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Sample records for double pcl sign

  1. New Double-Infiltration Methodology to Prepare PCL-PS Core-Shell Nanocylinders Inside Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Belén; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen; Palacios, Jordana K; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-09

    Melt nanomolding of core-shell nanocylinders of different sizes, employing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, is reported here for the first time. The core-shell nanostructures are achieved by a new melt double-infiltration technique. During the first infiltration step, polystyrene (PS) nanotubes are produced by an adequate choice of AAO nanopore diameter size. In the second step, PCL is infiltrated inside the PS nanotubes, as its melting point (and infiltration temperature) is lower than the glass transition temperature of PS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements verified the complete double-infiltration of the polymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments show that the infiltrated PCL undergoes a confined fractionated crystallization with two crystallization steps located at temperatures that depend on which surface is in contact with the PCL nanocylinders (i.e., alumina or PS). The melt double-infiltration methodology represents a novel approach to study the effect of the surrounding surface on polymer crystallization under confinement.

  2. The "double panda" sign in Leigh disease.

    PubMed

    Sonam, Kothari; Bindu, P S; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Khan, Nahid Akhtar; Govindaraju, C; Arvinda, Hanumanthapura R; Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib; Thangaraj, K; Taly, Arun B

    2014-07-01

    Although the "face of the giant panda" sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally considered to be characteristic of Wilson disease, it has also been reported in other metabolic disorders. This study describes the characteristic "giant panda" sign on MRI in a child with Leigh disease. The diagnosis was based on the history of neurological regression; examination findings of oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, and dystonia; raised serum lactate levels; and characteristic brain stem and basal ganglia signal changes on MRI. The midbrain and pontine tegmental signal changes were consistent with the "face of the giant panda and her cub" sign. In addition to Wilson disease, metabolic disorders such as Leigh disease should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of this rare imaging finding.

  3. Ultrasonic "double track" sign in hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H L; Schechter, S; Mestel, A L; Eaton, D H; Haller, J O

    1987-03-01

    Ultrasound has been used in the diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis since the first reports of its use with contact B mode scanners. Real-time imaging has allowed measurements of pyloric diameter, length, and muscle wall thickness. Wall thickness measurements taken with the pylorus in longitudinal (elongated) view improve diagnostic accuracy. Fluid aided real-time examination of 10 cases showed the ultrasound equivalent of the "double track" sign. This finding is the result of pyloric fluid compressed into smaller tracks as it is impinged upon circumferentially by the thickened circular muscle. This sign, previously seen in barium studies, although nonspecific, may prove to be a sensitive diagnostic criterion.

  4. Opium-related sphincter of Oddi dysfunction causing double duct sign

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder Singh; Chaudhary, Vinita; Dhaka, Narendra; Manrai, Manish; Sivalingam, Jegan; Sharma, Ravi; Dutta, Usha; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Double duct sign where there is a simultaneous dilatation of both the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct is usually associated with sinister causes like malignancies of pancreatic head or ampulla. Occasionally, benign causes like chronic pancreatitis or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) may cause double duct sign. Chronic opium abuse is a rare cause of the double duct sign, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings of this rare entity have been occasionally reported. We report about a 54-year-old male with a history of chronic alcohol and opioid abuse evaluated for episodes of abdominal pain and found to have opioid-related SOD and improved with biliary sphincterotomy. EUS was done to rule out malignancy and revealed hypoechoic prominence around terminal CBD suggestive of hypertrophied muscle. PMID:27503161

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Annular Pancreas: Reliability of the Double Bubble Sign with Periduodenal Hyperechogenic Band

    PubMed Central

    Dankovcik, Robert; Jirasek, Jan E.; Kucera, Eduard; Feyereisl, Jaroslav; Radonak, Jozef; Dudas, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the power of prenatal 2-D ultrasound examination in the 2nd trimester as a method of choice for accurate diagnosis of annular pancreas. Methods Co-incidence of the double bubble sign (often accompanying gastroduodenal dilatation) together with a hyperechogenic band around the duodenum (corresponding with the tissue of annular pancreas) was used as a diagnostic criterion. Findings from postnatal surgery served for verification. Results From 7,897 screened pregnancies, annular pancreas was proven in the cases where both signs were present, but never without the hyperechogenic band (N1 = 3, N2 = 3, p ≤ 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Conclusions More multicentric studies are required to test this approach. The following diagnostic strategy is reasonable at the present time: when the double bubble sign is discovered, always suspect annular pancreas and look for the second sign: hyperechogenic bands around the duodenum. Also look for known associated anomalies, and vice versa, if any of associated anomalies are noted, also search specifically for the signs of annular pancreas. PMID:19047797

  6. Elevated Z line: a new sign of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marc S; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Rubesin, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    We describe an elevated Z line as a new radiographic sign of Barrett's esophagus characterized by a transversely oriented, zigzagging, barium-etched line extending completely across the circumference of the midesophagus. An elevated Z line is rarely seen in other patients, so this finding should be highly suggestive of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms. If the patient is a potential candidate for surveillance, endoscopy and biopsy should be performed to confirm the presence of Barrett's esophagus.

  7. Neurological soft signs feature a double dissociation within the language system in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Chiara; Martelli, Sara; Borgatti, Renato

    2010-09-01

    The neurocognitive profile of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is characterized by visuospatial deficits, apparently fluent language, motor soft signs, and hypersociability. We investigated the association between neuromotor soft signs and visuospatial, executive-attentive, mnestic and linguistic functions in a group of 26 children and young adults with WBS. We hypothesized that neurological soft signs could be an index of subtle neurofunctional deficits and thus provide a behavioural window into the processes underlying neurocognition in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Dysmetria and dystonic movements were selected as grouping neurological variables, indexing cerebellar and basal ganglia dysfunction, respectively. No detrimental effects on visuospatial/visuoconstructive skills were evident following the presence of either neurological variable. As for language skills, participants with dysmetria showed markedly reduced expressive syntactic and lexico-semantic skills as compared to non-affected individuals, while no difference in chronological age was evident. Participants with dystonic movements showed reduced receptive syntax and increased lexical comprehension skills as compared to non-affected individuals, the age factor being significant. In both instances, the effect size was greater for syntactic measures. We take these novel findings as suggestive of a double dissociation between expressive and receptive skills at sentence level within the WBS linguistic phenotype. The investigation of neuromotor soft signs and neuropsychological functions may provide a key to new non-cortico-centric genotype/phenotype relationships. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Atorvastatin on Negative Sign in Chronic Schizophrenia: a Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Boostani, Hatam; Ashrafpoori, Mitra; Pakseresht, Siroos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Atorvastatin on negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The study was a prospective, double-blind, 6-week trial. Forty patients participated in the study; 19 patients were assigned to the Atorvastatin group as well as 21 patients to the placebo group. For assessing negative signs, we used Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in weeks 1st, 3nd, 4th, and 6th. Moreover, patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups with Risperidone (6 mg/day) plus 20 mg Atorvastatin or with Risperidone (6 mg/day) plus placebo. Mean scores of Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) decreased during the treatment but there was no significant difference between the mean scores of two groups. The result of this trial suggested that Atorvastatin can be effective in reducing negative sign in schizophrenia although further studies seem to be needed. PMID:26664396

  9. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  10. The effect of a dynamic PCL brace on patellofemoral compartment pressures in PCL-and PCL/PLC-deficient knees.

    PubMed

    Welch, Tyler; Keller, Thomas; Maldonado, Ruben; Metzger, Melodie; Mohr, Karen; Kvitne, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The natural history of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency includes the development of arthrosis in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the hypothesis that dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knees. Controlled Laboratory Study. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees with intact cruciate and collateral ligaments were included. PFJ pressures and force were measured using a pressure mapping system via a lateral arthrotomy at knee flexion angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL/PLC-deficient knees under a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Testing was then repeated in PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees after application of a dynamic PCL brace. Application of a dynamic PCL brace led to a reduction in peak PFJ pressures in PCL-deficient knees. In addition, the brace led to a significant reduction in peak pressures in PCL/PLC-deficient knees at 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Application of the dynamic brace also led to a reduction in total PFJ force across all flexion angles for both PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees. Dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/PLC-deficient knees, particularly at high degrees of knee flexion.

  11. Combining Hyperechoic Aggregates and the Double-Contour Sign Increases the Sensitivity of Sonography for Detection of Monosodium Urate Deposits in Gout.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Zheng, Shengzhou; Wang, Wenwen; Zhou, Qijing; Wu, Huaxiang

    2017-05-01

    To compare the sensitivities of individual and combined sonography of hyperechoic aggregates and the double-contour sign in detecting monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits in gouty joints. Monosodium urate crystal deposits in symptomatic and contralateral asymptomatic joints of 70 patients with acute gout were evaluated by sonography of hyperechoic aggregates and the double-contour sign individually and in combination. All patients with acute gout in this study had at least 1 symptomatic joint with MSU deposits determined by dual-energy computed tomography. Of 195 symptomatic joints (92 in the upper limbs and 103 in the lower limbs) and an equal number of asymptomatic joints: (1) 97.14% (68 of 70) of patients had hyperechoic aggregate/double-contour sign-positive joints versus 74.29% (52 of 70) with double-contour sign-positive and 63.89% (46 of 70) with hyperechoic aggregate-positive joints; (2) 86.96% (80 of 92) of the symptomatic upper limb joints were double-contour sign/hyperechoic aggregate positive versus 46.74% (43 of 92) that were double-contour sign positive and 70.65% (65 of 92) that were hyperechoic aggregate positive; and (3) 98.06% (101 of 103) of the symptomatic lower limb joints were double-contour sign/hyperechoic aggregate positive versus 92.23% (95 of 103) that were double-contour sign positive and 41.75% (43 of 103) that were hyperechoic aggregate positive. Hyperechoic aggregates and the double-contour sign in combination improve the investigative sensitivity of sonography than either hyperechoic aggregates or the double-contour sign individually for detecting MSU crystal deposits in gouty joints. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Characteristics and release profiles of MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres containing immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Erdemli, Özge; Usanmaz, Ali; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2014-05-01

    Polyester-polyether type block copolymers have attracted attention in the area of drug delivery systems with their capability in providing a broad range of amphiphilic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to prepare and characterize immunoglobulin G (IgG) loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-PCL-MPEG) microspheres as potential carrier for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies used in clinics. MPEG-PCL-MPEG triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone initiated by MPEG and then characterized. Microspheres were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and their properties were compared with those of PCL microspheres. Microspheres had spherical shape with a mean particle size around 6 μm. MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres had higher encapsulation efficiency than PCL microspheres. After 90 days of release, 30±2% and 57±3% of the bioactivity of IgG released from non-irradiated PCL and MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres were protected, respectively. Presence of MPEG in microspheres provided more controlled IgG release rate and protected IgG from denaturation during γ-irradiation (20±3% and 49±2% for PCL and MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres, respectively). In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that both MPEG-PCL-MPEG and PCL microspheres had no toxic effect on cells. This study showed that MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres are promising delivery systems for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A historical perspective of PCL bracing.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Kyle S; Costello, Kerry E; O'Brien, Luke; Wijdicks, Coen A; Laprade, Robert F

    2013-05-01

    Currently there are many functional knee braces but very few designed to treat the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). No PCL braces have been biomechanically validated to demonstrate that they provide stability with proper force distribution to the PCL-deficient knee. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the history and current state of PCL bracing and to identify areas where further progress is required to improve patient outcomes and treatment options. A PubMed search was conducted with the terms "posterior cruciate ligament", "rehabilitation", "history", "knee", and "brace", and the relevant articles from 1967 to 2011 were analysed. A review of the current available PCL knee bracing options was performed. Little evidence exists from the eight relevant articles to support the biomechanical efficacy of nonoperative and postoperative PCL bracing protocols. Clinical outcomes reported improvements in reducing PCL laxity with anterior directed forces to the tibia during healing following PCL tears. Biomechanics research demonstrates that during knee flexion, the PCL experiences variable tensile forces. One knee brace has been specifically designed and clinically validated to improve stability in PCL-deficient knees during rehabilitation. While available PCL braces demonstrate beneficial patient outcomes, they lack evidence validating their biomechanical effectiveness. There is limited information evaluating the specific effectiveness of PCL knee braces. A properly designed PCL brace should apply correct anatomic joint forces that vary with the knee flexion angle and also provide adjustability to satisfy the demands of various activities. No braces are currently available with biomechanical evidence that satisfies these requirements. IV.

  14. Double-crush syndrome after acetabular fractures. A sign of poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Giannoudis, P V; Da Costa, A A; Raman, R; Mohamed, A K; Smith, R M

    2005-03-01

    Injury to the sciatic nerve is one of the more serious complications of acetabular fracture and traumatic dislocation of the hip, both in the short and long term. We have reviewed prospectively patients, treated in our unit, for acetabular fractures who had concomitant injury to the sciatic nerve, with the aim of predicting the functional outcome after these injuries. Of 136 patients who underwent stabilisation of acetabular fractures, there were 27 (19.9%) with neurological injury. At initial presentation, 13 patients had a complete foot-drop, ten had weakness of the foot and four had burning pain and altered sensation over the dorsum of the foot. Serial electromyography (EMG) studies were performed and the degree of functional recovery was monitored using the grading system of the Medical Research Council. In nine patients with a foot-drop, there was evidence of a proximal acetabular (sciatic) and a distal knee (neck of fibula) nerve lesion, the double-crush syndrome. At the final follow-up, clinical examination and EMG studies showed full recovery in five of the ten patients with initial muscle weakness, and complete resolution in all four patients with sensory symptoms (burning pain and hyperaesthesia). There was improvement of functional capacity (motor and sensory) in two patients who presented initially with complete foot-drop. In the remaining 11 with foot-drop at presentation, including all nine with the double-crush lesion, there was no improvement in function at a mean follow-up of 4.3 years.

  15. Prevalence of the "double-line" sign when performing focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) examinations.

    PubMed

    Patwa, Amy Shah; Cipot, Steven; Lomibao, Alvin; Nelson, Mathew; Bramante, Robert; Modayil, Veena; Haines, Christine; Ash, Adam; Raio, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    The double-line sign (DLS) is a wedge-shaped hypoechoic area in Morison's pouch bounded on both sides by echogenic lines. It represents a false-positive finding for free intraperitoneal fluid when performing focused assessment with sonography in trauma examinations. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of DLS. Secondarily, the study will further investigate the relationship between the presence of a DLS and body mass index (BMI). This was a prospective study that enrolled patients over a 7-month period. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥ 18 years of age presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) requiring a FAST examination as part of the patient's standard medical care. Each examination was performed by one of six experienced ultrasonographers. Presence or absence of the DLS was established in real time and gender, height, weight, and BMI were recorded for each patient. The overall prevalence rate of DLS and the corresponding 95 % confidence interval were calculated, as well as the prevalence rates broken down by BMI characterized as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese; and age category (18-29, 30-64, and 65+). The Chi-square test and a Fisher's exact test for BMI category were used to compare the prevalence rates of positive DLS among the different demographic groups. 100 patients were enrolled in the study; the overall prevalence was 27 %. There was no statistical significance among the different demographic groups or BMI. The DLS is a prevalent finding. We believe this sign has become more apparent due to improved imaging technology and resolution.

  16. PCL-R field validity in prison and hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Jeandarme, Inge; Edens, John F; Habets, Petra; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Recent field studies have questioned the interrater reliability (IRR) and predictive validity regarding (violent) recidivism of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a forensic psychiatric sample, the current study investigated discrepancies in scoring between hospital and prison settings, as well as differences in predictive validity across these two settings. PCL-R information was collected from prison and hospital files, resulting in 224 PCL-R total scores and 74 double scores. When examining repeated measurements, large individual differences were found together with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA,1) of .42 for the total score. Discrepant results were found for Factor 2, with repeated scores within the same setting having an ICCA,1 of .28 versus an ICCA,1 of .57 for repeated scores between settings. However, areas under the curve (AUCs) from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses for total, factor and facet scores did not differ between settings. For the whole sample, Factor 2 scores marginally predicted violent and general recidivism after 2 years (AUC = .62 and .63), whereas Factor 1 did not predict (violent) recidivism. Consistent with recent studies from other countries, these results suggest inadequate field reliability and validity in prison and hospital settings in Flanders (Belgium). (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymer-based microspheres mediate cardiovascular differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liqing

    Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) based copolymers have received much attention as drug or growth factor delivery carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and tunable biophysical properties. Copolymers of PCL and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) also have shape memory behaviors and can be made into thermoresponsive shape memory polymers for various biomedical applications such as smart sutures and vascular stents. However, the influence of biophysical properties of PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers on stem cell lineage commitment is not well understood. In this study, PDMS was used as soft segments of varying length to tailor the biophysical properties of PCL-based co-polymers. While low elastic modulus (<10 kPa) of the tri-block copolymer PCL-PDMS-PCL affected cardiovascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the range of 60-100 MPa PCL-PDMS-PCL showed little influence on the differentiation. Then different size (30-140 mum) of microspheres were fabricated from PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers and incorporated within embryoid bodies (EBs). Mesoderm differentiation was induced using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 for cardiovascular differentiation. Differential expressions of mesoderm progenitor marker KDR and vascular markers CD31 and VE-cadherin were observed for the cells differentiated from EBs incorporated with microspheres of different size, while little difference was observed for cardiac marker alpha-actinin expression. Small size of microspheres (30 mum) resulted in higher expression of KDR while medium size of microspheres (94 mum) resulted in higher CD31 and VE-cadherin expression. This study indicated that the biophysical properties of PCL-based copolymers impacted stem cell lineage commitment, which should be considered for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  18. Precision Extruding Deposition for Freeform Fabrication of PCL and PCL-HA Tissue Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, L.; Yildirim, E. D.; Güçeri, S.; Sun, W.

    Computer-aided tissue engineering approach was used to develop a novel Precision Extrusion Deposition (PED) process to directly fabricate Polycaprolactone (PCL) and composite PCL/Hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) tissue scaffolds. The process optimization was carried out to fabricate both PCL and PCL-HA (25% concentration by weight of HA) with a controlled pore size and internal pore structure of the 0°/90° pattern. Two groups of scaffolds having 60 and 70% porosity and with pore sizes of 450 and 750 microns, respectively, were evaluated for their morphology and compressive properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing. The surface modification with plasma was conducted on PCL scaffold to increase the cellular attachment and proliferation. Our results suggested that inclusion of HA significantly increased the compressive modulus from 59 to 84 MPa for 60% porous scaffolds and from 30 to 76 MPa for 70% porous scaffolds. In vitro cell-scaffolds interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts to assess the feasibility of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. In addition, the results in surface hydrophilicity and roughness show that plasma surface modification can increase the hydrophilicity while introducing the nano-scale surface roughness on PCL surface. The cell proliferation and differentiation were calculated by Alamar Blue assay and by determining alkaline phosphatase activity. The osteoblasts were able to migrate and proliferate over the cultured time for both PCL as well as PCL-HA scaffolds. Our study demonstrated the viability of the PED process to the fabricate PCL and PCL-HA composite scaffolds having necessary mechanical property, structural integrity, controlled pore size and pore interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Development and evaluation of a double antibody sandwich ELISA for the detection of human sDC-SIGN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Liang; Li, Yan-Li; Tang, Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Na; Chen, Zheng-Liang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-09-01

    sDC-SIGN is the soluble form of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), which is a molecule involved with pathogen recognition and immune regulation. However, there is no commercially available ELISA kit for detecting human sDC-SIGN, and the normal range of this molecule is unknown. Here, we describe an ELISA for detecting human sDC-SIGN with high specificity. First, sDC-SIGN protein was expressed and purified. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were then raised against the purified protein and subsequently characterized. A sandwich ELISA was developed using polyclonal antibodies specific for sDC-SIGN for capture and a biotin-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for sDC-SIGN for detection of protein. This method has sensitivity up to 0.2 ng/ml. Using this ELISA, we found that the concentration of sDC-SIGN in sera of healthy volunteers ranges from 0-319 ng/ml with a mean concentration of 27.14 ng/ml. Interestingly, the concentration of sDC-SIGN in sera from patients with cancer or chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection was lower than that of health controls. The mean concentrations of sDC-SIGN in cancer patients and chronic hepatitis B virus infection patients were 3.2 ng/ml and 3.8 ng/ml, respectively. We developed a sandwich ELISA for detecting human sDC-SIGN and demonstrated its use by assessing sera concentrations of sDC-SIGN in patients with cancer and chronic CHB infection compared to that of healthy controls.

  20. PCL/MWCNT Nanocomposites as Nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Anita; Buzarovska, Alexandra; Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria E.; Gentile, Gennaro

    Due to the unique electronic, metallic and structural properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as compared to other materials, researchers focused on utilizing these characteristics for engineering applications such as actuators, hydrogen storage materials, chemical sensors and nanoelectronic devices. Many papers have been published utilizing CNTs as the sensing material in pressure, flow, thermal, gas, optical, mass, strain, stress, chemical and biological sensors. Amongst many of their superior electro-mechanical properties, the piezoresistive effect in CNTs is attractive for designing strain sensors. When CNTs are subjected to a mechanical strain, a change in their chirality leads to modulation of the conductance. In this paper, a novel carbon nanotube/biopolymer nanocomposite was used to develop a piezoresistive strain nano bio-sensor. A biocompatible polymer matrix has been used to provide good interfacial bonding between the carbon nanotubes. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, diameter d = 30-50 nm, purity >95%) have been used for the preparation of polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanocomposites (PCL/MWCNT). The nanocomposites were prepared by mixing the MWCNTs and PCL in a tetrahydrofuran solution for 24 h. Characterization of the PCL/MWCNTs nanocomposite films was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as by mechanical and electrical measurements.

  1. Accuracy of pre operative real time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in prediction of pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery. A prospective multicenter double blinded study.

    PubMed

    Ayachi, Amira; Bouchahda, Rim; Derouich, Sadok; Mkaouer, Lassaad; Kehila, Mehdi; Abouda, Hassine; Channoufi, Badis; Bouyahia, Maha; Braham, Marouen; Zhioua, Fethi; Bouchahda, Haifa; Mourali, Mechaal

    2017-03-13

    To highlight the role of the transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in predicting pelvic adhesions in women with a previous history of abdominopelvic surgery. Multicenter prospective, interventional, double blinded study. Patients were examined before the laparoscopy or laparotomy, in gynaecological position, with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) probe to assess vesico uterine pouch, uterus, ovaries, pouch of Douglas by analysing the gliding between two structures. Ultrasounds findings, medical and surgical data were recorded. Accuracy of preoperative TVU sliding sign in diagnosis of pelvic adhesions for each compartment were calculated using sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and ROC curves were analysed. During the study period, complete TVU sliding sign and laparoscopic or laparotomy data were available for 107 women. The mean age of our patients in this study was 43.96 (95% CI 41.56-46.35) (range 20 to 79 years). The mean parity was 1.97 (95% CI 1.66-2.29) (range 0 to 9). The mean number of previous abdominal surgeries was 1.33 (95% CI 1.20-1.45) (range 0 to 4). Adhesions were noted at 27/107 (25.23 %) patients with history of abdominopelvic surgery. In our study, the sliding sign technique had a total sensitivity of 96.3% and a total specificity of 92.6%. A significant relationship was noticed between adhesions in each compartment and the ultrasound pelvic sliding sign (p < 0.05). Detecting adhesions in the pelvis by a non-invasive and well tolerated technique like the sliding sign could help in the planning and counselling of the surgery for patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 Reveals New Insight into Antifungal Compounds Involved in Biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia E; Ramos, Cayo; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is a rhizobacterium that has biocontrol activity against many soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. The whole genome sequence of this strain was obtained using the Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform and was assembled using SOAP denovo software. The resulting 6.66-Mb complete sequence of the PCL1606 genome was further analyzed. A comparative genomic analysis using 10 plant-associated strains within the fluorescent Pseudomonas group, including the complete genome of P. chlororaphis PCL1606, revealed a diverse spectrum of traits involved in multitrophic interactions with plants and microbes as well as biological control. Phylogenetic analysis of these strains using eight housekeeping genes clearly placed strain PCL1606 into the P. chlororaphis group. The genome sequence of P. chlororaphis PCL1606 revealed the presence of sequences that were homologous to biosynthetic genes for the antifungal compounds 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR), hydrogen cyanide, and pyrrolnitrin; this is the first report of pyrrolnitrin encoding genes in this P. chlororaphis strain. Single-, double-, and triple-insertional mutants in the biosynthetic genes of each antifungal compound were used to test their roles in the production of these antifungal compounds and in antagonism and biocontrol of two fungal pathogens. The results confirmed the function of HPR in the antagonistic phenotype and in the biocontrol activity of P. chlororaphis PCL1606.

  3. The Incidence and Short Term Functional Effect of Partial PCL Release in Fixed and Mobile Bearing PCL Retaining TKA.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Woolwine, Spencer; Josephs, Lee; Scott, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) release may be required to balance the flexion gap in PCL retaining TKA. This study examines the incidence and functional consequences of PCL release in both fixed and mobile bearing TKA. A consecutive series of 1388 TKAs with 1014 fixed bearing, and 374 mobile bearing implants were reviewed for prevalence of partial PCL release, restoration of potential flexion and objective knee stability at minimum one-year follow-up. Patients receiving mobile bearing inserts were more likely to need partial PCL release (42% versus 17.5%). The occurrence of partial PCL release did not have a significant impact on knee range of motion and subjective knee stability. The need for a partial PCL release appears to be greater in mobile than in fixed bearing. Knees that required a release in both groups demonstrated no difference in restoration of flexion compared with unreleased knees and no adverse effects on flexion stability.

