMID:26275236

  12. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  13. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  14. Excited state dynamics & optical control of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Ted; Sension, Roseanne

    2014-03-01

    Chiral overcrowded alkenes are likely candidates for light driven rotary molecular motors. At their core, these molecular motors are based on the chromophore stilbene, undergoing ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization about their central double bond. Unlike stilbene, the photochemistry of molecular motors proceeds in one direction only. This unidirectional rotation is a result of helicity in the molecule induced by steric hindrance. However, the steric hindrance which ensures unidirectional excited state rotation, has the unfortunate consequence of producing large ground state barriers which dramatically decrease the overall rate of rotation. These molecular scale ultrafast motors have only recently been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. Our lab has studied the photochemistry and photophysics of a ``first generation'' molecular motor with UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy. We hope to use optical pulse shaping to enhance the efficiency and turnover rate of these molecular motors.

  15. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  16. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  17. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination Muscle ...

  18. Double aortic arch

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic arch anomaly; Double arch; Congenital heart defect - double aortic arch; Birth defect heart - double aortic arch ... aorta is a single arch that leaves the heart and moves leftward. In double aortic arch, some ...

  19. Molecular motors: nature's nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Tyreman, M J A; Molloy, J E

    2003-12-01

    Molecular motors are protein-based machines that convert chemical potential energy into mechanical work. This paper aims to introduce the non-specialist reader to molecular motors, in particular, acto-myosin, the prototype system for motor protein studies. These motors produce their driving force from changes in chemical potential arising directly from chemical reactions and are responsible for muscle contraction and a variety of other cell motilities.

  20. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  1. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  2. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  3. Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.S.

    1999-02-24

    The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

  4. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  5. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  6. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  7. Cyclic motor activity; migrating motor complex: 1985.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S K

    1985-10-01

    Most of the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary tract have a cyclic motor activity. The electric counterpart of this motor activity is called cyclic myoelectric activity. A typical motor cycle in the LES, stomach, and small intestine is composed of a quiescent state, followed by progressively increasing amplitude and frequency of contractions culminating in a state of maximal contractile activity. The colonic motor cycle has only the quiescent and the contractile states. In the small intestine, these motor complexes migrate in an aborad direction, and in the colon in both orad and aborad directions. The mechanisms of initiation and migration of these complexes are best understood in the small intestine. Both the initiation and migration of these complexes seem to be controlled by enteric neural mechanisms. The functions of the enteric mechanisms may be modulated by the central nervous system and by circulating endogenous substances. The mechanisms of initiation of these complexes are not completely understood in the rest of the gastrointestinal tract and in the biliary tract. The physiologic function of these motor complexes that occur only after several hours of fast in the upper gastrointestinal tract of nonruminants may be to clean the digestive tract of residual food, secretions, and cellular debris. This function is aided by a coordinated secretion of enzymes, acid, and bicarbonate. In ruminants, phase III activity is associated with the distal propulsion of ingested food. The function of colonic motor complexes that are not coordinated with the cyclic motor activities of the rest of the gastrointestinal tract may be only to move contents back and forth for optimal absorption. PMID:3896912

  8. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  9. Motor Neurons that Multitask

    PubMed Central

    Goulding, Martyn

    2013-01-01

    Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion. PMID:23177952

  10. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  11. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  12. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  13. Double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Disrupting the ipsilateral motor cortex interferes with training of a complex motor task in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zimerman, Máximo; Heise, Kirstin-F; Gerloff, Christian; Cohen, Leonardo G; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-04-01

    Performance of unimanual movements is associated with bihemispheric activity in the motor cortex in old adults. However, the causal functional role of the ipsilateral MC (iMC) for motor control is still not completely known. Here, the behavioral consequences of interference of the iMC during training of a complex motor skill were tested. Healthy old (58-85 years) and young volunteers (22-35 years) were tested in a double-blind, cross-over, sham-controlled design. Participants attended 2 different study arms with either cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) or sham concurrent with training. Motor performance was evaluated before, during, 90 min, and 24 h after training. During training, a reduced slope of performance with ctDCS relative to sham was observed in old compared with young (F = 5.8, P = 0.02), with a decrease of correctly rehearsed sequences, an effect that was evident even after 2 consecutive retraining periods without intervention. Furthermore, the older the subject, the more prominent was the disruptive effect of ctDCS (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01). These data provide direct evidence for a causal functional link between the iMC and motor skill acquisition in old subjects pointing toward the concept that the recruitment of iMC in old is an adaptive process in response to age-related declines in motor functions.

  15. Motor efficiency management

    SciTech Connect

    Lobodovsky, K.K. , Penn Valley, CA )

    1994-01-01

    During the 102nd Congress, the Markey Bill, H.R. 2451, was introduced. The bill mandated component efficiency standards for such products as lighting, distribution transformers, and electric A.C. motors. This plan was met with opposition by NEMA and other interested groups. They called for a system approach that would recognize the complex nature of the product involved under the plan. The bill passed by the Energy Power Subcommittee on the theory that the elimination of the least efficient component from the market would ensure that consumers would purchase and use the most efficient products possible. Experience indicates that despite heightened awareness and concern with energy efficiency, the electric motor is either completely neglected or decisions are made on the basis of incomplete information. An on-going analysis of motor performance prevents major breakdown. Performance evaluation of a motor should be done as routinely as it is done on an employee. Both the motor and the employee are equally important. Applied motor maintenance will keep the building or plant running smoothly with minimal stress on the system or downtime because of failure. The Motor Performance Management Process (MPMP) is designed to be the Motor Manager's primary tool to evaluate, measure, and most importantly manage electric motors. MPMP focuses on building a stronger relationship between the Motor Manager and the electric motor employed to perform a task. Specifically, it is a logical, systematic, and structured approach to reduce energy waste. Energy waste reduction is fundamental in becoming more efficient in an increasingly competitive market. The implementation of MPMP is more than a good business practice it is an intelligent management resource.

  16. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  17. Finding of widespread viral and bacterial revolution dsDNA translocation motors distinct from rotation motors by channel chirality and size

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Double-stranded DNA translocation is ubiquitous in living systems. Cell mitosis, bacterial binary fission, DNA replication or repair, homologous recombination, Holliday junction resolution, viral genome packaging and cell entry all involve biomotor-driven dsDNA translocation. Previously, biomotors have been primarily classified into linear and rotational motors. We recently discovered a third class of dsDNA translocation motors in Phi29 utilizing revolution mechanism without rotation. Analogically, the Earth rotates around its own axis every 24 hours, but revolves around the Sun every 365 days. Results Single-channel DNA translocation conductance assay combined with structure inspections of motor channels on bacteriophages P22, SPP1, HK97, T7, T4, Phi29, and other dsDNA translocation motors such as bacterial FtsK and eukaryotic mimiviruses or vaccinia viruses showed that revolution motor is widespread. The force generation mechanism for revolution motors is elucidated. Revolution motors can be differentiated from rotation motors by their channel size and chirality. Crystal structure inspection revealed that revolution motors commonly exhibit channel diameters larger than 3 nm, while rotation motors that rotate around one of the two separated DNA strands feature a diameter smaller than 2 nm. Phi29 revolution motor translocated double- and tetra-stranded DNA that occupied 32% and 64% of the narrowest channel cross-section, respectively, evidencing that revolution motors exhibit channel diameters significantly wider than the dsDNA. Left-handed oriented channels found in revolution motors drive the right-handed dsDNA via anti-chiral interaction, while right-handed channels observed in rotation motors drive the right-handed dsDNA via parallel threads. Tethering both the motor and the dsDNA distal-end of the revolution motor does not block DNA packaging, indicating that no rotation is required for motors of dsDNA phages, while a small-angle left

  18. Arthroscopic Subtalar, Double, and Triple Fusion.

    PubMed

    Walter, Richard; Parsons, Stephen; Winson, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Arthroscopic approaches to subtalar, double, and triple arthrodesis allow relative preservation of the soft tissue envelope compared with traditional open approaches. The surgical technique involving the use of a 4.5-mm 30° arthroscope via sinus tarsi portals is described. All 3 joints of the triple joint can be prepared for fusion with motorized burrs. Rigid fixation is achieved with cannulated screws. High union rates and low complication rates have been reported. PMID:27524712

  19. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  20. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  1. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  2. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  3. DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1947) ON LEFT, DOUBLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1962) ON RIGHT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH GENERAL STARK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  4. Dualities in the analysis of phage DNA packaging motors

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    The DNA packaging motors of double-stranded DNA phages are models for analysis of all multi-molecular motors and for analysis of several fundamental aspects of biology, including early evolution, relationship of in vivo to in vitro biochemistry and targets for anti-virals. Work on phage DNA packaging motors both has produced and is producing dualities in the interpretation of data obtained by use of both traditional techniques and the more recently developed procedures of single-molecule analysis. The dualities include (1) reductive vs. accretive evolution, (2) rotation vs. stasis of sub-assemblies of the motor, (3) thermal ratcheting vs. power stroking in generating force, (4) complete motor vs. spark plug role for the packaging ATPase, (5) use of previously isolated vs. new intermediates for analysis of the intermediate states of the motor and (6) a motor with one cycle vs. a motor with two cycles. We provide background for these dualities, some of which are under-emphasized in the literature. We suggest directions for future research. PMID:23532204

  5. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  6. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  7. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  8. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  9. Molecular motors: Dynein's gearbox.

    PubMed

    Cross, R A

    2004-05-01

    A new optical trapping study shows that the stepsize of cytoplasmic dynein varies according to the applied force, suggesting that this motor can change gear. Complementary biochemical kinetic work on yeast dynein mutants hints at the allosteric mechanisms involved.

  10. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  11. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  12. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  13. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  14. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  15. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  16. Myosin V motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian myosin V motors transport cargo processively along actin filaments. Recent biophysical and structural studies have led to a detailed understanding of the mechanism of myosin V, making it perhaps the best understood cytoskeletal motor. In addition to describing the mechanism, this review will illustrate how “dynamic” single molecule measurements can synergize with “static” protein structural studies to produce amazingly clear information on the workings of a nanometer-scale machine. PMID:14610051

  17. Changes in motor unit populations in motor neurone disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, S A; Brown, W F

    1979-01-01

    In motor neurone disease changes in the functional properties of motor units, including the surface voltage, latency, conduction velocity, and response to repetitive stimulation, were investigated. Progression was marked by motor unit loss, increase in the proportion of larger motor unit potentials, and inclusion of motor unit potentials larger than normal in the remaining motor unit population. Even late in the disease, motor unit potentials with a low surface voltage persisted. The relationship between motor unit potentials, surface voltage, and latency, present in control subjects, broke down in motor neurone disease, large motor unit potentials having abnormally long latencies and small motor unit potentials unexpectedly short latencies. Amplitude decrements were more frequent and severe in motor unit potentials at later stages in the disease, particularly in those units with lower surface voltages. In one surviving motor unit potential there was evidence suggestive of functional recovery. The observations point to complex changes in the functional properties of motor units in motor neurone disease. PMID:216781

  18. Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke.

    PubMed

    Pariente, J; Loubinoux, I; Carel, C; Albucher, J F; Leger, A; Manelfe, C; Rascol, O; Chollet, F

    2001-12-01

    In order to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on the cerebral motor activation of lacunar stroke patients in the early phase of recovery, we conducted a prospective, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia. Each patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations: one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. The first was performed 2 weeks after stroke onset and the second a week later. During the two fMRI examinations, patients performed an active controlled motor task with the affected hand and a passive one conducted by the examiner with the same hand. Motor performance was evaluated by motor tests under placebo and under fluoxetine immediately before the examinations to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on motor function. Under fluoxetine, during the active motor task, hyperactivation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex was found. Moreover, fluoxetine significantly improved motor skills of the affected side. We found that a single dose of fluoxetine was enough to modulate cerebral sensory-motor activation in patients. This redistribution of activation toward the motor cortex output activation was associated with an enhancement of motor performance. PMID:11761469

  19. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  20. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  1. Cryogenic testing of stepper motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

    1982-10-01

    Stepper motors may be used in several subsystems of the planned Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Very high reliability is required in all considered applications. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to study the operational reliability of stepper motors, taking into account tests with a type of stepper motor which had previously performed well in uncooled spectrographic instruments. Two stepper motors were tested, in vacuum, at liquid nitrogen temperature. One motor was lubricated with a vacuum stable grease, while the other used unlubricated bearings. Both motors failed after less than 18,000 revolutions. The failure of the unlubricated motor indicated that motor modifications would have to be made to achieve operation at liquid helium temperature. The motor was modified to compensate for the magnitude of different thermal contractions. It was then found that modified stepper motors can perform reliably at LHe temperature for extended periods.

  2. A double-double/double-single computation package

    2004-12-01

    The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems)more » to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.« less

  3. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  4. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  5. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  6. Mechanochemistry of a viral DNA packaging motor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Moffitt, Jeffrey; Hetherington, Craig L; Bustamante, Carlos; Oster, George

    2010-07-01

    The pentameric ATPase motor gp16 packages double-stranded DNA into the bacteriophage phi29 virus capsid. On the basis of the results of single-molecule experimental studies, we propose a push and roll mechanism to explain how the packaging motor translocates the DNA in bursts of four 2.5 bp power strokes, while rotating the DNA. In this mechanism, each power stroke accompanies P(i) release after ATP hydrolysis. Since the high-resolution structure of the gp16 motor is not available, we borrowed characterized features from the P4 RNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi12. For each power stroke, a lumenal lever from a single subunit is electrostatically steered to the DNA backbone. The lever then pushes sterically, orthogonal to the backbone axis, such that the right-handed DNA helix is translocated and rotated in a left-handed direction. The electrostatic association allows tight coupling between the lever and the DNA and prevents DNA from slipping back. The lever affinity for DNA decreases towards the end of the power stroke and the DNA rolls to the lever on the next subunit. Each power stroke facilitates ATP hydrolysis in the next catalytic site by inserting an Arg -finger into the site, as captured in phi12-P4. At the end of every four power strokes, ADP release happens slowly, so the cycle pauses constituting a dwell phase during which four ATPs are loaded into the catalytic sites. The next burst phase of four power strokes starts once spontaneous ATP hydrolysis takes place in the fifth site without insertion of an Arg finger. The push and roll model provides a new perspective on how a multimeric ATPase transports DNA, and it might apply to other ring motors as well. PMID:20452360

  7. Double outlet right ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  8. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  9. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  11. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  12. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  13. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  14. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  15. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  16. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  17. Tuning Multiple Motor Travel Via Single Motor Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Shu, Zhanyong; King, Stephen J.; Gross, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Microtubule-based molecular motors often work in small groups to transport cargos in cells. A key question in understanding transport (and its regulation in vivo) is to identify the sensitivity of multiple-motor-based motion to various single molecule properties. Whereas both single-motor travel distance and microtubule binding rate have been demonstrated to contribute to cargo travel, the role of single-motor velocity is yet to be explored. Here, we recast a previous theoretical study, and make explicit a potential contribution of velocity to cargo travel. We test this possibility experimentally, and demonstrate a strong negative correlation between single-motor velocity and cargo travel for transport driven by two motors. Our study thus discovers a previously unappreciated role of single-motor velocity in regulating multiple-motor transport. PMID:22672518

  18. Stepwise translocation of nucleic acid motors

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Sua; Ha, Taekjip

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent single molecule studies have made a significant contribution to the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in the movement of motor proteins which process DNA and RNA. Measurement of stepsize in two disparate motors, NS3 helicase and ribosome both revealed three basepair steps which consist of three hidden substeps. Combined with previous structural studies, NS3 is likely taking a single nucleotide step of translocation coupled to one ATP binding event and this mode may be conserved in multitude of helicases. Such a stepwise translocation movement appears to occur through main contacts with the phosphate backbone. Double stranded RNA and DNA motor, RIG-I and Φ29 respectively showed translocation on a duplex while tracking exclusively a single stranded RNA/DNA in a directional manner, 5′ to 3′ in both cases. Spontaneous dynamics displayed by ribosome ratcheting and SSB (single stranded DNA binding protein) diffusing on DNA were rectified by interacting cofactors and proteins, EF-G and RecA respectively. PMID:20061135

  19. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  1. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  2. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  3. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  4. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  5. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  6. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  7. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  8. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-02-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  9. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  10. Mechanical solar motor: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Motor is proposed to convert radiation from sun directly into mechanical energy. Motor utilizes thermal expansion of liquid, heated by sun, as driving force. Unlike most thermally powered systems, it does not require that liquid be converted into vapor.

  11. Thermal motor positions magnetometer sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Scott, S. G.

    1966-01-01

    Reversing, thermal, motor-driven device positions magnetometer sensors for checking zero offset. The device alternately positions two sensors at fixed positions 90 degrees apart. The thermal motor is fabricated completely of nonmagnetic materials.

  12. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  13. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  14. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  15. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  16. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  17. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  18. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological.

  19. MotorMaster database of three-phase electric motors

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, B.L.

    1993-12-31

    Selecting the right motor for a new or replacement application used to be a daunting task. Making an intelligent choice involved a search through a stack of motor catalogs for information on efficiency, voltage, speed, horsepower, torque, service factor, power factor, frame type, and cost. The MotorMaster software package, available from the Washington State Energy Office, takes the drudgery out of motor selection by enabling rapid analysis of the most efficient and cost-effective single-speed three-phase induction motors. It has a built-in motor database, easy to use comparison and analysis features, and can calculate utility rebates and simple paybacks. By speeding the selection process and providing comprehensive economic justification for the final equipment choice, software tools like MotorMaster can become an important component of utility DSM programs. And as a bonus, wide use of such software may lead to more systematic and consistent use of energy efficient equipment.

  20. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  1. Motor technology for mining applications advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

  2. Big Savings from Smart Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Chesebrough-Pond's operates 32 plants across the nation and in those plants are more than 10,000 electric motors. In an effort to cut down on waste of electrical power used by these motors, Chesebrough organized a Corporate Advanced Technology Group to devise ways of improving productivity and cut manufacturing costs. Chesebrough used NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Power Factor Controller technology as a departure point for development of their own computerized motor controller that enables motors to operate at maximum efficiency regardless of the motor's applications or operating condition.

  3. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in face-diagonal-bending mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-09-01

    We report a piezoelectric standing wave linear ultrasonic motor with double driving tips for generating precision motion. The motor's piezoelectric actuator was made of a simple Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm3) operating in a single face-diagonal-bending standing wave mode to produce symmetric, bi-directional linear motion. The motor generated a driving force of 3.0 N and a moving speed of up to 165 mm/s under a relatively low applied electric field of 75 Vpp/mm at a resonance frequency of 141.5 kHz. This motor is superior to those previously reported because of the double friction-tip standing wave driving mechanism and the operating mode.

  4. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  5. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  6. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  7. Understanding social motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  8. Motor learning by observing.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Gribble, Paul L

    2005-04-01

    Learning complex motor behaviors like riding a bicycle or swinging a golf club is based on acquiring neural representations of the mechanical requirements of movement (e.g., coordinating muscle forces to control the club). Here we provide evidence that mechanisms matching observation and action facilitate motor learning. Subjects who observed a video depicting another person learning to reach in a novel mechanical environment (imposed by a robot arm) performed better when later tested in the same environment than subjects who observed similar movements but no learning; moreover, subjects who observed learning of a different environment performed worse. We show that this effect is not based on conscious strategies but instead depends on the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control. PMID:15820701

  9. Prospective errors determine motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model’s novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  10. An Electrostatic Stepper Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partington, E. C.; Wong, Edward Chun Kay; Bullough, W. A.

    This paper describes a new concept in pulse controlled motor and precision linear actuator techniques. Piezo translators [PZT] employed to provide reciprocating primary motion are connected to a load via a controllable electrorheological fluid [ERF] clutch to form a programmable speed and step-width drive. Ideal considerations are used to quantify the limiting potential of the drive and details are given of its development and progress.

  11. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  12. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  13. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  14. Hydraulic motor for cars

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, D.C.

    1986-09-02

    A hydraulic motor for a car is described comprising, in combination, an automotive vehicle engine for travel self-propulsion, including a block, a plurality of cylinders in the block, a piston slidable in each cylinder, a crankshaft in the block, a piston rod connected between the crankshaft and each of the pistons, a power take-off gear on the crankshaft for the travel self-propulsion, and the engine including a hydraulic means for driving the pistons in the cylinders.