  4. Outcomes After Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Reconstruction in Patients With Isolated and Combined PCL Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Torsten Grønbech; Lind, Martin Carøe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstructions are rarely performed compared with that for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and functional outcome after isolated or multiligament PCL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients who underwent PCL reconstruction between 2002 and 2010 were included. Standardized follow-up was performed between 2012 and 2013 and consisted of subjective scores (Tegner activity score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] score) and objective measures, including knee laxity (KT-1000), extension strength, and overall IKDC score. Results: One hundred ninety-six patients were identified, of which 172 were available for postoperative follow-up: 39.3% with isolated PCL and 60.7% with multiligament injury. One hundred ten patients were available to complete both clinical follow-up and subjective questionnaires; 62 patients returned the subjective questionnaires. Mean follow-up was 5.9 years (range, 3.1-9.7 years). KOOS scores at follow-up in the isolated PCL group by subscale were 74 (symptoms), 76 (pain), 80 (activities of daily living), 55 (sport), and 55 (quality of life). Scores for patients in the multiligament group were 73 (symptoms), 79 (pain), 82 (activities of daily living), 53 (sport), and 56 (quality of life). Tegner scores were 4.5 and 4.4, respectively, and subjective IKDC scores were 63.8 and 65.0. The mean side-to-side difference in knee laxity was 2.7 mm in the isolated PCL group compared with 2.8 mm in the multiligament group. At 1-year follow-up there were significant differences in KOOS outcome scores between the isolated PCL subgroup and the multiligament subgroup, but no differences at final follow-up. Twelve patients (5%) had PCL revision surgery within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Despite the type of injury, there were only minor differences in

  5. Sign of coupling in barrier-separated Bose-Einstein condensates and stability of double-ring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J.; Haigh, T. J.; Zuelicke, U.

    2010-02-15

    We revisit recent claims about the instability of nonrotating tunnel coupled annular Bose-Einstein condensates leading to the emergence of angular momentum Josephson oscillation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050401 (2007)]. It was predicted that all stationary states with uniform density become unstable in certain parameter regimes. By careful analysis, we arrive at a different conclusion. We show that there is a stable nonrotating and uniform ground state for any value of the tunnel coupling and repulsive interactions. The instability of an excited state with {pi} phase difference between the condensates can be interpreted in terms of the familiar snake instability. We further discuss the sign of the tunnel coupling through a separating barrier, which carries significance for the nature of the stationary states. It is found to always be negative for physical reasons.

  6. Nanosized CaP-silk fibroin-PCL-PEG-PCL/PCL based bilayer membranes for guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Türkkan, Sibel; Pazarçeviren, A Engin; Keskin, Dilek; Machin, Nesrin E; Duygulu, Özgür; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2017-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) concept has been developed to prevent the formation of non-functional scar tissue layer on defect site by undertaking barrier role. In this study, a new bilayer membrane which consisted of one layer of electrospun silk fibroin/PCL-PEG-PCL incorporating nanocalcium phosphate (SPCA)(1) and one layer of PCL membrane was developed for GBR. To improve the osteoconductivity of membranes, nanosized calcium phosphate particles synthesized by Flame Spray Pyrolysis method were incorporated into membranes at 10% (wt) (SPCA10) and 20% (wt) (SPCA20) of the polymer content. The structural and chemical analyses revealed the well-integrated two layers of membranes with a total thickness of ca 100μm. In the regenerative layer, the highly porous mesh structure had a thickness of 12.6μm with randomly oriented fibers having diameters around 760nm, and nanoparticles dispersed homogenously. The mechanical test results showed remarkable improvement on the tensile strength of membranes with incorporation of nanoparticles. Higher water affinity of nanoCaP included membranes was proved by lower contact angle values and higher percent water uptake capacity. Biomineralization assay revealed that nucleation and growth of apatites around fibers of SPCA10 and SPCA20 were apparent while on SPCA0 apatite minerals were barely detected after 10days. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) were seeded on electrospun layer of the bilayer membranes for biocompatibility and osteo-compatibility study. Increasing nanoCaP amount resulted in higher cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and calcium deposition on membranes. These overall results confirmed the biocompatibility and potential applicability of proposed membranes for GBR treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fracture properties of bioabsorbable HA/PLLA/PCL composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. D.; Todo, M.; Arakawa, K.; Tsuji, H.; Takenoshita, Y.

    2005-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite particle filled poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) blend (HA/PLLA/PCL) composite materials were developed by melt-mixing, and their bending mechanical properties and fracture toughness were examined. It was found that the fracture absorbed energy and fracture toughness are maximized with the PCL content of 5wt%. Local plastic deformation of PLLA/PCL matrix is the main mechanism of energy dissipation during fracture. This ductile deformation is considered to be initiated in the surroundings of voids formed due to interfacial debonding at HA/matrix interfaces and phase separation of PLLA and PCL. On the other hand, fracture toughness of HA/PLLA/PCL with the PCL contents of 10 and 15wt% becomes lower than that of HA/PLLA. In these composites, void formation causes severe local stress concentration and therefore degrades the materials rather than improving the fracture resistance.

  8. Effects of pre- and post-electrospinning plasma treatments on electrospun PCL nanofibers to improve cell interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadian, M.; Grande, S.; Morent, R.; Nikiforov, A.; Declercq, H.; De Geyter, N.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, liquid plasma treatment was used to improve the morphology of Poly-є-CaproLactone (PCL) NanoFibers (NFs), followed by performing a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma surface modification to enhance the hydrophilicity of electrospun mats generated from plasma-modified PCL solutions. Cell interaction studies performed after 1 day and 7 days clearly revealed the highly increased cellular interactions on the double plasma-treated nanofibers compared to the pristine ones due to the combination of (1) a better NF morphology and (2) an increased surface hydrophilicity.

  9. PCL-retaining versus PCL-substituting TKR - Outcome assessment based on the "forgotten joint score".

    PubMed

    Thippanna, Rajshekar K; Mahesh, Pramod; Kumar, Malhar N

    2015-12-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retention or sacrifice figures prominently among the current controversies in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Even though biomechanical advantages and disadvantages have been claimed for each type of TKA, clinical studies have not shown significant differences in the outcomes. In this retrospective study, the recently introduced "forgotten joint score" (FJS) was used to assess whether any differences exist between the two types of total knee replacement (TKR). FJ scores of 169 patients with PCL-retaining TKA and 178 patients with PCL sacrificing were obtained. The mean follow-up period was 3.5 years and the minimum follow-up period was 2.5 years. Both groups showed high FJ scores indicating that majority of the patients were oblivious to the presence of the artificial joint during daily activities. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean FJ scores of the two groups. Scores of subsets based on gender, age and unilateral and bilateral TKR also did not show significant differences. Since there are no clinically important differences between the two types of TKR, the choice of the TKA should be based on surgeon preferences and training and local conditions of the knee. Patient-reported outcomes appear to be similar regardless of the choice of TKA. Further prospective studies and validation of FJS outcomes with those of other questionnaires are essential to confirm the absence of differences between PCL retention and sacrifice.

  10. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanoparticles for honokiol delivery in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gou, MaLing; Zheng, Lan; Peng, XinYun; Men, Ke; Zheng, XiuLing; Zeng, Shi; Guo, Gang; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Chen, LiJuan; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2009-06-22

    In this article, poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) nanoparticles were successfully prepared for honokiol delivery in vitro. Blank or honokiol loaded PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticles were prepared in moderate condition by solvent diffusion method without using any surfactants. The prepared blank PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticles are mono-dispersed and smaller than 200 nm. The particle size increased with increase in polymer concentration and oil-water (O/W) ratio. The prepared PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticles (40 mg/mL, ca. 106 nm) did not induce hemolysis in vitro. And the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) of it (48 h) on HEK293 cells was higher than 5 mg/mL. Honokiol could be efficiently loaded into PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticles and released from these nanoparticles in an extended period in vitro. After honokiol (HK) was entrapped into PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticles, the particle size increased with the increase in HK/PCEC mass ratio in feed, and the encapsulated honokiol retained potent anticancer activity in vitro. The PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticle was suitable for honokiol delivery, and such honokiol loaded PCL-PEG-PCL nanoparticle was a novel honokiol formulation.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of POGIL-PCL Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegall, Stacy L.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert; Hunnicutt, Sally S.

    2016-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory) project has developed a series of workshops to introduce faculty to POGIL-PCL and to facilitate the development of new experiments. More than 60 faculty members from various institutions have attended these workshops. Workshop participants were surveyed…

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of POGIL-PCL Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegall, Stacy L.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert; Hunnicutt, Sally S.

    2016-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory) project has developed a series of workshops to introduce faculty to POGIL-PCL and to facilitate the development of new experiments. More than 60 faculty members from various institutions have attended these workshops. Workshop participants were surveyed…

  13. Sign of the piezoelectric field in asymmetric GaInN/AlGaN/GaN single and double quantum wells on SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Im, J.S.; Hangleiter, A.; Off, J.; Scholz, F.

    2000-07-01

    The authors study both GaInN/GaN/AlGaN quantum wells with an asymmetric barrier structure grown on SiC substrate and GaN/AlGaN asymmetric double quantum well (ADQW) structures. In the first case, a time-resolved study reveals an enhanced oscillator strength when the AlGaN barrier is on top of the GaInN quantum well. In comparison to their previous study of the same structure grown on sapphire, the authors find that the sign of the field is the same in both cases: the field points towards the substrate. In the case of ADQW, they observed not only intrawell transitions of both a 4 nm and a 2 nm QW separated by a 2.5 nm AlGaN barrier but also an interwell transition between the two QWs in the photoluminescence. The lifetimes and emission energies of the transitions can be well explained by the existence of the piezoelectric field built in the QWs.

  14. Development and evaluation of carboplatin-loaded PCL nanoparticles for intranasal delivery.

    PubMed

    Alex, Angel Treasa; Joseph, Alex; Shavi, Gopal; Rao, Josyula Venkata; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2016-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of anticancer drug carboplatin using biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL). The formulation is intended for intranasal administration to treat glioma anticipating improved brain delivery as nasal route possess direct access to brain and nanoparticles have small size to overcome the mucosal and blood-brain barrier. Development and evaluation of carboplatin-PCL nanoparticles for brain delivery by nasal route. Carboplatin-loaded PCL nanoparticles (CPCs) were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The CPCs were assessed for in vitro release kinetics, ex vivo permeation and in situ nasal perfusion. Cytotoxic potential of CPCs in vitro was evaluated on LN229 human glioblastoma cells. The optimized formulation of carboplatin-PCL nanoparticle CPC-08 with particle size of 311.6 ± 4.7 nm and zeta potential -16.3 ± 3.7 mV exhibited percentage entrapment efficiency of 27.95 ± 4.21. In vitro drug release showed initial burst release followed by slow and continues release indicating biphasic pattern. The ex vivo permeation pattern through sheep nasal mucosa also exhibited a similar release pattern as for in vitro release studies. In situ nasal perfusion studies in Wistar rats demonstrate that CPCs show better nasal absorption than carboplatin solution. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on LN229 cells showed an enhancement in cytotoxicity by CPCs compared to carboplatin alone. CPC-08 effectively improves nasal absorption of carboplatin and can be used for intranasal administration of carboplatin for improved brain delivery.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng

    2015-12-01

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan-glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan-glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH-PCL (Lh-LDH-PCL), larger spherical LDH-PCL (Ls-LDH-PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH-PCL (Sh-LDH-PCL), CG hybrid LDH-PCL (LDH-PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH-PCL (LDH-PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2-274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC0-6h values of Lh-LDH-PCL, Ls-LDH-PCL, Sh-LDH-PCL, LDH-PCL-CG, and LDH-PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.

  16. Once-daily desloratadine improves the signs and symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ring, J; Hein, R; Gauger, A; Bronsky, E; Miller, B

    2001-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is the most common type of chronic urticaria, and pruritus is the most prominent symptom. Antihistamines are the first-line treatment for CIU. Sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects are often experienced with the first-generation antihistamines and there is a risk of cardiovascular adverse effects and drug interactions with some second-generation agents. Hence, new treatment options are needed. Desloratadine is a new, potent, nonsedating antihistamine that has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to determine the efficacy and safety of desloratadine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe CIU. A total of 190 patients, aged 12-79 years, with at least a 6-week history of CIU and who were currently experiencing a flare of at least moderate severity, were randomly assigned to therapy with desloratadine 5 mg or placebo once daily for 6 weeks. Twice daily, patients rated the severity of CIU symptoms (pruritus, number of hives, and size of largest hive), as well as the impact of CIU symptoms on sleep and daily activity. Patients and investigators jointly evaluated therapeutic response and overall condition. Safety evaluations included the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events, and changes from baseline in vital signs, laboratory parameters, and ECG intervals. Desloratadine was superior to placebo in controlling pruritus and total symptoms after the first dose and maintained this superiority to the end of the study. Measures of sleep, daily activity, therapeutic response, and global CIU status were also significantly better with desloratadine after the first dose; these clinical benefits were also maintained throughout the 6-week study. No significant adverse events occured. Desloratadine 5 mg daily is a safe and effective treatment for CIU with significant benefits within 24 h and maintained

  17. Possible mechanism of polycation liposome (PCL)-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mayu; Matsuura, Mituso; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Kosaka, Jun; Nango, Mamoru; Oku, Naoto

    2004-01-28

    A novel gene transfer system utilizing polycation liposomes (PCLs), obtained by modifying liposomes with cetyl polyethylenimine (PEI), was previously developed (Gene Ther. 7 (2002) 1148). PCLs show notable transfection efficiency with low cytotoxicity. However, the mechanism of PCL-mediated gene transfer is still unclear. In this study, we examined the intracellular trafficking of PCL-DNA complexes by using HT1080 cells, fluorescent probe-labeled materials, and confocal laser scan microscopy. We found that the PCL-DNA complexes were taken up into cells by the endosomal pathway, since both cellular uptake of the complex and gene expression were blocked by wortmannin, an inhibitor of this pathway. We also observed that the plasmid DNA and cetyl PEI complex became detached from the PCL lipids and was preferentially transferred into the nucleus in the form of the complex, whereas the PCL lipids remained in the cytoplasmic area, possibly in the endosomes. In fact, nigericin, which dissipates the pH gradient across the endosomal membrane, inhibited the detachment of lipids from the PCL-DNA complex and subsequent gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate the following mechanism for gene transfer by PCLs: PCLs effectively transfer DNA to endosomes and release cetyl PEI-DNA complexes into the cytosol. Furthermore, cetyl PEI also contributes to gene entry into the nucleus.

  18. Cellular Behavior on Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-Immobilized PCL/Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tığlı, R Seda; Kazaroğlu, N Merve; Mavış, Bora; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2011-01-01

    Nano-scaled poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL/gelatin fibrous scaffolds with immobilized epidermal growth factor (EGF) were prepared for the purpose of wound-healing treatments. The tissue scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and the parameters that affect the electrospinning process were optimized. While the fiber diameters were 488 ± 114 nm and 663 ± 107 nm for PCL and PCL/gelatin scaffolds, respectively, the porosities were calculated as 79% for PCL and 68% for PCL/gelatin scaffolds. Electrospun PCL and PCL/gelatin scaffolds were first modified with 1,6-diaminohexane to introduce amino groups on their surfaces, then EGF was chemically conjugated to the surface of nanofibers. The results obtained from Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and quantitative measurements showed that EGF was successfully immobilized on nanofibrous scaffolds. L929 mouse fibroblastic cells were cultivated on both neat and EGF-immobilized PCL and PCL/gelatin scaffolds in order to investigate the effect of EGF on cell spreading and proliferation. According to the results, especially EGF-immobilized PCL/gelatin scaffolds exerted early cell spreading and superior and rapid proliferation compared to EGF-immobilized PCL scaffolds and neat PCL, PCL/gelatin scaffolds. Consequently, EGF-immobilized PCL/gelatin scaffolds could potentially be employed as novel scaffolds for skin tissueengineering applications.

  19. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  20. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.

    2008-12-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  1. PCL-retaining versus PCL-substituting TKR – Outcome assessment based on the “forgotten joint score”

    PubMed Central

    Thippanna, Rajshekar K.; Mahesh, Pramod; Kumar, Malhar N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retention or sacrifice figures prominently among the current controversies in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Even though biomechanical advantages and disadvantages have been claimed for each type of TKA, clinical studies have not shown significant differences in the outcomes. Methods In this retrospective study, the recently introduced “forgotten joint score” (FJS) was used to assess whether any differences exist between the two types of total knee replacement (TKR). FJ scores of 169 patients with PCL-retaining TKA and 178 patients with PCL sacrificing were obtained. The mean follow-up period was 3.5 years and the minimum follow-up period was 2.5 years. Results Both groups showed high FJ scores indicating that majority of the patients were oblivious to the presence of the artificial joint during daily activities. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean FJ scores of the two groups. Scores of subsets based on gender, age and unilateral and bilateral TKR also did not show significant differences. Conclusions Since there are no clinically important differences between the two types of TKR, the choice of the TKA should be based on surgeon preferences and training and local conditions of the knee. Patient-reported outcomes appear to be similar regardless of the choice of TKA. Further prospective studies and validation of FJS outcomes with those of other questionnaires are essential to confirm the absence of differences between PCL retention and sacrifice. PMID:26566336

  2. Vital Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your weight. Respiratory rate, which measures your breathing. Mild breathing changes can be from causes such as a ... nose or hard exercise. But slow or fast breathing can also be a sign of a serious ...

  3. Biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function do not affect hematological parameters in young infants: results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Håvard Bjørke; Torsvik, Ingrid; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Øivind; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-09-01

    Whereas iron deficiency is considered the leading cause of anemia in infants, cobalamin deficiency is foremost characterized by developmental delay, and the typical macrocytic anemia is confined to severe and longstanding cobalamin deficiency in this age group. Hematological parameters were investigated in 4-mo-old infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function who participated in a randomized controlled cobalamin intervention study at 6 wk. One hundred and seven infants were randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection with 400 μg cobalamin or no intervention at 6 wk. Hematological parameters, and cobalamin and folate status were determined at inclusion and 4 mo. Cobalamin supplementation improved all markers of impaired cobalamin function but had no effect on hematological cell counts at 4 mo (P > 0.18). Signs indicative of an iron-restricted erythropoiesis were observed at 6 wk and 4 mo. At 4 mo, the strongest predictors of low iron status were male gender and a high percentage weight increase from birth. In infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function, supplementation does not improve hematological cell counts. Variations in erythrocyte parameters seem to be foremost associated with iron status in this age group.

  4. Electrospun PCL/PLA/HA based nanofibers as scaffold for osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Zhang, Enwei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng

    2010-11-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) are frequently used as materials for tissue engineering. In this study, PCL/PLA/HA nanofiber mats with different weight ratio were prepared using electrospinning. Their structure and morphology were studied by FTIR and FESEM. FTIR results demonstrated that the HA particles were successfully incorporated into the PCL/PLA nanofibers. The FESEM images showed that the surface of fibers became coarser with the introduction of HA nanoparticles into PCL/PLA system. Furthermore, the addition of HA led to the decreasing of fiber diameter. The average diameters of PCL/PLA/HA nanofiber were in the range of 300-600 nm, while that of PCL/PLA was 776 +/- 15.4 nm. The effect of nanofiber composition on the osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and proliferation were investigated as the preliminary biological evaluation of the scaffold. The MC3T3-E1 cell could be attached actively on all the scaffolds. The MTT assay revealed that PCL/PLA/HA scaffold shows significantly higher cell proliferation than PCL/PLA scaffolds. After 15 days of culture, mineral particles on the surface of the cells was appeared on PCL/PLA/HA nanofibers while normal cell spreading morphology on PCL/PLA nanofibers. These results manifested that electrospun PCL/PLA/HA scaffolds could enhance bone regeneration, showing their marvelous prospect as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Strong synergistic effects in PLA/PCL blends: Impact of PLA matrix viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Fortelný, Ivan; Hodan, Jiří; Krejčíková, Sabina; Nevoralová, Martina; Kredatusová, Jana; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Kotek, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-05-01

    Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0.6μm), an elastic-plastic stable fracture (as determined from instrumented impact testing) and the strongest synergistic improvement in toughness (>16× with respect to pure PLA, exceeding even the toughness of pure PCL). According to the available literature, this was the highest toughness improvement in non-compatiblized PLA/PCL blends ever achieved. The decrease in the matrix viscosity resulted in an increase in the average PCL particle size and a dramatic decrease in the overall toughness: the completely stable fracture (for PLA1/PCL) changed to the stable fracture followed by unstable crack propagation (for PLA2/PCL) and finally to the completely brittle fracture (for PLA3/PCL). The stiffness of all blends remained at well acceptable level, slightly above the theoretical predictions based on the equivalent box model. Despite several previous studies, the results confirmed that PLA and PCL could behave as compatible polymers, but the final PLA/PCL toughness is extremely sensitive to the PCL particle size distribution, which is influenced by both processing conditions and PLA viscosity. PLA/PCL blends with high stiffness (due to PLA) and toughness (due to PCL) are very promising materials for medical applications, namely for the bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and expression analysis of peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus (PClSV) full-length transcript (FLt) promoter in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Maiti, I B; Shepherd, R J

    1998-03-17

    A promoter fragment from peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus (PClSV) full-length transcript (FLt) was identified and later modified to have duplicated enhancer domain. The FLt promoter with its single or double enhancer domains, fused with the GUS reporter gene to form chimeric gene constructs, showed a high level of expression of these genes in cells and transgenic plants. The FLt promoter with its double enhancer domain gives an average threefold greater expression of genes compared to the FLt promoter with its single enhancer domain in transgenic plants. In young seedlings the expression was in the order root > leaf > stem. The histochemical GUS assay in young seedlings showed more activity in root tips and leaf midribs, veins, and other vascular tissues. The expression from the PClSV FLt promoter was compared with that from the figwort mosaic virus promoter in transgenic plants. These constitutive promoters were comparable in respect to GUS expression level.

  7. Cyclin Partners Determine Pho85 Protein Kinase Substrate Specificity In Vitro and In Vivo: Control of Glycogen Biosynthesis by Pcl8 and Pcl10

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dongqing; Moffat, Jason; Wilson, Wayne A.; Moore, Lynda; Cheng, Christine; Roach, Peter J.; Andrews, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHO85 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) with multiple roles in cell cycle and metabolic controls. In association with the cyclin Pho80, Pho85 controls acid phosphatase gene expression through phosphorylation of the transcription factor Pho4. Pho85 has also been implicated as a kinase that phosphorylates and negatively regulates glycogen synthase (Gsy2), and deletion of PHO85 causes glycogen overaccumulation. We report that the Pcl8/Pcl10 subgroup of cyclins directs Pho85 to phosphorylate glycogen synthase both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of PCL8 and PCL10 caused hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and a reduction in glycogen synthase kinase activity in vivo. However, unlike pho85 mutants, pcl8 pcl10 cells had normal morphologies, grew on glycerol, and showed proper regulation of acid phosphatase gene expression. In vitro, Pho80-Pho85 complexes effectively phosphorylated Pho4 but had much lower activity toward Gsy2. In contrast, Pcl10-Pho85 complexes phosphorylated Gsy2 at Ser-654 and Thr-667, two physiologically relevant sites, but only poorly phosphorylated Pho4. Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. Mutation of PHO85 suppressed the glycogen storage deficiency of snf1 or glc7-1 mutants in which glycogen synthase is locked in an inactive state. Deletion of PCL8 and PCL10 corrected the deficit in glycogen synthase activity in both the snf1 and glc7-1 mutants, but glycogen synthesis was restored only in the glc7-1 mutant strain. This genetic result suggests an additional role for Pho85 in the negative regulation of glycogen accumulation that is independent of Pcl8 and Pcl10. PMID:9584169

  8. Photothermal and morphological characterization of PLA/PCL polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Sabino, M. A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Loaiza, M.

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, some synthetic polymers have been replaced by biodegradable polymers in order to avoid environmental contamination. Among these biodegradables polymers, aliphatic polyesters such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been widely used. In the present study, solvent-casting films of PLA, PCL and polymer blends with and without compatibilizer (PLA grafted with maleic anhydride) were prepared. The thermal diffusivity ( α) of each sample was obtained by using the open photoacoustic cell technique. Morphology and thermal properties were determined by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The blends showed lower thermal diffusivity compared to pure polymers. However, when the compatibilizer was used, the highest value of thermal diffusivity was obtained. Also, cold crystallization with the highest value of enthalpy of fusion was observed for the compatibilized sample, which was revealed by DSC. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of these biodegradable polymer blends is reported.

  9. Degradation of PCL-MPEG diblock copolymer in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Jen; Chang, Kai-Ling

    2008-06-01

    The poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-MPEG) amphiphilic diblock copolymer with molar ratio of epsilon-CL to MPEG 81:1 is synthesized via a ring-opening polymerization without a catalyst. The M(w) and M(n) molecular weights and the polydispersities are 18,000, 11,000 g/mole and 1.55, respectively. The pegylated amphiphilic copolymer forms micelles with a low critical micelle concentration 6.71 x 10(-8) mole/L, and the average particle size of copolymeric micelles is 62.3 +/- 12.9 nm. The degradation behavior of diblock copolymer was studied in rat plasma at 37 degrees C for 90 days. The changes of mass, composition, morphology, molecular weight, and thermal property of PCL-MPEG copolymer were investigated. The decrease of copolymer mass shows two phases with rate constants of 1.91 x 10(-1) day(-1) in the first-phase (1-24 h) and 1.77 x 10(-3) day(-1) in the second-phase (1-90 days). The degradation of labile ester linkage between PCL block and MPEG block accounts for continuous decrease of copolymer mass in plasma. The decrease of EG molar ratio from 1.30 to 0.67 and prominent reduction of enthalpy of fusion of remained copolymer from 116.5 to 85.2 J/g provide evidences of PCL-MPEG chain scission. On the other hand, the presence of partially degraded copolymers in the residuals results in its polydispersity increased from 1.55 to 2.24 at the end of 90 days. Nevertheless, the surface erosion of copolymer makes the molecular weight not quite different from its original value. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Electrospinning of PCL/PVP blends for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyeong-Man; Le, Kim Huyen Trang; Giannitelli, Sara Maria; Lee, Yu Jin; Rainer, Alberto; Trombetta, Marcella

    2013-06-01

    Currently, one of the main drawbacks of using poly(ε-caprolactone) in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields is represented by its low biodegradation rate. To overcome this limitation, electrospinning of PCL blended with a water-soluble poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) was used to fabricate scaffolds with tunable fiber surface morphology and controllable degradation rates. Electrospun scaffolds revealed a highly immiscible blend state. The incorporated PVP phase was dispersed as inclusions within the electrospun fibers, and then easily extracted by immersing them in cell culture medium, exhibiting nanoporosity on the fiber surface. As a striking result, nanoporosity facilitated not only fiber biodegradation rates, but also improved cell attachment and spreading on the blend electrospun scaffolds. The present findings demonstrate that simultaneous electrospinning technique for PCL with water-soluble PVP provides important insights for successful tuning biodegradation rate for the PCL electrospun scaffolds but not limited to expand other high valuable biocompatible polymers for the future biomedical applications, ranging from tissue regeneration to controlled drug delivery.

  11. Vital Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

  12. Vital signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... overall health. Normal vital sign ranges for the average healthy adult while resting are: Blood pressure: 90/60 mm/Hg to 120/80 mm/Hg Breathing: 12 to 18 breaths per minute Pulse: 60 to 100 beats per minute Temperature: 97.8°F to 99.1°F (36. ...

  13. Vital Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

  14. Low dielectric, nanoporous fluorinated polyimide films prepared from PCL-PI-PCL triblock copolymer using retro-Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Chao

    2013-08-15

    The triblock copolymers with the majority phase comprising fluorinated polyimide and the minor phase consisting of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were synthesized through Diels-Alder reaction between PI-Maleimide and PCL-Furfuryl Amine. The chemical composition and structure of the copolymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Films of the copolymers were spined and microphase-separation of the thin film was achieved by solvent annealing in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) vapor. The microphase-separation morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on the microphase-separation structures, nanoporous fluorinated polyimide films were obtained after removal of the PCL block can removed via a retro-DA (Diels-Alder) reaction using a simple heating and immersing procedure. The nanoporous thin film was characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dielectric property of the nanoporous fluorinated polyimide films was investigated. It was found that the nanopores introduction could effectively reduce the dielectric constant from 2.82 of PI dense films to 2.10 of nanoporous PI films. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Keck LGS AO Imaging of QSOs with Double-Peaked or Offset Narrow Lines: Are They Signs of Potential Black Hole Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurk, Rosalie C.; Rosario, D. J.; Max, C. E.; Shields, G. A.; Smith, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical merging of smaller structures into larger ones is fundamental to galaxy evolution in ΛCDM cosmologies. The Mbh sigma relation suggests that when galaxies merge, their central supermassive black holes merge and grow as well. Using spectroscopic surveys such as SDSS and DEEP, candidates for galaxies containing two active black holes or an offset black hole have been identified by double-peaked or offset narrow emission lines. However it is not yet known whether these galaxies correspond to systems in which there are actually double supermassive black holes. With the Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the NIRC2 camera, we have obtained high spatial resolution near-infrared images of spectroscopically identified candidate galaxies that may contain two supermassive black holes. In our sample of 24 galaxies to date, approximately half are in close mergers, have close companion galaxies, and/or show clearly disturbed morphologies. We discuss the implications of our observations for the fueling of merging supermassive black holes as well as for the relationship between QSO activity and major mergers. Most of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Injectable supramolecular hydrogel from insulin-loaded triblock PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin with sustained-release property.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Heidari, Zinat; Tabassi, Sayyed A Sajadi; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khameneh, Bahman; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2015-02-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels formed by cyclodextrins and polymers have been widely investigated as a biocompatible, biodegradable and controllable drug delivery system. In this study, a supramolecular hydrogel based on biodegradable poly(caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymers and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was prepared through inclusion complexation as an injectable, sustained-release vehicle for insulin. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL was synthesised by the ring-opening polymerisation method, using microwave irradiation. The polymerisation reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The supramolecular hydrogel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with an aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. In vitro insulin release through the hydrogel system was studied. The relative surface hydrophobicity of standard and released insulin from the SMGel was estimated using 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS). Results of (1)HNMR and gel permeation chromatography revealed that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. Gelation occurred within a minute. The supramolecular hydrogel obtained by mixing 10.54% (w/v) γ-CD and 2.5% (w/v) copolymer had an excellent syringeability. Insulin was released up to 80% over a period of 20 days. Insulin kept its initial folding after formulating and releasing from SMGel. A supramolecular hydrogel based on complexation of triblock PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer with γ-cyclodextrin is a suitable system for providing sustained release of therapeutic proteins, with desirable flow behaviour.

  17. Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogel based on PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for sustained delivery of dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Gharechahi, Marzieh; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khashyarmanesh, Bibi Zahra; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, thermosensitive, water-soluble, and biodegradable triblock copolymer PCL600-PEG6000-PCL600 was used to form supramolecular hydrogel (SMGel) by inclusion complexation with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). The prepared SMGel was investigated as a carrier for sustained release of dexamethasone. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL [where PCL = polycaprolactone, PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)] was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization method using microwave irradiation. The polymerization reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). SMGel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. The sol-to-gel transition time was measured at various concentrations of copolymer and γ-CD. As-prepared SMGel was used to prepare a sustained, controllable drug delivery system of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The SMGel was also characterized in terms of rheological, morphological, and structural properties. Results obtained from proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H-NMR) and GPC demonstrated that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PEG-PCL copolymer. The SMGel with excellent syringability was prepared by mixing of 20% wt γ-CD and 10% wt of copolymer within 4 s. The SMGel containing 10% wt copolymer, 20% wt γ-CD, and 0.5% or 0.1% wt dexamethasone released approximately 100% and 45% of drug over up to 23 days, respectively. It could be concluded that SMGel based on self-assembly of inclusion complexes between PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-CD could be used as a basis for injectable drug delivery systems that provide sustained and controlled release of macromolecular drugs such as dexamethasone. PMID:27051627

  18. Improved antitumor activity and reduced myocardial toxicity of doxorubicin encapsulated in MPEG-PCL nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuntang; Zhou, Le; Gou, Maling; Shi, Shuai; Li, Tao; Lang, Jinyi

    2016-06-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a broad-spectrum antitumor drug used for the treatment of many types of malignant tumors. Although it possesses powerful antitumor activity, its clinical application is seriously encumbered by its unselective distribution and systemic toxicities, particularly myocardial toxicity. Thus, it is imperative to modify Dox to decrease its systemic toxicities and improve its therapeutic index. In the present study, we adopted a novel type of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles to encapsulate Dox to prepare Dox-loaded MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) nanoparticles by a controllable self-assembly process. The cellular uptake efficiency and cell proliferation inhibition of the Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticles were examined. The antitumor activity of the Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticles was tested on a multiple pulmonary metastasis model of melanoma on C57BL/6 mice. Systemic toxicities and survival time were compared between the mice treated with the Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticles and free Dox. The potential myocardial toxicity of the Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticles was investigated using a prolonged observation period. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL nanoparticles significantly improved the cellular uptake and cell proliferation inhibition of Dox in vivo. Intravenous injection of Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticles obtained significant inhibition of the growth and metastasis of melanoma in the lung and prolonged survival time compared with free Dox (P<0.05). The Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticles did not show obvious additional systemic toxicities compared with free Dox during the treatment time. During the prolonged observation period, obvious decreased cardiac toxicity was observed in the Dox/MPEG-PCL nanoparticle-treated mice compared with that observed in the free Dox-treated mice. These results indicated that encapsulating Dox with MPEG-PCL micelles could significantly promote its antitumor activity and reduce its toxicity to the myocardium.

  19. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-01

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards `chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  20. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-09

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards 'chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  1. Development of core-shell coaxially electrospun composite PCL/chitosan scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-11-01

    This study was related to combining of synthetic Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and natural chitosan polymers to develop three dimensional (3D) PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds were fabricated with coaxial electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by thickness and contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, mechanical and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests. The average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated for PCL (0.717±0.001μm), chitosan (0.660±0.007μm) and PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds (0.412±0.003μm), also the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decreases of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan scaffolds respectively, compared to PCL/chitosan core-shell ones. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. The cell culture studies (MTT assay, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and SEM analyses) carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line proved that the biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds. The obtained results showed that the created micro/nano fibrous structure of the PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds in this study increased the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  2. Skin regeneration stimulation: the role of PCL-platelet gel nanofibrous scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ranjbarvan, Parviz; Soleimani, Masoud; Samadi Kuchaksaraei, Ali; Ai, Jafar; Faridi Majidi, Reza; Verdi, Javad

    2017-05-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body. Thus far, tissue engineering of skin has developed rapidly and has used many types of growth factors and nanofibrous scaffolds. In this study, we differentiated neonate keratinocytes for epithelialization on the polycaprolactone-Platelet gel (PCL-PG) scaffold. Fabricated PCL nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technology and coated by platelet gel. Subsequently, the structure of the scaffold was evaluated by SEM, FTIR-ATR, contact angle and tensile test assays. After seeding the neonate keratinocytes on neat PCL and PCL-PG scaffolds, the epidermal maturation was tested by detecting cytokeratin 10 and loricrin determinants by immunocytochemistry; moreover, keratinocyte genes such as keratin 14, keratin 10, and Involucrin were investigated by real-time PCR. The results of MTT assay indicated an increase in cell viability and cell proliferation of neonate keratinocytes on PCL-PG nanofiber scaffolds compared with PCL. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analysis showed better cell differentiation on the PCL-PG scaffolds than neat PCL. Furthermore, SEM microscopy images demonstrated that neo-keratinocytes enhance adhesion and proliferation on PCL-PG nanofiber scaffolds. We found that PG increases biocompatibility and wettability of scaffold, cell adhesion, and expression of keratinocyte markers. Overall, this procedure is recommended to be employed in skin tissue engineering and wounds healing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Self-assembled hydrophobic honokiol loaded MPEG-PCL diblock copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Gou, MaLing; Zheng, XiuLing; Men, Ke; Zhang, Juan; Wang, BiLan; Lv, Lei; Wang, XiuHong; Zhao, YinLan; Luo, Feng; Chen, LiJuan; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2009-09-01

    Honokiol showed potential application in cancer treatment, but its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application greatly. So, we designed a self-assembled monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelle to load honokiol to overcome its poor water solubility. We synthesized MPEG-PCL diblock copolymer that could self-assemble into monodisperse micelles at the particle size of ca.18 nm in water. Honokiol was loaded into MPEG-PCL micelle by direct dissolution method assisted by ultrasound, without any surfactants, organic solvents, and vigorous stirring. The blank MPEG-PCL micelles (100 mg/mL) did not induce any hemolysis in vitro and showed very low toxicity ex vivo and in vivo. Honokiol could be molecularly incorporated into MPEG-PCL micelles at the drug loading of about 20% by direct dissolution method assisted by ultrasound. After loaded into MPEG-PCL micelles, honokiol maintained its molecular structure and anticancer activity in vitro. Honokiol could be sustained released from MPEG-PCL micelles in vitro. The honokiol loaded MPEG-PCL micelles could be lyophilized without any adjuvant. The prepared honokiol formulation based on self-assembled MPEG-PCL micelle was stable, safe, effective, easy to produce and scale up, and showed potential clinical application.

  4. [Small interfering RNA delivery mediated by mPEG-PCL-g-PEI polymer nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Lü, Ming; Gao, Zhong-Gao; Jin, Ming-Ji; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the synthesis of the mPEG-PCL-g-PEI copolymers as small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery vector, and exploration of the siRNA delivery potential of mPEG-PCL-g-PEI in vitro. The diblock copolymers mPEG-PCL-OH was prepared through the ring-opening polymerization. Then, the hydroxyl terminal (-OH) of mPEG-PCL-OH was chemically converted into the carboxy (-COOH) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in turn to prepare mPEG-PCL-NHS. The branched PEI was reacted with mPEG-PCL-NHS to synthesize the ternary copolymers mPEG-PCL-g-PEI. The structure of mPEG-PCL-g-PEI copolymers was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The mPEG-PCL-g-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles were prepared by complex coacervation, and the nanoparticles size and zeta potential were determined, separately. The cytotoxicities of mPEG-PCL-g-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles and PEI/siRNA nanoparticles were compared through cells MTT assays in vitro. The inhibition efficiencies of firefly luciferase gene expression by mPEG-PCL-g-PEI/ siRNA nanoparticle at various N/P ratios were investigated through cell transfection in vitro. The experimental results suggested that the ternary (mPEG5k-PCL(1.2k))1.4-g-PEI(10k) copolymers were successfully synthesized. (mPEG(5k)-PCL(1.2k))1.4-g-PEI(10k) could condense siRNA into nanoparticles (50-200 nm) with positive zeta potential. MTT assay results showed that the cytotoxicity of (mPEG(5k)-PCL(1.2k))1.4-g-PEI(10k)/siRNA nanoparticles was significantly lower than that of PEI(10k)/siRNA nanoparticles (P < 0.05). The expression of firefly luciferase gene could be significantly down-regulated at a range of N/P ratio from 50 to 150 (P < 0.01), and maximally inhibited at the N/P ratio of 125. The mPEG-PCL-g-PEI polymers could delivery siRNA into cells to inhibit the expression of target gene with very low cytotoxicity, which suggested that mPEG-PCL-g-PEI could serve

  5. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Christy A; Weathers, Frank W; Davis, Margaret T; Witte, Tracy K; Domino, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) is a widely used DSM-correspondent self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. The PCL was recently revised to reflect DSM-5 changes to the PTSD criteria. In this article, the authors describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the PCL for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Psychometric properties of the PCL-5 were examined in 2 studies involving trauma-exposed college students. In Study 1 (N = 278), PCL-5 scores exhibited strong internal consistency (α = .94), test-retest reliability (r = .82), and convergent (rs = .74 to .85) and discriminant (rs = .31 to .60) validity. In addition, confirmatory factor analyses indicated adequate fit with the DSM-5 4-factor model, χ2 (164) = 455.83, p < .001, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .07, root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = .08, comparative fit index (CFI) = .86, and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .84, and superior fit with recently proposed 6-factor, χ2 (164) = 318.37, p < .001, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .06, CFI = .92, and TLI = .90, and 7-factor, χ2 (164) = 291.32, p < .001, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .06, CFI = .93, and TLI = .91, models. In Study 2 (N = 558), PCL-5 scores demonstrated similarly strong reliability and validity. Overall, results indicate that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of PTSD symptoms. Implications for use of the PCL-5 in a variety of assessment contexts are discussed.

  6. Reparation and characterization of water-borne polyurethane based on PCDL or (and) PCL prepolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yenan; Zhao, Can; Xiao, Jijun

    2017-08-01

    A series of waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs) were synthesized by a pre-polymer process from isophorone diisocyanate and polycarbonatediol (PCDL), polycaprolactone (PCL). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, dynamic thermomechanical analysis and mechanical measurements were employed to characterize the thermal stability, physical and mechanical properties of the films derived from the emulsions. The results show that there is better mechanical properties of and thermal stability for PCL-based WPU. The thermal stability of PCDL-PCL based WPU, whichin the mass ratio of PCDL to PCL is 1 to 1 is the best. The PCDL-based WPU has the highest glass transition temperature.

  7. Biodegradable PCL scaffolds with an interconnected spherical pore network for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, R; Garcia-Giralt, N; Rodriguez, M T; Cáceres, E; García, S J; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Monleón, M; Monllau, Joan C; Suay, J

    2008-04-01

    A technique for producing controlled interconnected porous structures for application as a tissue engineering scaffold is presented in this article. The technique is based on the fabrication of a template of interconnected poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) microspheres, the introduction of a biodegradable polymer, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL), and the elimination of the template by a selective solvent. A series of PCL scaffolds with a porosity of 70% and pore sizes up to 200 microm were produced and characterized (both thermally and mechanically). Human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer on bulk PCL disks or seeded into porous PCL scaffolds. Cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, and proteoglycan (PG) synthesis were tested and compared with monolayer cultures on tissue-treated polystyrene or pellet cultures as reference controls. Cells cultured on PCL disks showed an adhesion similar to that of the polystyrene control (which allowed high levels of proliferation). Stained scaffold sections showed round-shaped chondrocyte aggregates embedded into porous PCL. PG production was similar to that of the pellet cultures and higher than that obtained with monolayer postconfluence cultures. This shows that the cells are capable of attaching themselves to PCL. Furthermore, in porous PCL, cells maintain the same phenotype as the chondrocytes within the native cartilage. These results suggest that PCL scaffolds may be a suitable candidate for chondrocyte culture.

  8. Data of PCL-b-P(MMA-DMAEMA)2 characterization and related assays.

    PubMed

    Franco, Camila; Barcelos Antonow, Michelli; Beckenkamp, Aline; Buffon, Andréia; Ceolin, Taise; Luiza Tebaldi, Marli; Pozza Silveira, Gustavo; Stanisçuaski Guterres, Silvia; Raffin Pohlmann, Adriana

    2017-12-01

    The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled "PCL-b-P(MMA-co-DMAEMA)2 new triblock copolymer for novel pH-sensitive nanocapsules intended for drug delivery to tumors" by Franco et al. [1]. Characterization data of PCL-diol, macroinitiator Br-PCL-Br, homopolymers (PMMA and PDMAEMA) and copolymers (batch 1 and batch 2) analyzed by FTIR, SEC and NMR, as well as, characterization of PCL-NS formulation by laser diffraction and DLS analysis, initial nanocapsule formulations and 1C-NC and 2C-NC formulations, including hydrodynamic diameter at different pH media, and DMSO cytotoxicity.

  9. Novel docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles based on PCL-Tween 80 copolymer for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuandong; Zheng, Yi; Zeng, Xiaowei; Jiang, Liqin; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Ranyi; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Background The formulation of docetaxel available for clinical use (Taxotere®) contains a high concentration of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80). After incorporation of Tween 80 into poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL)-Tween 80 copolymer, the relative amount of Tween 80 should be decreased and the advantages of PCL and Tween 80 should be combined. Methods A novel PCL-Tween 80 copolymer was synthesized from ɛ-caprolactone and Tween 80 in the presence of stannous octoate as a catalyst via ring opening polymerization. Two types of nanoparticle formulation were made from commercial PCL and a self-synthesized PCL-Tween 80 copolymer using a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. Results The nanoparticles were found by field emission scanning electron microscopy to have a spherical shape and be 200 nm in diameter. The copolymers could encapsulate 10% of the drug in the nanoparticles and release 34.9% of the encapsulated drug over 28 days. PCL-Tween 80 nanoparticles could be internalized into the cells and had higher cellular uptake than the PCL nanoparticles. The drug-loaded PCL-Tween 80 nanoparticles showed better in vitro cytotoxicity towards C6 cancer cells than commercial Taxotere at the same drug concentration. Conclusion Nanoparticles using PCL-Tween 80 copolymer as drug delivery vehicles may have a promising outcome for cancer patients. PMID:22114498

  10. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-04-01

    The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration.

  11. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration. PMID:23593566

  12. Combined PCL and PLC reconstruction in chronic posterolateral instability.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Claudio; Alam, Mahbub; Iacono, Venanzio; Madonna, Vincenzo; Rosa, Donato; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The posterolateral corner (PLC) is more likely to be injured in combination with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) or the anterior cruciate ligament than in isolation. This leads to instability of the knee and loss of function. We hypothesised that combined PCL and PLC reconstruction would restore sufficient stability to allow improvement in patient symptoms and function. 19 patients who underwent arthroscopic-assisted single-bundle PCL and PLC reconstruction by a single surgeon were analysed retrospectively. The PLC reconstruction was a modified Larson reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament and the popliteofibular ligament. The IKDC and Tegner scores were used to assess outcome. Dial test and varus laxity were used to assess improvements in clinical laxity. Posterior laxity was tested using the KT-1000. The mean follow-up was 38 months (±(2× standard deviations), ±12.3). There were no postoperative complications. All patients had less than 5 mm posterior step-off. 17 of 19 patients had negative dial and varus stress tests. Measured range of motion was reduced by a mean of 10°, but patients did not report any daily activities restrictions. Tegner scores improved from a median pre-operative value of 2 (range 1-4) to 6 (4-9) at final follow-up. The mean postoperative IKDC score was 86 (±11). Subjectively, the knee stability achieved allowed daily activities. However, there were remaining abnormalities in range of motion, posterior drawer and rotational laxity, suggesting that normal knee laxity was not restored. IV.

  13. In vitro evaluation of effects of sustained anti-TNF release from MPEG-PCL-MPEG and PCL microspheres on human rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Erdemli, Özge; Özen, Seza; Keskin, Dilek; Usanmaz, Ali; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Atilla, Bülent; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2014-10-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) drugs such as etanercept (ETN) have been mostly used in systemic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. To eliminate the side effects in long-term treatments and to achieve a local sustained anti-inflammatory effect, a controlled drug delivery system is needed for anti-TNFα drugs. This study aims to develop novel injectable microcarriers of ETN that can provide long-term controlled release of this protein drug upon intra-articular application. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and its copolymer with poly(ethylene glycol), methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) microspheres (MPEG-PCL-MPEG) were compared for their prospective success in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Microspheres with smooth surface of a mean particle diameter of approximately 5 μm were prepared with both polymers. MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres had higher encapsulation efficiency than PCL microspheres. The activity of encapsulated ETN within MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres also retained while 90% of the activity of ETN within PCL microspheres could retain during 90-day release. MPEG-PCL-MPEG microspheres showed faster ETN release compared to PCL microspheres in various release media. Cumulative amounts of ETN released from both types of microspheres were significantly lower in cell culture medium and in synovial fluids than in phosphate buffered saline. This was mainly due to protein adsorption onto microspheres. Hydrophilic MPEG segment enhanced ETN release while preventing protein adsorption on microspheres compared to PCL. Sustained ETN release from microspheres resulted with a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-6, IL-17) and MMP levels (MMP-3, MMP-13), while conserving viability of fibroblast-like synoviocytes compared to the free drug. Results suggest that MPEG-PCL-MPEG is a potential copolymer of PCL that can be used in development of biomedical materials for effective local

  14. Optical-optical double resonance, laser induced fluorescence, and revision of the signs of the spin-spin constants of the boron carbide (BC) free radical

    SciTech Connect

    Sunahori, Fumie X.; Nagarajan, Ramya; Clouthier, Dennis J.

    2015-12-14

    The cold boron carbide free radical (BC X {sup 4}Σ{sup −}) has been produced in a pulsed discharge free jet expansion using a precursor mixture of trimethylborane in high pressure argon. High resolution laser induced fluorescence spectra have been obtained for the B {sup 4}Σ{sup −}–X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} and E {sup 4}Π–X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} band systems of both {sup 11}BC and {sup 10}BC. An optical-optical double resonance (OODR) scheme was implemented to study the finer details of both band systems. This involved pumping a single rotational level of the B state with one laser and then recording the various allowed transitions from the intermediate B state to the final E state with a second laser by monitoring the subsequent E–X ultraviolet fluorescence. In this fashion, we were able to prove unambiguously that, contrary to previous studies, the spin-spin constant λ is negative in the ground state and positive in the B {sup 4}Σ{sup −} excited state. It has been shown that λ″ < 0 is in fact expected based on a semiempirical second order perturbation theory calculation of the magnitude of the spin-spin constant. The OODR spectra have also been used to validate our assignments of the complex and badly overlapped E {sup 4}Π–X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} 0-0 and 1-0 bands of {sup 11}BC. The E–X 0-0 band of {sup 10}BC was found to be severely perturbed. The ground state main electron configuration is …3σ{sup 2}4σ{sup 2}5σ{sup 1}1π{sup 2}2π{sup 0} and the derived bond lengths show that there is a 0.03 Å contraction in the B state, due to the promotion of an electron from the 4σ antibonding orbital to the 5σ bonding orbital. In contrast, the bond length elongates by 0.15 Å in the E state, a result of promoting an electron from the 5σ bonding orbital to the 2π antibonding orbitals.