  15. The St. Louis Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-10-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

  16. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  17. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  18. Mechanics of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Koen

    2001-03-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy into work by mechanisms that researchers are just starting to uncover. We have studied the coupling of chemistry to mechanics for kinesin, a motor protein that moves in a stepwise fashion along microtubules and is energized by the hydrolysis of ATP. Velocities of individual kinesin molecules at varying ATP concentrations and loads were recorded using a molecular force cl& a feedback-driven optical trap, which maintains constant loads on individual moving motor molecules. These measurements showed that kinesin requires only a single ATP molecule per mechanical step, and revealed the load-dependant biochemical transitions in the kinesin cycle where conformational changes are likely to occur. Modeling of the velocity data showed that kinesin mechanochemistry can be characterized by a mechanism that involves a thermally-activated and load-dependent isomerization directly following ATP binding. The model quantitatively accounts for velocity data over a wide range of loads and ATP concentrations, and indicates that movement may be accomplished through two sequential, non-identical, 4-nm sized substeps.

  19. Dyspraxia, Motor Function and Visual-Motor Integration in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M.; Chukoskie, L.; Zinni, M.; Townsend, J.; Trauner, D.

    2014-01-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

  20. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  1. Wind motor applications for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

  2. Causal Role of Motor Simulation in Turn-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Overlap between sensory and motor representations has been documented for a range of human actions, from grasping (Rizzolatti et al., 1996b) to playing a musical instrument (Novembre and Keller, 2014). Such overlap suggests that individuals use motor simulation to predict the outcome of observed actions (Wolpert, 1997). Here we investigate motor simulation as a basis of human communication. Using a musical turn-taking task, we show that pianists call on motor representations of their partner's part to predict when to come in for their own turn. Pianists played alternating solos with a videoed partner, and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied around the turn-switch to temporarily disrupt processing in two cortical regions implicated previously in different forms of motor simulation: (1) the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), associated with automatic motor resonance during passive observation of hand actions, especially when the actions are familiar (Lahav et al., 2007); and (2) the supplementary motor area (SMA), involved in active motor imagery, especially when the actions are familiar (Baumann et al., 2007). Stimulation of the right dPMC decreased the temporal accuracy of pianists' (right-hand) entries relative to sham when the partner's (left-hand) part had been rehearsed previously. This effect did not occur for dPMC stimulation without rehearsal or for SMA stimulation. These findings support the role of the dPMC in predicting the time course of observed actions via resonance-based motor simulation during turn-taking. Because turn-taking spans multiple modes of human interaction, we suggest that simulation is a foundational mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of joint action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Even during passive observation, seeing or hearing somebody execute an action from within our repertoire activates motor cortices of our brain. But what is the functional relevance of such “motor simulation”? By combining a musical duet

  3. Continuous growth of the motor system in the axolotl

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.; Clarke, J.D.; Stephens, N.; Wilson, S.W.; Orsi, C.; Bloomer, T.; Tonge, D.A. )

    1991-01-22

    During growth of the axolotl, motor neurons, and muscle fibres are added to the motor system. By double labelling neurons with tritiated thymidine and retrogradely transported HRP, we show that some motor neurons are born at postembryonic stages. Further analysis of motor neurons with the aid of HRP reveals this population of newly born cells relatively frequently in small (5-7 cm long) axolotls, but only rarely in large (7-13 cm long) axolotls. Evidence is presented that suggests that these immature cells are in the process of migrating from close to the ependyma out to the ventral horn. HRP transport also reveals growth cones of advancing axons within spinal nerves in animals up to 6 cm in length. Cell counts by light and electron microscopic methods show that muscle fibres are generated throughout larval life in the iliotibialis, a typical limb muscle. This analysis provides data consistent with the notion that new muscle fibres are added from a localised growth zone situated at the superficial edge of the muscle. These results are discussed in terms of the correlation between continuous growth of the motor system and the ability of the axolotl to functionally repair lesions to the peripheral nervous system.

  4. The role of the motor system in discriminating normal and degraded speech sounds.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bufalari, Ilaria; Salmas, Paola; Fadiga, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    Listening to speech recruits a network of fronto-temporo-parietal cortical areas. Classical models consider anterior, motor, sites involved in speech production whereas posterior sites involved in comprehension. This functional segregation is more and more challenged by action-perception theories suggesting that brain circuits for speech articulation and speech perception are functionally interdependent. Recent studies report that speech listening elicits motor activities analogous to production. However, the motor system could be crucially recruited only under certain conditions that make speech discrimination hard. Here, by using event-related double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on lips and tongue motor areas, we show data suggesting that the motor system may play a role in noisy, but crucially not in noise-free environments, for the discrimination of speech signals.

  5. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Mysiak, Karolina S; Scott, Angela L; Reimer, Michell M; Yang, Yujie; Becker, Catherina G; Becker, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90%) by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish.

  6. The Chromodomains of the Chd1 Chromatin Remodeler Regulate DNA Access to the ATPase Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hauk, G.; McKnight, J; Nodelman, I; Bowman, G

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.

  7. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Mysiak, Karolina S.; Scott, Angela L.; Reimer, Michell M.; Yang (杨宇婕), Yujie; Becker, Catherina G.; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90%) by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish. PMID:26565906

  8. Motor neuron pathology and behavioral alterations at late stages in a SMA mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fulceri, Federica; Bartalucci, Alessia; Paparelli, Silvio; Pasquali, Livia; Biagioni, Francesca; Ferrucci, Michela; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Fornai, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurogenetic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons. The validation of appropriate animal models is key in fostering SMA research. Recent studies set up an animal model showing long survival and slow disease progression. This model is knocked out for mouse SMN (Smn(-/-)) gene and carries a human mutation of the SMN1 gene (SMN1A2G), along with human SMN2 gene. In the present study we used this knock out double transgenic mouse model (SMN2(+/+); Smn(-/-); SMN1A2G(+/-)) to characterize the spinal cord pathology along with motor deficit at prolonged survival times. In particular, motor neuron loss was established stereologically (44.77%) after motor deficit reached a steady state. At this stage, spared motor neurons showed significant cell body enlargement. Moreover, similar to what was described in patients affected by SMA we found neuronal heterotopy (almost 4% of total motor neurons) in the anterior white matter. The delayed disease progression was likely to maintain fair motor activity despite a dramatic loss of large motor neurons. This provides a wonderful tool to probe novel drugs finely tuning the survival of motor neurons. In fact, small therapeutic effects protracted over considerable time intervals (even more than a year) are expected to be magnified. PMID:22306031

  9. Multimotor Driven Cargos: From Single Motor under Load to the Role of Motor-Motor Coupling.

    PubMed

    Peker, Itay; Granek, Rony

    2016-07-01

    Motor proteins constitute an essential part of the cellular machinery. They have been the subject of intensive studies in the past two decades. Yet, when several motors simultaneously carry a single cargo, the effect of motor-motor coupling, such as mutual stalling and jamming, remains unclear. We commence by constructing a general model for single motor motion, which is a product of a derived load-dependent expression and a phenomenological motor specific function. Forming the latter according to recent single molecule measurements for a given load, the model correctly predicts the motor full step-size distribution for all other measured loads. We then use our proposed model to predict transport properties of multimotor complexes, with particular attention to 1-dimensional constructs with variable flexibility, motor density, and number of motors: (i) a chain of motors connected by springs, a recently studied construction of a pair, and (ii) an array of motors all connected by identical springs to a stiff rod, which is essentially a mirror image of standard gliding motility assays. In both systems, and for any number of carrying motors, we find that, while low flexibility results in a strongly damped velocity, increased flexibility renders an almost single motor velocity. Comparing our model based simulations to recent gliding assays we find remarkable qualitative agreement. We also demonstrate consistency with other multimotor motility assays. In all cases, the characteristic spring constant, that controls the crossover behavior between high and low velocity regimes, is found to be the stalling force divided by the mean step size. We conjecture that this characteristic spring constant can serve as a tool for engineering multimotor complexes. PMID:27044876

  10. Wind motor machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecke, A.

    1984-12-25

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the rotor core body and the wing bodies. These stream guiding bodies extend in a desired streaming direction, that is normal to the rotational axis of the wind body, which insures substantially laminar air streaming within the intermediate space.

  11. Electric motor analysis at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.; Morgan, V.A.; Nicholas, J.R. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Initiatives adopted by Dofasco to enhance electric motor reliability and availability include: Enhancement of the electrical repair shop testing and repair capabilities; More stringent standards for motor repair service vendors; Application of predictive technologies to motors in service within manufacturing units; Training of personnel in electrical predictive condition monitoring and analysis methods; and Periodic audit and comparison of central support and operating unit predictive technology application and integration. The basis for the initiative is discussed together with illustrative case histories.

  12. Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Antonio; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Arias, Pablo; Panyavin, Ivan; Foffani, Guglielmo; Aguilar, Juan

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in healthy humans the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of static magnetic fields through the scalp. Static magnetic fields were obtained by using cylindrical NdFeB magnets. We performed four sets of experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded motor potentials evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex before and after 10 min of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in conscious subjects. We observed an average reduction of motor cortex excitability of up to 25%, as revealed by TMS, which lasted for several minutes after the end of tSMS, and was dose dependent (intensity of the magnetic field) but not polarity dependent. In Experiment 2, we confirmed the reduction of motor cortex excitability induced by tSMS using a double-blind sham-controlled design. In Experiment 3, we investigated the duration of tSMS that was necessary to modulate motor cortex excitability. We found that 10 min of tSMS (compared to 1 min and 5 min) were necessary to induce significant effects. In Experiment 4, we used transcranial electric stimulation (TES) to establish that the tSMS-induced reduction of motor cortex excitability was not due to corticospinal axon and/or spinal excitability, but specifically involved intracortical networks. These results suggest that tSMS using small static magnets may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, and reversible way.

  13. Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Antonio; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Arias, Pablo; Panyavin, Ivan; Foffani, Guglielmo; Aguilar, Juan

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in healthy humans the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of static magnetic fields through the scalp. Static magnetic fields were obtained by using cylindrical NdFeB magnets. We performed four sets of experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded motor potentials evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex before and after 10 min of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in conscious subjects. We observed an average reduction of motor cortex excitability of up to 25%, as revealed by TMS, which lasted for several minutes after the end of tSMS, and was dose dependent (intensity of the magnetic field) but not polarity dependent. In Experiment 2, we confirmed the reduction of motor cortex excitability induced by tSMS using a double-blind sham-controlled design. In Experiment 3, we investigated the duration of tSMS that was necessary to modulate motor cortex excitability. We found that 10 min of tSMS (compared to 1 min and 5 min) were necessary to induce significant effects. In Experiment 4, we used transcranial electric stimulation (TES) to establish that the tSMS-induced reduction of motor cortex excitability was not due to corticospinal axon and/or spinal excitability, but specifically involved intracortical networks. These results suggest that tSMS using small static magnets may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, and reversible way. PMID:21807616

  14. Apogee motor rocketry reliability improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behm, J.; Dowler, W.; Gin, W.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1963, solid propellant apogee motors have been placing satellites into geosynchronous orbits. Major technological breakthroughs are not required to satisfy future mission requirements; however, there is a need to improve reliability to enhance cost effectiveness. Several management test options are discussed. A summary of results and conclusions derived from review of missions, where failure of a solid motor was inferred, and correlation of system factors with failures are reported. Highlights of a solid motor diagnostic instrumentation study are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided for areas of future apogee motor upgrade, which will increase project cost effectiveness by reducing the potential for future flight failures.

  15. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  16. 27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  18. 76 FR 12792 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for...

  19. Motor field sensitivity for preoperative localization of motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter T.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    Object In this study the role of magnetic source imaging for preoperative motor mapping was evaluated by using a single-dipole localization method to analyze motor field data in 41 patients. Methods Data from affected and unaffected hemispheres were collected in patients performing voluntary finger flexion movements. Somatosensory evoked field (SSEF) data were also obtained using tactile stimulation. Dipole localization using motor field (MF) data was successful in only 49% of patients, whereas localization with movement evoked field (MEF) data was successful in 66% of patients. When the spatial distribution of MF and MEF dipoles in relation to SSEF dipoles was analyzed, the motor dipoles were not spatially distinct from somatosensory dipoles. Conclusions The findings in this study suggest that single-dipole localization for the analysis of motor data is not sufficiently sensitive and is nonspecific, and thus not clinically useful. PMID:17044563

  20. Piribedil for the Treatment of Motor and Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Rascol, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are well-established symptomatic medications for treating early and advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Piribedil was one of the first agonists to be marketed (1969) and is widely used as an extended-release oral formulation in European, Latin-American, and Asian countries. Piribedil acts as a non-ergot partial dopamine D2/D3-selective agonist, blocks alpha2-adrenoreceptors and has minimal effects on serotoninergic, cholinergic, and histaminergic receptors. Animal models support the efficacy of piribedil to improve parkinsonian motor symptoms with a lower propensity than levodopa to induce dyskinesia. In PD patients, randomized double-blind studies show that piribedil (150-300 mg/day, three times daily) is superior to placebo in improving motor disability in early PD patients. Based on such evidence, piribedil was considered in the last Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine review as "efficacious" and "clinically useful" for the symptomatic treatment of PD, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with levodopa, in non-fluctuating early PD patients. This effect appears comparable to what is known from other D2 agonists. However, randomized controlled trials are not available to assess the effect of piribedil in managing levodopa-induced motor complications. Pilot clinical studies suggest that piribedil may improve non-motor symptoms, such as apathy, but confirmatory trials are needed. The tolerability and safety profile of piribedil fits with that of the class of dopaminergic agonists. As for other non-ergot agonists, pneumo-pulmonary, retroperitoneal, and valvular fibrotic side effects are not a concern with piribedil. The original combination of piribedil D2 dopaminergic and alpha-2 adrenergic properties deserve further investigations to better understand its antiparkinsonian profile. PMID:27344665

  1. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation.

  2. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  3. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  4. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  5. Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

    2008-01-01

    Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

  6. Alternative Motor Fuel Use Model

    1992-11-16

    AMFU is a tool for the analysis and prediction of motor fuel use by highway vehicles. The model advances the art of vehicle stock modeling by including a representation of the choice of motor fuel for flexible and dual fuel vehicles.

  7. Advanced solid propellant motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Russ, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced lightweight insulation system suitable for use in long duration, low pressure planetary orbiter-type motor applications was developed. Experiments included the screening of various filler and binder materials with optimization studies combining the best of each. Small scale test motor data were used to judge the degree of success.

  8. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  9. Power control for ac motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, R. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

  10. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  11. Molecular Motors: A Theorist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E.

    2007-05-01

    Individual molecular motors, or motor proteins, are enzymatic molecules that convert chemical energy, typically obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), into mechanical work and motion. Processive motor proteins, such as kinesin, dynein, and certain myosins, step unidirectionally along linear tracks, specifically microtubules and actin filaments, and play a crucial role in cellular transport processes, organization, and function. In this review some theoretical aspects of motor-protein dynamics are presented in the light of current experimental methods that enable the measurement of the biochemical and biomechanical properties on a single-molecule basis. After a brief discussion of continuum ratchet concepts, we focus on discrete kinetic and stochastic models that yield predictions for the mean velocity, V(F, [ATP], …), and other observables as a function of an imposed load force F, the ATP concentration, and other variables. The combination of appropriate theory with single-molecule observations should help uncover the mechanisms underlying motor-protein function.

  12. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  13. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  14. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  15. Reciprocating linear motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  16. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  17. Activities for a Perceptual Motor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)

  18. Closed-Loop Motor-Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew A.; Delcher, Ray C.; Huston, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic motor-speed control circuit designed to operate in electrically noisy environment. Includes optoelectronic pick-up device, placed inside motor housing to provide speed feedback signal. Automatically maintains speed motor at commanded value. Measures speed of motor in terms of frequency of pulses of infrared light chopped by fan blades of motor. Difference between measured and commanded speeds serves as control signal for external amplifier driving motor. Major advantage of circuit is low cost.

  19. Stability of Reflective-Impulsive Style in Coincidence-Anticipation Motor Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jean; Ripoll, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between response latencies and accuracy on the matching familiar figures test (MFFT) and two gross motor tasks (batting or catching a ball) were studied in twenty-nine 9-year-old boys. Children were classified into four groups using a double dichotomy of response latencies and errors on the MFFT: reflective, impulsive,…

  20. Enhancement of magnetic flux distribution in a DC superconducting electric motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, N. A.; Ewe, L. S.; Chin, K. M.

    2013-06-01

    Most motor designs require an air gap between the rotor and stator to enable the armature to rotate freely. The interaction of magnetic flux from rotor and stator within the air gap will provide the thrust for rotational motion. Thus, the understanding of magnetic flux in the vicinity of the air gap is very important to mathematically calculate the magnetic flux generated in the area. In this work, a finite element analysis was employed to study the behavior of the magnetic flux in view of designing a synchronous DC superconducting electric motor. The analysis provides an ideal magnetic flux distribution within the components of the motor. From the flux plot analysis, it indicates that flux losses are mainly in the forms of leakage and fringe effect. The analysis also shows that the flux density is high at the area around the air gap and the rotor. The high flux density will provide a high force area that enables the rotor to rotate. In contrast, the other parts of the motor body do not show high flux density indicating low distribution of flux. Consequently, a bench top model of a DC superconducting motor was developed where by motor with a 2-pole type winding was chosen. Each field coil was designed with a racetrack-shaped double pancake wound using DI-BSCCO Bi-2223 superconducting tapes. The performance and energy efficiency of the superconducting motor was superior when compared to the conventional motor with similar capacity.

  1. Dynamics of Double Stochastic Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburov, Mansoor

    2016-03-01

    A double stochastic operator is a generalization of a double stochastic matrix. In this paper, we study the dynamics of double stochastic operators. We give a criterion for a regularity of a double stochastic operator in terms of absences of its periodic points. We provide some examples to insure that, in general, a trajectory of a double stochastic operator may converge to any interior point of the simplex.

  2. Double Helical Fluid Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In the absence of gravity or at micro-scales, helical wires can support cylindrical volumes of fluid of infinite length, making them convenient as conduits. However, fixed contact line double helical fluid volumes have the additional property that they can be drained to zero volume without loss of stability to constant pressure disturbances. Thus the two-wire support is a convenient microgravity or micro-scale container as well as conduit. For evenly spaced wires, continuous draining of a cylindrical volume to zero is possible for double helices ranging from moderate pitch to the parallel wire case. Double helices of steeper pitch are stable as cylinders and at zero volume, but are unstable for some range of intermediate volumes. This unstable zone is very strongly dependent on the offset between the helical wires, varying rapidly for offsets other than 180 degrees. Preliminary experimental results validate the theoretical predictions.

  3. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device for mounting between two surfaces to provide an airtight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  4. Double Emulsion Templated Celloidosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga, Laura R.; Marquez, Samantha M.; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Chang, Connie; Wilking, Jim; Monroy, Francisco; Marquez, Manuel; Weitz, David A.

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel approach for fabricating celloidosomes, which represent a hollow and spherical three-dimensional self-assembly of living cells encapsulating an aqueous core. Glass- capillary microfluidics is used to generate monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion templates using lipids as stabilizers. Such templates allow for obtaining single but also double concentric celloidosomes. In addition, after a solvent removal step the double emulsion templates turn into monodisperse lipid vesicles, whose membrane spontaneously phase separates when choosing the adequate lipid composition, providing the adequate scaffold for fabricating Janus-celloidosomes. These structures may find applications in the development of bioreactors in which the synergistic effects of two different types of cells selectively adsorbed on one of the vesicle hemispheres may be exploited.

  5. Revisting the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taekjip

    2010-12-08

    Properties of DNA double helix have been studied for over 60 years. Yet as more sensitive tools become available, fundamental assumptions in our understanding of these properties are being challenged. One such question is over the flexibility of DNA. Looping or bending of DNA on short length scales is essential for many cellular processes but it is highly controversial exactly how flexible the DNA is. Using a new, single-molecule based method, we found that DNA of lengths as short as 50 base pairs can form a circle more than 108 times faster than theoretical predictions. Another question concerns the physical principles governing the reversible, helix-coil transitions of DNA between the double helix and single strands. Using porous nanocontainers, we found that the rate of double helix formation shows an abrupt 100 fold change depending on whether there are 7 or more contiguous base pairs or not.