  15. Symptomatic efficacy of etanercept and its effects on objective signs of inflammation in early nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Désirée; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Jürgen; Maksymowych, Walter P; Citera, Gustavo; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Pedersen, Ron; Bonin, Randi; Rahman, Mahboob U; Logeart, Isabelle; Wajdula, Joseph; Koenig, Andrew S; Vlahos, Bonnie; Alvarez, Daniel; Bukowski, Jack F

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of etanercept in the treatment of early active nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)-refractory nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The study population consisted of patients who met the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial SpA but not the modified New York radiographic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (as assessed by a radiologist at the central trial site), had a symptom duration of >3 months but <5 years, had a score of ≥4 on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and had been treated unsuccessfully with ≥2 NSAIDs. Patients were randomized to receive etanercept 50 mg/week or placebo and continued background NSAID treatment for 12 weeks (double-blind study); during the subsequent open-label period, all patients received etanercept 50 mg/week. The primary study end point was meeting the ASAS criteria for 40% improvement (ASAS40) at week 12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints and spine was performed at baseline and week 12. One hundred six patients were randomized to the etanercept group and 109 to the placebo group. Of the 215 patients, the mean ± SD age at baseline was 32.0 ± 7.8 years, 154 (72%) were HLA-B27 positive, and 174 (81%) had MRI-confirmed sacroiliitis. At 12 weeks, the proportion of patients with improvement according to the ASAS40 was significantly higher in the etanercept group than in the placebo group (34 of 105 [32%] versus 17 of 108 [16%]; P = 0.006). Patients who received etanercept exhibited a greater reduction in MRI-based scores for sacroiliac joint inflammation (-46.9% versus -10.9%; P < 0.001) and spinal inflammation (-45.4% versus -33.4%; P = 0.04) compared with placebo-treated patients at week 12. Post hoc analyses suggested a possible association between higher baseline C-reactive protein levels or MRI sacroiliac joint inflammation scores and higher rates of ASAS40 response to etanercept. At

  16. Efficacy of etanercept on rheumatic signs and pulmonary function tests in advanced ankylosing spondylitis: results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study (SPINE)

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M; Braun, J; Szanto, S; Combe, B; Elbaz, M; Geher, P; Thabut, G; Leblanc, V; Logeart, I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS) experience disability because of reduced spinal mobility and pulmonary function impairment. This placebo-controlled study evaluated the effect of etanercept (ETN) in patients with advanced AS. Methods A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks' duration was performed. Patients had definite (modified New York criteria), active (Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ≥40), severe (radiological intervertebral bridges) AS refractory to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and were antitumour necrosis factor naive. They were treated with ETN 50 mg once weekly or identical placebo (PBO). Results Of the 95 patients screened, 82 were randomised to receive ETN (n=39) or PBO (n=43). At baseline the disease was active (mean BASDAI 61.0±13.4, C reactive protein (CRP) 20.7±25.5 mg/l) and severe (mean Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) 5.7±1.3, mSASSS 36.5±20.5); forced pulmonary vital capacity (FVC) was 3.3±0.7 l. Improvement in BASDAI (normalised net incremental area under the curve between baseline and week 12, primary end point) was significantly greater in the ETN group than in the PBO group (−19.8±16.5 vs −11.0±16.4, p=0.019). Moreover, at week 12, ETN gave better results than PBO for the BASDAI (−26.4±19.7 vs −14.4±19.7; p=0.008), total back pain (−29.2±24.0 vs −14.9±24.0; p=0.010), BASFI (−21.7±17.6 vs −10.1±17.6; p=0.004), BASMI (−0.6±0.6 vs −0.2±0.6; p=0.011), CRP level (−15.7±14.2 vs −1.3±14.2; p<0.001) and FVC (+160±280 ml vs −20±280 ml; p=0.006). Conclusions ETN has short-term efficacy for patients with advanced AS, as was previously reported for less advanced disease. The efficacy is observed for the main symptoms (pain) and on markers of inflammation (CRP), as well as disease severity in terms of spinal mobility and pulmonary function. PMID:21317434

  17. Shape memory thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends as self-knotting sutures.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Huang, Han-Xiong; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Thermally responsive shape memory polymers have promising applications in many fields, especially in biomedical areas. In this study, a simple method was purposed to prepare thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends that possess shape memory attributes. TPU and PCL were melt compounded via a twin-screw extruder and injection molded at various ratios. Multiple test methods were used to characterize their shape memory properties and reveal the underling mechanism. The blends containing 25% TPU and 75% PCL possessed the best shape memory properties as indicated by a 98% shape fixing ratio and 90% shape recovery ratio. This was attributed to the hybrid crystalline and amorphous regions of PCL and TPU. We also found that PCL and TPU had good miscibility and that the PCL domain in TPU25% had higher crystallinity than neat PCL. The crystalline region in TPU25% could deform and maintain its temporary shape when stretched, which contributed to its high shape fixing attribute, while the rubbery TPU region assisted in the recovery of the sample upon heating by releasing the deformation energy stored. Moreover, the TPU25% string prepared could knot itself in a hot water bath, indicating a potential for suture applications. Lastly, the 3T3 fibroblast cells cultured on the TPU/PCL blends showed high viability and active substrate-cell interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser Printing of PCL/Progesterone Tablets for Drug Delivery Applications in Hormone Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmoria, G. V.; Klauss, P.; Kanis, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and progesterone (PG) tablets were produced by selective laser sintering (SLS) using different particle sizes and laser energy. The sintered PCL/PG tablets presented uniform morphology, coalescence of particles and interconnected pores distributed in the polymeric matrix. The EDS analysis confirmed the presence of progesterone recrystallized on the surface of the porous PCL matrix. The crystallinity values for the PCL/PG tablets were lower than that for the pure PCL, suggesting the interaction of components at the molecular level. The PCL/PG tablets fabricated with small particles and high laser energy presented a higher value for the flexural modulus compared with the other specimens. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was -37 °C for the PCL/PG tablet with a high degree of sintering. The fatigue test showed that the PCL/PG blend tablets have high fatigue strength. The drug release mechanism of all tablets studied followed a zero-order kinetics, and drug release rates were dependent on sintering degree and, consequently, on matrix erosion, showing a potential application to controlled drug delivery in hormone cancer therapy.

  19. Laser Printing of PCL/Progesterone Tablets for Drug Delivery Applications in Hormone Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmoria, G. V.; Klauss, P.; Kanis, L. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and progesterone (PG) tablets were produced by selective laser sintering (SLS) using different particle sizes and laser energy. The sintered PCL/PG tablets presented uniform morphology, coalescence of particles and interconnected pores distributed in the polymeric matrix. The EDS analysis confirmed the presence of progesterone recrystallized on the surface of the porous PCL matrix. The crystallinity values for the PCL/PG tablets were lower than that for the pure PCL, suggesting the interaction of components at the molecular level. The PCL/PG tablets fabricated with small particles and high laser energy presented a higher value for the flexural modulus compared with the other specimens. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was -37 °C for the PCL/PG tablet with a high degree of sintering. The fatigue test showed that the PCL/PG blend tablets have high fatigue strength. The drug release mechanism of all tablets studied followed a zero-order kinetics, and drug release rates were dependent on sintering degree and, consequently, on matrix erosion, showing a potential application to controlled drug delivery in hormone cancer therapy.

  20. Enhancing the electrical conductivity of a hybrid POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer.

    PubMed

    Nezakati, Toktam; Tan, Aaron; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    An electrically conductive polymer using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocage incorporated into a modified poly [caprolactone based urea-urethane] (PCL)/graphene hybrid nanocomposite is described. Multilayer graphene flakes (8nm) were homogeneously dispersed into POSS-PCL at 0.1, 2, 5, and 10wt.% concentrations. This dispersion process of the graphene flakes was achieved by the use of stable dimethylacetamide (DMAc), via solution intercalation with POSS-PCL nanocomposites. The impedance spectroscopy of 5.0wt.% and higher concentration of graphene in POSS-PCL represented major improvement in conductivity over pristine POSS-PCL. The percolation threshold occurred at 5.0wt.% graphene concentration, converting the insulator POSS-PCL into a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene hybrid nanocomposite. The structures of the obtained hybrid materials were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The conductivity of the resultant nanocomposite polymer was investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a facile method of synthesizing, and describe the electrical properties of a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer.

  1. Gait analysis comparison of cruciate retaining and substituting TKA following PCL sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth; Gioe, Terence J; Yoon, Patrick; Schwartz, Michael H

    2012-08-01

    The role of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) remains controversial in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), with some surgeons who believe in PCL sacrifice and substitution and others who believe in PCL preservation for stability. Manufacturers have developed both cruciate-substituting/posterior stabilized (PS) implants typically used when the ligament is sacrificed and cruciate retaining (CR) implants designed for ligament preservation. However, studies demonstrate excellent clinical results with CR implants despite PCL sacrifice. This study sought to determine functional stability differences between PS and CR TKAs following PCL sacrifice. Eighteen (9 matched pairs) subjects with either a PS or CR TKA and sacrificed PCL and a normal contralateral knee were subjected to physical exam and gait analysis (walking, stair ascent and descent) using a staircase model, passive reflective arrays and an optoelectric system. No differences were detected between the two groups among any of the measured parameters (knee flexion angle, knee flexion moment, knee power absorption, pelvic tilt). PCL sacrifice in a well-balanced cruciate retaining TKA did not result in instability during stair descent based on gait parameters. The decision to use a posterior stabilized design when faced with an incompetent PCL intraoperatively should be based on factors other than anticipated instability.

  2. synthesis of novel four armed PE-PCL grafted superparamagnetic and biocompatible nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Panja, Sudipta; Saha, Biswajit; Ghosh, S K; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2013-10-08

    Novel biocompatible polymer immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are prepared by grafting four armed pentaerythritol poly(ε-polycaprolactone) (PE-PCL) onto silane modified MNP. The MNPs are synthesized by hydrothermal process and its modification using (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMAS) coating is done by the sol-gel technique. The pentaerythritol (PE) initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is carried out to prepare four armed PE-PCL. The reaction is shown to follow first order kinetics. The structure of PE-PCL is confirmed by NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF analysis. The in situ grafting of PE-PCL onto modified MNP has been carried out by using 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an intermediate linker. The grafting density as determined by TGA analysis has been found to be significantly higher than previously reported linear PCL grafted MNPs in the literature. This leads to uniform dispersion of grafted MNPs which still is a challenging task in contemporary research. The effective dispersion of MNP into PE-PCL matrix is analyzed by HRTEM. The saturation magnetization of the PE-PCL grafted MNPs is significantly high and this can be tailored further by varying the grafting density. The biocompatibility of polymer grafted nanoparticles is confirmed by MTT assay using HeLa cell line. The superparamagnetic and biocompatible novel PE-PCL grafted MNP so prepared would have manifold potential applications including in therapy and targeted drug delivery.

  3. PCL-R Psychopathy Predicts Disruptive Behavior Among Male Offenders in a Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Martin; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic…

  4. A Taxometric Analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV): Further Evidence of Dimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Gray, Nicola S.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Sewell, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Richard; Taylor, John; Snowden, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) was performed on a group of 2,250 male and female forensic/psychiatric patients and jail/prison inmates. The 4 PCL:SV facet scores (Interpersonal, Affective, Impulsive Lifestyle, Antisocial Behavior) served as indicators in…

  5. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  6. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  7. A comparison of nanoscale and multiscale PCL/gelatin scaffolds prepared by disc-electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Chen, Weiming; Sun, Binbin; Li, Haoxuan; Wu, Tong; Ke, Qinfei; Huang, Chen; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-10-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile and convenient technology to generate nanofibers suitable for tissue engineering. However, the low production rate of traditional needle electrospinning hinders its applications. Needleless electrospinning is a potential strategy to promote the application of electrospun nanofiber in various fields. In this study, disc-electrospinning (one kind of needleless electrospinning) was conducted to produce poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/GT) scaffolds of different structure, namely the nanoscale structure constructed by nanofiber and multiscale structure consisting of nanofiber and microfiber. It was found that, due to the inhomogeneity of PCL/GT solution, disc-electrospun PCL-GT scaffold presented multiscale structure with larger pores than that of the acid assisted one (PCL-GT-A). Scanning electron microscopy images indicated the PCL-GT scaffold was constructed by nanofibers and microfibers. Mouse fibroblasts and rat bone marrow stromal cells both showed higher proliferation rates on multiscale scaffold than nanoscale scaffolds. It was proposed that the nanofibers bridged between the microfibers enhanced cell adhesion and spreading, while the large pores on the three dimensional (3D) PCL-GT scaffold provide more effective space for cells to proliferate and migrate. However, the uniform nanofibers and densely packed structure in PCL-GT-A scaffold limited the cells on the surface. This study demonstrated the potential of disc-electrospun PCL-GT scaffold containing nanofiber and microfiber for 3D tissue regeneration.

  8. A Taxometric Analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV): Further Evidence of Dimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Gray, Nicola S.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Sewell, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Richard; Taylor, John; Snowden, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) was performed on a group of 2,250 male and female forensic/psychiatric patients and jail/prison inmates. The 4 PCL:SV facet scores (Interpersonal, Affective, Impulsive Lifestyle, Antisocial Behavior) served as indicators in…

  9. PCL-R Psychopathy Predicts Disruptive Behavior Among Male Offenders in a Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Martin; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic…

  10. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Incarcerated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Craig S.; Kosson, David S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Hare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies are reported on the underlying dimensions of the psychopathy construct in adolescents as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). In Study 1, the PCL: YV item ratings for 505 male adolescents incarcerated in 5 different settings in North America were used to test the fit of 3…

  11. The nanoscale phase distinguishing of PCL-PB-PCL blended in epoxy resin by tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the bulk phase distinguishing of the poly(ε-caprolactone)-polybutadiene-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PB-PCL) triblock copolymer blended in epoxy resin by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). We found that at a set-point amplitude ratio (rsp) less than or equal to 0.85, a clear phase contrast could be obtained using a probe with a force constant of 40 N/m. When rsp was decreased to 0.1 or less, the measured size of the PB-rich domain relatively shrank; however, the height images of the PB-rich domain would take reverse (translating from the original light to dark) at rsp = 0.85. Force-probe measurements were carried out on the phase-separated regions by TM-AFM. According to the phase shift angle vs. rsp curve, it could be concluded that the different force exerting on the epoxy matrix or on the PB-rich domain might result in the height and phase image reversion. Furthermore, the indentation depth vs. rsp plot showed that with large tapping force (lower rsp), the indentation depth for the PB-rich domain was nearly identical for the epoxy resin matrix. PMID:22360980

  12. Effects of Reiki on Pain and Vital Signs When Applied to the Incision Area of the Body After Cesarean Section Surgery: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Double-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Sagkal Midilli, Tulay; Ciray Gunduzoglu, Nazmiye

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P < .05). A reduction in pain of 76.06% was determined in the Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P < .05). The Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P < .05). It was concluded that Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.

  13. Shape memory behaviour of radiation-crosslinked PCL/PMVS blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangming; Xu, Shuogui; Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Longbin

    2006-03-01

    The performance and radiation crosslinking of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polymethylvinylsiloxane (PMVS) blends has been investigated. Radiation crosslinking of PCL/PMVS blends followed the Charlesby-Pinner equation, and PMVS promoted the radiation crosslinking of the blends. As the concentration of PMVS increased, the gelation dose and the ratio of degradation to crosslinking ( p0/q0) decreased and the efficiency of radiation crosslinking increased. The elastic modulus below the melting point of PCL of radiation-crosslinked PCL/PMVS blends decreased with the increase of PMVS, and increased above the melting point. The crosslinked PCL/PMVS blends exhibited excellent shape memory effects, and the ratios of deformation to recovery were more than 95%.

  14. PCL-R psychopathy predicts disruptive behavior among male offenders in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Martín; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic hospital. From daily hospital information bulletins, incidents of verbal abuse, verbal threat, physical violence, and violation of hospital rules were derived. Also, the number of seclusion episodes was recorded. As expected, significant correlations were found between PCL-R scores and verbal abuse, verbal threat, violation of rules, total number of incidents, and frequency of seclusion. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) were significantly more often involved in incidents than nonpsychopaths. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the PCL-R Factor 2 score in particular contributed uniquely to the prediction of the total number of incidents. The findings are discussed in terms of their clinical implications.

  15. Episcleral drug film for better-targeted ocular drug delivery and controlled release using multilayered poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shumao; Li, Jie; Li, Xiaoli; Lan, Bifei; Zhou, Shiyu; Meng, Yongchun; Cheng, Lingyun

    2016-06-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) were engineered into a micro drug film for episcleral application to better manage chronic vitreoretinal diseases such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Compared to an intravitreal drug injection, this drug film is much safer without breaking into ocular barriers. Compared to a traditional subtenon injection, this drug film demonstrated superior therapeutic duration, better drug bioavailability in the choroid and retina, and better-targeted drug delivery ability. The rabbit eye study demonstrated that using the PCL-TA film led to 5.6 and 3.4 times higher drug AUC in the choroid and the retina respectively than in eyes following a subtenon drug injection. The mean drug residence time in the rabbit choroid was also doubled by using the episcleral TA film (86days versus 43days). Remaining TA in the drug film was consistently higher than that in the subtenon space, indicating controlled release of TA by the PCL-TA film. The pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone in the choroid and retina were optimized from typical first-order kinetics to a more sustained release by use of this film. This episcleral film system worked better on rabbit eyes than on guinea pig eyes, indicating that scleral thickness and eye size may be crucial aspects to consider when choosing an animal model or when designing a transscleral delivery device for human use. This engineered drug film may be very useful in preventing and managing PVR associated with open globe trauma or surgical repair for retinal detachment. This study demonstrated a novel micro episcleral drug film that is made from the engineering of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). The film can be conveniently placed at the injury or disease site during primary surgery and provide controlled release of TA for four months that covers the high-risk time window for developing proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This engineered drug film may be

  16. Preparation of a porous conductive scaffold from aniline pentamer-modified polyurethane/PCL blend for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Yeganeh, Hamid; Ai, Jafar; Gharibi, Reza; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Azami, Mahmoud; Vahdat, Sadaf; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    A novel biodegradable electroactive polyurethane containing aniline pentamer (AP) was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL). The prepared blend (PB) and PCL were further fabricated in to scaffolds using a mixture of poly(ethylene glycol) and salt particles in a double porogen particulate leaching and compression molding methodology. Scaffolds held open and interconnected pores having pore size ranging from several μm to 150 µm. PB scaffolds had compression modulus and strength of 4.1 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. The conductivity of the scaffold was measured as 10(-5) ± 0.09 S .cm(-1) and preserved for at least 100 h post fabrication. Scaffolds supported neonatal cardiomyocytes adhesion and growth with PB showing more extensive effect on the expression of the cardiac genes involved in muscle contraction and relaxation (troponin-T) and cytoskeleton alignment (actinin-4). Our results highlight the potential of incorporation of AP as an electroactive moiety for induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation and repair of damaged heart tissue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura; Ducci, Francesca; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Goldman, David; Tiihonen, Jari; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-02-28

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score, P = 0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R ≥ 30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences.

  18. Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura; Ducci, Francesca; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Goldman, David; Tiihonen, Jari; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score, P=0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R≥30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences. PMID:20850185

  19. [Knee dislocation: concurrent arthroscopic ACL and PCL reconstruction - operating technique].

    PubMed

    Piontek, Tomasz; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Szulc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Injuries involving knee luxation or subluxation generally result in damage to two or three out of the four major ligaments which stabilize this joint. Past treatment of this type of multiligament injuries, consisting in 6- to 12-week immobilization in a plaster cast, does not allow for restoration of the normal, anatomical course of these ligaments. A consequence of this type of healing, which involves the formation of random scars in place of ligaments, is mechanical and functional instability of the knee joint. The goal of this article is to present a classification of multiligament knee injuries and surgical treatment options. We also present our own technique of arthroscopic, concurrent reconstruction of knee joint ligaments. The study material consisted of 20 patients who underwent surgical treatment for multiligament knee injuries in the Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology in Poznań. We performed concurrent arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL and PCL in all 20 patients. In addition, reconstruction of the medial complex was performed in 7 patients, and lateral complex was reconstructed in another 7 patients. In three cases we stitched the medial meniscus using a Smith & Nephew FasT-Fix system, and partial menisectomy was performed in 2 patients. The details of the proposed concurrent arthroscopic ACL and PCL reconstruction are extensively discussed. One of the advantages of this operating technique is the exclusive use of autogenous ST and GR tendon grafts for reconstruction of all damaged knee joint structures. The presented operating technique makes possible the reconstruction of all damaged knee joint ligaments in less than two hours, which in turn allows the surgery to be performed in an ischemic setting using an Esmarch band around the limb.

  20. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  1. Improved antifungal activity of amphotericin B-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Jiao, Ronghong; Xie, Chunmei; Xu, Lifa; Huo, Zhen; Dai, Jingjing; Qian, Yunyun; Xu, Weiwen; Hou, Wei; Wang, Jiang; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To develop amphotericin B-loaded biodegradable TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) for fungal infection treatment, PLGA-TPGS NPs and PLGA NPs were synthesized by a modified double emulsion method and characterized in terms of size and size distribution, morphology and zeta potential. Drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro/vivo tests against Candida glabrata were completed. The data showed that both of the two AMB-loaded NPs (PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) achieved significantly higher level of antifungal effects than water suspended AMB. In comparison with PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs had a stronger protective effect against candidiasis and gained an advantage of prolonged antifungal efficacy. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs system significantly improves AMB bioavailability by increasing the aqueous dispersibility and improving the antifungal activity. And this would be an excellent choice for the antifungal treatment of the entrapped drug because of its low toxicity and higher effectiveness. PMID:26131089

  2. A biodegradable, injectable, gel system based on MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymers with an adjustable therapeutic window.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun Mi; Lee, Sang Hyo; Lee, Ju Young; Son, Jin Soo; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Bong; Chun, Heung Jae; Min, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Moon Suk

    2010-03-01

    In situ-forming gel systems have drawn increasing attention for their potential use in a variety of biomedical applications. Here, we examined an in situ-forming gel system comprised of MPEG-b-PCL and MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymers with different PLLA contents (0-10 mol%) in the PCL segment. The crystalline region of the PCL-ran-PLLA segment decreased with increasing PLLA content. The MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer solutions were liquid at room temperature and only MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer solutions with a PLLA content < or = 5 mol% in the PCL segment showed a sol-to-gel transition as the temperature was increased. The viscosity change associated with sol-to-gel phase transition depended on the PLLA content in the PCL segment. A MPEG-b-PCL diblock copolymer solution incubated in vitro showed increasing viscosity without degradation, whereas the viscosity of MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer solutions continuously and sharply decreased with increasing PLLA content in the PCL segment. As the amount of PLLA increased, the size of in vivo-formed MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) gels after initial injection tended to gradually decrease because of hydrolytic degradation of the PLLA in the PCL-ran-PLLA segment. An immunohistochemical examination showed that in vivo MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer gels provoked only a modest inflammatory response. Collectively, our results show that the MPEG-b-(PCL-ran-PLLA) diblock copolymer gel described here could serve as a minimally invasive, therapeutic, in situ-forming gel system that offers an experimental window adjustable from a few weeks to a few months. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dielectric characterization of PCL-based thermoplastic materials for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Shea, Jacob D; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Van Veen, Barry D; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-03-01

    We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported 3-D anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  4. Dielectric Characterization of PCL-Based Thermoplastic Materials for Microwave Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Suzette M.; Shea, Jacob D.; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5 – 3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported three-dimensional anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21622068

  5. Characterization and Mechanical Analysis of PCL/PLA composites for FDM feedstock filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Reazul Haq Abdul; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Mubarak Tajul Ariffin, Ahmad; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Adzila, Sharifah

    2017-08-01

    In this research, characterization, and the mechanical properties of Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) composites with the objective of determining their suitability as biomaterials for an alternative composites material for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) was investigated. The percentage of PLA is varies from 10% to 50% by weight. The PCL/PLA composites were prepared by melting and mixing using Brabender Plastograph machine. The characterization of PCL/PLA composites was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Meanwhile, the mechanical properties were evaluated are the Tensile, Flexural and Impact. It demonstrate that by the addition of PLA it improve the mechanical properties of PCL and leads to a better processability of PCL/PLA composites. With the decrement of PLA content in PCL/PLA composites the Tensile Strength the Young’s Modulus and also the Impact Strength of the composites increased. The highest tensile strength was recorded at 10.00 Mpa and the Young’s Modulus was recorded at 118.26 Mpa. The highest Impact Strength was recorded at 1.33 J. However, the Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus increased when the content of PLA decrease and it slightly drop when the content of PLA is at the 40%. The highest Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus were recorded at 7.59 Mpa and 35.33 Mpa respectively. Overall it can be concluded that the PCL70PLA30 composites are the best formulation and it gives a better mechanical properties result.

  6. Novel amphiphilic ternary polysaccharide derivates chitosan-g-PCL-b-MPEG: synthesis, characterization, and aggregation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yiye; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengrong

    Chitosan-g-PCL-b-MPEG copolymers of various compositions were successful synthesized via a protection-graft-deprotection procedure, by the esterification of phthaloyl-protected chitosan (PHCS) with MPEG-b-PCL-COOH, which was synthesized from MPEG and epsilon-caprolactone and carboxylated by maleic anhydride. The chemical structure of the chitosan-g-PCL-b-MPEG was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The chitosan-g-PCL-b-MPEG was obtained as amphoteric hybrid with amino polysaccharide backbone and amphiphilic MPEG-b-PCL side chain. Their crystallinity and aggregation behavior in aqueous solution were also investigated.

  7. Four-facet PCL-R structure and cognitive functioning among high violent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Weinberger, Linda E; Kirkish, Patricia; Garrick, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    High violent inmates (N = 126) were administered the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, Clark, Grann, & Thornton, 2000; Hare et al., 1990) and neuropsychological measures. No significant correlations were present between the overall PCL-R score and 14 cognitive measures. A violence score, computed as the total number of violent acts across all situations and types, was significantly correlated with the PCL-R total score and Facet 2 but not with the other three facets. Our data suggest that Facet 2 elevations may prove relevant to violence risk assessment; this link, however, needs further exploration with larger samples.

  8. Treatment planning with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R).

    PubMed

    Loving, James L

    2002-06-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is an essential component of any assessment protocol within forensic and correctional settings. Both nomothetic and idiographic interpretations aid the clinician in screening and treatment planning. Whereas the PCL-R can be effective in identifying those who are at highest risk of disrupting treatment efforts and jeopardizing the safety of those around them, through item analysis, it also provides clues to the nonpsychopath's unique treatment needs. Specific recommendations are offered regarding the implementation of the PCL-R for screening and treatment planning, and illustrative case examples are provided to enliven essential points.

  9. Double Crystalline Multiblock Copolymers with Controlling Microstructure for High Shape Memory Fixity and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miaoming; Zheng, Liuchun; Wang, Lili; Dong, Xia; Gao, Xia; Li, Chuncheng; Wang, Dujin

    2017-09-06

    The shape memory performance of double crystalline poly(butylene succinate)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PBS-co-PCL) multiblock copolymers with controlling microstructure was studied, and the corresponding microstructure origin was further quantitatively analyzed by wide and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) experiments. It was found that the multiblock copolymer with higher PCL content, proper deformation strain, and inhibited crystallization of PBS (lower crystallinity and smaller crystal size, which could be realized by quenching from the melt) would exhibit better shape memory fixity and recovery performance. WAXS and SAXS results revealed that the shape fixity ratio (Rf) was closely related with the relative crystallinity of the PCL component, while the shape recovery ratio (Rr) strongly relied on the deformation and recovery behavior of the PBS and PCL components that changed along with compositions and deformation strains. For the copolymer with higher PCL content (BS30CL70), at the lower deformation strain (0% ∼ 90%), both the PBS and PCL components after recovery had no orientation (labeled as stage I), resulting in almost complete recovery; with the deformation strain increasing (90% ∼ 200%), it was the irreversible deformation of the PCL component that largely took responsibility for the decreased Rr (stage II). On the contrary, when the PCL content decreased to 50 wt % (BS50CL50), stage I (0% ∼ 50%) and stage II (50% ∼ 100%) appeared in much lower strains; with the deformation strain increasing (100% ∼ 200%), the irreversible deformation of both PBS and PCL components was mainly responsible for the further reduction of Rr (stage III). It could exhibit excellent shape memory performance for biodegradable double crystalline multiblock copolymers by controlling the composition, deformation strain, and crystallization, which might have wide application prospects in biomedical areas.

  10. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology

  11. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf < slafmak), but once doubling in form is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., slaf = ball, slaflaf = balls), the doubling aversion shifts into a reliable (morphological) preference. We next show that sign-naive speakers spontaneously project these principles to novel signs in American Sign Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  12. Roles of nonpolar and polar intermolecular interactions in the improvement of the drug loading capacity of PEO-b-PCL with increasing PCL content for two hydrophobic Cucurbitacin drugs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarthak K; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Choi, Phillip

    2009-09-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the roles of nonpolar and polar intermolecular interactions in the improvement of the drug loading capacity of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) with increasing PCL content for two water insoluble anticancer drugs: Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and Cucurbitacin I (CuI). In particular, random binary mixture models containing 10-12 wt % drug and remaining PEO-b-PCL with three different PCL/PEO (w/w) ratios (0.5, 1, and 2) were used to calculate their Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (chi). The MD simulation results show that, for both CuB and CuI, the computed chi decreases (i.e., affinity increases) with increasing PCL/PEO ratio. Such results are consistent with our experimental observation that increasing the PCL/PEO (w/w) ratio from 1 to 4.8 significantly increases the drug loading capacity of micelles formed by PEO-b-PCL for both drugs. Analysis of the energy data shows that increasing affinity (loading) at higher PCL/PEO ratio is attributed to the increase in favorable polar interactions and to the formation of additional hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) between the drugs and the PCL block rather than to the increase in the hydrophobic characteristics of the diblock copolymer as one would normally expect. In fact, the nonpolar intermolecular interactions became more unfavorable at higher PCL/PEO ratio. Analysis of the radial distribution functions of the model mixtures indicates that at high PCL/PEO ratio, multiple H-bond sites on the PCL block interacted with single H-bond sites on the drug molecules. However, at low PCL/PEO ratio, only single H-bonds formed between various H-bond sites on the drug molecules and those of the PCL and PEO blocks. It seems that formation of H-bonds between multiple H-bond sites on the PCL block and single H-bond sites on the drug molecules is responsible for inducing drug/PEO-b-PCL affinity. The finding also explains the experimental observation that release rates

  13. Modulating mechanical behaviour of 3D-printed cartilage-mimetic PCL scaffolds: influence of molecular weight and pore geometry.

    PubMed

    Olubamiji, Adeola D; Izadifar, Zohreh; Si, Jennifer L; Cooper, David M L; Eames, B Frank; Chen, Daniel X B

    2016-06-22

    Three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds are increasingly being explored for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications. However, ensuring that the mechanical properties of these PCL-based constructs are comparable to that of articular cartilage that they are meant to regenerate is an area that has been under-explored. This paper presents the effects of PCL's molecular weight (MW) and scaffold's pore geometric configurations; strand size (SZ), strand spacing (SS), and strand orientation (SO), on mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds. The results illustrate that MW has significant effect on compressive moduli and yield strength of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds. Specifically, PCL with MW of 45 K was a more feasible choice for fabrication of visco-elastic, flexible and load-bearing PCL scaffolds. Furthermore, pore geometric configurations; SZ, SS, and SO, all significantly affect on tensile moduli of scaffolds. However, only SZ and SS have statistically significant effects on compressive moduli and porosity of these scaffolds. That said, inverse linear relationship was observed between porosity and mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds in Pearson's correlation test. Altogether, this study illustrates that modulating MW of PCL and pore geometrical configurations of the scaffolds enabled design and fabrication of PCL scaffolds with mechanical and biomimetic properties that better mimic mechanical behaviour of human articular cartilage. Thus, the modulated PCL scaffold proposed in this study is a framework that offers great potentials for CTE applications.

  14. Tadalafil 2.5 or 5 mg administered once daily for 12 weeks in men with both erectile dysfunction and signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Egerdie, Russell Blair; Auerbach, Stephen; Roehrborn, Claus G; Costa, Pierre; Garza, Martin Sanchez; Esler, Anne L; Wong, David G; Secrest, Roberta J

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-LUTS) commonly coexist in aging men. Tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor approved for treating ED, is currently being evaluated for treating BPH-LUTS. This multinational Phase 3 study assessed effects of tadalafil 2.5 or 5 mg once daily on ED and BPH-LUTS in men with both conditions during 12 weeks of double-blinded therapy. Men were ≥ 45 years old, sexually active, and experiencing ED for ≥ 3 months and BPH-LUTS for >6 months. Randomization (baseline) followed a 4-week placebo lead-in; changes from baseline were assessed via analysis of covariance and compared to placebo. A gatekeeping procedure controlled for multiple comparisons of co-primary and key secondary measures at end point (last post-baseline observation). The co-primary measures were the International Index of Erectile Function-erectile function (IIEF-EF) domain and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score; key secondary measures were the Sexual Encounter Profile Question 3 (SEP Q3) and BPH Impact Index (BII). Treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, orthostatic vital signs, clinical laboratory and uroflowmetry parameters, and postvoid residual volume were assessed. Tadalafil 2.5 mg (N = 198) and 5 mg (N = 208) significantly improved IIEF-EF domain scores (both P < 0.001) vs. placebo (N = 200) at end point. For IPSS, improvements were significant with tadalafil 5 mg (P < 0.001), but not 2.5 mg, for observations from 2 weeks through end point (least-squares mean ± standard error change from baseline at end point, placebo -3.8 ± 0.5, tadalafil 2.5 mg -4.6 ± 0.4, and 5 mg -6.1 ± 0.4). Tadalafil 5 mg significantly improved SEP Q3 and BII (P < 0.001). Overall, tadalafil was well tolerated with no clinically adverse changes in orthostatic vital signs or uroflowmetry parameters. Tadalafil 5 mg significantly improved both ED and BPH-related outcomes through

  15. Sulforaphane delivery using mPEG-PCL co-polymer nanoparticles to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Danafar, Hossein; Sharafi, Ali; Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Andalib, Sina

    2017-08-01

    Among the potent anticancer agents, d,l-sulforaphane (SF) is very effective against many different types of cancer cells. Its clinical application is restricted because of its hydrophobicity, low gastrointestinal absorption and poor bioavailability. In the present study, a reliable micellar delivery system using monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) was established. The encapsulation of SF inside mPEG-PCL as a nano-carrier was established and the cytotoxicity assay against human breast cancer cell line was evaluated. In this study, SF was encapsulated within mPEG-PCL micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to creation of SF-loaded mPEG-PCL (SF/mPEG-PCL) micelles. Di-block mPEG-PCL copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare micelles. MPEG-PCL copolymer was characterized by HNMR, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography techniques. Characterization, stability of micelles, the particle size and morphology were determined. The release profile of the SF from the micelles which prepared by the drug-loaded copolymer, was evaluated. The cytotoxicity of free SF, mPEG-PCL and SF-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles was compared with each other by performing MTT assay of the treated MCF-7 cell line. Expression levels of BCL-2, MMP-9, BCL-XL, BAK, BAX and GAPDH (endogenous gene) as control were quantified by real time PCR. To evaluate the apoptotic effects of Free SF compared with SF-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles, flow cytometry analysis was done using the annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit. Our studies resulted in a successful establishment of uniformity and spherical SF-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles. The encapsulation efficiency of SF was 86 ± 1.58%. The results of atomic force microscopy revealed that the micelles have spherical shapes with size of 107 nm. In vitro release of SF from SF-entrapped micelles was remarkably sustained. The mPEG-PCL micelle showed little cytotoxicity in the case of

  16. Morphological changes and expression of MMPs and TIMPs in rabbit degenerated lateral meniscus after PCL-transection.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Li, Kanghua; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Whether the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 has association with the degeneration of lateral meniscus after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) fracture is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PCL fracture on lateral meniscus, including morphological changes, histological changes and roles of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression level in the secondary injury. Sixty male rabbits were used as PCL transection models and randomized into the PCL-transection side, which underwent PCL transection surgery, and the control side, which underwent PCL exposure without transection. On 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 weeks after PCL-transection, 12 rabbits were randomly killed for H&E staining to determine the histological changes of lateral meniscus. Immunohistochemical staining was undertaken to evaluate the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 in lateral meniscus. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The lateral meniscus of PCL-transection side presented abnormal morphology. Histological evaluation score of meniscal degeneration in PCL-transection group was higher than that in the control group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated in meniscus of the PCL-transection group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). MMP-1 expression displayed an increasing trend firstly then kept stable after PCL transection; MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expression displayed high level firstly then decreased in advanced stage after PCL transection. PCL transaction may induce a coordinated response of degeneration of lateral meniscus in a time-dependent manner. The high expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 would contribute to the degeneration of lateral meniscus after PCL transection.

  17. Morphological changes and expression of MMPs and TIMPs in rabbit degenerated lateral meniscus after PCL-transection

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Li, Kanghua; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Whether the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 has association with the degeneration of lateral meniscus after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) fracture is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PCL fracture on lateral meniscus, including morphological changes, histological changes and roles of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression level in the secondary injury. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rabbits were used as PCL transection models and randomized into the PCL-transection side, which underwent PCL transection surgery, and the control side, which underwent PCL exposure without transection. On 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 weeks after PCL-transection, 12 rabbits were randomly killed for H&E staining to determine the histological changes of lateral meniscus. Immunohistochemical staining was undertaken to evaluate the expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 in lateral meniscus. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The lateral meniscus of PCL-transection side presented abnormal morphology. Histological evaluation score of meniscal degeneration in PCL-transection group was higher than that in the control group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated in meniscus of the PCL-transection group with statistical difference (P < 0.05). MMP-1 expression displayed an increasing trend firstly then kept stable after PCL transection; MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expression displayed high level firstly then decreased in advanced stage after PCL transection. Conclusions: PCL transaction may induce a coordinated response of degeneration of lateral meniscus in a time-dependent manner. The high expression level of MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 would contribute to the degeneration of lateral meniscus after PCL transection. PMID:26770389

  18. Reliability of file-based retrospective ratings of psychopathy with the PCL-R.

    PubMed

    Grann, M; Långström, N; Tengström, A; Stålenheim, E G

    1998-06-01

    A rapidly emerging consensus recognizes Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) as the most valid and useful instrument to assess psychopathy (Fulero, 1995; Stone, 1995). We compared independent clinical PCL-R ratings of 40 forensic adult male criminal offenders to retrospective file-only ratings. File-based PCL-R ratings, in comparison to the clinical ratings, yielded categorical psychopathy diagnoses with a sensitivity of .57 and a specificity of .96. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of the total scores as estimated by ICC(2,1) was .88, and was markedly better on Factor 2, ICC(2,1) = .89, than on Factor 1, ICC(2,1) = .69. The findings support the belief that for research purposes, file-only PCL-R ratings based on Swedish forensic psychiatric investigation records can be made with good alternate-form reliability.

  19. Nanobody-functionalized PEG-b-PCL polymersomes and their targeting study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tao; Dembele, Fatimata; Beugnet, Anne; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Trepout, Sylvain; Marco, Sergio; de Marco, Ario; Li, Min-Hui

    2015-11-20

    We prepared and characterized polymersomes functionalized with nanobodies (VHHs) on the basis of biocompatible, biodegradable and FDA-approved poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and N-beta-maleimidopropyl-oxysuccinimide ester were allowed reacting with H2N-PEG-b-PCL to produce FITC and maleimide (Mal) functionalized copolymers, Mal-PEG-b-PCL and FITC-PEG-b-PCL. A mixture of MeO-PEG-b-PCL, Mal-PEG-b-PCL and FITC-PEG-b-PCL was used to prepare polymersomes by thin film hydration and nanoprecipitation methods. Morphological studies by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) showed that the nanoparticles exhibited predominantly vesicular structures (polymersomes). Their mean diameters measured by dynamic light scattering were around 150 nm and the zeta-potentials around -1 mV at pH 7.4. The nanoparticles were functionalized with either anti-HER2 (VHH1) or anti-GFP (VHH2) nanobodies using maleimide-cysteine chemistry. Their particle size and zeta-potential increased slightly after nanobody-functionalization. The specific binding of VHH-functionalized polymersomes and control nanoparticles towards HER2 positive breast cancer cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The collected results represent the first report which experimentally demonstrates that VHH1-functionalized PEO-b-PCL polymersomes can target specifically breast cancer cells expressing HER2 receptors. The detailed morphological and cell-binding studies described herein pave the way for future in vivo studies to evaluate the feasibility to use such nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of PCL/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun fiber for urethral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaijie; Li, Chao; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Yuemin; Li, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    To prepare polycaprolactone (PCL)/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun nanofiber scaffold and test its effects on growth and proliferation of oral mucosal epithelial cells. Regenerated silk fibroin film, water-soluble collagen powder, and PCL, at mass ratios of 1:1:4, 1:1:8, and 1:1:10, were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol, and electrostatic spinning method was adopted to prepare PCL/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun nanofiber scaffold. In vitro cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells were inoculated on the material surface, MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy were adopted to study the growth and proliferation of oral mucosal epithelial cells on the material surface, and cell compatibility of PCL/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun nanofiber was evaluated. The result of MTT assay showed that oral mucosal epithelial cells were growing well on the PCL/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun nanofiber scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the prepared electrospun fiber was uniform in diameter and presented an interconnected porous net structure, and oral mucosal epithelial cells had a good growth form on the surface of the modified material. PCL/silk fibroin/collagen electrospun nanofiber scaffold has appropriate pore size and porosity, is suitable for the growth of oral mucosal epithelial cells, has good cell compatibility, and is a good scaffold for tissue engineering urethral reconstruction.

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Son, So-Ra; Linh, Nguyen-Thuy Ba; Yang, Hun-Mo; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning using polycaprolactone (PCL) blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in ratios of 10/0, 7/3, 5/5 and 3/7. The PCL/PMMA ratio affected the fiber diameter, contact angle, tensile strength and biological in vitro and in vivo properties of the scaffolds, and the 7/3 ratio resulted in a higher mechanical strength than 5/5 and 3/7. In vitro cytotoxicity and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast cells on these blended scaffolds were examined by MTT assay, and it was found that PCL/PMMA blends are suitable for osteoblast cell proliferation. Confocal images and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen confirmed the good proliferation and expression of cells on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds. In vivo bone formation was examined using rat models, and bone formation was observed on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffold within 2 months. In vitro and in vivo results suggest that 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffolds can be used for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:27877567

  2. PCL/PHBV microparticles as innovative carriers for oral controlled release of manidipine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Machado, Willian Moreira; Olchanheski Junior, Luiz Renato; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Fernandes, Daniel; Farago, Paulo Vitor

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) containing manidipine dihydrochloride (MAN) were successfully prepared by the simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. All formulations showed loading efficiency rates greater than 80% and average particle size less than 8 μm. Formulations had spherical shape with smooth and porous surface for PCL and PHBV, respectively. According to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, initial components were not chemically modified during microencapsulation. X-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that this process led to drug amorphization. In vitro dissolution studies showed that all microparticles prolonged MAN release, mainly which one obtained using PCL that contained 5% of drug loaded (PCL-M5). Animal studies demonstrated that formulation PCL-M5 was able to keep the variation of mean arterial pressure after phenylephrine administration up to 24 hours. These data confirmed the sustained antihypertensive effect of the investigated microparticles. Results provided an experimental basis for using formulation PCL-M5 as a feasible carrier for oral controlled release of MAN intended for treating high blood pressure.

  3. Degradability, cytocompatibility, and osteogenesis of porous scaffolds of nanobredigite and PCL–PEG–PCL composite

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jun; Fan, Donghui; Zhao, Lingming; Yu, Baoqin; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-01-01

    Biocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by incorporation of nanobredigite (n-BD) into the polymer of poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethyleneglycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL–PEG–PCL). The results revealed that the addition of n-BD into PCL–PEG–PCL significantly improved water absorption, compressive strength, and degradability of the scaffolds of n-BD/PCL–PEG–PCL composite (n-BPC) compared with PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds alone. In addition, the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells cultured on n-BPC scaffolds were obviously higher than that cultured on PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds. Moreover, the results of the histological evaluation from the animal model revealed that the n-BPC scaffolds significantly improved new bone formation compared with the PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds, indicating good osteogenesis. The n-BPC scaffolds with good biocompatibility could stimulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone tissue regeneration and would be an excellent candidate for bone defect repair. PMID:27555774

  4. PCL/PHBV Microparticles as Innovative Carriers for Oral Controlled Release of Manidipine Dihydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Machado, Willian Moreira; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) containing manidipine dihydrochloride (MAN) were successfully prepared by the simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. All formulations showed loading efficiency rates greater than 80% and average particle size less than 8 μm. Formulations had spherical shape with smooth and porous surface for PCL and PHBV, respectively. According to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, initial components were not chemically modified during microencapsulation. X-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that this process led to drug amorphization. In vitro dissolution studies showed that all microparticles prolonged MAN release, mainly which one obtained using PCL that contained 5% of drug loaded (PCL-M5). Animal studies demonstrated that formulation PCL-M5 was able to keep the variation of mean arterial pressure after phenylephrine administration up to 24 hours. These data confirmed the sustained antihypertensive effect of the investigated microparticles. Results provided an experimental basis for using formulation PCL-M5 as a feasible carrier for oral controlled release of MAN intended for treating high blood pressure. PMID:24550699

  5. The prognostic value of the PCL-R in relation to the SUD treatment ending.

    PubMed

    Berger, Karlheinz; Rotermund, Peter; Vieth, Elisabeth R; Hohnhorst, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Scientific research about patients with substance use disorders (SUD) treated within the context of forensic compulsory addiction treatment is seldom available. Scientifically supported surveys regarding the treatability of SUD patients are rare. Some authors claim that the Psychopathy-Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) has value for predicting therapeutic success. PCL-R scores rely on extensive interview data and a detailed review of criminal records and social history. The scores reflect 1) the affective and interpersonal psychological traits; and 2) socially deviant conduct. This study was conducted by the forensic professional clinic at the hospital for Psychiatry and Neurology Hildburghausen. We assessed 102 male patients using the PCL-R. This investigation evaluated the Total score of the PCL-R and the score of Factor 1 and Factor 2 in relation to the end of treatment by court order. The results showed significant differences between patients who completed treatment and those who did not. Patients that dropped out of treatment had a higher score in PCL-R. With the use of the PCL-R it is possible to make a quantitative statement about which patients will complete treatment.

  6. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend ... breast infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider ...

  7. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lixin; Hu, Bicheng; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Yuqian; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xinxing

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA); TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs) to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×105 colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of −31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%), and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no cytotoxicity on HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs achieved a higher level of antifungal activity both in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate and duration was higher in mice treated by ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs than in the other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs significantly improved ITZ bioavailability by increasing its aqueous dispersibility and extending the duration of drug release, thereby improving the antifungal efficacy of the ITZ agent. PMID:25733833

  8. Osteogenic activity of cyclodextrin-encapsulated doxycycline in a calcium phosphate PCL and PLGA composite.

    PubMed

    Trajano, V C C; Costa, K J R; Lanza, C R M; Sinisterra, R D; Cortés, M E

    2016-07-01

    Composites of biodegradable polymers and calcium phosphate are bioactive and flexible, and have been proposed for use in tissue engineering and bone regeneration. When associated with the broad-spectrum antibiotic doxycycline (DOX), they could favor antimicrobial action and enhance the action of osteogenic composites. Composites of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and a bioceramic of biphasic calcium phosphate Osteosynt® (BCP) were loaded with DOX encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and were evaluated for effects on osteoblastic cell cultures. The DOX/βCD composite was prepared with a double mixing method. Osteoblast viability was assessed with methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays after 1day, 7day, and 14days of composite exposure; alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and collagen production were evaluated after 7days and 14days, and mineral nodule formation after 14days. Composite structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts exposed to the composite containing 25μg/mL DOX/βCD had increased cell proliferation (p<0.05) compared to control osteoblast cultures at all experimental time points, reaching a maximum in the second week. AP activity and collagen secretion levels were also elevated in osteoblasts exposed to the DOX/βCD composite (p<0.05 vs. controls) and reached a maximum after 14days. These results were corroborated by Von Kossa test results, which showed strong formation of mineralization nodules during the same time period. SEM of the composite material revealed a surface topography with pore sizes suitable for growing osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that osteoblasts are viable, proliferative, and osteogenic in the presence of a DOX/βCD-containing BCP ceramic composite.

  9. First principles computational study on hydrolysis of hazardous chemicals phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride (PCl3 and POCl3) catalyzed by molecular water clusters.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunwook; Kang, Joonhee; Chun, Hoje; Han, Byungchan

    2018-01-05

    Using first principles calculations we unveil fundamental mechanism of hydrolysis reactions of two hazardous chemicals PCl3 and POCl3 with explicit molecular water clusters nearby. It is found that the water molecules play a key role as a catalyst significantly lowing activation barrier of the hydrolysis via transferring its protons to reaction intermediates. Interestingly, torsional angle of the molecular complex at transition state is identified as a vital descriptor on the reaction rate. Analysis of charge distribution over the complex further reinforces the finding with atomic level correlation between the torsional angle and variation of the orbital hybridization state of phosphorus (P) in the complex. Electronic charge separation (or polarization) enhances thermodynamic stability of the activated complex and reduces the activation energy through hydrogen bonding network with water molecules nearby. Calculated potential energy surfaces (PES) for the hydrolysis of PCl3 and POCl3 depict their two contrastingly different profiles of double- and triple-depth wells, respectively. It is ascribed to the unique double-bonding O=P in the POCl3. Our results on the activation free energy show well agreements with previous experimental data within 7kcalmol(-1) deviation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate hybrid composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Seong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2014-12-19

    Micro/nanofibrous scaffolds have been used widely in biomedical applications because the micro/nano-scale fibres resemble natural extracellular matrix and the high surface-to-volume ratio encourages cellular activities (attachment and proliferation). However, poor mechanical properties, low controllability of various shapes and difficulties in obtaining controllable pore structure have been obstacles to their use in hard-tissue regeneration. To overcome these shortcomings, we suggest a new composite system, which uses a combination method of wet electrospinning, rapid prototyping and a physical punching process. Using the process, we obtained polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate composite scaffolds, consisting of electrospun PCL/alginate fibres and micro-sized PCL struts, with mean pore sizes of 821 ± 55 μm. To show the feasibility of the scaffolds for hard-tissue regeneration, the scaffolds were assessed not only for physical properties, including hydrophilicity, water absorption, and tensile and compressive strength, but also in vitro cellular responses (cell viability and proliferation) and osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralisation) by culturing with pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells). With the reinforcing micro-sized PCL struts, the elastic modulus of the PCL/alginate scaffold was significantly improved versus a pure PCL scaffold. Additionally, due to the alginate component in the fibrous scaffold, they showed significantly enhanced hydrophilic behaviour, water absorption (∼8-fold) and significant biological activities (∼1.6-fold for cell viability at 7 days, ∼2.3-fold for ALP activity at 14 days and ∼6.4-fold for calcium mineralisation at 14 days) compared with those of a pure PCL fibrous scaffold.