  6. Tracking The Double Eagle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Last summer a trio of aeronauts made aviation history. Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson and Larry Newman, all of Albuquerque, New Mexico, piloted their balloon Double Eagle I1 from Presque Isle, Maine to Miserey, France, some 50 miles from Paris. They were the first to negotiate a successful Atlantic crossing in a freeflying balloon after a score of attempts over a span of more than a century. A year earlier, Abruzzo and Anderson had made an unsuccessful try in their predecessor balloon Double Eagle. On that occasion, a NASA-developed satellite beacon helped save their lives. Carried aboard the balloon, the simple, seven-pound beacon continuously transmitted signals to NASA's Nimbus-6 satellite. Nimbus relayed the signals to monitors at Goddard Space Flight Center, enabling Goddard to compute the balloon's position. Position reports were then telephoned regularly to Double Eagle's control center at Bedford, Massachusetts. This monitoring system proved invaluable when the balloon encountered trouble several days after liftoff.

  7. Phase reversal technique decreases cortical stimulation time during motor mapping.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mirela V; Sheth, Sameer A; Eckhardt, Christine A; Kilbride, Ronan D; Braver, Diana; Williams, Ziv; Curry, William; Cahill, Dan; Eskandar, Emad N

    2014-06-01

    Neurophysiologic mapping of the primary motor cortex (PMC) is commonly used in supratentorial surgery. Electrical cortical stimulation is guided by anatomic landmarks towards the precentral gyrus, with recording of the triggered primary motor responses (TPMR) in the contralateral hemibody. Thus, factors such as distortion of the pericentral anatomy, small surgical fields, brain shifts and miscalibrated neuronavigational systems may lengthen the process and result in unnecessary stimulations, increasing the probability of triggering seizures. We hypothesized that central sulcus localization via the median somatosensory evoked potentials phase reversal technique (MSSEP PRT) accurately guides the surgeon, resulting in prompt identification of the PMC with minimal electrical stimulation. Multivariate Cox regression was used to study the impact of MSSEP PRT on time spent performing electrical cortical stimulation to TPMR. The analysis was adjusted for presence of increased cortical excitability, high motor thresholds, lesions close to PMC and fMRI data, in 100 consecutive standardized motor mapping procedures for brain tumor resection and epilepsy surgery. Phase reversal and change morphology of the recorded somatosensory evoked potentials quadrupled (hazard ratio [HR] 4.13, p<0.0001) and doubled (HR 2.14, p=0.02) the rate of obtaining TPMR, respectively. A 1mA increase in motor threshold decreased the rate by 9% (HR 0.91, p=0.0002). Afterdischarges triggered before TPMR and lesions in close proximity to PMC decreased the rate of TPMR by 76% (HR 0.23, p<0.0001) and 48% (HR 0.52, p=0.04), respectively. Informative PRT decreases stimulation time. Afterdischarges triggered before TPMR, high motor thresholds and lesions close to the PMC increase it. PMID:24679940

  8. Design friendly double patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilada, Emek

    2012-03-01

    Double patterning using 193nm immersion has been adapted as the solution to enable 2x nm technology nodes until the arrival of EUV tools. As a result the past few years have seen a huge effort in creating double patterning friendly design flows. These flows have so far proposed a combination of decomposition rules at cell level and/or at placement level as well as sophisticated decomposition tools with varying density, design iteration and decomposition complexity penalties. What is more, designers have to familiarize themselves with double patterning challenges and decomposition tools. In this paper an alternative approach is presented that allows the development of dense standard cells with minimal impact on design flow due to double patterning. A real case study is done on 20nm node first metal layer where standard cells are designed without considering decomposition restrictions. The resulting layout is carefully studied in order to establish decomposition or color rules that can map the layout into two masks required for double patterning but without the need of complex coloring algorithms. Since the rules are derived from a decomposition unaware design they do not in return impose heavy restrictions on the design at the cell or placement level and show substantial density gains compared to previously proposed methods. Other key advantages are a simplified design flow without complex decomposition tools that can generate a faster time to market solution all at the same time keeping designers isolated from the challenges of the double patterning. The derived design rules highlight process development path required for design driven manufacturing.

  9. Double checking: a second look

    PubMed Central

    Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: ‘How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?’ Method This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi‐structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Results Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time‐consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand‐alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in‐family approach, and resilience. Conclusion(s) Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. PMID:26568537

  10. Double Bragg Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, H; Müntinga, H; Wenzlawski, A; Krutzik, M; Tackmann, G; Abend, S; Gaaloul, N; Giese, E; Roura, A; Kuhl, R; Lämmerzahl, C; Peters, A; Windpassinger, P; Sengstock, K; Schleich, W P; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2016-04-29

    We employ light-induced double Bragg diffraction of delta-kick collimated Bose-Einstein condensates to create three symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers. They rely on (i) first-order, (ii) two successive first-order, and (iii) second-order processes which demonstrate the scalability of the corresponding momentum transfer. With respect to devices based on conventional Bragg scattering, these symmetric interferometers double the scale factor and feature a better suppression of noise and systematic uncertainties intrinsic to the diffraction process. Moreover, we utilize these interferometers as tiltmeters for monitoring their inclination with respect to gravity. PMID:27176520

  11. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  12. ? - ? Double twinning in magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Aleš; Ostapovets, Andriy; Molnár, Peter; Lejček, Pavel

    2011-08-01

    It is demonstrated that metalworking processes performed at different temperatures can lead to the ? - ? double twinning. This twinning mode has been observed during direct extrusion of the coarse-grained Mg-0.3at.%Al alloy at 433 K and analysed in detail on room-temperature rolled magnesium single crystal with the c-axis parallel to transverse direction and the a-axis parallel to rolling direction. The ? - ? double twins originated during initial stage of the formation on coarse-grained and single-crystalline structure.

  13. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  14. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  15. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.; Nyilas, Charles P.; Denmeade, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  16. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-10-07

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

  17. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  18. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  19. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  20. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

  1. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  2. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  3. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

  4. Nano-Magnets and Additive Manufacturing for Electric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    High power density is required for application of electric motors in hybrid electric propulsion. Potential path to achieve high power density in electric motors include advanced materials, lightweight thermal management, lightweight structural concepts, high power density power electronics, and advanced manufacturing. This presentation will focus on two key technologies for achieving high power density, advanced magnets and additive manufacturing. The maximum energy product in current magnets is reaching their theoretical limits as a result of material and process improvements. Future improvements in the maximum energy product for magnets can be achieved through development of nanocomposite magnets combining the hard magnetic phase and soft magnetic phase at the nanoscale level. The presentation will provide an overview of the current state of development for nanocomposite magnets and the future path for doubling the maximum energy product. The other part of the presentation will focus on the role of additive manufacturing in fabrication of high power density electric motors. The presentation will highlight the potential opportunities for applying additive manufacturing to fabricate electric motors.

  5. 26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. The U-bolt and concrete deadman which anchors the cable of the tramway is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  6. Understanding motor acts and motor intentions in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sparaci, Laura; Stefanini, Silvia; Marotta, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2012-06-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with unusually hyper-social demeanor and ease with strangers. These personality traits are accompanied by difficulties in social interactions, possibly related, at least in part, to a difficulty in understanding others' mental states. Studies on mentalizing capacities in individuals with WS have often led to contrasting results, some studies revealing specific impairments, others highlighting spared mentalizing capacities. So far, however, no study investigated the performance of individuals with WS in non-inferential understanding of others' motor intentions. In the present study we investigated this capacity by using a computer-based behavioral task using pictures of hand-object interactions. We asked individuals with WS first to describe what the other was doing (i.e. a task implying no kind of intention reading), and secondly, if successful in answering the first question, to describe the motor intention underlying the observed motor acts (i.e. why an act was being done, a task requiring non-inferential motor intention understanding). Results showed that individuals with WS made more errors in understanding what the other was doing (i.e. understanding a motor act) compared to both mental-age matched controls and chronological-age matched peers with typical development, while showing mental-age appropriate performance in understanding why an individual was acting (i.e. understanding a motor intention). These findings suggest novel perspectives for understanding impairments in social behavior in WS.

  7. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use - Motor Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Motors use no energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a NEMA Premium® efficiency motor. In fact, given that 97% of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor is energy-related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase three new motors.

  8. Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, Tom; Blank, Basil; Deyhim, Alex; Benson, Curtis; Robinson, Ian; Fuoss, Paul

    2004-05-12

    A high-precision water-cooled, small offset, double crystal monochromator has been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) UNICAT Sector 34 beamline. The design incorporates the supports and gravity feed water cooling of two diamond or silicon crystals correctly positioned about a common rotation axis so that the incident and diffracted beam do not walk off the edges of the crystals within the energy range 6-15KeV (30 deg. motorized tilt motion around an axis parallel to its face and around the beam direction. In this paper preliminary measurement data obtained from Advanced Photon Source and the detail of the instrument design are presented.

  9. Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, T.; Blank, B.; Deyhim, A.; Fuoss, P.H.; Benson, C.A.; Robinson, I.K.

    2010-11-16

    A high-precision water-cooled, small offset, double crystal monochromator has been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) UNICAT Sector 34 beamline. The design incorporates the supports and gravity feed water cooling of two diamond or silicon crystals correctly positioned about a common rotation axis so that the incident and diffracted beam do not walk off the edges of the crystals within the energy range 6-15KeV (30{sup o} < q < 11.6{sup o}). In the 34ID implementation, the first crystal sees unfocussed pink beam from an undulator. The second crystal has a {+-}5{sup o} motorized tilt motion around an axis parallel to its face and around the beam direction. In this paper preliminary measurement data obtained from Advanced Photon Source and the detail of the instrument design are presented.

  10. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

  11. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  12. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  13. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  14. Venezuela to double Supermetanol

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-23

    Pequiven, the petrochemical arm of Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA, is conducting feasibility studies to double the size of its 750,000-m.t./year Supermetanol methanol joint venture with Ecofuel at Jose. The twin unit would be onstream by the end of the decade and would increase Pequiven`s capacity to 2.3 million m.t./year.

  15. Optimal approximate doubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Siendong

    2009-11-01

    The nonlocality of quantum states on a bipartite system \\mathcal {A+B} is tested by comparing probabilistic outcomes of two local observables of different subsystems. For a fixed observable A of the subsystem \\mathcal {A,} its optimal approximate double A' of the other system \\mathcal {B} is defined such that the probabilistic outcomes of A' are almost similar to those of the fixed observable A. The case of σ-finite standard von Neumann algebras is considered and the optimal approximate double A' of an observable A is explicitly determined. The connection between optimal approximate doubles and quantum correlations is explained. Inspired by quantum states with perfect correlation, like Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and Bohm states, the nonlocality power of an observable A for general quantum states is defined as the similarity that the outcomes of A look like the properties of the subsystem \\mathcal {B} corresponding to A'. As an application of optimal approximate doubles, maximal Bell correlation of a pure entangled state on \\mathcal {B}(\\mathbb {C}^{2})\\otimes \\mathcal {B}(\\mathbb {C}^{2}) is found explicitly.

  16. Replace Double Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Reactions described as double replacements in high school texts are poorly described by this designation. The driving force for such reactions is precipitation of a solid derived from ions in solution or the production of water in acid-base reactions.

  17. Double-Entry Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    Explains the principles and mechanics of double-entry bookkeeping as a part of the accounting cycle to produce a functioning set of accounting records. Suggests that libraries need to have accurate and timely information about their spending to gain financial control and protect against fraud and abuse. (LRW)

  18. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  19. A matterless double slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ben; di Piazza, Antonino; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2010-02-01

    Double slits provide incoming particles with a choice. Those that survive passage through the slits have chosen from two possible paths, which interfere to distribute them in a wave-like manner. Such wave-particle duality continues to be challenged and investigated in a broad range of disciplines with electrons, neutrons, helium atoms, C60 fullerenes, Bose-Einstein condensates and biological molecules. All variants have hitherto involved material constituents. We present a matterless double-slit scenario in which photons generated from virtual electron-positron pair annihilation in head-on collisions of a probe laser field with two ultra-intense laser beams form a double-slit interference pattern. Such electromagnetic fields are predicted to induce material-like behaviour in vacuum, supporting elastic scattering between photons. Our double-slit scenario presents, on the one hand, a realizable method with which to observe photon-photon scattering and, on the other hand, demonstrates the possibility of both controlling light with light and non-locally investigating features of the quantum vacuum structure.

  20. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  1. Design for Double Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  2. Teaching the Double Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various methods for teaching the double layer in electrochemistry courses. Topics addressed include measuring change in absolute potential difference (PD) at interphase, conventional electrode potential scale, analyzing absolute PD, metal-metal and overlap electron PDs, accumulation of material at interphase, thermodynamics of electrified…

  3. Synthetic Motors and Nanomachines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Amar

    2006-03-01

    A bistable and palindromically-constituted [3]rotaxane incorporating two mechanically-mobile rings interlocked around a linear dumbbell component, has been designed to operate like the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle. Contraction and extension occurs when the inter-ring distance of the two rings switch, ideally, between 4.2 and 1.4 nm upon redox stimulation either chemically or electrochemically in the solution phase. When the mobile rings of these artificial molecular muscles are bound onto the tops of gold-coated, micron-scale cantilever beams, their controllable nanometer motions have a chance to be amplified along the long axis of each cantilever. It turns out that ˜6 billion of the self-assembled [3]rotaxanes can bend the cantilevers in a bistable manner concomitant with the cycled addition of redox agents. The extent of bending is commensurate with 10's of pN of force per [3]rotaxane. Recent studies on a set of ``single-shot'' control [2]rotaxanes have provided additional evidence for the origins of the force generation as it arises from a molecule-based electrostatic repulsion energy of about 10 kcal/mol at 300 K. These findings will be presented in terms of the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics that have been utilized extensively to direct the design and synthesis of artificial molecular machines and which may also serve as a guide for the rational design of unidirectional molecular motors.

  4. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

  5. Mechanical thermal motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for converting thermal energy such as solar energy into mechanical motion for driving fluid pumps and similar equipment. The thermal motor comprises an inner concentric cylinder carried by a stationary core member. The core member has a cylindrical disc plate fixed adjacent to a lower portion and extending radially from it. An outer concentric cylinder rotatably carried on the disc plate defining a space between the inner and outer concentric cylinders. A spiral tubular member encircles the inner concentric cylinder and is contained within the space between the inner and outer cylinders. One portion is connected to the inner concentric cylinder and a second portion connected to the outer concentric cylinder. A heated fluid is conveyed through the tubular member and is periodically cooled causing the tubular member to expand and contract. This causes the outer concentric cylinder to reciprocally rotate on the base plate accordingly. The reciprocating motion of the outer concentric cylinder is then utilized to drive a pump member in a pump chamber.

  6. Plasma motor generator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

  7. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  8. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  9. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  10. Small Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

  11. Battery powererd electric motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlbacker, K.

    1984-02-28

    A battery powered vehicle is provided with a vehicle frame and an electric motor whose main shaft is connected to a differential gear by means of a gear train with a variable transmission ratio, the motor shaft and all gear shafts being parallel to the axle of the driving wheels. In order to achieve a compact design and to avoid power-consuming drive elements the electric motor and the variable transmission gear as well as a potential reducing gear mounted between the latter and the differential gear, are positioned on a subframe which is connected to the housing of the driving wheel axle on the one side whereas the other side carrying the electric motor is attached to the vehicle frame by means of a cardanic suspension.

  12. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  13. Perceptual decoupling or motor decoupling?

    PubMed

    Head, James; Helton, William S

    2013-09-01

    The current investigation was conducted to elucidate whether errors of commission in the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) are indicators of perceptual or motor decoupling. Twenty-eight participants completed SARTs with motor and perceptual aspects of the task manipulated. The participants completed four different SART blocks whereby stimuli location uncertainty and stimuli acquisition were manipulated. In previous studies of more traditional sustained attention tasks stimuli location uncertainty reduces sustained attention performance. In the case of the SART the motor manipulation (stimuli acquisition), but not the perceptual manipulation (stimuli location uncertainty) significantly reduced commission errors. The results suggest that the majority of SART commission errors are likely to be indicators of motor decoupling not necessarily perceptual decoupling.

  14. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  15. Meissner-Effect Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed stepping motor derives torque from diamagnetic repulsion produced by Meissner effect - exclusion of magnetic field from interior of superconductor. Design of motor takes advantage of silver-doped YB2Cu3O and other compounds superconductive at temperatures as high as that of liquid nitrogen. Skin of rotor cooled below its superconducting-transition temperature by liquid nitrogen. O-rings prevent leaks of liquid nitrogen from rotor. Weight, cost, and maintenance reduced.

  16. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  17. A soft and dexterous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony Chun Hin; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd

    2011-03-01

    We present a soft, bearing-free artificial muscle motor that cannot only turn a shaft but also grip and reposition it through a flexible gear. The bearing-free operation provides a foundation for low complexity soft machines, with multiple degree-of-freedom actuation, that can act simultaneously as motors and manipulators. The mechanism also enables an artificial muscle controlled gear change. Future work will include self-sensing feedback for precision, multidegree-of-freedom operation.

  18. Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.

    PubMed

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments.

  19. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  20. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  1. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  2. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    PubMed

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  3. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  4. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  5. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    DOEpatents

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  6. Motor Development: From Classroom to Playground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Gerald S., Ed.; Burkhart, Ernie, Ed.

    Intended for the educator and recreator working with normal and exceptional children, the book provides an overview of perceptual motor terminology, development, and resources in addition to a state of the art paper. Presented are definitions of such terms as motor development, sensory motor development, and perceptual motor development.…

  7. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  8. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  9. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  10. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  11. Double Degrees: Double the Trouble or Twice the Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy; Dolnicar, Sara; Ayoub, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Double degrees (also called joint or combined degrees)--programs of study combining two bachelor degrees--are increasingly popular in Australian universities, particularly among women. A case study using qualitative and quantitative surveys of current and past double degree students is presented. The study indicates that double degrees benefit…

  12. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  15. The Infant Motor Profile: A Standardized and Qualitative Method to Assess Motor Behaviour in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and valid instrument to assess neuromotor condition in infancy is a prerequisite for early detection of developmental motor disorders. We developed a video-based assessment of motor behaviour, the Infant Motor Profile (IMP), to evaluate motor abilities, movement variability, ability to select motor strategies, movement symmetry, and…

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  18. General Theory of the Double Fed Synchronous Machine. Ph.D. Thesis - Swiss Technological Univ., 1950

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Magrabi, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Motor and generator operation of a double-fed synchronous machine were studied and physically and mathematically treated. Experiments with different connections, voltages, etc. were carried out. It was concluded that a certain degree of asymmetry is necessary for the best utilization of the machine.

  19. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  20. Double Ring Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A faint double ring crater is seen at upper right in this picture of Mercury (FDS 166601) taken one hour and 40 minutes before Mariner 10's second rendezvous with the planet September 21. Located 35 degrees S. Lat. The outer ring is 170 kilometers (10 miles) across. Double ring craters are common features on Mercury. This particular feature and the bright rayed crater to its left were seen from a different viewing angle in pictures taken by Mariner 10 during its first Mercury flyby last March 29.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  1. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  2. Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

    2000-05-01

    Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

  3. Dynamic modeling and characteristics analysis of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Shengli; Lv, Qibao; Liu, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an integrated model is developed to analyze the fundamental characteristics of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor with double piezoelectric vibrators. The energy method is used to model the dynamics of the two piezoelectric vibrators. The interface forces are coupled into the dynamic equations of the two vibrators and the moving platform, forming a whole machine model of the motor. The behavior of the force transmission of the motor is analyzed via the resulting model to understand the drive mechanism. In particular, the relative contact length is proposed to describe the intermittent contact characteristic between the stator and the mover, and its role in evaluating motor performance is discussed. The relations between the output speed and various inputs to the motor and the start-stop transients of the motor are analyzed by numerical simulations, which are validated by experiments. Furthermore, the dead-zone behavior is predicted and clarified analytically using the proposed model, which is also observed in experiments. These results are useful for designing servo control scheme for the motor.

  4. Investigation of a rotary ultrasonic motor using a longitudinal vibrator and spiral fin rotor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Taijiang; Wu, Xiaoyu; Liang, Xiong; Shi, Hongyan; Luo, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A Langevin transducer can provide longitudinal vibration with larger amplitude while also possessing a greater fatigue life than other types of piezoelectric vibrators. A novel rotary Ultrasonic Motor (USM) was proposed based on the use of a longitudinal transducer (acting as the stator) and a spiral fin rotor: the front cover of the Langevin transducer was designed as a double-layer cup-shaped structure, with the rotor sustained by the inner-layer, and the bearing cover fixed to the outer-layer; the rotor consisted of a shaft and spiral fins which acted as the elastic coupler. It is different from a traditional traveling USM, because the stator provides longitudinal vibration and the rotor generates the elliptical motion. This paper analyzed the motion locus equation of the fin contact points. Additionally, a theoretical analysis was performed in regards to the mechanism and the motor's rotor motion characteristics, which demonstrates the relationships among the motor's driving force, the torque, the revolution speed, and the motor structure parameters. A motor prototype has been manufactured and surveyed to demonstrate the motor performance. The relationships between the amplitude and the preload on the rotor, the free revolution speed, and the torque of the motor have also been studied.

  5. Dynamic modeling and characteristics analysis of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Shengli; Lv, Qibao; Liu, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an integrated model is developed to analyze the fundamental characteristics of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor with double piezoelectric vibrators. The energy method is used to model the dynamics of the two piezoelectric vibrators. The interface forces are coupled into the dynamic equations of the two vibrators and the moving platform, forming a whole machine model of the motor. The behavior of the force transmission of the motor is analyzed via the resulting model to understand the drive mechanism. In particular, the relative contact length is proposed to describe the intermittent contact characteristic between the stator and the mover, and its role in evaluating motor performance is discussed. The relations between the output speed and various inputs to the motor and the start-stop transients of the motor are analyzed by numerical simulations, which are validated by experiments. Furthermore, the dead-zone behavior is predicted and clarified analytically using the proposed model, which is also observed in experiments. These results are useful for designing servo control scheme for the motor. PMID:27518427

  6. Double shell liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    1997-05-05

    Experiments on the double shell liner (DSL) implosions with and without an initial axial magnetic were performed on the SNOP-3 pulse generator (1.1 MA, 100 ns). In implosions of a DSL without an initial axial magnetic field, high radial compressions of the inner shell were observed, as in previous experiments with an initial axial magnetic field. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the initial azimuthal magnetic field are discussed.

  7. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  8. The double massa intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Baydin, Serhat; Gungor, Abuzer; Baran, Oguz; Tanriover, Necmettin; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To describe the rare finding of a double massa intermedia (MI). Typically, the MI (interthalamic adhesion) is a single bridge of gray matter connecting the medial surfaces of the thalami. Methods: Twelve formalin- and alcohol-fixed human third ventricles were examined from superior to inferior by fiber dissection technique under ×6 to ×40 magnifications and with the endoscope. Results: In all hemispheres, the anterior and posterior commissure were defined. The MI, which bridges the medial surfaces of the thalami, was defined in all hemispheres. In one hemisphere, there was a second bridge between the thalami, located posteroinferior to the common MI. Endoscopic view confirmed that there was a second MI in this specimen. The MI usually traverses the third ventricle posterior to the foramen of Monro and connects the paired thalami. The MI is an important landmark during endoscopic and microscopic surgeries of the third ventricle. Although a double MI is very rare, surgeons should be aware of the possibility in their surgical planning. Conclusion: The surgeon should be aware of the possibility of a double MI to avoid confusion during third ventricle surgery. PMID:27127695

  9. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  10. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  11. Emergence of Motor Circuit Activity

    PubMed Central

    Law, Chris; Paquet, Michel; Kania, Artur

    2014-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, ordered neuronal activity patterns can occur even in the absence of sensory input and to investigate how these arise, we have used the model system of the embryonic chicken spinal motor circuit, focusing on motor neurons of the lateral motor column (LMC). At the earliest stages of their molecular differentiation, we can detect differences between medial and lateral LMC neurons in terms of expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, including CHRNA5, CHRNA7, GRIN2A, GRIK1, HTR1A and HTR1B, as well as the KCC2 transporter. Using patch-clamp recordings we also demonstrate that medial and lateral LMC motor neurons have subtly different activity patterns that reflect the differential expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. Using a combination of patch-clamp recordings in single neurons and calcium-imaging of motor neuron populations, we demonstrate that inhibition of nicotinic, muscarinic or GABA-ergic activity, has profound effects of motor circuit activity during the initial stages of neuromuscular junction formation. Finally, by analysing the activity of large populations of motor neurons at different developmental stages, we show that the asynchronous, disordered neuronal activity that occurs at early stages of circuit formation develops into organised, synchronous activity evident at the stage of LMC neuron muscle innervation. In light of the considerable diversity of neurotransmitter receptor expression, activity patterns in the LMC are surprisingly similar between neuronal types, however the emergence of patterned activity, in conjunction with the differential expression of transmitter systems likely leads to the development of near-mature patterns of locomotor activity by perinatal ages. PMID:24722186

  12. The influence of Oxytocin on automatic motor simulation.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Lize; Mueller, Sven C; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Saedeleer, Lien; Brass, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Motor simulation is important for imitation, action understanding, and a wide range of social cognitive skills. Furthermore, the neuropeptide hormone Oxytocin (OT) has also been related to social information processing in humans, improving perception of social stimuli and increasing altruism and trust. Surprisingly, however, a direct link between OT and motor simulation has never been systematically investigated. The current study examined this question using the imitation-inhibition task, a paradigm used to investigate automatic imitation behaviour and motor simulation. In this task, participants carry out simple finger movements while observing irrelevant movements that either match (congruent condition) or do not match (incongruent condition) the instructed movements. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, male participants were administered either OT (N=24) or placebo (N=24), and subsequently performed the imitation-inhibition task. To ensure specificity of OT effects to imitative behaviour, participants additionally performed a Stroop colour-word interference task (adapted to optimize similarities with the imitation inhibition task) to rule out general effects on cognitive control. As predicted, OT selectively influenced the congruency effect in the imitation-inhibition task but not the congruency effect in the Stroop task. This effect showed that OT led to a larger congruency effect by slowing down reaction times on incongruent trials when observed and own actions did not match. The findings suggest that OT leads to a decrease of control over automatic imitative behaviour mediated by increased self-other merging. Thus, for the first time, a link between OT and motor simulation is demonstrated, providing a window into the role of OT in motoric aspects of social cognition.

  13. The influence of Oxytocin on automatic motor simulation.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Lize; Mueller, Sven C; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Saedeleer, Lien; Brass, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Motor simulation is important for imitation, action understanding, and a wide range of social cognitive skills. Furthermore, the neuropeptide hormone Oxytocin (OT) has also been related to social information processing in humans, improving perception of social stimuli and increasing altruism and trust. Surprisingly, however, a direct link between OT and motor simulation has never been systematically investigated. The current study examined this question using the imitation-inhibition task, a paradigm used to investigate automatic imitation behaviour and motor simulation. In this task, participants carry out simple finger movements while observing irrelevant movements that either match (congruent condition) or do not match (incongruent condition) the instructed movements. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, male participants were administered either OT (N=24) or placebo (N=24), and subsequently performed the imitation-inhibition task. To ensure specificity of OT effects to imitative behaviour, participants additionally performed a Stroop colour-word interference task (adapted to optimize similarities with the imitation inhibition task) to rule out general effects on cognitive control. As predicted, OT selectively influenced the congruency effect in the imitation-inhibition task but not the congruency effect in the Stroop task. This effect showed that OT led to a larger congruency effect by slowing down reaction times on incongruent trials when observed and own actions did not match. The findings suggest that OT leads to a decrease of control over automatic imitative behaviour mediated by increased self-other merging. Thus, for the first time, a link between OT and motor simulation is demonstrated, providing a window into the role of OT in motoric aspects of social cognition. PMID:25240207

  14. Precision Measurement of Erosive Burning Effect in a Small Solid Propellant Motor by Use of X-ray Absorption Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tokudome, Shin-Ichiro; Hanzawa, Masahisa; Kohno, Masahiro

    The erosive burning effects in a small test motor loaded with practical composite propellants have been investigated in detail by using an X-ray absorption diagnostics to measure the propellant local regression. The motor was specially designed to have two propellant slabs and was called as DSM (Double Slab Motor). Significant erosive burning was forced to occur in the motor by varying combustion pressure and mass flux in the port. A new simple correlative equation is derived, which predicts accurately not only pressure history but also local regression of burning surface. The equation is characteristic in the non-dimensionalized threshold mass flux and includes the terms to consider both effects of pressure and of motor scale.

  15. Comparison of commonly used retrograde tracers in rat spinal motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, You-Lai; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Yin, Xiao-Feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four fluorescent dyes, True Blue (TB), Fluoro-Gold (FG), Fluoro-Ruby (FR), and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in retrograde tracing of rat spinal motor neurons. We transected the muscle branch of the rat femoral nerve and applied each tracer to the proximal stump in single labeling experiments, or combinations of tracers (FG-DiI and TB-DiI) in double labeling experiments. In the single labeling experiments, significantly fewer labeled motor neurons were observed after FR labeling than after TB, FG, or DiI, 3 days after tracer application. By 1 week, there were no significant differences in the number of labeled neurons between the four groups. In the double-labeling experiment, the number of double-labeled neurons in the FG-DiI group was not significantly different from that in the TB-DiI group 1 week after tracer application. Our findings indicate that TB, FG, and DiI have similar labeling efficacies in the retrograde labeling of spinal motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve when used alone. Furthermore, combinations of DiI and TB or FG are similarly effective. Therefore, of the dyes studied, TB, FG and DiI, and combinations of DiI with TB or FG, are the most suitable for retrograde labeling studies of motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve. PMID:26692873

  16. Manufacture and static firing of X259-E6 rocket motor serial number XJ04/0001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A single motor was cast and static fired to demonstrate the performance of high energy crosslinked double base (XLDB) propellant in standard X259 rocket motor hardware. Prior to motor fabrication, the motor was analyzed to predict the results of static firing the X259 motor loaded with XLDB propellant. As a result of the analyses, a forward dome shrinkage liner was added to the design. With this design change it was determined that adequate margins of safety existed. The motor, designated the X259-E6 model with serial number XJ04/0001, was fabricated using a slurry-casting technique and was assembled with a standard X259-B4 nozzle which had the nozzle throat machined to a smaller inside diameter than the B4 model and the exit cone cut short for Bacchus Works altitude expansion. The motor was static fired on 20 February 1974 with the nozzle failing during motor operation. Nozzle failure was attributed to spalling of the throat material leading to complete nozzle break-up. However, the propellant functioned as predicted in the motor chamber, ignition was normal, and char and erosion of the internal insulator were as expected.

  17. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  18. Motor influences on judgment: Motor and cognitive integration.

    PubMed

    Mullet, Etienne; Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Performing motor behaviours (arm flexion vs. extension) that correspond also to lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance have been previously shown to impact cognitive performance and judgment. Three experiments are reported that examined the combined effect of these variables, as a kind of motor integration, on the implementation of information integration rules in various judgment tasks: judging of a person's attractiveness from personality information, judging of the severity of health risk from alcohol and tobacco intake, and attributing blame to a perpetrator from information as to intent and severity of harm done. It was found that the congruence between these motivational activations consistently influenced the use of interactive information integration rules, compared to additive ones. This set of findings showed that cognitive rules might also be embodied. Motor integration affects cognitive integration in judgment.

  19. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  20. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  1. Minimum Principles in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sascha E.

    2001-06-01

    Minimum (or minimal) principles are mathematical laws that were first used in physics: Hamilton's principle and Fermat's principle of least time are two famous example. In the past decade, a number of motor control theories have been proposed that are formally of the same kind as the minimum principles of physics, and some of these have been quite successful at predicting motor performance in a variety of tasks. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of this work. Particular attention is given to the relation between minimum theories in motor control and those used in other disciplines. Other issues around which the review is organized include: (1) the relation between minimum principles and structural models of motor planning and motor control, (2) the empirically-driven development of minimum principles and the danger of circular theorizing, and (3) the design of critical tests for minimum theories. Some perspectives for future research are discussed in the concluding section of the paper. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401453

  2. Filament overwrapped motor case technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Joel P.

    1993-11-01

    Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

  3. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  4. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to an electric motor winding and, more particularly, to a three phase motor armature winding arrangement designed to reduce motor vibration and improve efficiency. An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor.

  5. Disentangling motor execution from motor imagery with the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Mattout, Jérémie; Reilly, Karen T; Giraux, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    Amputees can move their phantom limb at will. These 'movements without movements' have generally been considered as motor imagery rather than motor execution, but amputees can in fact perform both executed and imagined movements with their phantom and they report distinct perceptions during each task. Behavioural evidence for this dual ability comes from the fact that executed movements are associated with stump muscle contractions whereas imagined movements are not, and that phantom executed movements are slower than intact hand executed movements whereas the speed of imagined movements is identical for both hands. Since neither execution nor imagination produces any visible movement, we hypothesized that the perceptual difference between these two motor tasks relies on the activation of distinct cerebral networks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in functional connectivity (dynamic causal modelling), we examined the activity associated with imagined and executed movements of the intact and phantom hands of 14 upper-limb amputees. Distinct but partially overlapping cerebral networks were active during both executed and imagined phantom limb movements (both performed at the same speed). A region of interest analysis revealed a 'switch' between execution and imagination; during execution there was more activity in the primary somatosensory cortex, the primary motor cortex and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum, while during imagination there was more activity in the parietal and occipital lobes, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. In overlapping areas, task-related differences were detected in the location of activation peaks. The dynamic causal modelling analysis further confirmed the presence of a clear neurophysiological distinction between imagination and execution, as motor imagery and motor execution had opposite effects on the supplementary motor area-primary motor cortex network. This is the first imaging evidence that the

  6. Poly I:C induced microglial activation impairs motor activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Patro, I K; Amit; Shrivastava, M; Bhumika, S; Patro, N

    2010-02-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidic acid (poly I:C) is a synthetic double stranded RNA, which mimics with viral genome and mediates immune activation response similar to double stranded RNA virus infection into the brain. Microglial cells are the immune competent cells of the central nervous system having Toll like receptors-3 on their surface. Upon establishing that poly I:C infusion into the brain causes microgliosis by creating a viral infection model, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of microglial activation following poly I:C infusion on motor activity. We infused 100 microl of 1% solution of Poly I:C in TBE buffer directly into the lateral ventricle and TBE buffer as vehicle to controls. A significantly higher microglial cell count as compared to control on 2, 3 and 7 days post infusion was recorded. Motor activity and microglial cell count was assessed in both controls and poly I:C infused rats on 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post infusion. A significant decrease in motor activity and motor coordination occurred with respect to control. The results clearly demonstrate that microglial activation has a direct relevance with decreased motor activity. Findings could also have their importance in understanding the role of microglial cells on behavioral aspects in viral diseases.

  7. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI) technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory.

  8. Multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, W. A.

    1985-12-03

    A multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit having two separate hydraulic systems each with a variable displacement hydraulic motor having its output connected to a torque summing gear train. A control provides for operation of one or the other of the motors at full displacement while the other motor is at zero displacement and free-wheels. There is a manual mechanical control operation with both motors simultaneously set at one-half of full displacement and driving the torque summing gear train. The change in motor displacements to one-half full displacement accomplishes velocity summing within the hydraulics. The multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit accomplishes the power efficiency of a multiple motor driven power drive unit utilizing a speed summing gear train with fixed displacement motors, but without the complexities associated with the use of a speed summing gear train and brakes.

  9. Control Circuit For Two Stepping Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, Roger; Rehmann, Kenneth; Backus, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Control circuit operates two independent stepping motors, one at a time. Provides following operating features: After selected motor stepped to chosen position, power turned off to reduce dissipation; Includes two up/down counters that remember at which one of eight steps each motor set. For selected motor, step indicated by illumination of one of eight light-emitting diodes (LED's) in ring; Selected motor advanced one step at time or repeatedly at rate controlled; Motor current - 30 mA at 90 degree positions, 60 mA at 45 degree positions - indicated by high or low intensity of LED that serves as motor-current monitor; Power-on reset feature provides trouble-free starts; To maintain synchronism between control circuit and motors, stepping of counters inhibited when motor power turned off.

  10. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI) technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory. PMID:26029091

  11. Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 Are the Key Regulators to Determine Cell Fate of Branchial and Visceral Motor Neurons in Caudal Hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Wassan; Dias, Jose M.; Ericson, Johan; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Holz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cranial motor nerves in vertebrates are comprised of the three principal subtypes of branchial, visceral, and somatic motor neurons, which develop in typical patterns along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of hindbrain. Here we demonstrate that the formation of branchial and visceral motor neurons critically depends on the transcription factors Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9, which together determine the cell fate of neuronal progenitor cells. Disruption of both genes in mouse embryos results in complete loss of the vagal and spinal accessory motor nerves, and partial loss of the facial and glossopharyngeal motor nerves, while the purely somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves are not diminished. Cell lineage analysis in a genetically marked mouse line reveals that alterations of cranial nerves in Nkx2.2; Nkx2.9 double-deficient mouse embryos result from changes of cell fate in neuronal progenitor cells. As a consequence progenitors of branchiovisceral motor neurons in the ventral p3 domain of hindbrain are transformed to somatic motor neurons, which use ventral exit points to send axon trajectories to their targets. Cell fate transformation is limited to the caudal hindbrain, as the trigeminal nerve is not affected in double-mutant embryos suggesting that Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 proteins play no role in the development of branchiovisceral motor neurons in hindbrain rostral to rhombomere 4. PMID:25919494

  12. Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the neural substrates of motor skill learning. Advances in neuroimaging provide new insight into functional reorganization associated with the acquisition, consolidation and retention of motor skills. Plastic changes involving structural reorganization in gray and white matter architecture that occurs over shorter time periods than previously thought have been documented as well. Data from experimental animals provided crucial information on plausible cellular and molecular substrates contributing to large-scale reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. Here, we review findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity across different spatial and temporal scales that mediate motor skill learning, while identifying converging areas of interest, and possible avenues for future research. PMID:22078504

  13. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  14. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  15. Miniaturization of planar horn motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-04-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of a stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2×2×2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of 3 × 3 × 0.2 cm.

  16. The Double Star mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. X.; Escoubet, C. P.; Pu, Z.; Laakso, H.; Shi, J. K.; Shen, C.; Hapgood, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Double Star Programme (DSP) was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer"), was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC) in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS) at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC) and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  17. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  18. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-08-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  19. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator is described for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gases produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gases pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure. 8 figs.

  20. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Bass, John C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  1. Primary face motor area as the motor representation of articulation.

    PubMed

    Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shigeki; Tsuji, Shoji

    2007-04-01

    No clinical data have yet been presented to show that a lesion localized to the primary motor area (M1) can cause severe transient impairment of articulation, although a motor representation for articulation has been suggested to exist within M1. Here we describe three cases of patients who developed severe dysarthria, temporarily mimicking speech arrest or aphemia, due to a localized brain lesion near the left face representation of the human primary motor cortex (face-M1). Speech was slow, effortful, lacking normal prosody, and more affected than expected from the degree of facial or tongue palsy. There was a mild deficit in tongue movements in the sagittal plane that impaired palatolingual contact and rapid tongue movements. The speech disturbance was limited to verbal output, without aphasia or orofacial apraxia. Overlay of magnetic resonance images revealed a localized cortical region near face-M1, which displayed high intensity on diffusion weighted images, while the main portion of the corticobulbar fibers arising from the lower third of the motor cortex was preserved. The cases suggest the existence of a localized brain region specialized for articulation near face-M1. Cortico-cortical fibers connecting face-M1 with the lower premotor areas including Broca's area may also be important for articulatory control. PMID:17380243

  2. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  3. Firewalls from double purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  4. A nano universal joint made from curved double-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kun; Cai, Haifang; Shi, Jiao; Qin, Qing H.

    2015-06-01

    A nano universal joint is constructed from curved double-wall carbon nanotubes with a short outer tube as stator and a long inner tube as a rotor. When one end of the rotor is driven (by a rotary motor) to rotate, the same rotational speed but with different rotational direction will be induced at the other end of the rotor. This mechanism makes the joint useful for designing a flexible nanodevice with an adjustable output rotational signal. The motion transmission effect of the universal joint is analyzed using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. In particular, the effects of three factors are investigated. The first factor is the curvature of the stator, which produces a different rotational direction of the rotor at the output end. The second is the bonding conditions of carbon atoms on the adjacent tube ends of the motor and the rotor, sp1 or sp2 atoms, which create different attraction between the motor and the rotor. The third is the rotational speed of the motor, which can be considered as the input signal of the universal joint. It is noted that the rotor's rotational speed is usually the same as that of the motor when the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends of the motor and the rotor are sp1 carbon atoms. When they become the new sp2 atoms, the rotor experiences a jump in rotational speed from a lower value to that of the motor. The mechanism of drops in potential of the motor is revealed. If the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are sp2 atoms, the rotor rotates more slowly than the motor, whereas the rotational speed is stable when driven by a higher speed motor.