  11. Psychometric analysis of the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5) among treatment-seeking military service members.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Jennifer H; Jordan, Alexander H; Weathers, Frank W; Resick, Patricia A; Dondanville, Katherine A; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Foa, Edna B; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Mintz, Jim; Peterson, Alan L; Litz, Brett T

    2016-11-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2013) was recently revised to reflect the changed diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). We investigated the psychometric properties of PCL-5 scores in a large cohort (N = 912) of military service members seeking PTSD treatment while stationed in garrison. We examined the internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and DSM-5 factor structure of PCL-5 scores, their sensitivity to clinical change relative to PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993) scores, and their diagnostic utility for predicting a PTSD diagnosis based on various measures and scoring rules. PCL-5 scores exhibited high internal consistency. There was strong agreement between the order of hypothesized and observed correlations among PCL-5 and criterion measure scores. The best-fitting structural model was a 7-factor hybrid model (Armour et al., 2015), which demonstrated closer fit than all other models evaluated, including the DSM-5 model. The PCL-5's sensitivity to clinical change, pre- to posttreatment, was comparable with that of the PSS-I. Optimally efficient cut scores for predicting PTSD diagnosis were consistent with prior research with service members (Hoge, Riviere, Wilk, Herrell, & Weathers, 2014). The results indicate that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms that is useful for identifying provisional PTSD diagnostic status, quantifying PTSD symptom severity, and detecting clinical change over time in PTSD symptoms among service members seeking treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Acetic-acid-mediated miscibility toward electrospinning homogeneous composite nanofibers of GT/PCL.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bei; Tu, Hongbin; Yuan, Huihua; Peng, Hongju; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2012-12-10

    In tissue engineering research, there has recently been considerable interest in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, in particular, from natural and synthetic polymers for engineering different tissues. However, phase separation between a pair of much dissimilar polymers might give rise to detrimental influences on both the electrospinning process and the resultant fiber performance. A representative natural-synthetic hybrid of gelatin (GT) and polycaprolactone (PCL) (50:50) was employed to study the phase separation behavior in electrospinning of the GT/PCL composite fibers. Using trifluoroethanol (TFE) as the cosolvent of the two polymers, observation of visible sedimentation and flocculation from dynamic light scattering analysis of the GT/PCL/TFE mixture both showed that phase separation does occur in just a few hours. This consequently led to gradually deteriorated fiber morphologies (e.g., splash, fiber bonding, and varied fiber size) over time during electrospinning GT/PCL. Quantitative analysis also indicated that the ratio of GT to PCL in the resultant GT/PCL fibers was altered over time. To address the phase separation related issues, a tiny amount (<0.3%) of acetic acid was introduced to improve the miscibility, which enabled the originally turbid solution to become clear immediately and to be single-phase stable for more than 1 week. Nanofibers thus obtained also appeared to be thinner, smooth, and homogeneous with enhanced performance in wettability and mechanical properties. Given the versatility and widely uses of the electrospun GT/PCL and other similar natural-synthetic hybrid systems in constructing tissue-engineered scaffolds, this work may offer a facile and effective approach to achieve finer and compositionally homogeneous hybrid nanofibers for effective applications.

  13. Structural and Surface Compatibility Study of Modified Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) Composites for Skin Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Kajal; Manakhov, Anton; Zajíčková, Lenka; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers (PCL-NF), collagen-coated PCL nanofibers (Col-c-PCL), and titanium dioxide-incorporated PCL (TiO2-i-PCL) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique to study the surface and structural compatibility of these scaffolds for skin tisuue engineering. Collagen coating over the PCL nanofibers was done by electrospinning process. Morphology of PCL nanofibers in electrospinning was investigated at different voltages and at different concentrations of PCL. The morphology, interaction between different materials, surface property, and presence of TiO2 were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurement, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). MTT assay and cell adhesion study were done to check biocompatibilty of these scaffolds. SEM study confirmed the formation of nanofibers without beads. FTIR proved presence of collagen on PCL scaffold, and contact angle study showed increment of hydrophilicity of Col-c-PCL and TiO2-i-PCL due to collagen coating and incorporation of TiO2, respectively. EDX and XPS studies revealed distribution of entrapped TiO2 at molecular level. MTT assay and cell adhesion study using L929 fibroblast cell line proved viability of cells with attachment of fibroblasts over the scaffold. Thus, in a nutshell, we can conclude from the outcomes of our investigational works that such composite can be considered as a tissue engineered construct for skin wound healing.

  14. Novel thin films deposited on electrospun PCL scaffolds by atmospheric pressure plasma jet for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozutok, M.; Baitukha, A.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.; Turkoglu Sasmazel, H.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the deposition of PCL homopolymers and poly ɛ-caprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) copolymers by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) onto electrospun PCL scaffolds for improving L929 fibroblast cell growth. Polymer deposited scaffolds showed better stability as well as lower CA as compared to those treated with APPJ in Ar alone used as the carrier gas to introduce the precursors due to the formation of polar groups generated during the plasma treatment, such as -OH and/or -COO. Average fiber and porosity sizes were calculated by using SEM photographs and the ImageJ Launcher Software program and higher values were observed for both PCL and PCL-PEG deposited scaffolds than the untreated electrospun PCL scaffolds. XPS analysis showed that C1s% content decreased for PCL deposited (from 82.4% to 71.0%) and PCL-PEG deposited (from 82.4% to 57.7%) and O1s% composition increased for PCL deposited (from 17.6% to 29.0%) and PCL-PEG deposited (from 17.6% to 42.3%) compared to the untreated one. XPS results proved more incorporation of oxygen moieties on the deposited surfaces than the untreated samples giving rise to more hydrophilic surfaces to the deposited ones. Standard in vitro MTT test, Giemsa staining, fluorescence and CLSM imaging techniques were used for the determination of cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. Cell culture experiments showed that PCL-PEG deposited electrospun PCL scaffolds had the most promising cell adhesion, proliferation and growth among the treated scaffolds. The increased average fiber diameter caused by deposition as well as oxygen containing polar groups formed on the surfaces due to the radicals present in the plasma atmosphere provided higher surface area and functionality, respectively, for cells to attach, yielding better biocompatibility performance.

  15. Fabrication of Gelatin/PCL Electrospun Fiber Mat with Bone Powder and the Study of Its Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Dongming; Chen, Ping; Yang, Yuchao; Li, Qingtao; Wan, Wenbing; Fang, Xingxing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Zhongyu; Tian, Jing; Ouyang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Fabricating ideal scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is a great challenge to researchers. To better mimic the mineral component and the microstructure of natural bone, several kinds of materials were adopted in our study, namely gelatin, polycaprolactone (PCL), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), and bone powder. Three types of scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning; gelatin/PCL, gelatin/PCL/nHA, and gelatin/PCL/bone powder. Scaffolds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Then, Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) were seeded on these scaffolds to study cell morphology, cell viability, and proliferation. Through this study, we found that nHA and bone powder can be successfully united in gelatin/PCL fibers. When compared with gelatin/PCL and gelatin/PCL/nHA, the gelatin/PCL/bone powder scaffolds could provide a better environment to increase ADSCs’ growth, adhesion, and proliferation. Thus, we think that gelatin/PCL/bone powder has good biocompatibility, and, when compared with nHA, bone powder may be more effective in bone tissue engineering due to the bioactive factors contained in it. PMID:26959071

  16. Ultraporous interweaving electrospun microfibers from PCL-PEO binary blends and their inflammatory responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Fang; Rubert, Marina; Aslan, Hüsnü; Yu, Ying; Howard, Kenneth A.; Dong, Mingdong; Besenbacher, Flemming; Chen, Menglin

    2014-02-01

    Production of one dimensional nanomaterials with secondary morphology exhibiting unique functions is challenging. Here we report for the first time that a nanoscale immiscible polymer blend solution electrojet can assemble into ultraporous interweaving microfibers. This intriguingly novel morphology originated from a blend of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) in a DCM-DMF mixed solution when the ratio between each component reached a threshold and when the electrospinning parameters were delicately controlled. The morphology, crystallinity, surface chemistry and wettabilities were characterized to understand the mechanism of formation. The interplay of the two semi-crystalline polymers and the pair of solvents/non-solvents with the electrospinning processing parameters was found to be critical for the formation of the unique structure. Furthermore, the interesting combination of biocompatible, biodegradable PCL with protein-resistant PEO motivated us to assess its inflammation responses on the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. All fibers were found to be biocompatible with low inflammation potential upon incubation, while compared with pure PCL nanofibers; the unique interweaving microfibers induced a slightly higher inflammatory reaction.Production of one dimensional nanomaterials with secondary morphology exhibiting unique functions is challenging. Here we report for the first time that a nanoscale immiscible polymer blend solution electrojet can assemble into ultraporous interweaving microfibers. This intriguingly novel morphology originated from a blend of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) in a DCM-DMF mixed solution when the ratio between each component reached a threshold and when the electrospinning parameters were delicately controlled. The morphology, crystallinity, surface chemistry and wettabilities were characterized to understand the mechanism of formation. The interplay of the two semi-crystalline polymers and the

  17. An additive manufacturing-based PCL-alginate-chondrocyte bioprinted scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Joydip; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Regenerative medicine is targeted to improve, restore or replace damaged tissues or organs using a combination of cells, materials and growth factors. Both tissue engineering and developmental biology currently deal with the process of tissue self-assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In this investigation, additive manufacturing (AM) with a multihead deposition system (MHDS) was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed scaffolds using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte cell-encapsulated alginate hydrogel. Appropriate cell dispensing conditions and optimum alginate concentrations for maintaining cell viability were determined. In vitro cell-based biochemical assays were performed to determine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), DNA and total collagen contents from different PCL-alginate gel constructs. PCL-alginate gels containing transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) showed higher ECM formation. The 3D cell-printed scaffolds of PCL-alginate gel were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous spaces of female nude mice. Histochemical [Alcian blue and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining] and immunohistochemical (type II collagen) analyses of the retrieved implants after 4 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue and type II collagen fibril formation in the PCL-alginate gel (+TGFβ) hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, we present an innovative cell-printed scaffold for cartilage regeneration fabricated by an advanced bioprinting technology.

  18. The Diagnosis of PCL Injury: Literature Review and Introduction of Two Novel Tests

    PubMed Central

    Feltham, Glen T; Albright, John P

    2001-01-01

    Isolated PCL injuries have become more prevalent in recent years, possibly as a result of improved awareness and clinical recognition. However, the diagnosis can be difficult, and many of these injuries continue to go undiagnosed. Several clinical tests for PCL laxity have been described over the years, with varying degrees of sensitivity and clinical applicability. These include the posterior drawer,1 the Muller Quadriceps Active Test,2,3 Godfrey's Test,4 Trillat's reversal achman/total translation test,5 and the Dynamic Posterior Shift.6 All of these tests require significant posterior laxity associated with complete PCL disruption to be positive. Use of the KT-1000 arthrometer, and several radiographic tests have also been developed to help with diagnosis and quantification of laxity. It is the purpose of this paper to review the technique and application of the established diagnostic tests for PCL deficiency, and to introduce two new tests employed by the senior author for nearly three decades. It is the authors' experience that these new tests are sufficiently sensitive to allow the examiner to detect the presence of PCL insufficiency even in the most difficult diagnostic situations with subtle laxity. PMID:11813949

  19. Establishment and Characterization of PCL12, a Novel CD5+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Scarfò, Lydia; Barbaglio, Federica; Apollonio, Benedetta; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Ranghetti, Pamela; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Leone, Gabriella; De Pascali, Valeria; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Ghia, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Immortalized cell lines representative of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can assist in understanding disease pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic agents. At present, very few representative cell lines are available. We here describe the characterization of a new cell line (PCL12) that grew spontaneously from the peripheral blood (PB) of a CLL patient with progressive disease and EBV infection. The CLL cell origin of PCL12 was confirmed after the alignment of its IGH sequence against the “original” clonotypic sequence. The IGH gene rearrangement was truly unmutated and no CLL-related cytogenetic or genetic lesions were detected. PCL12 cells express CD19, CD20, CD5, CD23, low levels of IgM and IgD and the poor-outcome-associated prognostic markers CD38, ZAP70 and TCL1. In accordance with its aggressive phenotype the cell line is inactive in terms of LYN and HS1 phosphorylation. BcR signalling pathway is constitutively active and anergic in terms of p-ERK and Calcium flux response to α-IgM stimulation. PCL12 cells strongly migrate in vitro in response to SDF-1 and form clusters. Finally, they grow rapidly and localize in all lymphoid organs when xenotrasplanted in Rag2-/-γc-/- mice. PCL12 represents a suitable preclinical model for testing pharmacological agents. PMID:26110819

  20. Hydrophilic block azidation of PCL-b-PEO block copolymers from epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjie; Gan, Zhihua

    2014-05-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) with well-controlled pendant azido groups along the hydrophilic PEO block, that is, poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide-co-glycidyl azide) (PCL-b-P(EO-co-GA)), are synthesized from poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide-co-epichlorohydrin) (PCL-b-P(EO-co-ECH)). The further conversion of those azido groups along the hydrophilic block of copolymers into amino or carboxyl groups via click chemistry is studied. The micelles self-assembled from PCL-b-P(EO-co-GA) with azido groups on the shell are crosslinked by the dialkynyl-PEO. The micelles with crosslinked shell show better stability, higher drug loading capacities, subsequent faster drug release rate, and higher cytotoxicity to cancer cells. The introduction of azido groups into PCL-b-PEO amphiphilic diblock copolymers from epichlorohydrin in PEO hydrophilic block in this work provides a new method for biofunctionalization of micelles via mild click chemistry.

  1. Gamma radiation effect on structural properties of PLLA/PCL blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Y.; Machado, L. D. B.; Giovedi, C.; Nakayama, K.

    2007-12-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) extruded homopolymers and PLLA/PCL blends films were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 at doses in the range of 25-500 kGy to investigate the effect of the ionizing radiation on the morphological properties of the samples. The morphology of the homopolymers and the blends were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The micrographs of the fractured homopolymers and blends have shown immiscibility of the blends. The crystallization of PLLA can be observed in the annealed samples. Samples irradiated with 100 kGy presented few variations in the morphology. But in PCL homopolymer and PCL/PLLA 50/50 wt% blend irradiated with 500 kGy dose it was possible to observe significant alteration. The ruptured sample surface of irradiated PCL with 500 kGy became full of scales probably due to an increase of crosslinking density induced by the ionizing radiation, but apparently no changes promoted by ionizing radiation could be observed on the irradiated PLLA by SEM.

  2. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Dajana; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200°C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  3. Indirect coculture of stem cells with fetal chondrons using PCL electrospun nanofiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nikpou, Parisa; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Mohammad Nejad, Daryoush; Samadi, Nasser; Roshangar, Leila; Navali, Amir Mohammad; Shafaei, Hajar; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah; Danandeh Oskoei, Neda; Soleimani Rad, Sara

    2017-03-01

    In vitro coculture system provides a powerful tool for tissue engineering. In this study, we evaluated the gene expressions of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold in coculture model with fetal chondrons. Electrospun PCL scaffolds (900 nm fiber diameter) were created and human infrapatellar fat pad-adipose-derived stem cells (IPFP-ASCs) were seeded on these scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed attachment of human IPFP-ASCs to scaffold. IPFP-ASCs on scaffolds were cocultured with fetal chondrons in transwell. Gene expressions were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). In comparison with control group, the expression level of collagen type 2 and aggrecan were significantly decreased but Indian Hedgehog(IHH) significantly increased (P < 0.05).These findings may interpreted that IPFP-ASCs seeded on PCL scaffold, in cocultures with fetal chondrons are tending toward osteogenesis rather than chondrogenesis.

  4. Coincident Crystallization of PEO- b-PCL Copolymers with Similar Block Molecular Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Horn, Ryan; Brigham, Natasha; Nardi, Christopher

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO- b-PCL) copolymers have garnered much attention for their use in the biomedical field due to their biocompatibility and the degradation of PCL. The applications of this polymer are heavily dependent on the polymer's physical properties, including crystalline content. One complicating factor is the relatively similar transition temperatures for PEO and PCL. We have studied the coincident crystallization behavior of 5k-5k and 10k-10k g/mol samples using FTIR. Both samples were isothermally crystallized at varying temperatures to track the development of crystallinity over time. Experiments showed that the crystallization of both blocks occurred nearly simultaneously over all temperatures. Each block's crystallization behavior was affected by the other block's crystallization.

  5. Electrospun PLA: PCL composites embedded with unmodified and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ASP) modified halloysite nanotubes (HNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroosh, Hazim J.; Dong, Yu; Chaudhary, Deeptangshu S.; Ingram, Gordon D.; Yusa, Shin-ichi

    2013-02-01

    Electrospinning is a simple and versatile fiber synthesis technique in which a high-voltage electric field is applied to a stream of polymer melt or polymer solution, resulting in the formation of continuous micro/nanofibers. Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) have been found to achieve improved structural and mechanical properties when embedded into various polymer matrices. This research work focuses on blending poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) (9 and 15 wt%/v) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (fixed at 8 wt%/v) solutions with HNT at two different concentrations 1 and 2 wt%/v. Both unmodified HNT and HNT modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ASP) were utilized in this study. Fiber properties have been shown to be strongly related to the solution viscosity and electrical conductivity. The addition of HNT increased the solution viscosity, thus resulting in the production of uniform fibers. For both PCL concentrations, the average fiber diameter increased with the increasing of HNT concentration. The average fiber diameters with HNT-ASP were reduced considerably in comparison to those with unmodified HNT when using 15 wt%/v PCL. Slightly better dispersion was obtained for PLA: PCL composites embedded with HNT-ASP compared to unmodified HNT. Furthermore, the addition of HNT-ASP to the polymeric blends resulted in a moderate decrease in the degree of crystallinity, as well as slight reductions of glass transition temperature of PCL, the crystallization temperature and melting temperature of PLA within composite materials. The infrared spectra of composites confirmed the successful embedding of HNT-ASP into PLA: PCL nanofibers relative to unmodified HNT due to the premodification using ASP to reduce the agglomeration behavior. This study provides a new material system that could be potentially used in drug delivery, and may facilitate good control of the drug release process.

  6. PCL-forsterite nanocomposite fibrous membranes for controlled release of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Kharaziha, Mahshid; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein; Edris, Hossein; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat; Talebi, Ardeshir; Salmanizadeh, Sharareh

    2015-01-01

    The well-known treatment of the alveolar bone defects is guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Engineered membranes combined with osteo-differentiation factors have been offered a promising strategy for GTR application. Recently, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-forsterite (PCL-F) nanocomposite fibrous membranes have been developed. However, PCL-F membranes could not promote bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this research is to encapsulate an osteogenic factor [dexamethasone (DEX)] in PCL-F membranes and evaluate the effects of forsterite nanopowder (particle size = 25-45 nm) and fiber organization on DEX delivery for GTR application. The hypothesis is that the release kinetic and profile of DEX could be controlled through variation of forsterite content (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and fiber arrangement (aligned and random). Results demonstrated while DEX release was sustained over a period of 4 weeks, its kinetic was governed by the membrane architecture and composition. For example, aligned PCL-F nanocomposite fibrous membrane consisting of 10 %(w/v) forsterite nanopowder exhibited the least initial burst release (13 % release in the first 12 h) and allowed sustained release of DEX. Additionally, forsterite nanopowder inclusion changed the kinetic of DEX release from Fickian diffusion to an anomalous transport. The bioactivity of released DEX was estimated using culturing the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) on the membranes. Results demonstrated that proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SHED could be governed by DEX release process. While DEX release from the membranes decreased SHED proliferation, stimulated the matrix mineralization. Our finding indicated that aligned PCL-F/DEX membrane could be used as a carrier for the sustained release of drugs relevant for GTR trophy.

  7. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... to talk to kids about bullying. Respond to Bullying Learn how to respond to bullying . From stopping ... Text Size: A A A Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ...

  8. On the Viability of PTSD Checklist (PCL) Short Form Use: Analyses from Mississippi Gulf Coast Hurricane Katrina Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschel, Michael J.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2010-01-01

    One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane…

  9. On the Viability of PTSD Checklist (PCL) Short Form Use: Analyses from Mississippi Gulf Coast Hurricane Katrina Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschel, Michael J.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2010-01-01

    One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane…

  10. Graphite nanoplatelets-modified PLA/PCL: Effect of blend ratio and nanofiller localization on structure and properties.

    PubMed

    Kelnar, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Zhigunov, Alexander; Nevoralová, Martina

    2017-07-01

    Structure and properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) influenced by graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were studied in dependence on blend composition. Electron microscopy indicates predominant localization of GNP in PCL. GNP-induced changes in viscosity hinder refinement of PCL inclusions, support PCL continuity in the co-continuous system, and lead to reduction of PLA inclusions size without GNP being present at the interface in the PCL-matrix blend. Negligible differences in crystallinity of both phases indicate that mechanical behaviour is mainly influenced by reinforcement and GNP-induced changes in morphology. Addition of 5 parts of GNP leads to ~40% and ~25% increase of stiffness in the PCL- and PLA-matrix systems, respectively, whereas the reinforcing effect is practically eliminated in the co-continuous systems due to GNP-induced lower continuity of PLA which enhances toughness. Impact resistance of the 80/20 blend shows increase with 5 parts content due to synergistic effect of PCL/GNP stacks, whereas minor increase in the blend of the ductile PCL matrix with brittle PLA inclusions is caused by GNP-modification of the component parameters. Results indicate high potential of GNP in preparing biocompatible systems with wide range of structure and properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Factorial Structure and Construct Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) among Alcoholic Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Dumenci, Levent

    1999-01-01

    Conducted simultaneous group confirmatory factor analyses of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)(R. Hare, 1991) with 740 alcoholic inpatients. Results provide general support for the use of the PCL-R with alcoholic inpatients, although there was substantial intercorrelation for the factors of Personality and Behavioral Features. (SLD)

  12. Examining the Utility of the PCL:SV as a Screening Measure Using Competing Factor Models of Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Laura S.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003) was examined in forensic (N = 175) and correctional (N = 188) samples. Intermeasure correlations for Total scores (0.95 forensic, 0.94…

  13. Comparison between PCL/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL/halloysite nanotube (HNT) composite scaffolds prepared by co-extrusion and gas foaming.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, three-dimensional poly(caprolactone) (PCL) tissue engineering scaffolds were prepared by co-extrusion and gas foaming. Biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were added to the polymer matrix to enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of the composite scaffolds. The effects of HA and HNT on the rheological behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were systematically compared. It was found that the HNT improved viscosity more significantly than HA, and reduced the pore size of scaffolds, while the mechanical performance of PCL/HNT scaffolds was higher than PCL/HA scaffolds with the same filler content. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used as the cell model to compare the biological properties of two composite scaffolds. The results demonstrated that cells could survive on all scaffolds, and showed a more flourishing living state on the composite scaffolds. The cell differentiation for 5% HA and 1% HNT scaffolds were significantly higher than other scaffolds, while the differentiation of 5% HNT scaffolds was lower than that of 1% HNT scaffolds mainly because of the reduced pore size and pore interconnectivity. Therefore, this study suggested that, with proper filler content and control of microstructure through processing, HNT could be a suitable substitute for HA for bone tissue engineering to reduce the cost and improve mechanical performance.

  14. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  15. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & ...