  5. A nano universal joint made from curved double-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Kun; Cai, Haifang; Shi, Jiao; Qin, Qing H.

    2015-06-15

    A nano universal joint is constructed from curved double-wall carbon nanotubes with a short outer tube as stator and a long inner tube as a rotor. When one end of the rotor is driven (by a rotary motor) to rotate, the same rotational speed but with different rotational direction will be induced at the other end of the rotor. This mechanism makes the joint useful for designing a flexible nanodevice with an adjustable output rotational signal. The motion transmission effect of the universal joint is analyzed using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. In particular, the effects of three factors are investigated. The first factor is the curvature of the stator, which produces a different rotational direction of the rotor at the output end. The second is the bonding conditions of carbon atoms on the adjacent tube ends of the motor and the rotor, sp{sup 1} or sp{sup 2} atoms, which create different attraction between the motor and the rotor. The third is the rotational speed of the motor, which can be considered as the input signal of the universal joint. It is noted that the rotor's rotational speed is usually the same as that of the motor when the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends of the motor and the rotor are sp{sup 1} carbon atoms. When they become the new sp{sup 2} atoms, the rotor experiences a jump in rotational speed from a lower value to that of the motor. The mechanism of drops in potential of the motor is revealed. If the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are sp{sup 2} atoms, the rotor rotates more slowly than the motor, whereas the rotational speed is stable when driven by a higher speed motor.

  6. Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+ hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages. PMID:25105011

  7. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  8. Motor Dynamics of Embodied Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Predominant theories of cognition have previously emphasized the modularity of processing, in which individual isolated modules process information free from the influence of other types of information. However, more recent theories suggest that cognition is much more linked to motor and sensory processes than modular theories suggest. In this…

  9. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  10. Motor vehicle safety during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Weiss, Harold B.

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy are the leading cause of traumatic fetal mortality and serious maternal injury morbidity and mortality in the United States, injuring approximately 92,500 pregnant women each year. Little is known about the circumstances surrounding these crash events and the maternal characteristics that may increase women’s vulnerability to crash-related injuries during pregnancy. Even less is known about the effects of crashes on fetal outcomes. Crash simulation studies using female anthropomorphic test devices and computational models have been conducted to better understand the mechanisms of maternal and fetal injuries and death resulting from motor vehicle crashes. In addition, several case reports describing maternal and fetal outcomes following crashes have been published in the literature. Only a few population-based studies have explored the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes and even fewer have examined the effectiveness of seat belts and/or airbags in reducing the risk of these outcomes. This paper reviews what is presently known about motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy, their effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, and the role of vehicle safety devices and other safety approaches in mitigating the occurrence and severity of maternal crashes and subsequent injuries. In addition, this paper suggests interventions targeted towards the prevention of crashes during pregnancy. PMID:23710161

  11. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  12. Ironless-armature brushless motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Device uses 12-pole samarium cobalt permanent-magnet rotor and three Hall-effect sensors for commutation. In prototype motor, torque constant (3-phase delta) is 65 oz-in/amp; electrical time constant (L/R) is 0.2 x 0.001 sec, and armature resistance is 20 ohms.

  13. On theory of motor synergies.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Peter D; Neilson, Megan D

    2010-10-01

    Recently Latash, Scholz, and Schöner (2007) proposed a new view of motor synergies which stresses the idea that the nervous system does not seek a unique solution to eliminate redundant degrees of freedom but rather uses redundant sets of elemental variables that each correct for errors in the other to achieve a performance goal. This is an attractive concept because the resulting flexibility in the synergy also provides for performance stability. But although Latash et al. construe this concept as the consequence of a "neural organization" they do not say what that may be, nor how it comes about. Adaptive model theory (AMT) is a computational theory developed in our laboratory to account for observed sensory-motor behavior. It gives a detailed account, in terms of biologically feasible neural adaptive filters, of the formation of motor synergies and control of synergistic movements. This account is amplified here to show specifically how the processes within the AMT computational framework lead directly to the flexibility/stability ratios of Latash et al. (2007). Accordingly, we show that quantitative analyses of experimental data, based on the uncontrolled manifold method, do not and indeed cannot refute the possibility that the nervous system tries to find a unique (optimal) solution to eliminate redundant degrees of freedom. We show that the desirable interplay between flexibility and stability demonstrated by uncontrolled manifold analysis can be equally well achieved by a system that forms and deploys optimized motor synergies, as in AMT.

  14. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  15. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  16. Improving Motor Skills through Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to improve a child's motor skills through listening by using three simple steps--recording the auditory model, determining when to use the auditory model, and considering where to use the auditory model. She points out the importance of using a demonstration technique that helps learners understand the…

  17. Motor interference in interactive contexts

    PubMed Central

    Chinellato, Eris; Castiello, Umberto; Sartori, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Action observation and execution share overlapping neural substrates, so that simultaneous activation by observation and execution modulates motor performance. Previous literature on simple prehension tasks has revealed that motor influence can be two-sided: facilitation for observed and performed congruent actions and interference for incongruent actions. But little is known of the specific modulations of motor performance in complex forms of interaction. Is it possible that the very same observed movement can lead either to interference or facilitation effects on a temporally overlapping congruent executed action, depending on the context? To answer this question participants were asked to perform a reach-to-grasp movement adopting a precision grip (PG) while: (i) observing a fixation cross, (ii) observing an actor performing a PG with interactive purposes, (iii) observing an actor performing a PG without interactive purposes. In particular, in the interactive condition the actor was shown trying to pour some sugar on a large cup located out of her reach but close to the participant watching the video, thus eliciting in reaction a complementary whole-hand grasp. Notably, fine-grained kinematic analysis for this condition revealed a specific delay in the grasping and reaching components and an increased trajectory deviation despite the observed and executed movement’s congruency. Moreover, early peaks of trajectory deviation seem to indicate that socially relevant stimuli are acknowledged by the motor system very early. These data suggest that interactive contexts can determine a prompt modulation of stimulus–response compatibility effects. PMID:26113835

  18. Motor Development: A New Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Esther

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the renaissance of motor skill acquisition studies that are affording new insights into the processes by which infants and children learn to control their bodies. The article explains how studies are now focusing less on how children perform and more on how the components cooperate to produce stability or engender change, thus making…

  19. Putting Motor Resonance in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving another person's actions changes the spatial perspective people use to describe objects in a scene, possibly because seeing human action induces people to map the actions, including their spatial context, to their own body and motor representations [Lozano, S. C., Hard, B. M., & Tversky, B. (2007). Putting action in perspective.…

  20. Reducing Stepping-Motor Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Direct-current stepping motors used in computer peripherals, process control, and precision remote-positioning equipment constantly dissipate power and create heat even when not moving. Circuit design energizes stepper motor only when pulses are present on control input.

  1. Chemistry: No turning back for motorized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayden, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Two molecular motors have been developed that use chemical energy to drive rotational motion in a single direction. The findings bring the prospect of devices powered by such motors a tantalizing step closer. See Letter p.235

  2. Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

  3. Failure analysis of solid rocket apogee motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis followed five selected motors through initial design, development, test, qualification, manufacture, and final flight reports. An audit was conducted at the manufacturing plants to complement the literature search with firsthand observations of the current philosophies and practices that affect reliability of the motors. A second literature search emphasized acquisition of spacecraft and satellite data bearing on solid motor reliability. It was concluded that present practices at the plants yield highly reliable flight hardware. Reliability can be further improved by new developments of aft-end bonding and initiator/igniter nondestructive test methods, a safe/arm device, and an insulation formulation. Minimum diagnostic instrumentation is recommended for all motor flights. Surplus motors should be used in margin testing. Criteria should be established for pressure and zone curing. The motor contractor should be represented at launch. New design analyses should be made of stretched motors and spacecraft/motor pairs.

  4. Molecular motors and their functions in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and use the derived energy to generate force are involved in a variety of diverse cellular functions. Genetic, biochemical, and cellular localization data have implicated motors in a variety of functions such as vesicle and organelle transport, cytoskeleton dynamics, morphogenesis, polarized growth, cell movements, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear fusion, and signal transduction. In non-plant systems three families of molecular motors (kinesins, dyneins, and myosins) have been well characterized. These motors use microtubules (in the case of kinesines and dyneins) or actin filaments (in the case of myosins) as tracks to transport cargo materials intracellularly. During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of various motors in animals. These studies are yielding interesting insights into the functions of molecular motors and the origin of different families of motors. Furthermore, the paradigm that motors bind cargo and move along cytoskeletal tracks does not explain the functions of some of the motors. Relatively little is known about the molecular motors and their roles in plants. In recent years, by using biochemical, cell biological, molecular, and genetic approaches a few molecular motors have been isolated and characterized from plants. These studies indicate that some of the motors in plants have novel features and regulatory mechanisms. The role of molecular motors in plant cell division, cell expansion, cytoplasmic streaming, cell-to-cell communication, membrane trafficking, and morphogenesis is beginning to be understood. Analyses of the Arabidopsis genome sequence database (51% of genome) with conserved motor domains of kinesin and myosin families indicates the presence of a large number (about 40) of molecular motors and the functions of many of these motors remain to be discovered. It is likely that many more motors with novel regulatory

  5. STS-107 crew poses outside of the SPACEHAB Double Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At SPACEHAB in Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-107 crew pose outside of the Double Module, one of the mission payloads. From left to right are Mission Specialist David Brown, Commander Rick D. Husband, Pilot William 'Willie' McCool and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, from Israel. A research mission, the mission will be the first flight of the Double Module and will also carry a Hitchhiker payload. The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences (many rats). The Hitchhiker carrier system is modular and expandable in accordance with payload requirements. Hitchhiker experiments are housed in canisters or attached to mounting plates. The Hitchhiker canister comes in two varieties--the Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister and the Sealed Canisters

  6. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  7. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John H., Jr.; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.; Palanisami, Akilan; Fang, Jie; Mercier, George T.

    2009-03-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors.

  8. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    DOEpatents

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  9. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  10. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  11. Apple Valley Double Star Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The High Desert Astronomical Society hosts an annual double star workshop, where participants measure the position angles and separations of double stars. Following the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), adopted by the California State Board of Education, participants are assigned to teams where they learn the process of telescope set-up and operation, the gathering of data, and the reduction of the data. Team results are compared to the latest epoch listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and papers are written for publication in the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Each team presents a PowerPoint presentation to their peers about actual hands-on astronomical research.

  12. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.684 Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each...

  13. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.684 Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each...

  14. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.684 Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each...

  15. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  16. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system - Limbic and non-limbic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1991-01-01

    Research on descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord in the spinal motor system is reviewed. Particular attention is given to somatic and autonomic motoneurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, local projections to motoneurons, bulbospinal interneurons projecting to motoneurons, descending pathways of somatic motor control systems, and descending pathways involved in limbic motor control systems.

  17. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  18. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the... the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor...

  19. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  20. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  1. Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Robin, Donald A.; Wright, David L.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AOS) is an impairment of motor programming. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains unclear. The present study examined motor programming in AOS in the context of a recent two-stage model [Klapp, S. T. (1995). Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: The role of practice. "Journal of…

  2. Assessment of Motor Learning Through Mathematical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundschuh, Ernest L.; Gooch, Susan J.

    The basic assumption underlying the assessment of motor learning through mathematical analysis is that motor learning behaves exponentially when described as a function of practice time. It is assumed that motor learning will continuously taper off (minimizing errors) with increased practice and eventually approach as asympote. Although many…

  3. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  4. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  5. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  9. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  10. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  12. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  13. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  14. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  16. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  17. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  18. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  20. Motor Proficiency Traits of Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Denis; Broadhead, Geoffrey D.

    1982-01-01

    Children at the Louisiana State School for the Deaf were tested for motor proficiency using the Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. The children appeared to lack balancing skills but scored better than hearing children in visual motor control. Sex and age differences are noted. (PP)

  1. Motor Control: The Heart of Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review presents the subjective view of the author on the history of motor control and its current state among the subdisciplines of kinesiology. It summarizes the current controversies and challenges in motor control and emphasizes the necessity for an adequate set of notions that would make motor control (and kinesiology) a science.…

  2. Double layer secure sketch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cai

    2012-09-01

    Secure sketch has been applied successfully in a wide variety of applications like cryptography, biometric authentication systems and so on. All of these secure sketches have properties in common namely error-tolerance and small entropy loss. The former ensures an input set w' can unlock the system if w' is substantially overlapped with a template set w while the latter means it is hard for an adversary to get the information of w even with the knowledge of s, which is produced by w and stored in the system publicly. In their constructions, they all consider w as a set of atomic elements. However, in the real word, it is very likely the elements in the template set are sets as well. In this paper, we propose a double layer secure sketch to address this issue.

  3. GENERALIZED DOUBLE PARETO SHRINKAGE.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Lee, Jaeyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generalized double Pareto prior for Bayesian shrinkage estimation and inferences in linear models. The prior can be obtained via a scale mixture of Laplace or normal distributions, forming a bridge between the Laplace and Normal-Jeffreys' priors. While it has a spike at zero like the Laplace density, it also has a Student's t-like tail behavior. Bayesian computation is straightforward via a simple Gibbs sampling algorithm. We investigate the properties of the maximum a posteriori estimator, as sparse estimation plays an important role in many problems, reveal connections with some well-established regularization procedures, and show some asymptotic results. The performance of the prior is tested through simulations and an application.

  4. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  5. Doubled Color Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  6. Studies of viral DNA packaging motors with optical tweezers: a comparison of motor function in bacteriophages φ29, λ, and T4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas E.; Fuller, Derek N.; Raymer, Dorian M.; Rickgauer, Peter; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Catalano, Carlos E.; Kottadiel, Vishal; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2007-09-01

    A key step in the assembly of many viruses is the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a viral procapsid (an empty protein shell) by the action of an ATP-powered portal motor complex. We have developed methods to measure the packaging of single DNA molecules into single viral proheads in real time using optical tweezers. We can measure DNA binding and initiation of translocation, the DNA translocation dynamics, and the filling of the capsid against resisting forces. In addition to studying bacteriophage φ29, we have recently extended these methods to study the E. coli bacteriophages λ and T4, two important model systems in molecular biology. The three systems have different capsid sizes/shapes, genome lengths, and biochemical and structural differences in their packaging motors. Here, we compare and contrast these three systems. We find that all three motors translocate DNA processively and generate very large forces, each exceeding 50 piconewtons, ~20x higher force than generated by the skeletal muscle myosin 2 motor. This high force generation is required to overcome the forces resisting the confinement of the stiff, highly charged DNA at high density within the viral capsids. However, there are also striking differences between the three motors: they exhibit different DNA translocation rates, degrees of static and dynamic disorder, responses to load, and pausing and slipping dynamics.

  7. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  8. Machine Protection System for the Stepper Motor Actuated SyLMAND Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, V. R.; Achenbach, S.; Dolton, W.; Wells, G.; Hallin, E.; Klymyshyn, D. M.; Augustin, M.

    2010-06-01

    SyLMAND, the Synchrotron Laboratory for Micro and Nano Devices at the Canadian Light Source, consists of a dedicated X-ray lithography beamline on a bend magnet port, and process support laboratories in a clean room environment. The beamline includes a double mirror system with flat, chromium-coated silicon mirrors operated at varying grazing angles of incidence (4 mrad to 45 mrad) for spectral adjustment by high energy cut-off. Each mirror can be independently moved by two stepper motors to precisely control the pitch and vertical position. We present in this paper the machine protection system implemented in the double mirror system to allow for safe operation of the two mirrors and to avoid consequences of potential stepper motor malfunction.

  9. Machine Protection System for the Stepper Motor Actuated SyLMAND Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, V. R.; Dolton, W.; Wells, G.; Hallin, E.; Achenbach, S.; Klymyshyn, D. M.; Augustin, M.

    2010-06-23

    SyLMAND, the Synchrotron Laboratory for Micro and Nano Devices at the Canadian Light Source, consists of a dedicated X-ray lithography beamline on a bend magnet port, and process support laboratories in a clean room environment. The beamline includes a double mirror system with flat, chromium-coated silicon mirrors operated at varying grazing angles of incidence (4 mrad to 45 mrad) for spectral adjustment by high energy cut-off. Each mirror can be independently moved by two stepper motors to precisely control the pitch and vertical position. We present in this paper the machine protection system implemented in the double mirror system to allow for safe operation of the two mirrors and to avoid consequences of potential stepper motor malfunction.

  10. [Pathophysiological process underlying Parkinson's disease: motor & non-motor symptoms].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Baba, Toru; Kikuchi, Akio; Sugeno, Naoto; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Itoyama, Yasuto; Ishioka, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Kazumi; Mori, Etsuro

    2009-11-01

    It is proposed that alpha-synucleinopathy initially affects the medulla oblongata and then progresses to more rostral brain areas ("Braak hypothesis"). According to this hypothesis, substantia nigra is affected in the later stages of PD. Another region affected in the earlier stages was reported to be olfactory bulb, although the following processes were not described in detail. On the other hand, several lines of evidence suggest that non-motor symptoms including constipation, depression, REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and hyposmia may be prodromal symptoms in PD. The pathological staging postulated by the Braak hypothesis is in good agreement with the fact that these non-motor symptoms precede motor symptoms in PD, because affected brain areas in the early stages, such as dorsal vagal nucleus, locus ceruleus and olfactory bulb, are related to these non-motor features. Recently, it was reported that although half of brains corresponded to the Braak hypothesis, there were a high proportion of cases which did not fit the Braak's staging system and majority of the latter demonstrated amygdale-predominant alpha-synucleinopathy. It was also demonstrated that the Lewy pathology in olfactory bulb was closely related to the presence of alpha-synuclein pathology in amygdala. The amygdala is one of the main systems in odor perception and in PD, cortical neurons in corticomedial complex of amygdale, which have major olfactory connections, are selectively affected even in the early stages of the disease. We recently obtained the data suggesting that metabolic changes in the amygdala were associated with low scores in odor identification test. These data suggest that not only the olfactory bulb, but also the amygdala is also responsible for hyposmia in PD and that there may be another pathological process, which starts from the olfactory bulb and involves the amygdala.

  11. Combining d-cycloserine with motor training does not result in improved general motor learning in neurologically intact people or in people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Kendra M; Lenze, Eric J; Lang, Catherine E

    2014-06-15

    Neurological rehabilitation involving motor training has resulted in clinically meaningful improvements in function but is unable to eliminate many of the impairments associated with neurological injury. Thus there is a growing need for interventions that facilitate motor learning during rehabilitation therapy, to optimize recovery. d-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist that enhances neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system (Ressler KJ, Rothbaum BO, Tannenbaum L, Anderson P, Graap K, Zimand E, Hodges L, Davis M. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61: 1136-1144, 2004), has been shown to facilitate declarative and emotional learning. We therefore tested whether combining DCS with motor training facilitates motor learning after stroke in a series of two experiments. Forty-one healthy adults participated in experiment I, and twenty adults with stroke participated in experiment II of this two-session, double-blind study. Session one consisted of baseline assessment, subject randomization, and oral administration of DCS or placebo (250 mg). Subjects then participated in training on a balancing task, a simulated feeding task, and a cognitive task. Subjects returned 1-3 days later for posttest assessment. We found that all subjects had improved performance from pretest to posttest on the balancing task, the simulated feeding task, and the cognitive task. Subjects who were given DCS before motor training, however, did not show enhanced learning on the balancing task, the simulated feeding task, or the associative recognition task compared with subjects given placebo. Moreover, training on the balancing task did not generalize to a similar, untrained balance task. Our findings suggest that DCS does not enhance motor learning or motor skill generalization in neurologically intact adults or in adults with stroke.

  12. Combining d-cycloserine with motor training does not result in improved general motor learning in neurologically intact people or in people with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Kendra M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurological rehabilitation involving motor training has resulted in clinically meaningful improvements in function but is unable to eliminate many of the impairments associated with neurological injury. Thus there is a growing need for interventions that facilitate motor learning during rehabilitation therapy, to optimize recovery. d-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist that enhances neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system (Ressler KJ, Rothbaum BO, Tannenbaum L, Anderson P, Graap K, Zimand E, Hodges L, Davis M. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61: 1136–1144, 2004), has been shown to facilitate declarative and emotional learning. We therefore tested whether combining DCS with motor training facilitates motor learning after stroke in a series of two experiments. Forty-one healthy adults participated in experiment I, and twenty adults with stroke participated in experiment II of this two-session, double-blind study. Session one consisted of baseline assessment, subject randomization, and oral administration of DCS or placebo (250 mg). Subjects then participated in training on a balancing task, a simulated feeding task, and a cognitive task. Subjects returned 1–3 days later for posttest assessment. We found that all subjects had improved performance from pretest to posttest on the balancing task, the simulated feeding task, and the cognitive task. Subjects who were given DCS before motor training, however, did not show enhanced learning on the balancing task, the simulated feeding task, or the associative recognition task compared with subjects given placebo. Moreover, training on the balancing task did not generalize to a similar, untrained balance task. Our findings suggest that DCS does not enhance motor learning or motor skill generalization in neurologically intact adults or in adults with stroke. PMID:24671538

  13. Surround inhibition in motor execution and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Fuminari; Ohashi, Yukari; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2016-08-26

    Surround inhibition (SI) is a neural mechanism to focus neuronal activity and facilitate selective motor execution (ME). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether SI is also generated during motor imagery (MI). Furthermore, we investigated whether the extent of SI during MI depends on the strength of SI during ME and/or vividness of MI. The extent of SI was examined during MI and ME of index finger flexion. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied at rest, during initiation of the movement (phasic phase) and during tonic muscle contraction of the index finger flexors. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from a surround muscle, abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and a synergistic muscle, the first dorsal interosseous muscle. The amplitude of ADM MEP was reduced during the phasic phase, which indicates that SI occurred during ME. In seven of 14 subjects, SI was also observed during MI, although this effect was not significant. There was a moderate correlation between the extent of SI during ME and MI. Furthermore, good imagers who experienced vivid MI during the MI task showed stronger SI than poor imagers. These results indicate that common neural substrates involved in SI during ME are at least in part recruited during MI. In clinical situations, the therapeutic use of MI to generate vivid MI may be one of effective tool to develop the strength of SI, which facilitate selective execution of desired movements. PMID:27418120

  14. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOEpatents

    Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.

  15. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIX, LEARNING ABOUT CRANKING MOTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF CRANKING MOTORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT, TOPICS ARE (1) CRANKING MOTORS. (2) MOTOR PINCIPLES, (3) CRANKING MOTOR CIRCUITS, (4) TYPES OF CRANKING MOTOR DRIVES, AND (5) CRANKING MOTOR SOLENOID CIRCUITS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  17. Torque generation by the flagellar rotary motor.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, H C

    1995-01-01

    A review is given of the structure and dynamics of the flagellar rotary motor. Force-generating elements in a motor driving a tethered bacterium (a cell fixed to the substratum by a single flagellum) exert forces of order 20 pN while moving at speeds of order 1 micron/s. Force-generating elements in a motor driving a flagellar filament in a bundle exert forces some 10-fold lower but move at speeds more than 10-fold higher. The motor torque-speed relationship has been measured over a wide dynamic range. Motors strongly resist being driven backwards and are easily broken. PMID:7787060

  18. Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-08-01

    Mirror neurons allow us to covertly simulate the sensation and movement of others. If mirror neurons are sensory and motor neurons, why do we not actually feel this simulation- like "mirror-touch synesthetes"? Might afferent sensation normally inhibit mirror representations from reaching consciousness? We and others have reported heightened sensory referral to phantom limbs and temporarily anesthetized arms. These patients, however, had experienced illness or injury of the deafferented limb. In the current study we observe heightened sensory and motor referral to the face after unilateral nerve block for routine dental procedures. We also obtain double-blind, quantitative evidence of heightened sensory referral in healthy participants completing a mirror-touch confusion task after topical anesthetic cream is applied. We suggest that sensory and motor feedback exist in dynamic equilibrium with mirror representations; as feedback is reduced, the brain draws more upon visual information to determine- perhaps in a Bayesian manner- what to feel.

  19. Nucleo-olivary inhibition balances the interaction between the reactive and adaptive layers in motor control.

    PubMed

    Herreros, Ivan; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2013-11-01

    In the acquisition of adaptive motor reflexes to aversive stimuli, the cerebellar output fulfills a double purpose: it controls a motor response and it relays a sensory prediction. However, the question of how these two apparently incompatible goals might be achieved by the same cerebellar area remains open. Here we propose a solution where the inhibition of the Inferior Olive (IO) by the cerebellar Deep Nuclei (DN) translates the motor command signal into a sensory prediction allowing a single cerebellar area to simultaneously tackle both aspects of the problem: execution and prediction. We demonstrate that having a graded error signal, the gain of the Nucleo-Olivary Inhibition (NOI) balances the generation of the response between the cerebellar and the reflexive controllers or, in other words, between the adaptive and the reactive layers of behavior. Moreover, we show that the resulting system is fully autonomous and can either acquire or erase adaptive responses according to their utility.

  20. Suspension force control of bearingless permanent magnet slice motor based on flux linkage identification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Suming; Zhu, Huangqiu

    2015-07-01

    The control accuracy and dynamic performance of suspension force are confined in the traditional bearingless permanent magnet slice motor (BPMSM) control strategies because the suspension force control is indirectly achieved by adopting a closed loop of displacement only. Besides, the phase information in suspension force control relies on accurate measurement of rotor position, making the control system more complex. In this paper, a new suspension force control strategy with displacement and radial suspension force double closed loops is proposed, the flux linkage of motor windings is identified based on voltage-current model and the flexibility of motor control can be improved greatly. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed suspension force control strategy is effective to realize the stable operation of the BPMSM.

  1. Decreased motor activity of hyperactive children on dextroamphetamine during active gym program.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J L; Tepsic, P N; Grice, J; Johnson, C; Langer, D

    1980-07-01

    The motor activity of 10 hyperactive boys was measured during eight 1-hour active gym classes. Children received either dextroaomphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo elixir before each class, in a double-blind design. The program for each of the classes was participation in the active sports: hockey, basketball, and/or roller skating; the "task" throughout each hour was to play vigorously and continuously. The boys' mean hourly activity following amphetamine was slightly but significantly less than that following placebo. This finding is contradictory to the hypothesis that improved attention to an active task on stimulant would result in increased motor activity, and suggests the possibility of an independent direct effect of amphetamine on the motor system.

  2. Thermodynamic Interrogation of the Assembly of a Viral Genome Packaging Motor Complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Teng-Chieh; Ortiz, David; Nosaka, Lyn'Al; Lander, Gabriel C; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2015-10-20

    Viral terminase enzymes serve as genome packaging motors in many complex double-stranded DNA viruses. The functional motors are multiprotein complexes that translocate viral DNA into a capsid shell, powered by a packaging ATPase, and are among the most powerful molecular motors in nature. Given their essential role in virus development, the structure and function of these biological motors is of considerable interest. Bacteriophage λ-terminase, which serves as a prototypical genome packaging motor, is composed of one large catalytic subunit tightly associated with two DNA recognition subunits. This protomer assembles into a functional higher-order complex that excises a unit length genome from a concatemeric DNA precursor (genome maturation) and concomitantly translocates the duplex into a preformed procapsid shell (genome packaging). While the enzymology of λ-terminase has been well described, the nature of the catalytically competent nucleoprotein intermediates, and the mechanism describing their assembly and activation, is less clear. Here we utilize analytical ultracentrifugation to determine the thermodynamic parameters describing motor assembly and define a minimal thermodynamic linkage model that describes the effects of salt on protomer assembly into a tetrameric complex. Negative stain electron microscopy images reveal a symmetric ring-like complex with a compact stem and four extended arms that exhibit a range of conformational states. Finally, kinetic studies demonstrate that assembly of the ring tetramer is directly linked to activation of the packaging ATPase activity of the motor, thus providing a direct link between structure and function. The implications of these results with respect to the assembly and activation of the functional packaging motor during a productive viral infection are discussed.

  3. Behavioral motor dysfunction in Kv3-type potassium channel-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Joho, R H; Street, C; Matsushita, S; Knöpfel, T

    2006-08-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are expressed in several distinct neuronal subpopulations in brain areas known to be involved in motor control such as cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Depending on the lack of Kv3.1 or Kv3.3 channel subunits, mutant mice show different Kv3-null allele-dependent behavioral alterations that include constitutive hyperactivity, sleep loss, impaired motor performance and, in the case of the Kv3.1/Kv3.3 double mutant, also severe ataxia, tremor and myoclonus (Espinosa et al. 2001, J Neurosci 21, 6657-6665, Genes, Brain Behav 3, 90-100). The lack of Kv3.1 channel subunits is mainly responsible for the constitutively increased locomotor activity and for sleep loss, whereas the absence of Kv3.3 subunits affects cerebellar function, in particular Purkinje cell discharges and olivocerebellar system properties (McMahon et al. 2004, Eur J Neurosci 19, 3317-3327). Here, we describe two sensitive and non-invasive tests to reliably quantify normal and abnormal motor functions, and we apply these tests to characterize motor dysfunction in Kv3-mutant mice. In contrast to wildtype and Kv3.1-single mutants, Kv3.3-single mutants and Kv3 mutants lacking three and four Kv3 alleles display Kv3-null allele-dependent gait alterations. Although the Kv3-null allele-dependent gait changes correlate with reduced motor performance, they appear to not affect the training-induced improvement of motor performance. These findings suggest that altered cerebellar physiology in the absence of Kv3.3 channels is responsible for impaired motor task execution but not motor task learning.

  4. Thermodynamic Interrogation of the Assembly of a Viral Genome Packaging Motor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng-Chieh; Ortiz, David; Nosaka, Lyn’Al; Lander, Gabriel C.; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Viral terminase enzymes serve as genome packaging motors in many complex double-stranded DNA viruses. The functional motors are multiprotein complexes that translocate viral DNA into a capsid shell, powered by a packaging ATPase, and are among the most powerful molecular motors in nature. Given their essential role in virus development, the structure and function of these biological motors is of considerable interest. Bacteriophage λ-terminase, which serves as a prototypical genome packaging motor, is composed of one large catalytic subunit tightly associated with two DNA recognition subunits. This protomer assembles into a functional higher-order complex that excises a unit length genome from a concatemeric DNA precursor (genome maturation) and concomitantly translocates the duplex into a preformed procapsid shell (genome packaging). While the enzymology of λ-terminase has been well described, the nature of the catalytically competent nucleoprotein intermediates, and the mechanism describing their assembly and activation, is less clear. Here we utilize analytical ultracentrifugation to determine the thermodynamic parameters describing motor assembly and define a minimal thermodynamic linkage model that describes the effects of salt on protomer assembly into a tetrameric complex. Negative stain electron microscopy images reveal a symmetric ring-like complex with a compact stem and four extended arms that exhibit a range of conformational states. Finally, kinetic studies demonstrate that assembly of the ring tetramer is directly linked to activation of the packaging ATPase activity of the motor, thus providing a direct link between structure and function. The implications of these results with respect to the assembly and activation of the functional packaging motor during a productive viral infection are discussed. PMID:26488657

  5. Development of Potent Antiviral Drugs Inspired by Viral Hexameric DNA-Packaging Motors with Revolving Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pi, Fengmei; Zhao, Zhengyi; Chelikani, Venkata; Yoder, Kristine; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-09-15

    The intracellular parasitic nature of viruses and the emergence of antiviral drug resistance necessitate the development of new potent antiviral drugs. Recently, a method for developing potent inhibitory drugs by targeting biological machines with high stoichiometry and a sequential-action mechanism was described. Inspired by this finding, we reviewed the development of antiviral drugs targeting viral DNA-packaging motors. Inhibiting multisubunit targets with sequential actions resembles breaking one bulb in a series of Christmas lights, which turns off the entire string. Indeed, studies on viral DNA packaging might lead to the development of new antiviral drugs. Recent elucidation of the mechanism of the viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-packaging motor with sequential one-way revolving motion will promote the development of potent antiviral drugs with high specificity and efficiency. Traditionally, biomotors have been classified into two categories: linear and rotation motors. Recently discovered was a third type of biomotor, including the viral DNA-packaging motor, beside the bacterial DNA translocases, that uses a revolving mechanism without rotation. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth's rotation on its own axis, while revolving resembles the Earth's revolving around the Sun (see animations at http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html). Herein, we review the structures of viral dsDNA-packaging motors, the stoichiometries of motor components, and the motion mechanisms of the motors. All viral dsDNA-packaging motors, including those of dsDNA/dsRNA bacteriophages, adenoviruses, poxviruses, herpesviruses, mimiviruses, megaviruses, pandoraviruses, and pithoviruses, contain a high-stoichiometry machine composed of multiple components that work cooperatively and sequentially. Thus, it is an ideal target for potent drug development based on the power function of the stoichiometries of target complexes that work sequentially. PMID:27356896

  6. Development of Potent Antiviral Drugs Inspired by Viral Hexameric DNA-Packaging Motors with Revolving Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pi, Fengmei; Zhao, Zhengyi; Chelikani, Venkata; Yoder, Kristine; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-09-15

    The intracellular parasitic nature of viruses and the emergence of antiviral drug resistance necessitate the development of new potent antiviral drugs. Recently, a method for developing potent inhibitory drugs by targeting biological machines with high stoichiometry and a sequential-action mechanism was described. Inspired by this finding, we reviewed the development of antiviral drugs targeting viral DNA-packaging motors. Inhibiting multisubunit targets with sequential actions resembles breaking one bulb in a series of Christmas lights, which turns off the entire string. Indeed, studies on viral DNA packaging might lead to the development of new antiviral drugs. Recent elucidation of the mechanism of the viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-packaging motor with sequential one-way revolving motion will promote the development of potent antiviral drugs with high specificity and efficiency. Traditionally, biomotors have been classified into two categories: linear and rotation motors. Recently discovered was a third type of biomotor, including the viral DNA-packaging motor, beside the bacterial DNA translocases, that uses a revolving mechanism without rotation. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth's rotation on its own axis, while revolving resembles the Earth's revolving around the Sun (see animations at http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html). Herein, we review the structures of viral dsDNA-packaging motors, the stoichiometries of motor components, and the motion mechanisms of the motors. All viral dsDNA-packaging motors, including those of dsDNA/dsRNA bacteriophages, adenoviruses, poxviruses, herpesviruses, mimiviruses, megaviruses, pandoraviruses, and pithoviruses, contain a high-stoichiometry machine composed of multiple components that work cooperatively and sequentially. Thus, it is an ideal target for potent drug development based on the power function of the stoichiometries of target complexes that work sequentially.

  7. Postnatal development of the motor representation in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, S; Martin, J H

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine when the muscles and joints of the forelimb become represented in primary motor cortex (M1) during postnatal life and how local representation patterns change. We examined these questions in cats that were anesthetized (45-90 days, n = 14; adults, n = 3) and awake (n = 4; 52-86 days). We used intracortical microstimulation (45 ms duration train, 330 Hz, 0.2-ms balanced biphasic pulses, with a leading cathodic pulse; up to 100 microA). In young animals (less than day 70), we also used stimulus trains and pulses that could produce greater temporal summation (up to 200-ms train duration, down to 143-Hz stimulus frequency, up to 0.8-ms pulse width). Anesthetized animals were areflexic, and muscle tone was similar to that of the awake cats (i.e., relaxed, not weight or load bearing, with minimal resistance to passive stretch). We monitored the kinematic effects of microstimulation and changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity in forelimb muscles. There was an age-dependent reduction in the number of sites where microstimulation did not produce a motor effect (i.e., ineffective sites), from 95% in animals younger than 60 days to 33% between 81 and 90 days. In adults, 24% of sites were ineffective. Median current thresholds for evoking movements dropped from 79 microA in animals younger than day 60 to 38 and 28 microA in day 81-90 animals and adults, respectively. There was a proximal-to-distal development of the somatotopic organization of the motor map. Stimulation at the majority of sites in animals younger than day 71 produced shoulder and elbow movement. Wrist sites were first present by day 71, and digit sites by day 81. Sites at which multiple responses were evoked, between 1.0 and 1.5 times threshold, were present after day 71, and increased with age. A higher percentage of distal joints were co-represented with other joints, rather than being represented alone. We found that effective sites initially were scattered and

  8. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  9. Etiological aspects of double monsters.

    PubMed

    Jaschevatzky, O E; Goldman, B; Kampf, D; Wexler, H; Grünstein, S

    1980-06-01

    Four cases of double monsters are reported, including a rare case of craniofacial duplication (diprosopus). Based on the findings observed, etiological factors of these malformations are discussed. We suggest that exogenous (environmental) factors such as habits, way of life or religious practices of certain populations can influence the development of double monsters.

  10. Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesman, Alexander G.

    1966-01-01

    Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

  11. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy Jean

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  12. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  13. Quo vadis motor neuron disease?

    PubMed Central

    Balendra, Rubika; Patani, Rickie

    2016-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND), also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative condition that is invariably fatal, usually within 3 to 5 years of diagnosis. The aetio-pathogenesis of MND remains unresolved and no effective treatments exist. The only Food and Drug Administration approved disease modifying therapy is riluzole, a glutamate antagonist, which prolongs survival by up to 3 mo. Current management is largely symptomatic/supportive. There is therefore a desperate and unmet clinical need for discovery of disease mechanisms to guide novel therapeutic strategy. In this review, we start by introducing the organizational anatomy of the motor system, before providing a clinical overview of its dysfunction specifically in MND. We then summarize insights gained from pathological, genetic and animal models and conclude by speculating on optimal strategies to drive the step change in discovery, which is so desperately needed in this arena. PMID:27019797

  14. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  15. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  16. Solid rocket motor temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, J.R.; Heister, S.D.

    1994-11-01

    The temperature sensitivity of the propellant and the solid rocket motor are described by several different temperature sensitivity coefficients. This enabled the derivation of three different relationships for the temperature sensitivity coefficient pi(sub K). To demonstrate this, two different propellants were used wherein the values of pi(sub K) were generated and compared. It was observed that the expressions are of equal complexity and offer ease of use. All involve only the burning rate data and the use of the parameters in St. Roberts burning rate low. It is also suggested that the most general expression for the sensitivity coefficient should be used since it is a true pi(sub K) relationship having the partial derivatives taken with the motor geometry held constant. 11 refs.

  17. Motor activity under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Cherepakhin, M. A.; Yuganov, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    The material presented on the motor activity under weightless conditions (brief and long) leads to the conclusion that it is not significantly disrupted, if those being examined are secured at the workplaces. Some discoordination of movement, moderately expressed disruption of the precision of reproduction of assigned muscular forces, etc., were observed. Motor disorders decrease significantly in proportion to the length of stay under weightless conditions. This apparently takes place, as a consequence of formation of a new functional system, adequate to the conditions of weightlessness. Tests on intact and labyrinthectomized animals have demonstrated that signaling from the inner ear receptors is superfluous in weightlessness, since it promotes the onset of disruptions in the combined work of the position analyzers.

  18. Molecular Motors: Power Strokes Outperform Brownian Ratchets.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Jason A; Dill, Ken A

    2016-07-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy (typically from ATP hydrolysis) to directed motion and mechanical work. Their actions are often described in terms of "Power Stroke" (PS) and "Brownian Ratchet" (BR) mechanisms. Here, we use a transition-state model and stochastic thermodynamics to describe a range of mechanisms ranging from PS to BR. We incorporate this model into Hill's diagrammatic method to develop a comprehensive model of motor processivity that is simple but sufficiently general to capture the full range of behavior observed for molecular motors. We demonstrate that, under all conditions, PS motors are faster, more powerful, and more efficient at constant velocity than BR motors. We show that these differences are very large for simple motors but become inconsequential for complex motors with additional kinetic barrier steps. PMID:27136319

  19. Stepper motor instabilities in an aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kackley, Russell; Mccully, Sean

    1992-01-01

    Stepper motors are frequently used in positioning mechanisms because they have several advantages over ordinary DC motors. However, there is frequently no feedback loop and the motor may exhibit instabilities under some conditions. A stepper motor in an aerospace positioning mechanism was investigated. During testing, the motor exhibited unstable behavior, such as backrunning and forward running. The instability was dependent on voltage pulse characteristics, temperature, positioning angle, step rate, and interaction between the two motors in the system. Both testing and analysis results verified the instability. A special purpose FORTRAN code was written to simulate the system. This code was combined with another simpler code to show the performance of the system in the phase plane so that instability boundaries could be displayed along with the motor performance. The analysis was performed to verify that proposed modifications would produce stable performance before implementation in the hardware. Subsequent testing verified the analytic stability predictions.