  16. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  17. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  18. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  19. In vitro evaluation of the effects of electrospun PCL nanofiber mats containing the microalgae Spirulina (Arthrospira) extract on primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Shin, Chungwhan; Min, Seul Ki; Jung, Sang-Myung; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2012-02-01

    The blue-green microalgae, Spirulina, a harmless food and pharmaceutical additive, has several bioactive compounds that have therapeutic functions. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that has widely been used for tissue engineering. The electrospun PCL nanofiber containing Spirulina (PCL-Spirulina) was fabricated and tested as a potential extracellular matrix material for a culture of primary astrocytes, which play important roles in CNS injured systems. Spirulina extract was observed to increase growth and metabolic activity of rat primary astrocytes without any harm once added to the culture media. However, PCL-Spirulina nanofiber was proven to alleviate astrocyte activity. Through this research and to the best of our knowledge, we first suggest a novel composite nanomaterial, an electrospun PCL-Spirulina nanofiber that could be used to treat CNS injured systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Denitrification performance and microbial diversity in a packed-bed bioreactor using PCL as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weizhong; Yang, Luhua; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as both carbon source and biofilm support for denitrifying bacteria in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performance and microbial diversity were investigated. The microbial community of biofilm developed on the surface of PCL in the reactor was analyzed by pyrosequencing method. The experimental results showed the average nitrate removal efficiency reached 93 % at stable operation. ESEM observation and FTIR analysis were conducted to characterize the PCL structure before and after microbial utilization. For the microbial community, Betaproteobacteria predominated, and most of the PCL-degrading denitrifying bacteria assigned to the family of Comamonadacea. Denitrifying bacteria accounted for more than 20 % in the total population, indicating that PCL is a good carrier and carbon source for biological denitrification.

  1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), low anxiety, and fearlessness: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Craig S; Johansson, Peter T; Hare, Robert D

    2013-04-01

    The current study employed a large representative sample of violent male offenders within the Swedish prison system to examine the factor structure of the PCL-R and the latent variable relations between the PCL-R items and clinical ratings of low trait anxiety and trait fearlessness (LAF). Consistent with previous research, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed strong support for the four-factor model of psychopathy (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial). Also, a series of CFAs revealed that the LAF items could be placed on any of the PCL-R factors without any changes in model fit. Finally, structural equation modeling results indicated that a PCL-R superordinate factor was able to account for most of the variance of a separate LAF factor. Taken together, the results indicate that if low anxiety and fearlessness, as measured via clinical ratings, are part of the psychopathy construct they are comprehensively accounted for by extant PCL-R items.

  2. Collagen-coated nano-electrospun PCL seeded with human endometrial stem cells for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Shiva; Ai, Jafar; Azami, Mahmoud; Verdi, Javad; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Shirian, Sadegh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali

    2017-08-09

    Human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) are known as an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. hEnSCs are easily isolated and are capable of repairing uterine through their strong ability of creating new capillaries. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen scaffold was fabricated and characterized in order to be applied as a new approach for skin reconstruction. Furthermore, the behavior of hEnSCs on this scaffold was investigated. First, a PCL 3D scaffold was constructed using electrospinning technique. Plasma treated and PCL was grafted by collagen. The constructs were characterized for mechanical and structural properties. Cell attachment, proliferation, viability, and differentiation of hEnSCs were assessed after being seeded on PCL and PCL/collagen scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests. The results showed higher wettability for the PCL/collagen scaffold with desirable mechanical and structural characteristics compared to PCL and collagen alone. The attachment and proliferation rates of hEnSCs on the PCL/collagen scaffold were higher compared to those on the bare PCL. Hence, hEnSCs are newly discovered stem cell source for skin tissue engineering in vitro, particularly when developed on PCL/collagen nanofiber scaffolds. Therefore, application of hEnSCs for skin regeneration is a novel therapeutic approach for temporary skin substitute. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of cell-penetrating peptide-modified MPEG-PCL diblock copolymeric nanoparticles for systemic gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ko; Kanazawa, Takanori; Shibata, Yasunori; Suda, Yumiko; Fukuda, Tsunehiko; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2010-08-30

    To develop a safe and efficient systemic non-viral gene vector, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) diblock copolymers conjugated with a Tat analog through the ester or disulfide linkage were synthesized and their suitability as a systemic non-viral gene carrier evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the MPEG-PCL diblock copolymers were determined by GPC, (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The particle sizes and in vitro (COS7 and S-180 cells) transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity were evaluated. Furthermore, the luciferase activity was then determined in various tissues after intravenous injection of MPEG-PCL-SS-Tat/pCMV-Luc complex into mice bearing S-180 cells. The particle sizes of the MPEG-PCL-Tat copolymers with or without pDNA were about 40 and 60nm, respectively. The luciferase activity in COS7 cells transfected with pCMV-Luc with MPEG-PCL-ester-Tat or MPEG-PCL-SS-Tat was higher than that with pDNA only. MPEG-PCL-SS-Tat greatly increased the transfection efficiency compared to MPEG-PCL-ester-Tat in COS7 and S-180 cells. In an in vitro cytotoxicity test MPEG-PCL-SS-Tat did not induce any remarkable cytotoxicity. In an in vivo experiment, the synthesized MPEG-PCL-SS-Tat copolymers promoted the delivery and expression of pDNA into tumor tissue in tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, this vector might be applicable as a tumor-targeting non-viral systemic gene carrier in the clinical setting. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Computerizing the radiological sign].

    PubMed

    Bertaud, V; Belhadj, I; Dameron, O; Garcelon, N; Hendaoui, L; Marin, F; Duvauferrier, R

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to present to the radiologist the different theories of the sign and their consequences for sign representation in computer systems. All the theories of the sign are presented, but the most relevant are highlighted in order to explain the great modeling systems currently in use (such as DICOM-SR or the UMLS). The constructivist approach of the notion of disease, the semiosis process, which starting from signs produces new signs, and the structuralist analysis of sign through language are emphasized. The purpose of this analysis is to end up with a consensual representation of the sign that can be understood by human beings and processed by machines. Such a representation, also known as an ontology, is based on a semantic organization of language, thus allowing medicine to become a truly scientific discipline. It aims at disambiguating the symbols given to machines, which will help us in our reasoning.

  5. Sign language Web pages.

    PubMed

    Fels, Deborah I; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G

    2006-01-01

    The WORLD WIDE WEB has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The present article describes a system that allows sign language-only Web pages to be created and linked through a video-based technique called sign-linking. In two studies, 14 Deaf participants examined two iterations of signlinked Web pages to gauge the usability and learnability of a signing Web page interface. The first study indicated that signing Web pages were usable by sign language users but that some interface features required improvement. The second study showed increased usability for those features; users consequently couldnavigate sign language information with ease and pleasure.

  6. Design of biodegradable PCL/PI films as a joining tape for grafting plant.

    PubMed

    Eksiler, Kubra; Andou, Yoshito; Nakayama, Natsuki; Yoshinaga, Keita; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2017-09-01

    In this study, novel eco-friendly blends based on environmental-friendly polymers and compatibilizers, such as poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI), soybean lecithin (SOLE) and acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), have been prepared in order to suggest a biodegradable joining tool used for plant grafting in agriculture, which will be competitive from the environment and economic points of view against conventional nonbiodegradable tools. PCL/PI blends, in which the portion of PCL was 75 and 50, were mixed with a compatibilizer by a melt-blending technique. The resulting blends were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy and also their mechanical properties were determined. Afterwards, the blend films were buried in the soil. Remarkable level of weight loss was achieved in 6 weeks, ∼46%. The results showed that the addition of SOLE helped to improve the compatibility between PCL and PI due to its amphipathic property, and, besides, accelerated the weight loss of the films in soil, increasing microorganism growth on the film.

  7. Cell Attachment and Viability Study of PCL Nano-fiber Modified by Cold Atmospheric Plasma.

    PubMed

    Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi, Fereshteh; Irani, Shiva; Zandi, Mojgan; Mivehchi, Houri; Nagheh, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    The field of tissue engineering is an emerging discipline which applies the basic principles of life sciences and engineering to repair and restore living tissues and organs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cold and non-thermal plasma surface modification of poly (ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds on fibroblast cell behavior. Nano-fiber PCL was fabricated through electrospinning technique, and some fibers were then treated by cold and non-thermal plasma. The cell-biomaterial interactions were studied by culturing the fibroblast cells on nano-fiber PCL. Scaffold biocompatibility test was assessed using an inverted microscope. The growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells on nano-fiber PCL were analyzed by MTT viability assay. Cellular attachment on the nano-fiber and their morphology were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The result of cell culture showed that nano-fiber could support the cellular growth and proliferation by developing three-dimensional topography. The present study demonstrated that the nano-fiber surface modification with cold plasma sharply enhanced the fibroblast cell attachment. Thus, cold plasma surface modification greatly raised the bioactivity of scaffolds.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1601, Displaying Biocontrol against Soilborne Phytopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Carmen; de Vicente, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacterial strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1601. This bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees and displayed antagonistic and biological control activities against different soilborne phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. PMID:28385848

  9. All-epiphyseal semitendinosus PCL reconstruction in a 10-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Warme, Winston J; Mickelson, Dayne

    2010-01-01

    Tears of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in pediatric patients, especially avulsions from its tibial insertion, are not frequently encountered by physicians. However, with an increasing incidence of ligamentous injuries to the knee in skeletally immature patients, orthopaedic surgeons will more frequently need to decide how best to manage a PCL injury in children with open physes. A 10-year-old boy sustained an avulsion of the PCL from its tibial insertion site after a bicycle motocross racing accident. He required a PCL reconstruction after failed conservative treatment and an unsuccessful attempt at primary repair. This successful physeal sparing reconstruction was accomplished using a modified method of femoral tunnel placement in combination with the tibial inlay technique. A magnetic resonance imaging was acquired 2 years postoperatively when physical examination demonstrated both legs of equal length, no varus or valgus deformity, and a normal posterior drawer examination. Four years after the reconstruction, he continues to bicycle motocross race while experiencing no further symptoms and complete restoration to his prior quality of life. The use of the tibial inlay technique together with the modified femoral tunnel location prevented transphyseal drilling while attaining a favorable anatomic placement of the graft while avoiding the "killer" turn associated with the transtibial approach. Level IV (Therapeutic Study).

  10. Enhanced guided bone regeneration by asymmetrically porous PCL/pluronic F127 membrane and ultrasound stimulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Tae Ho; Chun, So Young; Park, Eui Kyun; Lee, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel method for fabricating a guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane with an asymmetrical pore structure and hydrophilicity by an immersion precipitation method. Results from an animal study, in a cranial defect model in rats, indicated that the unique asymmetrically porous GBR membrane would provide a good environment for bone regeneration. In the present study, we applied low intensity pulsed ultrasound as a simple and non-invasive stimulus to an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 GBR membrane-implanted site transcutaneously in rats to investigate the feasibility of using ultrasound to stimulate enhanced bone regeneration through the membrane. It was observed that the ultrasound-stimulated PCL/F127 GBR membrane group had much faster bone regeneration behavior than a PCL/F127 membrane group w/o ultrasound or a control group (w/o membrane and ultrasound). The greater bone regeneration behavior in the GBR membrane/ultrasound group may be caused by a synergistic effect of the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membrane with unique properties (selective permeability, hydrophilicity and osteoconductivity), and the stimulatory effect of ultrasound (induction of angiogenesis and osteogenesis of cells).

  11. Biodegradable self-assembled MPEG-PCL micelles for hydrophobic oridonin delivery in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bingxin; Wang, Yingjing; Tang, XiaoHai; Xie, Ping; Wang, Yujun; Luo, Feng; Wu, Chunjie; Qian, Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    The great potential of oridonin (ORI) for clinical application in cancer therapy is greatly limited due to its poor water-solubility. The purpose of this study was to increase the water solubility of oridonin using monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) as drug carrier. The ORI-loaded MPEG-PCL micelles were prepared by thin film hydration method. The obtained ORI-micelles could be lyophilized into powder form, which could be re-dissolved in water to form homogeneous solution. This study showed that ORI was successfully incorporated in the core-shell structure of MPEG-PCL micelles and maintained its anticancer activity. The average particle size was 25.55 +/- 0.10 nm and the mean zeta potential was -4.71 +/- 0.05 mV. The actual drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 7.99 +/- 0.03% and 99.51 +/- 0.34%, respectively. ORI could be released from MPEG-PCL micelles in a sustained manner in vitro. The permeation profiles of ORI from ORI-micelles and ORI water saturated solution through excised mouse skin demonstrated that ORI-micelles showed much better transdermal penetration performance than ORI water saturated solution. The prepared ORI-micelles have great potential for both direct intravascular administration and being further developed as a transdermal drug delivery system in cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Electron attachment to PCl3 and POCl3, 296-552 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Seeley, John V.; Knighton, W. B.; Meads, Roger F.; Viggiano, A. A.; Morris, Robert A.; Van Doren, Jane M.; Gu, Jiande; Schaefer, Henry F.

    1998-07-01

    Rate constants for electron attachment to PCl3 and POCl3 have been measured over the temperature range 296-552 K in 135 Pa of helium gas, using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Electron attachment to PCl3 is dissociative, producing only Cl- ions in this temperature range. The rate constant is 6.4±1.6×10-8 cm3 s-1 at 296 K and increases with temperature in a way that may be described by an activation energy of 43±10 meV. Electron attachment to POCl3 is a richer process in which a nondissociative channel (POCl3-) competes with two dissociative ones (POCl2- and Cl-). The rate constant for electron attachment to POCl3 is 1.8±0.4×10-7 cm3 s-1 at 296 K and is relatively temperature independent in our temperature range. POCl2- is the major product over the entire temperature range. Ab initio MP2 and MP4 calculations have been carried out on ground-state neutral and anionic PCln and POCln for n=1-3. The calculated adiabatic electron affinities agree with experimental estimates where available. The calculations yield C3v structural symmetries for PCl3 and POCl3, and Cs symmetries for PCl3- and POCl3-. The degree of distortion between the respective neutrals and anions is explored in the calculations, and the implications for electron attachment reactions are outlined.

  13. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  14. Thermal and mechanical properties of compression-molded pMDI-reinforced PCL/gluten composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and vital wheat gluten or wheat flour composites were prepared and compatibilized with polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) by blending and compression-molding. The thermo-mechanical properties of the composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), di...

  15. pMDI-Reinforced Compression-Molded PCL/Gluten: Thermomechanical Properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and vital wheat gluten or wheat flour composites were prepared and compatibilized with polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) by blending and compression-molding. The thermo-mechanical properties of the composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), di...

  16. Enhanced vascularization in hybrid PCL/gelatin fibrous scaffolds with sustained release of VEGF.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Xuejiao; Pan, Yiwa; Cui, Yun; Zhou, Xin; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Creating a long-lasting and functional vasculature represents one of the most fundamental challenges in tissue engineering. VEGF has been widely accepted as a potent angiogenic factor involved in the early stages of blood vessel formation. In this study, fibrous scaffolds that consist of PCL and gelatin fibers were fabricated. The gelatin fibers were further functionalized by heparin immobilization, which provides binding sites for VEGF and thus enables the sustained release of VEGF. In vitro release test confirms the sustained releasing profile of VEGF, and stable release was observed over a time period of 25 days. In vitro cell assay indicates that VEGF release significantly promoted the proliferation of endothelial cells. More importantly, in vivo subcutaneous implantation reflects that vascularization has been effectively enhanced in the PCL/gelatin scaffolds compared with the PCL counterpart due to the sustained release of VEGF. Therefore, the heparinized PCL/gelatin scaffolds developed in this study may be a promising candidate for regeneration of complex tissues with sufficient vascularization.

  17. Bladder smooth muscle cells interaction and proliferation on PCL/PLLA electrospun nanofibrous scaffold.

    PubMed

    Shakhssalim, Nasser; Rasouli, Javad; Moghadasali, Reza; Aghdas, Farzaneh Sharifi; Naji, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2013-02-01

    Numerous synthetic materials have been used for the bladder reconstruction; of which, nano-structured scaffolds are used as relevant implant to the bladder tissue-engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Poly ε-caprolactone/poly-L-lactide acid (PCL/PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold, in supporting the maintenance and attachment of the human bladder smooth muscle cells (BdSMCs). In this study, BdSMCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion method. Then, cells were seeded on PCL/PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds. Thereafter, cell attachment and expansion were analyzed by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed that the nano-structured scaffold supported and maintained normal cell viability without inducing cytotoxic events. H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and SEM showed that BdSMCs were attached and expanded on PCL/PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds after 14 days. Cell viability of BdSMCs on PCL/PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds increased during 14 days. Our results showed that the novel porous nanofibrous electrospun scaffold is a biocompatible structure for attachment and adhesion of BdSMCs. However, there is not enough information on the stimulating effect of this nanofiber on the cells. Therefore, further in-vivo studies seem required to confirm such a nanofiber to be used in the bladder tissue-engineering.

  18. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  19. Fabrication and characterization of PVA/Gum tragacanth/PCL hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds for skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zarekhalili, Zahra; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ranjbar-Mohammadi, M; Milan, Peiman Brouki

    2017-01-01

    In this work three dimensional biodegradable nanofiberous scaffolds containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and gum tragacanth (GT) were successfully fabricated through two nozzles electrospinning process. For this purpose, PVA/GT blend (Blend: B) solution (60:40wt%) was injected from one syringe and poly(ε-caprolactone) solution from the other one. Presence of PVA and PCL in the formulation improved the electrospinning process of GT solution and mechanical properties of the fabricated nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed uniform PVA/GT-PCL blend-hybrid (Blend-Hybrid: B-H) nanofibers with the diameter ranging about 132±27nm. Hybrid nanofibers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests. The antibacterial activities of the PVA/GT-PCL (B-H) nanofibers were conducted against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and results indicated that the hybrid nanofibers were 95.19% antibacterial against S. aureus bacterium. NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells growth and MTT assay were carried out on the scaffolds. Hydrophilicity nature, favorable mechanical properties of the fabricated hybrid nanofibers, along with their structure in biological media, biocompatibility, as well as antibacterial property indicate scaffolds prepared are suitable for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1601, Displaying Biocontrol against Soilborne Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2017-04-06

    In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacterial strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1601. This bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees and displayed antagonistic and biological control activities against different soilborne phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Copyright © 2017 Vida et al.

  1. PCL-based Shape Memory Polymers with Variable PDMS Soft Segment Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; Giese, Melissa L.; Prukop, Stacy L.; Grunlan, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoresponsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-responsive materials that return to their permanent shape from a temporary shape in response to heating. The design of new SMPs which obtain a broader range of properties including mechanical behavior is critical to realize their potential in biomedical as well as industrial and aerospace applications. To tailor the properties of SMPs, “AB networks” comprised of two distinct polymer components have been investigated but are overwhelmingly limited to those in which both components are organic. In this present work, we prepared inorganic-organic SMPs comprised of inorganic polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) segments of varying lengths and organic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) segments. PDMS has a particularly low Tg (−125 °C) which makes it a particularly effective soft segment to tailor the mechanical properties of PCL-based SMPs. The SMPs were prepared via the rapid photocure of solutions of diacrylated PCL40-block-PDMSm-block-PCL40 macromers (m = 20, 37, 66 and 130). The resulting inorganic-organic SMP networks exhibited excellent shape fixity and recovery. By changing the PDMS segment length, the thermal, mechanical, and surface properties were systematically altered. PMID:22904597

  2. Vascular Tissue Engineering: Effects of Integrating Collagen into a PCL Based Nanofiber Material

    PubMed Central

    Poppitz, Benjamin; Dippold, Dirk; Köhn, Katrin; Beier, Justus P.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Schubert, Dirk W.; Horch, Raymund E.

    2017-01-01

    The engineering of vascular grafts is a growing field in regenerative medicine. Although numerous attempts have been made, the current vascular grafts made of polyurethane (PU), Dacron®, or Teflon® still display unsatisfying results. Electrospinning of biopolymers and native proteins has been in the focus of research to imitate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of vessels to produce a small caliber, off-the-shelf tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) as a substitute for poorly performing PU, Dacron, or Teflon prostheses. Blended poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/collagen grafts have shown promising results regarding biomechanical and cell supporting features. In order to find a suitable PCL/collagen blend, we fabricated plane electrospun PCL scaffolds using various collagen type I concentrations ranging from 5% to 75%. We analyzed biocompatibility and morphological aspects in vitro. Our results show beneficial features of collagen I integration regarding cell viability and functionality, but also adverse effects like the loss of a confluent monolayer at high concentrations of collagen. Furthermore, electrospun PCL scaffolds containing 25% collagen I seem to be ideal for engineering vascular grafts.

  3. Psychopathy (PCL-R) as a predictor of violent recidivism among criminal offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tengström, A; Grann, M; Långström, N; Kullgren, G

    2000-02-01

    Hare's Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) was used to test the hypothesis that psychopathy predicts violent recidivism in a cohort subjected to forensic psychiatric investigation and consisting of male violent offenders with schizophrenia (N = 202). Psychopathy was assessed with retrospective file-based ratings. Mean follow-up time after detainment was 51 months. Twenty-two percent of the offenders had a PCL-R score > or = 26 (cutoff), and the base rate for violent recidivism (reconvictions) during follow-up was 21%. Survival analysis revealed that psychopathy was strongly associated to violent recidivism (log-rank = 17.71, df = 1, p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of PCL-R total score to predict violent recidivism varied between different time frames from .64 to .75. Cox regression analyses revealed that other potential risk factors could not equally well or better explain violent recidivism in the cohort than psychopathy as measured by PCL-R.

  4. Basal insulin secretion, PCL-R and recidivism among impulsive violent alcoholic offenders.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Kari P T; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tikkanen, Roope; Virkkunen, Matti

    2015-02-28

    Current risk assessment tools have a moderate predicting value for violence. Their power may be enhanced with certain biological indicators, which may serve as predictors of recidivistic violence itself. The aim of our study was to determine the strength of serum insulin levels to predict violence, and compare these results with those from the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). The study population consisted of 105 Finnish alcoholics who were severely violent offenders, recruited from 1991 to 1998. After exclusion, 75 cases were followed until March 2008, or until a new offense was registered. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of recidivism. The age and weight adjusted effect of insulin to recidivism risk showed a 7.2% increase for each International Unit (IU), or 19% for the mean difference (2.5IU) between recidivists and non-recidivist, which corresponds to a medium effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.46). Adjusting the insulin model with PCL-R factor 1 enhanced the predictive power slightly. Serum fasting insulin level was equivalent to the PCL-R factor 2 score as a predictor, and better than the total PCL-R score. However, the significance of these results was too low for predicting recidivism in the process of judicial decision-making.

  5. Two-, Three-, and Four-Factor PCL-R Models in Applied Sex Offender Risk Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher M.; Meyer, Robert G.; Van Nort, James J.; Tristan, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared 2-, 3-, 4-factor, and 2-factor/4-facet Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) models in a previously unpublished sample of 1,566 adult male sex offenders assessed under applied clinical conditions as part of a comprehensive state-mandated community notification risk assessment procedure. "Testlets" significantly…

  6. TPS/PCL composite reinforced with treated sisal fibers: property, biodegradation and water-absorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sisal fibers bleached with sodium-hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide treatment were incorporated in a thermoplastic starch;-polycaprolactone (TPS/PCL) blend via extrusion processing and examined for their property, biodegradability and water-absorption. Scanning electron microscopy revealed wel...

  7. Electrospun PGS: PCL Microfibers Align Human Valvular Interstitial Cells and Provide Tunable Scaffold Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Larson, Benjamin L.; Annabi, Nasim; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Zamanian, Behnam; Shapero, Kayle S.; Cubberley, Alexander T.; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Manning, Keefe. B.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) could be useful in the repair of congenital or acquired valvular diseases due to their potential for growth and remodeling. The development of biomimetic scaffolds is a major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering. One of the most important structural characteristics of mature heart valve leaflets is their intrinsic anisotropy, which is derived from the microstructure of aligned collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, we used a directional electrospinning technique to fabricate fibrous poly-(glycerol sebacate):poly(caprolactone) (PGS:PCL) scaffolds containing aligned fibers, which resembled native heart valve leaflet ECM networks. In addition, the anisotropic mechanical characteristics of fabricated scaffolds were tuned by changing the ratio of PGS:PCL to mimic the native heart valve’s mechanical properties. Primary human valvular interstitial cells (VICs) attached and aligned along the anisotropic axes of all PGS:PCL scaffolds with various mechanical properties. The cells were also biochemically active in producing heart valve-associated collagen, vimentin, and smooth muscle actin as determined by gene expression. The fibrous PGS:PCL scaffolds seeded with human VICs mimicked the structure and mechanical properties of native valve leaflet tissues and would potentially be suitable for the replacement of heart valves in diverse patient populations. PMID:24453182

  8. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  9. Two-, Three-, and Four-Factor PCL-R Models in Applied Sex Offender Risk Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher M.; Meyer, Robert G.; Van Nort, James J.; Tristan, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared 2-, 3-, 4-factor, and 2-factor/4-facet Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) models in a previously unpublished sample of 1,566 adult male sex offenders assessed under applied clinical conditions as part of a comprehensive state-mandated community notification risk assessment procedure. "Testlets" significantly…

  10. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo delivery of curcumin by copolymeric mPEG-PCL micelles.