  20. Collective dynamics of processive cytoskeletal motors.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, R Tyler; Diehl, Michael R; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2016-01-01

    Major cellular processes are supported by various biomolecular motors that usually operate together as teams. We present an overview of the collective dynamics of processive cytokeletal motor proteins based on recent experimental and theoretical investigations. Experimental studies show that multiple motors function with different degrees of cooperativity, ranging from negative to positive. This effect depends on the mechanical properties of individual motors, the geometry of their connections, and the surrounding cellular environment. Theoretical models based on stochastic approaches underline the importance of intermolecular interactions, the properties of single motors, and couplings with cellular medium in predicting the collective dynamics. We discuss several features that specify the cooperativity in motor proteins. Based on this approach a general picture of collective dynamics of motor proteins is formulated, and the future directions and challenges are discussed.

  1. Locomotion of chemically powered autonomous nanowire motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Longqiu; Li, Tianlong; Zhang, Guangyu; Sun, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Physical insights on the hydrodynamics and locomotion of self-propelled nanowire motor under nonequilibrium steady state are investigated using finite element method in accordance with hybrid molecular dynamics/multiparticle collision dynamics and rigid body dynamics. Nanowire motor is discretized into finite segments, and forces of solvent molecule acting on the motor are assumed to be the sum of forces acting on all segments of the motor. We show that the locomotion of nanowire motor is mainly determined by the imbalance forces acting on the catalytic and noncatalytic segments. The average velocity along the axis increases significantly as a function of time prior to reaching equilibrium. The length of nanowire motor shows negligible effect on the velocity of the motor. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the current model.

  2. Collective Dynamics of Processive Cytoskeletal Motors

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, R. Tyler; Diehl, Michael R.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-01-01

    Major cellular processes are supported by various biomolecular motors that usually operate together as teams. We present an overview of the collective dynamics of processive cytokeletal motor proteins based on recent experimental and theoretical investigations. Experimental studies show that multiple motors function with different degrees of cooperativity, ranging from negative to positive. This effect depends on the mechanical properties of individual motors, the geometry of their connections, and the surrounding cellular environment. Theoretical models based on stochastic approaches underline the importance of intermolecular interactions, the properties of single motors, and couplings with cellular medium in predicting the collective dynamics. We discuss several features that specify the cooperativity in motor proteins. Based on this approach a general picture of collective dynamics of motor proteins is formulated, and the future directions and challenges are discussed. PMID:26444155

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Rollin G.; Kortegaard, Bert L.; Jones, David F.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  4. The Visual Double Star Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.

    2015-08-01

    In visual double star work, production of the first comprehensive attempt to list all discovered pairs in his accessible sky was prepared by S.W. Burnham in 1906. A double star catalog for the southern hemisphere was prepared by R.T.A. Innes et al. in 1927 and the northern hemisphere catalog was updated by R.G. Aitken and E. Doolittle in 1932. Eventually, this led to Lick Observatory maintaining what became known as the Index Catalogue, an all-sky visual double star database.In 1964, under the aegis of Commission 26, the Lick double star database was transferred to the U.S. Naval Observatory where it was redesignated the Washington Double Star Catalog where it and it's ancillary catalogs, have been maintained for over half a century. The current statistics of the catalog and it's supplements are presented as are the enhancements currently under consideration.

  5. Measuring motor coordination in mice.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2013-01-01

    Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. Performance on a maze task requiring strength and coordination, such as the Morris water maze, might well be impaired in a mouse by motor, rather than cognitive, impairments, so it is essential to selectively dissect the latter from the former. For example, sensorimotor impairments caused by NMDA antagonists have been shown to impair water maze performance(2). Motor coordination has traditionally been assessed in mice and rats by the rotarod test, in which the animal is placed on a horizontal rod that rotates about its long axis; the animal must walk forwards to remain upright and not fall off. Both set speed and accelerating versions of the rotarod are available. The other three tests described in this article (horizontal bar, static rods and parallel bars) all measure coordination on static apparatus. The horizontal bar also requires strength for adequate performance, particularly of the forelimbs as the mouse initially grips the bar just with the front paws. Adult rats do not perform well on tests such as the static rods and parallel bars (personal observations); they appear less well coordinated than mice. I have only tested male rats, however, and male mice seem generally less well coordinated than females. Mice appear to have a higher strength:weight ratio than rats; the Latin name, Mus musculus, seems entirely appropriate. The rotarod, the variations of the foot fault test(12) or the Catwalk (Noldus)(15) apparatus are generally used to assess motor coordination in rats. PMID:23748408

  6. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; McConnell, B.W.; Phillips, B.A.

    1996-07-02

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit. 6 figs.

  7. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  8. Heterogeneity in motor driven transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabei, Ali

    2015-03-01

    I will discuss quantitative analysis of particle tracking data for motor driven vesicles inside an insulin secreting cell. We use this method to study the dynamical and structural heterogeneity inside the cell. I will discuss our effort to explain the origin of observed heterogeneity in intracellular transport. Finally, I will explain how analyzing directional correlations in transport trajectories reveals self-similarity in the diffusion media.

  9. Solid Rocket Motor Acoustic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1999-03-31

    Acoustic data are often required for the determination of launch and powered flight loads for rocket systems and payloads. Such data are usually acquired during test firings of the solid rocket motors. In the current work, these data were obtained for two tests at a remote test facility where we were visitors. This paper describes the data acquisition and the requirements for working at a remote site, interfacing with the test hosts.

  10. Electrostatic generator/motor configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    2014-02-04

    Electrostatic generators/motors designs are provided that generally may include a first cylindrical stator centered about a longitudinal axis; a second cylindrical stator centered about the axis, a first cylindrical rotor centered about the axis and located between the first cylindrical stator and the second cylindrical stator. The first cylindrical stator, the second cylindrical stator and the first cylindrical rotor may be concentrically aligned. A magnetic field having field lines about parallel with the longitudinal axis is provided.

  11. Gait characteristics in patients with major depression performing cognitive and motor tasks while walking.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Saša; Jovičić, Milica; Marić, Nadja P; Kostić, Vladimir

    2014-06-30

    Depressed patients demonstrate alterations in motor and cognitive functioning that can affect their adjustments to the variations in everyday life environment. The objective was to explore gait parameters and variability of patients with major depressive disorder in dual task walking situations. Eight patients and 20 healthy controls performed motor, mental and combined motor+mental tasks while walking. Calculated parameters were cycle time, stride length, swing time, double support time and their coefficients of variation (CV). Patients demonstrated greater gait variability (swing time CV) than controls during baseline walk (t(26)=2.64, p<0.05) and motor dual task (t(26)=3.68, p<0.05). Moreover, the transition from mental to combined task decreased stride length (M=126.48±15.35 and M=121.19±13.55, p<0.001) and increased double support time (M=0.266±0.072 and M=0.287±0.076, p<0.01) only in controls. Also, gait variability increased in controls during the combined task, while remaining the same or decreasing in patients. Tasks that required greater cognitive involvement affected gait variability in patients more than controls, but only up to a certain level, after which patients׳ stability appeared unaffected by the increase of cognitive demand. This could be explained by a tendency of patients to neglect complex cognitive tasks while walking in order to preserve stability and prevent possible falls.

  12. INSPECTION MEANS FOR INDUCTION MOTORS

    DOEpatents

    Williams, A.W.

    1959-03-10

    an appartus is descripbe for inspcting electric motors and more expecially an appartus for detecting falty end rings inn suqirrel cage inductio motors while the motor is running. In its broua aspects, the mer would around ce of reference tedtor means also itons in the phase ition of the An electronic circuit for conversion of excess-3 binary coded serial decimal numbers to straight binary coded serial decimal numbers is reported. The converter of the invention in its basic form generally coded pulse words of a type having an algebraic sign digit followed serially by a plurality of decimal digits in order of decreasing significance preceding a y algebraic sign digit followed serially by a plurality of decimal digits in order of decreasing significance. A switching martix is coupled to said input circuit and is internally connected to produce serial straight binary coded pulse groups indicative of the excess-3 coded input. A stepping circuit is coupled to the switching matrix and to a synchronous counter having a plurality of x decimal digit and plurality of y decimal digit indicator terminals. The stepping circuit steps the counter in synchornism with the serial binary pulse group output from the switching matrix to successively produce pulses at corresponding ones of the x and y decimal digit indicator terminals. The combinations of straight binary coded pulse groups and corresponding decimal digit indicator signals so produced comprise a basic output suitable for application to a variety of output apparatus.

  13. Simulation of double-layer capacitor performance in two PMAD applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bone, N.K.; Moss, B.S.; White, C.S.; Nelms, R.M.; Spyker, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent developments in double-layer capacitor technology have yielded devices with increased capacitance and energy storage capability. As a result, these capacitors can now be considered for higher power and energy applications such as electric vehicle acceleration and electromechanical actuation. Presented in this paper are the results from an examination into using double-layer capacitors in two high power applications. The first is the starting transient of a large DC motor from a battery with and without a double-layer capacitor bank. In the second, a double-layer capacitor bank is used with an inverter to provide ride-through capability to a load during a fault on an AC power system. Both applications are simulated using SABER, a commercial software package.

  14. Latest Double Chooz results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasserre, Thierry; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    I report the latest results from the Double Chooz experiment on the θ13 neutrino mixing angle. Two detectors are located at distances of 400 m and 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power station (France) to measure the disappearance of electron antineutrinos. The far detector has been taking data since 2011, accumulating a live time of 467.90 days (66.5 GW-ton-year). In this article we focus on the latest measurement using neutrino-induced neutron capture on hydrogen. A new analysis improved the signal efficiency and reduced the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties, leading to sin2 2θ 13 = 0.095+0.039 -0.038. When combined with the Gadolinium-based analysis this leads to sin2 2θ13 = 0.088+0.33 -0.033. The distortion from the prediction above a visible energy of 4 MeV is confirmed. The near detector started data taking in 2014 and first results shall be reported in 2016.

  15. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  16. Double acting bit holder

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.

  17. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Crowell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor controller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram package that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position sensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44-pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus, RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPIO), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier. This controller replaces air cooling with conduction cooling via a high-thermal-conductivity epoxy casting. A secondary advantage of the relatively good heat conductivity that comes with ultra-small size is that temperature differences within the controller become smaller, so that it is easier to measure the hottest temperature in the controller with fewer temperature sensors, or even one temperature sensor. Another size-sensitive design feature is in the approach to electrical noise immunity. At a very small size, where conduction paths are much shorter than in conventional designs, the ground becomes essentially isopotential, and so certain (space-consuming) electrical noise control components become unnecessary, which helps make small size possible. One winding-current sensor, applied to all of the windings in fast sequence, is smaller and wastes less power than the two or more sensors conventionally used to sense and control winding currents. An unexpected benefit of using only one current sensor is that it actually improves the precision of current control by using the "same" sensors to read each of the three phases. Folding the encoder directly into the controller electronics eliminates a great deal of redundant electronics, packaging, connectors, and hook-up wiring. The reduction of wires and connectors subtracts substantial bulk and eliminates their role in behaving as EMI (electro-magnetic interference) antennas. A shared

  18. System and method for motor speed estimation of an electric motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yan, Ting; Luebke, Charles John; Sharma, Santosh Kumar

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for a motor management system includes a computer readable storage medium and a processing unit. The processing unit configured to determine a voltage value of a voltage input to an alternating current (AC) motor, determine a frequency value of at least one of a voltage input and a current input to the AC motor, determine a load value from the AC motor, and access a set of motor nameplate data, where the set of motor nameplate data includes a rated power, a rated speed, a rated frequency, and a rated voltage of the AC motor. The processing unit is also configured to estimate a motor speed based on the voltage value, the frequency value, the load value, and the set of nameplate data and also store the motor speed on the computer readable storage medium.

  19. Using the motor to monitor pump conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    When the load of a mechanical device being driven by a motor changes, whether in response to changes in the overall process or changes in the performance of the driven device, the motor inherently responds. For induction motors, the current amplitude and phase angle change as the shaft load changes. By examining the details of these changes in amplitude and phase, load fluctuations of the driven device can be observed. The usefulness of the motor as a transducer to improve the understanding of devices with high torque fluctuations, such as positive displacement compressors and motor-operated valves, has been recognized and demonstrated for a number of years. On such devices as these, the spectrum of the motor current amplitude, phase, or power normally has certain characteristic peaks associated with various load components, such as the piston stroke or gear tooth meshing frequencies. Comparison and trending of the amplitudes of these peaks has been shown to provide some indication of their mechanical condition. For most centrifugal pumps, the load fluctuations are normally low in torque amplitude, and as a result, the motor experiences a correspondingly lower level of load fluctuation. However, both laboratory and field test data have demonstrated that the motor does provide insight into some important pump performance conditions, such as hydraulic stability and pump-to-motor alignment. Comparisons of other dynamic signals, such as vibration and pressure pulsation, to motor data for centrifugal pumps are provided. The effects of inadequate suction head, misalignment, mechanical and hydraulic unbalance on these signals are presented.

  20. Motor Protein Accumulation on Antiparallel Microtubule Overlaps.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D

    2016-05-10

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Overlap motor density profiles and motor trajectories resemble experimental measurements. The phase diagram of the model is similar to the single-filament case for low switching rate, while for high switching rate we find a new (to our knowledge) low density-high density-low density-high density phase. The overlap center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would naïvely expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center motor density depends on total overlap length, motor speed, and motor switching rate. The size of the crowded boundary layer near the overlap ends is also dependent on the overlap length and switching rate in addition to the motor speed and bulk concentration. The antiparallel microtubule overlap geometry may offer a previously unrecognized mechanism for biological regulation of protein concentration and consequent activity. PMID:27166811

  1. Short-term ankle motor performance with ankle robotics training in chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindo; Forrester, Larry W; Macko, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) often results in impaired motor control and persistent weakness that may lead to chronic disability, including deficits in gait and balance function. Finding ways to restore motor control may help reduce these deficits; however, little is known regarding the capacity or temporal profile of short-term motor adaptations and learning at the hemiparetic ankle. Our objective was to determine the short-term effects of a single session of impedance-controlled ankle robot ("anklebot") training on paretic ankle motor control in chronic stroke. This was a double-arm pilot study on a convenience sample of participants with chronic stroke (n = 7) who had residual hemiparetic deficits and an equal number of age- and sex-matched nondisabled control subjects. Training consisted of participants in each group playing a target-based video game with the anklebot for an hour, for a total of 560 movement repetitions in dorsiflexion/plantar flexion ranges followed by retest 48 hours later. Task difficulty was adjusted to ankle range of motion, with robotic assistance decreased incrementally across training. Assessments included robotic measures of ankle motor control on unassisted trials before and after training and at 48 hours after training. Following exposure to the task, subjects with stroke improved paretic ankle motor control across a single training session as indexed by increased targeting accuracy (21.6 +/- 8.0 to 31.4 +/- 4.8, p = 0.05), higher angular speeds (mean: 4.7 +/- 1.5 degrees/s to 6.5 +/- 2.6 degrees/s, p < 0.01, peak: 42.8 +/- 9.0 degrees/s to 45.6 +/- 9.4 degrees/s, p = 0.03), and smoother movements (normalized jerk: 654.1 +/- 103.3 s(-2) to 537.6 +/- 86.7 s(-2), p < 0.005, number of speed peaks: 27.1 +/- 5.8 to 23.7 +/- 4.1, p < 0.01). In contrast, nondisabled subjects did not make statistically significant gains in any metric after training except in the number of successful passages (32.3 +/- 7.5 to 36.5 +/- 6.4, p = 0

  2. Advanced double layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Lessner, P.; Forchione, J.; Laconti, A. B.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for large amounts of power to be delivered rapidly in a number of airborne and space systems. Conventional, portable power sources, such as batteries, are not suited to delivering high peak power pulses. The charge stored at the electrode-electrolyte double layer is, however, much more assessible on a short time scale. Devices exploiting this concept were fabricated using carbon and metal oxides (Pinnacle Research) as the electrodes and sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. The approach reported, replaces the liquid sulfuric acid electrolyte with a solid ionomer electrolyte. The challenge is to form a solid electrode-solid ionomer electrolyte composite which has a high capacitance per geometric area. The approach to maximize contact between the electrode particles and the ionomer was to impregnate the electrode particles using a liquid ionomer solution and to bond the solvent-free structure to a solid ionomer membrane. Ruthenium dioxide is the electrode material used. Three strategies are being pursued to provide for a high area electrode-ionomer contact: mixing of the RuOx with a small volume of ionomer solution followed by filtration to remove the solvent, and impregnation of the ionomer into an already formed RuOx electrode. RuOx powder and electrodes were examined by non-electrochemical techniques. X-ray diffraction has shown that the material is almost pure RuO2. The electrode structure depends on the processing technique used to introduce the Nafion. Impregnated electrodes have Nafion concentrated near the surface. Electrodes prepared by the evaporation method show large aggregates of crystals surrounded by Nafion.

  3. Non-motor Parkinson's: integral to motor Parkinson's, yet often neglected

    PubMed Central

    Todorova, Antoniya; Jenner, Peter; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms are a key component of Parkinson's disease, possibly representing a clinical biomarker of its premotor phase. The burden of non-motor symptoms can define a patient's health-related quality of life. Non-motor symptoms substantially increase the cost of care—requiring increased hospitalisation and treatment—and pose a major challenge to healthcare professionals. However, clinicians often regard non-motor symptoms and their management as peripheral to that of the motor symptoms. Here, we address the clinical issues and unmet needs of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24699931

  4. Method for assessing in-service motor efficiency and in-service motor/load efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for assessing the efficiency of an in-service motor. The operating characteristics of the in-service motor are remotely measured. The operating characteristics are then applied to an equivalent circuit for electrical motors. Finally the equivalent circuit is evaluated to determine the performance characteristics of said in-service motor. Based upon the evaluation an individual is able to determine the rotor speed, power output, efficiency, and toque of the in-service motor. Additionally, an individual is able to confirm the calculations by comparing measured values with values obtained as a result of the motor equivalent circuit evaluation.

  5. Engineering of the fluorescent-energy-conversion arm of phi29 DNA packaging motor for single-molecule studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Zhang, Hui; Chang, Chun-Li; Savran, Cagri; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-11-01

    The bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor contains a protein core with a central channel comprising twelve copies of re-engineered gp10 protein geared by six copies of packaging RNA (pRNA) and a DNA packaging protein gp16 with unknown copies. Incorporation of this nanomotor into a nanodevice would be beneficial for many applications. To this end, extension and modification of the motor components are necessary for the linkage of this motor to other nanomachines. Here the re-engineering of the motor DNA packaging protein gp16 by extending its length and doubling its size using a fusion protein technique is reported. The modified motor integrated with the eGFP-gp16 maintains the ability to convert the chemical energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to mechanical motion and package DNA. The resulting DNA-filled capsid is subsequently converted into an infectious virion. The extended part of the gp16 arm is a fluorescent protein eGFP, which serves as a marker for tracking the motor in single-molecule studies. The activity of the re-engineered motor with eGFP-gp16 is also observed directly with a bright-field microscope via its ability to transport a 2-microm-sized cargo bound to the DNA.

  6. Brain oscillatory signatures of motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral

  7. Brain oscillatory signatures of motor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral

  8. Concurrent word generation and motor performance: further evidence for language-motor interaction.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Amy D; McCabe, Matthew L; Nocera, Joe R; Reilly, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations) are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words) and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping). In Experiment 1 (n = 20), we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40), we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories.

  9. Modification of motor cortex excitability during muscle relaxation in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Saitoh, Kei; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We postulated that gradual muscle relaxation during motor learning would dynamically change activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and modify short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Thus, we compared changes in M1 excitability both pre and post motor learning during gradual muscle relaxation. Thirteen healthy participants were asked to gradually relax their muscles from an isometric right wrist extension (30% maximum voluntary contraction; MVC) using a tracking task for motor learning. Single or paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied at either 20% or 80% of the downward force output during muscle release from 30% MVC, and we compared the effects of motor learning immediately after the 1st and 10th blocks. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the extensor and flexor carpi radialis (ECR and FCR) were then measured and compared to evaluate their relationship before and after motor learning. In both muscles and each downward force output, motor cortex excitability during muscle relaxation was significantly increased following motor learning. In the ECR, the SICI in the 10th block was significantly increased during the 80% waveform decline compared to the SICI in the 1st block. In the FCR, the SICI also exhibited a greater inhibitory effect when muscle relaxation was terminated following motor learning. During motor training, acquisition of the ability to control muscle relaxation increased the SICI in both the ECR and FCR during motor termination. This finding aids in our understanding of the cortical mechanisms that underlie muscle relaxation during motor learning.

  10. Magnetoelectrical stimulation of motor cortex in children with motor disturbances.

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Hömberg, V; Aulich, A; Lenard, H G

    1992-04-01

    Transcranial magnetoelectrical stimulation (TMS) is now widely used as a diagnostic tool in adults. In this study we report our experiences with this technique in children with central motor disturbances. We used a Cadwell MES10 magnetoelectrical stimulator with a maximal magnetic field of 2 tesla. The stimulation procedure followed a standardized protocol, with the patients being as relaxed as possible in order to avoid contamination of parameters with different preinnervational levels. Stimulation data were compared to a data base obtained in 58 normal children. The first group of patients consisted of 20 children aged from 7 months to 16 years with hemiparesis of different etiologies. Neuroimaging data were correlated with the results of magnetoelectrical stimulation. In 13 patients a pathological pattern of TMS could be detected, and in 7 of these a corresponding lesion of the cortico-spinal tract was found in CT or MRI scans. In 7 children TMS was normal, in spite of a clear-cut lesion of the cortico-spinal tract in CT or MRI scans in 4 of them. The second group of patients consisted of 16 children with extrapyramidal disease, mostly of hereditary origin, such as DOPA-responsive dystonia or benign hereditary chorea. TMS showed a normal response pattern in this group. We discuss problems and possible pitfalls in TMS in childhood in evaluating the diagnostic value of TMS. At the moment the diagnostic usefulness of TMS in children with motor disturbances appears limited and calls for careful interpretation. PMID:1373370

  11. Motor simulation and the coordination of self and other in real-time joint action.

    PubMed

    Novembre, Giacomo; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Keller, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    Joint actions require the integration of simultaneous self- and other-related behaviour. Here, we investigated whether this function is underpinned by motor simulation, that is the capacity to represent a perceived action in terms of the neural resources required to execute it. This was tested in a music performance experiment wherein on-line brain stimulation (double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, dTMS) was employed to interfere with motor simulation. Pianists played the right-hand part of piano pieces in synchrony with a recording of the left-hand part, which had (Trained) or had not (Untrained) been practiced beforehand. Training was assumed to enhance motor simulation. The task required adaptation to tempo changes in the left-hand part that, in critical conditions, were preceded by dTMS delivered over the right primary motor cortex. Accuracy of tempo adaptation following dTMS or sham stimulations was compared across Trained and Untrained conditions. Results indicate that dTMS impaired tempo adaptation accuracy only during the perception of trained actions. The magnitude of this interference was greater in empathic individuals possessing a strong tendency to adopt others' perspectives. These findings suggest that motor simulation provides a functional resource for the temporal coordination of one's own behaviour with others in dynamic social contexts.

  12. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L.

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  13. Viral and cellular SOS-regulated motor proteins: dsDNA translocation mechanisms with divergent functions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Annie; Phipps, Kara; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage attacks on bacterial cells have been known to activate the SOS response, a transcriptional response affecting chromosome replication, DNA recombination and repair, cell division and prophage induction. All these functions require double-stranded (ds) DNA translocation by ASCE hexameric motors. This review seeks to delineate the structural and functional characteristics of the SOS response and the SOS-regulated DNA translocases FtsK and RuvB with the phi29 bacteriophage packaging motor gp16 ATPase as a prototype to study bacterial motors. While gp16 ATPase, cellular FtsK and RuvB are similarly comprised of hexameric rings encircling dsDNA and functioning as ATP-driven DNA translocases, they utilize different mechanisms to accomplish separate functions, suggesting a convergent evolution of these motors. The gp16 ATPase and FtsK use a novel revolution mechanism, generating a power stroke between subunits through an entropy-DNA affinity switch and pushing dsDNA inward without rotation of DNA and the motor, whereas RuvB seems to employ a rotation mechanism that remains to be further characterized. While FtsK and RuvB perform essential tasks during the SOS response, their roles may be far more significant as SOS response is involved in antibiotic-inducible bacterial vesiculation and biofilm formation as well as the perspective of the bacteria-cancer evolutionary interaction.

  14. Motor neurons and the sense of place.

    PubMed

    Jessell, Thomas M; Sürmeli, Gülşen; Kelly, John S

    2011-11-01

    Seventy years ago George Romanes began to document the anatomical organization of the spinal motor system, uncovering a multilayered topographic plan that links the clustering and settling position of motor neurons to the spatial arrangement and biomechanical features of limb muscles. To this day, these findings have provided a structural foundation for analysis of the neural control of movement and serve as a guide for studies to explore mechanisms that direct the wiring of spinal motor circuits. In this brief essay we outline the core of Romanes's findings and place them in the context of recent studies that begin to provide insight into molecular programs that assign motor pool position and to resolve how motor neuron position shapes circuit assembly. Romanes's findings reveal how and why neuronal positioning contributes to sensory-motor connectivity and may have relevance to circuit organization in other regions of the central nervous system.

  15. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit.

  16. [Functional brain plasticity associated with motor learning].

    PubMed

    Doyon, Julien; Orban, Pierre; Barakat, Marc; Debas, Karen; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Fogel, Stuart; Proulx, Sébastien; Laventure, Samuel; Deslauriers, Jonathan; Duchesne, Catherine; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib

    2011-04-01

    This review presents the results of studies carried out in our laboratory that aim to investigate, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the brain plasticity associated with motor sequence learning, defined as our ability to integrate simple stereotyped movements into a single motor representation. Following a brief description of Doyon and colleagues' model (2002, 2005, 2009) of motor skill learning that has guided this work, we then describe the functional changes that occur at the different (rapid, slow, automatization) acquisition phases, and propose specific roles that the putamen, the cerebellum and their motor-related cortical areas, play in this form of motor behavior. Finally, we put forward evidence that post-training, non-REM sleep (and spindles in Stage 2 sleep, in particular) contributes to the consolidation of a motor sequence memory trace, and that increased activity within the striatum and/or the hippocampus mediates this mnemonic process.

  17. Novice motor performance: better not to verbalize.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A

    2013-02-01

    Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not. PMID:23073721

  18. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit. PMID:12403137

  19. Levitation forces in bearingless permanent magnet motors

    SciTech Connect

    Amrhein, W.; Silber, S.; Nenninger, K.

    1999-09-01

    Bearingless motors combine brushless AC-motors with active magnetic bearings by the integration of two separate winding systems (torque and radial levitation force windings with different pole pairs) in one housing. This paper gives an insight into the influences of the motor design on the levitation force and torque generation. It is shown that especially for machines with small air gaps it can be very important to choose the right design parameters. Increasing the permanent magnet height in order to increase the motor torque can result in a remarkable reduction of radial forces. The interrelationships are discussed on the basis of Maxwell and Lorentz forces acting upon the stator surface. The investigations are presented for a bearingless low cost motor, suited for pump, fan or blower applications. The presented motor needs only four coils for operation.

  20. Cooperative Force Generation of KIF1A Brownian Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriola, David; Casademunt, Jaume

    2013-07-01

    KIF1A is a kinesin motor protein that can work processively in a monomeric (single-headed) form by using a noise-driven ratchet mechanism. Here, we show that the combination of a passive diffusive state and finite-time kinetics of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis provides a powerful mechanism of cooperative force generation, implying for instance that ˜10 monomeric KIF1As can team up to become ˜100 times stronger than a single one. Consequently, we propose that KIF1A could outperform conventional (double-headed) kinesin collectively and thus explain its specificity in axonal trafficking. We elucidate the cooperativity mechanism with a lattice model that includes multiparticle transitions.

  1. Oceanic double-infusion: introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddick, Barry; Gargett, Ann E.

    2003-03-01

    Double-diffusion, the mixing of fluids with two constituents of different molecular diffusivities, was originally discovered in the mid-1800s, forgotten, then rediscovered as an ‘oceanographic curiosity’ a century later. Many oceanographers suspect that double-diffusion has major effects on oceanic water masses and circulation, but direct measurement of the effects has proven difficult. In 1996, a Working Group was formed under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR WG108), with the goal to identify progress and barriers to quantifying oceanic double-diffusive fluxes, and make recommendations for further progress. This document gives a brief history of double-diffusion, a review of evidence of its potential effects in the ocean, and gives an overview of the review articles contained in this volume, written by the Working Group members with the above aim in mind.

  2. Entanglement purification with double selection

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    2009-10-15

    We investigate an entanglement purification protocol with double-selection process, which works under imperfect local operations. Compared with the usual protocol with single selection, this double-selection method has higher noise thresholds for the local operations and quantum communication channels and achieves higher fidelity of purified states. It also provides a yield comparable to that of the usual protocol with single selection. We discuss on general grounds how some of the errors which are introduced by local operations are left as intrinsically undetectable. The undetectable errors place a general upper bound on the purification fidelity. The double selection is a simple method to remove all the detectable errors in the first order, so that the upper bound on the fidelity is achieved in the low-noise regime. The double selection is further applied to purification of multipartite entanglement such as two-colorable graph states.

  3. A Double Pendulum "Art Machine"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a double pendulum apparatus and its mode of operation to produce a great variety of figures similar to Lissajous figures. The author suggests that several advanced physics topics can be studied with the aid of this instrument. Bibliography. (LC)

  4. Electrodiagnosis of motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Anuradha; Shefner, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    Electrodiagnostic testing has proved useful in helping to establish the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by eliminating possible disease mimics and by demonstrating abnormalities in body areas that are clinically unaffected. Electrodiagnosis begins with an understanding of the clinical features of the disease, because clinical correlation is essential. To improve the sensitivity of the electrophysiologic evaluation, the Awaji criteria have been proposed as a modification to the revised El Escorial criteria. Although techniques to evaluate corticomotor neuron abnormalities and to quantify lower motor neuron loss have been developed, they remain primarily research techniques and have not yet influenced clinical practice.

  5. Small computer interface to a stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Fred A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

  6. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  7. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  8. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  9. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  10. Simulation of auroral double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. F.; Joyce, G.

    1979-01-01

    Some basic properties of plasma double layers are deduced from a particle-in-cell computer simulation and related to parallel electric-field structures above the auroral regions. The simulation results on the processes leading to double-layer formation are examined, particularly in relation to the transient stage and double-layer structure and stability. It is concluded that: (1) a large potential difference applied to a finite-length plasma will be concentrated in a shocklike localized region instead of occurring over the entire length of the system; (2) the initial stage in double-layer formation is dominated by a large-potential pulse propagating in the direction of the induced electrostatic drift; (3) the entire potential is dropped over a specific scale length once the double layer has formed; and (4) this scale length is expected to be of the order of 1 km for a double layer above a discrete auroral arc with a potential of 10 kV and the electric-field vector parallel to the magnetic-field vector.

  11. Double layers above the aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial.

  12. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  13. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  14. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  15. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Castro, Luis Nicolas Gonzalez; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning. PMID:24413700

  16. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Gonzalez Castro, Luis Nicolas; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2014-02-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning.

  17. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

  18. Kinesthetic motor imagery modulates intermuscular coherence

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.; Oyunerdene, Nominerdene; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Intermuscular coherence can identify oscillatory coupling between two electromyographic (EMG) signals, measuring common presynaptic drive to motor neurons. Beta band oscillations (15–30 Hz) are hypothesized to originate largely from primary motor cortex, and are reduced during dynamic relative to static motor tasks. It has yet to be established whether motor imagery modulates beta intermuscular coherence. Using visual feedback, 10 unimpaired participants completed eighteen trials of pinching their right thumb and index finger at a constant force. During the 60-second trials, participants simultaneously engaged in one of three types of kinesthetic imagery: the right thumb and index finger executing a constant force pinch (static), the fingers of the right hand sequentially flexing and extending (dynamic), and the right foot pushing down with constant force (foot). Motor imagery of a dynamic motor task resulted in significantly lower intermuscular beta coherence than imagery of a static motor pinch task, without any difference in task performance or root-mean-square EMG. Thus, motor imagery affects intermuscular coherence in the beta band, even while measures of task performance remain constant. This finding provides insight for incorporation of beta band intermuscular coherence in future motor rehabilitation schemes and brain computer interface design. PMID:21984522

  19. Perceptual-motor deficiency in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, S C; Freeman, W M

    1980-02-01

    15 autistic children were matched with normals on the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration. The two groups were subsequently compared on ability to (1) increase geometric figure-copying performance using additional information provided during subsequent trials, (2) make figure-ground resolutions, (3) perform a fine motor integration task, and (4) cope with background interference while responding on the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration. The primary deficit observed in the autistic subjects appeared to be defective monitoring of the motor response.

  20. Symmetry Based Control of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monika, M.; Singh, N. M.; Bhil, S. K.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper symmetry based control of induction motor is proposed. The fifth order model of Induction motor is reduced to the base coordinates which is decoupled from the fiber dynamics by using a regular static feedback. This makes the control of Induction motor similar to the control of separately excited D.C. motor. This paper shows that the selection of a particular frame of reference for the two phase equivalent model depends on the control objectives which are to be taken as the base coordinates.

  1. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  2. Neuronal control of turtle hindlimb motor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Stein, P S G

    2005-03-01

    The turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, uses its hindlimb during the rhythmic motor behaviors of walking, swimming, and scratching. For some tasks, one or more motor strategies or forms may be produced, e.g., forward swimming or backpaddling. This review discusses experiments that reveal characteristics of the spinal neuronal networks producing these motor behaviors. Limb-movement studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexion and hip extension, as well as variable properties such as the timing of knee extension in the cycle of hip movements. Motor-pattern studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexor and hip extensor motor activities, as well as variable properties such as modifiable timing of knee extensor motor activity in the cycle of hip motor activity. Motor patterns also display variations such as the hip-extensor deletion of rostral scratching. Neuronal-network studies reveal mechanisms responsible for movement and motor-pattern properties. Some interneurons in the spinal cord have shared activities, e.g., each unit is active during more than one behavior, and have distinct characteristics, e.g., each unit is most excited during a specific behavior. Interneuronal recordings during variations support the concept of modular organization of central pattern generators in the spinal cord.

  3. Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Phil

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-7) test was a full-scale, full duration static test firing of a high performance motor-configuration solid rocket motor with nozzle vectoring. The final test report documents the procedures, performance, and results of the static test firing of TEM-7. All observations, discussions, conclusions, and recommendations included in the report are complete and final except for the TEM-7 fixed housing unbond investigation. A presentation and discussion of TEM-7 performance, anomalies, and test result concurrence with the objectives outlined in CTP-0107, Rev A, Space Shuttle Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-7) Static Fire Test Plan are included.

  4. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  5. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  6. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  8. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, M.A.

    1999-07-20

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

  9. 24 Inch Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A scaled-down 24-inch version of the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor was successfully fired for 21 seconds at a Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Test Stand. The motor was tested to ensure a replacement material called Lycocel would meet the criteria set by the Shuttle's Solid Motor Project Office. The current material is a heat-resistant, rayon-based, carbon-cloth phenolic used as an insulating material for the motor's nozzle. Lycocel, a brand name for Tencel, is a cousin to rayon and is an exceptionally strong fiber made of wood pulp produced by a special 'solvent-spirning' process using a nontoxic solvent. It will also be impregnated with a phenolic resin. This new material is expected to perform better under the high temperatures experienced during launch. The next step will be to test the material on a 48-inch solid rocket motor. The test, which replicates launch conditions, is part of Shuttle's ongoing verification of components, materials, and manufacturing processes required by MSFC, which oversees the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor project. Manufactured by the ATK Thiokol Propulsion Division in Promontory, California, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor measures 126 feet (38.4 meters) long and 12 feet (3.6 meters) in diameter. It is the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the first designed for reuse. During its two-minute burn at liftoff, each motor generates an average thrust of 2.6 million pounds (1.2 million kilograms).

  10. Integrating motor control and motor learning concepts with neuropsychological perspectives on apraxia and developmental dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Goodgold-Edwards, S A; Cermak, S A

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews selected pertinent literature on the learning and performance of skilled motor acts. Information on normal motor performance is integrated with that on adult apraxia and related to common problems observed in children with developmental dyspraxia. The process of motor skill acquisition is outlined, and aspects of styles of motor organization, modes of control, premovement organization, sensory organization, and analysis of the types of errors are presented. Recommendations for clinicians working with children with developmental dyspraxia are offered.

  11. Comparison of commonly used retrograde tracers in rat spinal motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You-lai; Li, Hai-yan; Zhang, Pei-xun; Yin, Xiao-feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu-hui; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four fluorescent dyes, True Blue (TB), Fluoro-Gold (FG), Fluoro-Ruby (FR), and 1,1’-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in retrograde tracing of rat spinal motor neurons. We transected the muscle branch of the rat femoral nerve and applied each tracer to the proximal stump in single labeling experiments, or combinations of tracers (FG-DiI and TB-DiI) in double labeling experiments. In the single labeling experiments, significantly fewer labeled motor neurons were observed after FR labeling than after TB, FG, or DiI, 3 days after tracer application. By 1 week, there were no significant differences in the number of labeled neurons between the four groups. In the double-labeling experiment, the number of double-labeled neurons in the FG-DiI group was not significantly different from that in the TB-DiI group 1 week after tracer application. Our findings indicate that TB, FG, and DiI have similar labeling efficacies in the retrograde labeling of spinal motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve when used alone. Furthermore, combinations of DiI and TB or FG are similarly effective. Therefore, of the dyes studied, TB, FG and DiI, and combinations of DiI with TB or FG, are the most suitable for retrograde labeling studies of motor neurons in the rat femoral nerve. PMID:26692873

  12. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air

  13. Motor action, emotion, and motive.

    PubMed

    Katz, Howard M

    2004-01-01

    The experience, imagery, and fantasy of self in motion play a central part in the dreams, aspirations, and affective life of individuals, and in their growth. Human infants are supplied with an intrinsic drive to move to, with, and against forces and objects in the natural world, for that action maps a developing self into the world. This striving is not derivative from some other drive; it is a motivational force in and of itself intertwined with other essential strivings of the developing individual. Clinical observations and recent findings of developmental and neurobiological studies demonstrate that positive aspects of a person's striving in the sphere of motor control imbue a person's sense of self with qualities of energy, agency, and mastery. And, when thwarted, distorted, or unbalanced in relation to other strivings, one's physicality may also be a locus for conflict and maladaptive defenses. Schemas of self in relation to the world at large and especially to significant others are often encoded in procedural modes of remembering and perceiving, where movement is central. When the analyst is attuned to the experience of motor action in the life of the person he or she seeks to know fully and to help, the appreciation of that person's motives, emotions, and sense of self is deepened and enhanced.

  14. Reward feedback accelerates motor learning.

    PubMed

    Nikooyan, Ali A; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2015-01-15

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reward feedback alone can drive motor learning. However, it is not yet clear whether reward feedback alone can lead to learning when a perturbation is introduced abruptly, or how a reward gradient can modulate learning. In this study, we provide reward feedback that decays continuously with increasing error. We asked whether it is possible to learn an abrupt visuomotor rotation by reward alone, and if the learning process could be modulated by combining reward and sensory feedback and/or by using different reward landscapes. We designed a novel visuomotor learning protocol during which subjects experienced an abruptly introduced rotational perturbation. Subjects received either visual feedback or reward feedback, or a combination of the two. Two different reward landscapes, where the reward decayed either linearly or cubically with distance from the target, were tested. Results demonstrate that it is possible to learn from reward feedback alone and that the combination of reward and sensory feedback accelerates learning. An analysis of the underlying mechanisms reveals that although reward feedback alone does not allow for sensorimotor remapping, it can nonetheless lead to broad generalization, highlighting a dissociation between remapping and generalization. Also, the combination of reward and sensory feedback accelerates learning without compromising sensorimotor remapping. These findings suggest that the use of reward feedback is a promising approach to either supplement or substitute sensory feedback in the development of improved neurorehabilitation techniques. More generally, they point to an important role played by reward in the motor learning process.

  15. Pain relativity in motor control.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N

    2010-06-01

    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts.

  16. Pain relativity in motor control.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N

    2010-06-01

    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts. PMID:20435952

  17. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC.

  18. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC. PMID:25213313

  19. 36 CFR 292.45 - Use of motorized and non-motorized rivercraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... except on the Snake River and that portion of the Salmon River in the HCNRA administered by the Forest... or non-motorized rivercraft on the Snake River and that portion of the Salmon River in the HCNRA... authorizing the use of motorized and non-motorized rivercraft on the Snake River, the authorized officer...

  20. 36 CFR 292.45 - Use of motorized and non-motorized rivercraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... except on the Snake River and that portion of the Salmon River in the HCNRA administered by the Forest... or non-motorized rivercraft on the Snake River and that portion of the Salmon River in the HCNRA... authorizing the use of motorized and non-motorized rivercraft on the Snake River, the authorized officer...