    PubMed

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Ghasemi, Parisa; Malvandi, Hojjat; Mousavi, Mir Sajjad; Attari, Elahe; Danafar, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been associated with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, and antitumor effects, but its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability. To progress the bioavailability and water solubility of CUR, we synthesized five series of mono methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) diblock copolymers. The structure of the copolymers was characterized by H NMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. In this study, CUR was encapsulated within micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to formation of CUR-loaded mPEG-PCL (CUR/mPEG-PCL) micelles. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytotoxicity of void CUR, mPEG-PCL and CUR/mPEG-PCL micelles was compared to each other by performing MTT assay of the treated MCF-7 and 4T1 cell line. Study of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the CUR-loaded micelles was also carried out on selected copolymers in comparison with CUR solution formulations. The results showed that the zeta potential of CUR-loaded micelles was about -11.5mV and the average size was 81.0nm. CUR was encapsulated into mPEG-PCL micelles with loading capacity of 20.65±0.015% and entrapment efficiency of 89.32±0.34%. The plasma AUC (0-t), t1/2 and Cmax of CUR micelles were increased by 52.8, 4.63 and 7.51-fold compared to the CUR solution, respectively. In vivo results showed that multiple injections of CUR-loaded micelles could prolong the circulation time and increase the therapeutic efficacy of CUR. These results suggested that mPEG-PCL micelles would be a potential carrier for CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect.

  12. Investigation on design of stable etoposide-loaded PEG-PCL micelles: effect of molecular weight of PEG-PCL diblock copolymer on the in vitro and in vivo performance of micelles.

    PubMed

    Ukawala, Mukesh; Rajyaguru, Tushar; Chaudhari, Kiran; Manjappa, A S; Pimple, Smita; Babbar, A K; Mathur, Rashi; Mishra, A K; Murthy, R S R

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, six different molecular weight diblock copolymer of methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) were synthesized and characterized and was used for fabrication of etoposide-loaded micelles by nanoprecipitation technique. The particle size and percentage drug entrapment of prepared micelles were found to be dependent on the molecular weight of PCL block and drug to polymer ratio. The maximum drug loading of 5.32% was found in micellar formulation MPEG5000-PCL10000, while MPEG2000-PCL2000 exhibited 2.73% of maximum drug loading. A variation in the fixed aqueous layer thickness and PEG surface density of micellar formulations was attributed to difference in MPEG molecular weight and interaction of PEG and PCL block of copolymer. The MPEG2000-PCL2000 micelles demonstrated poor in vitro stability among other micellar formulations, due to its interaction with bovine serum albumin and immediate release of drug from micelles. Furthermore, plain etoposide and MPEG2000-PCL2000 micelles exhibited greater extent of hemolysis, due to presence of surfactants and faster release of drug from micelles, respectively. The biodistribution studies carried out on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing Balb/C mice confirmed higher accumulation of etoposide-loaded micellar formulation at tumor site compared to plain etoposide due to enhanced permeability and retention effect.

  13. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect. PMID:23626400

  14. Optimization of ultraviolet ozone treatment process for improvement of polycaprolactone (PCL) microcarrier performance.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Nurhusna; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Arifin, Mohd Azmir; Mel, Maizirwan; Salleh, Hamzah Mohd; Sopyan, Iis; Jimat, Dzun Noraini

    2017-08-01

    Growing cells on microcarriers may have overcome the limitation of conventional cell culture system. However, the surface functionality of certain polymeric microcarriers for effective cell attachment and growth remains a challenge. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a biodegradable polymer has received considerable attention due to its good mechanical properties and degradation rate. The drawback is the non-polar hydrocarbon moiety which makes it not readily suitable for cell attachment. This report concerns the modification of PCL microcarrier surface (introduction of functional oxygen groups) using ultraviolet irradiation and ozone (UV/O3) system and investigation of the effects of ozone concentration, the amount of PCL and exposure time; where the optimum conditions were found to be at 60,110.52 ppm, 5.5 g PCL and 60 min, respectively. The optimum concentration of carboxyl group (COOH) absorbed on the surface was 1495.92 nmol/g and the amount of gelatin immobilized was 320 ± 0.9 µg/g on UV/O3 treated microcarriers as compared to the untreated (26.83 ± 3 µg/g) microcarriers. The absorption of functional oxygen groups on the surface and the immobilized gelatin was confirmed with the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and the enhancement of hydrophilicity of the surface was confirmed using water contact angle measurement which decreased (86.93°-49.34°) after UV/O3 treatment and subsequently after immobilization of gelatin. The attachment and growth kinetics for HaCaT skin keratinocyte cells showed that adhesion occurred much more rapidly for oxidized surfaces and gelatin immobilized surface as compared to untreated PCL.

  15. Suicidal Ideation Associated with PCL Checklist-Ascertained PTSD among Veterans Treated for Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Haas, Gretchen L.; Appelt, Cathleen J.; Walker, Jon D.; Fox, Lauren J.; Kasckow, John W.; Luther, James F.; Salloum, Ihsan M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript begins by reviewing the literature concerning the use of the SCID versus the PCL for diagnosing PTSD, and by reviewing the literature regarding the presence of suicidal ideation as a clinical correlate of PTSD. This manuscript then describes our recent study involving PTSD among Veterans, which assessed the presence of suicidal ideation as a clinical correlate of PTSD, as diagnosed by the SCID versus as diagnosed by the PCL. We hypothesized that the presence of suicidal ideation would be associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. Subjects were 101 Veterans recruited from VA behavioral health and substance use treatment clinics in the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System. The study compared correlations of suicidal ideation with PTSD as determined with the PTSD Checklist versus the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and utilized question 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory for assessing presence of SI. PTSD was diagnosed in 15 subjects using the SCID, and in 15 subjects using the PTSD Checklist. SI were reported by 16 subjects. The presence of SI was significantly associated with the diagnosis of PTSD on the PCL (chi-square=5.73, df=1, p=0.017) but not on the SCID (chi-square=0.08, df=1, p=0.773). These findings suggest that SI associated with the diagnosis of PTSD among Veterans are better ascertained by the PCL as compared to the more elaborate diagnostic algorithm used in the SCID. The current study finding raises the possibility that a less complicated diagnostic assessment instrument such as the PCL may be superior to the SCID, a more complicated instrument for diagnosing PTSD, at least in some populations. PMID:25382964

  16. Sign language and autism.

    PubMed

    Bonvillian, J D; Nelson, K E; Rhyne, J M

    1981-03-01

    Research findings and issues in teaching sign language to nonspeaking autistic children are reviewed. Data on over 100 children indicate that nearly all autistic children learn receptive and expressive signs, and many learn to combine signs. These children also exhibit marked improvement in adaptive behaviors. Speech skills are acquired by fewer children and may be developed through simultaneous speech and sign training. Possible explanations for these results are given, together with suggestions for future research and data collection. Recommended innovations include exposure to fluent signers and training in discourse and code-switching. Different sign language teaching methods need to be investigated more fully, including emphasis on training sign language within the children's total environment and with greater staff and parental participation.

  17. Determining the mechanical properties of electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers using AFM and a novel fiber anchoring technique.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephen R; Banerjee, Soham; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Due to its low cost, biocompatibility and slow bioresorption, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) continues to be a suitable material for select biomedical engineering applications. We used a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/optical microscopy technique to determine key mechanical properties of individual electrospun PCL nanofibers with diameters between 440-1040nm. Compared to protein nanofibers, PCL nanofibers showed much lower adhesion, as they slipped on the substrate when mechanically manipulated. We, therefore, first developed a novel technique to anchor individual PCL nanofibers to micrometer-sized ridges on a substrate, and then mechanically tested anchored nanofibers. When held at constant strain, tensile stress relaxed with fast and slow relaxation times of 1.0±0.3s and 8.8±3.1s, respectively. The total tensile modulus was 62±26MPa, the elastic (non-relaxing) component of the tensile modulus was 53±36MPa. Individual PCL fibers could be stretched elastically (without permanent deformation) to strains of 19-23%. PCL nanofibers are rather extensible; they could be stretched to a strain of at least 98%, and a tensile strength of at least 12MPa, before they slipped off the AFM tip. PCL nanofibers that had aged for over a month at ambient conditions became stiffer and less elastic. Our technique provides accurate nanofiber mechanical data, which are needed to guide construction of scaffolds for cells and other biomedical devices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on conductive PANI-PCL fiber scaffold by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yumei; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Chuying; Qiu, Fangping; Sun, Bolun; Ji, He; Qiu, Ju; Wang, Ce

    2017-03-01

    Recently, electrically conductive biomaterial scaffolds have shown great potential in tissue regeneration. Herein, we reported an electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun micron-fiber scaffold for the enhanced attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under electrical stimulation conditions. After the O2 plasma treatment toward PCL electrospun fiber, PANI could be polymerized onto their surfaces successfully. The obtained PANI-PCL fibers were characterized by SEM observations, FT-IR spectra, XPS analysis, and water contact angle measurement. The mechanical tests indicated that the fibers could satisfy the practical vascular scaffold requirements. The conductivity of the PANI-PCL fibers was 6.71×10(-3)S/cm which could provide a conductive in-vitro platform to study the effect of electrical stimulation on HUVECs proliferation. When PANI-coated PCL fibers were compared with PCL fibers, HUVECs exhibited highly enhanced adhesion and viability, especially under electrical stimulation (ES) of 200, 300, and 400mV/cm. Proliferation of HUVECs on PANI-PCL fibers was strongly dependent on electrical stimulation intensity. The results showed new insights into conductive scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Examining the utility of the PCL:SV as a screening measure using competing factor models of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Guy, Laura S; Douglas, Kevin S

    2006-06-01

    The correspondence between the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003) was examined in forensic (N = 175) and correctional (N = 188) samples. Intermeasure correlations for Total scores (.95 forensic, .94 correctional) and the original 2-factor, D. J. Cooke and C. Michie's (2001) 3-factor, and R. D. Hare's (2003) 4-facet models (range = .87-.95) were high. Area under the curve values for the PCL:SV were .98 in both samples (cutoff = PCL-R Total score of 25). The PCL:SV performed well as a screen, maximizing false positive relative to false negative errors. Close correlations for prediction of violent recidivism in the correctional sample were obtained for the PCL-R (.42) and PCL:SV (.37). Results indicate the robust relation between the measures is maintained whether they are completed on the basis of file review only or file plus interview and whether the same or different raters score the measures.

  20. Military Vital Sign Monitor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    agreement, however, are of a nonspecific nature, and neither discuss vital sign monitors or other technology based life support equipment, nor...evacuations. STANAG 2126, "Medical First-Aid Equipment and Supplies," does not discuss vital sign monitors or other life support equipment. No...1 safety of any life support equipment and ,therefore, do not affect vital sign monitors selected as a result of this investigation. However, they do

  1. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  2. Biodegradable m-PEG/PCL Core-Shell Micelles: Preparation and Characterization as a Sustained Release Formulation for Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Danafar, Hossein; Davaran, Soodabeh; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Among the potent anticancer agents, curcumin is known as a very efficacious against many different types of cancer cells, but its clinical applications has been limited because of hydrophobicity, low gastrointestinal absorption, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. In this way, a novel micellar delivery system with mPEG–PCL was synthesized and the release profile of the curcumin from the drug-loaded micelles was evaluated. Methods: In this study, curcumin was encapsulated within monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to creation of curcumin-loaded mPEG-PCL (Cur/mPEG-PCL) micelles. Di-block mPEG-PCL copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare micelles. mPEG-PCL copolymer was characterized in vitro by HNMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. Then, mPEG–PCL copolymers with curcumin were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results: The findings showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin-loaded micelles. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was 88 ± 3.32%. The results of AFM revealed that the micelles have spherical shapes with size of 73.8 nm. The release behavior of curcumin from micelles was compared in different media. In vitro release of curcumin from curcumin-entrapped micelles was followed remarkably sustained profile. The sustained release of drug was hypothetically due to the entrapment of curcumin in core of micelles. Conclusion: The results indicate the successful formulation of curcumin loaded m-PEG/PCL micelles. From the results, iIt can be concluded that curcumin m-PEG-PCL micelles may be considered as an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. PMID:25671181

  3. Redox-sensitive micelles assembled from amphiphilic mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX conjugates for the delivery of docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyuan; Wang, Kaiming; Zhang, Pei; He, Wenxiu; Song, Aixin; Luan, Yuxia

    2016-06-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) can produce anti-tumor effects by inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. However, the poor solubility of DTX restricts its application and its clinical formulation has caused serious adverse reaction due to the use of Tween-80. In the present study, DTX was conjugated to an amphiphilic di-block polymer to solve these problems. Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) was selected as the polymer skeleton and a redox sensitive disulfide bond was used as the linker between DTX and mPEG-PCL. The synthesized mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX conjugates were characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Interestingly, the mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX conjugates could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles was about 2.3mgL(-1) determined using pyrene molecule fluorescent probe method while the size of mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles was determined to be ca. 17.6nm and 116.0nm with a bimodal distribution by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The in vitro release results indicated that the as-prepared micelles exhibited a sustained release profile with good redox sensitive properties. In particular, the hemolytic toxicity test indicated the as-prepared mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles had negligible hemolytic activity, demonstrating their safety in drug delivery system. Cytotoxicity assay of the mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles verified their highly enhanced cytotoxicity to MCF-7/A and A549 cells. These results thus demonstrated that the present redox-sensitive mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelle was an efficient and safe sustained drug delivery system in the biomedical area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mean tensile strength of the PCL in TKA depends on the preservation of the tibial insertion site.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, N; Feyen, H; Luyckx, J P; Bellemans, J

    2016-01-01

    The tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) frequently becomes damaged when performing a tibial cut in a PCL-retaining total knee replacement (TKA). The aim of this study was to quantify the functional effect of this structural damage on the tensile strength and failure load. Six paired knees from fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were used. All soft tissues but the PCL were removed. In the left-sided specimens, a classic tibial cut at a depth of 9 mm with 3° of posterior slope was made, while in the right-sided specimens, a bone block was left in front of the tibial PCL insertion. After cementing a tibial tray, the specimens were mounted in a loading frame in 60° of flexion. The femur was translated anteriorly at a constant velocity rate of 0.5 mm/s. Tensions in the PCL were measured continuously until failure occurred. In one specimen, the tibial PCL insertion was completely removed by the tibial cut. In the other five paired specimens, the mean tensile strength of the PCL was 380.6 ± 154.7 N in the left-sided knees. In the right-sided knees, the mean tensile strength was 738.4 ± 166.7. The average right-to-left ratio was 2.2 ± 0.7 (p = 0.006). The results of this study indicate that the conventional technique for tibial preparation in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty can result in a significant decrease in tensile strength of the PCL, rendering it susceptible to failure and subsequent midflexion instability. Therefore, we recommend leaving the posterior tibial cortex anterior to the PCL insertion intact when performing a cruciate-retaining TKA.

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL novel sol–gel organic–inorganic hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Cristina Mozzati, Maria; Ferrara, Chiara; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2013-07-15

    Organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials have been synthesized via sol–gel. They consist of an inorganic SiO{sub 2} matrix, in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have been incorporated. The formation of H-bonds among the carbonyl groups of the polymer chains and Si–OH group of the inorganic matrix has been proved by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and has been confirmed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography showed their homogeneous morphology and nanostructure nature. Considering the opportunity to synthesize these hybrid materials under microgravity conditions by means of magnetic levitation, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry has been used to quantify their magnetic susceptibility. This measure has shown that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials are diamagnetic and that their diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature and increases with the PCL amount. - Graphical abstract: Characterization and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL organic–inorganic hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel. FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; solid-state NMR: solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance; SQUID: superconducting quantum interference device. - Highlights: • Sol–gel synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/PCL amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid materials. • FT-IR and NMR analyses show the hydrogen bonds formation between SiO{sub 2} and PCL. • AFM and SEM analyses confirm that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL are homogenous hybrid materials. • The SQUID measures show that the simples are diamagnetic. • Diamagnetic susceptibility of SiO{sub 2}/PCL materials increases with the PCL amount.

  6. Posterior tibial displacement in the PCL-deficient knee is reduced compared to the normal knee during gait.

    PubMed

    Orita, Naoya; Deie, Masataka; Shimada, Noboru; Iwaki, Daisuke; Asaeda, Makoto; Hirata, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-11-01

    Most individuals with an isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury do not complain of disability even if posterior instability is objectively revealed by a static physical examination, such as the posterior drawer test. This suggests it is insufficient to only evaluate posterior instability under static conditions. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of isolated PCL injury on the detailed kinematics of the knee in a dynamic environment such as during gait. Eight unilateral PCL-deficient males and eight healthy control volunteers participated in this study. Isolated PCL injury was diagnosed by clinical examination. Stress X-ray imaging showed an average side-to-side difference of 12.7 ± 3.5 mm. Knee kinematics including anteroposterior tibial displacement were analysed during walking using the point cluster technique. Posterior tibial displacement from initial contact was significantly smaller during 9-22 % of the gait cycle by an average of 0.4 cm in the PCL group, compared to controls. In the PCL-deficient knee, the external rotational angle increased by an average of 3.3° at the loading response during 3-11 % of the gait cycle and the varus angle from initial contact increased by an average of 2.0° during 28-52 % of the gait cycle, compared to controls. Dynamic changes in the rotation and posterior translation patterns were seen after isolated PCL injury, suggesting the kinematics of PCL-deficient knees might be different to normal knees. These factors may contribute to long-term osteoarthritic change. Consequently, when choosing conservative treatment for PCL injury, these changes should be considered to prevent osteoarthritic change. III.

  7. Investigating Two-, Three-, and Four-Factor Structures of the Korean PCL-R in Serious Offenders.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Ji Seun; Lee, Soo Jung

    2016-05-01

    There is no published work on different factor structures of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for Korean offenders. The current study compared the two-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Korean version of the PCL-R. A total of 451 adult male serious offenders were included. The results suggested that both three- and four-factor models offered the best overall fit to the data. To gain better insight into the construct and predictive validities of the Korean version of the PCL-R, we recommend further analysis of the three- and four-factor models with recidivism and inmates' implicit aggression levels.

  8. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  9. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  10. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  11. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  12. UCR Library Sign System Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Riverside. Library.

    This manual outlines the procedures to be used for producing and placing signs within the libraries of the University of California, Riverside and presents examples of signs which conform to the library sign policy. The sign policy itself is described as well as procedures for requesting new or revised signs and for sign removal. Drawings of…

  13. In vitro and in vivo co-culture of chondrocytes and bone marrow stem cells in photocrosslinked PCL-PEG-PCL hydrogels enhances cartilage formation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chao-Yin; Ku, Kuan-Lin; Yang, Shu-Rui; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Peng, Sydney; Peng, Yu-Shiang; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Chondrocytes (CH) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) are sources that can be used in cartilage tissue engineering. Co-culture of CHs and BMSCs is a promising strategy for promoting chondrogenic differentiation. In this study, articular CHs and BMSCs were encapsulated in PCL-PEG-PCL photocrosslinked hydrogels for 4 weeks. Various ratios of CH:BMSC co-cultures were investigated to identify the optimal ratio for cartilage formation. The results thus obtained revealed that co-culturing CHs and BMSCs in hydrogels provides an appropriate in vitro microenvironment for chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage matrix production. Co-culture with a 1:4 CH:BMSC ratio significantly increased the synthesis of GAGs and collagen. In vivo cartilage regeneration was evaluated using a co-culture system in rabbit models. The co-culture system exhibited a hyaline chondrocyte phenotype with excellent regeneration, resembling the morphology of native cartilage. This finding suggests that the co-culture of these two cell types promotes cartilage regeneration and that the system, including the hydrogel scaffold, has potential in cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The evaluation of physical properties and in vitro cell behavior of PHB/PCL/sol-gel derived silica hybrid scaffolds and PHB/PCL/fumed silica composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yaping; Yao, Qingqing; Li, Wei; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Roether, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    PHB/PCL/sol-gel derived silica hybrid scaffolds (P5S1S) and PHB/PCL/fumed silica composite scaffolds (P5S1N) with a 5:1 organic/inorganic ratio were fabricated through a combination of electrospinning and sol-gel methods and dispersion electrospinning, respectively. In contrast to the silica nanoparticle aggregates appearing on the fiber surface of P5S1N, smooth and uniform fibers were obtained for P5S1S. The fiber diameter distribution, tensile strength, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and cellular behavior of both types of scaffolds were characterized and studied. The tensile strength results and TGA indicated that the interfacial interaction between the organic and the inorganic phase was enhanced in P5S1S over the nanocomposite scaffolds, and cells exhibited significantly higher alkaline phosphate activity (ALP) for P5S1S, which makes P5S1S hybrid scaffolds candidate materials for bone tissue engineering applications.

  15. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surucu, Seda; Masur, Kai; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal; Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O2, Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  16. Astrocyte behavior and GFAP expression on Spirulina extract-incorporated PCL nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Min, Seul Ki; Kim, Cho Rong; Jung, Sang Myung; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2013-12-01

    Nanomaterials are attractive for use in biological systems due to their ability to control the microenvironment of cells. Additionally, nanofibers can mimic fibrous characteristics of natural tissues. This study was conducted to assess astrocyte activity and infiltration behavior on Spirulina extract-embedded polycaprolactone (SP-PCL) nanofiber. Astrocytes moved along with the nanofiber, and developed an elongated and stellate shape, which is similar to those in the natural neural tissue. In addition, the expression of GFAP, a biomarker representing the activation of astrocytes, was gradually up-regulated with the increase of the concentration of Spirulina extract, indicating that Spirulina extract can control astrocyte activation. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that SP-PCL nanofiber could be used in astrocyte tissue engineering for neuronal regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  17. Electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antibacterial wound dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-03-01

    An open wound is highly prone to bacterial colonization and infection. Bacterial barrier property is an important factor that determines the success of a wound coverage material. Apart from the bacterial barrier property, presence of antibacterial agents can successfully eliminate the invasion and colonization of pathogen in the wound. Silver nanoparticles are well-known antimicrobial agents against a wide range of microorganisms. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are more acceptable for medical applications due to superior biocompatibility than chemically synthesized ones. Presence of biomolecules on biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhances its therapeutic efficiency. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a well-known material for biomedical applications including wound dressings. Electrospinning is an excellent technique for the fabrication of thin membranes for wound coverage applications with barrier property against microbes. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles for wound dressing applications.

  18. PCl3-C6H6 heterodimers: evidence for Pπ phosphorus bonding at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, N; Sankaran, K; Sundararajan, K

    2016-07-28

    A phosphorous trichloride (PCl3)-benzene (C6H6) heterodimer was generated in a low temperature N2 matrix and was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The structure of the heterodimer produced in the matrix isolation experiment was discerned through ab initio computations. Computations disclosed that the experimentally detected dimer is stabilized through strong non-covalent phosphorus bonded Pπ interaction, considered as a class of pnicogen bonding. This experimentally unmapped Pπ interaction so far has been reconnoitered using atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital and energy decomposition analyses. The influence of substitutions on both the PCl3 and C6H6 monomeric units of the heterodimer was subsequently examined to understand the strength of Pπ interaction as a result of these substitutions.

  19. Psychopathy, attention, and oddball target detection: New insights from PCL-R facet scores.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, J Michael; Bernat, Edward M; Kiehl, Kent A

    2015-09-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder accompanied by cognitive deficits including abnormalities in attention. Prior studies examining cognitive features of psychopaths using ERPs have produced some inconsistent results. We examined psychopathy-related differences in ERPs during an auditory oddball task in a sample of incarcerated adult males. We extend previous work by deriving ERPs with principal component analysis (PCA) and relate these to the four facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). Features of psychopathy were associated with increased target N1 amplitude (facets 1, 4), decreased target P3 amplitude (facet 1), and reduced slow wave amplitude for frequent standard stimuli (facets 1, 3, 4). We conclude that employing PCA and examining PCL-R facets improve sensitivity and help clarify previously reported associations. Furthermore, attenuated slow wave during standards may be a novel marker for psychopaths' abnormalities in attention.

  20. Maleimide Functionalized Poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-PEG-MAL): Synthesis, Nanoparticle Formation, and Thiol Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shengxiang; Zhu, Zhengxi; Hoye, Thomas R.; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Carboxylic acid terminated poly(ε-caprolactone)s (PCL-COOHs) with narrow polydispersity were synthesized and coupled with poly(ethylene glycol) (HO-PEG-OH) to afford PCL-PEG-OH copolymers. The hydroxyl groups in the PCL-PEG-OHs were then converted to maleimide groups to afford maleimide terminated PCL-PEG-MALs that contained 70–90% maleimide functionality. Nanoparticles with maleimide functionality on their surfaces were prepared by impingement mixing. Particle sizes and size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering. Conjugation of reduced glutathione with model maleimides and two MAL-functional nanoparticles was also demonstrated. The amount of accessible maleimide on the particle surface was measured using Ellman’s reagent to range between ~51–67%. PMID:21731402

  1. Morphology of polycaprolactone/needle-shaped hydroxyapatite (PCL/HAN) nanocomposite blends using ultrasound assisted melt blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhba, S.; Subuki, I.; Sharudin, R. W.; Ismail, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Polycaprolactone/Hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) composite is an excellent material for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds, especially as bone scaffolds. However, polarity differences between the hydrophilic HA and the hydrophobic PCL often leads to poor dispersion during the blending process. This is due to the tendency of the HA particles to agglomerate, and the difficulty to efficiently mix the polymer melt at high loading. The objective of this study is to introduce ultrasound waves during the conventional melt blending to overcome the problem. PCL and needle-shaped hydroxyapatite (HAN) were blended using an ultrasonically assisted extruder. The morphology of the PCL/HAN blend was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This study found that the presence of ultrasound waves during melt blending was helpful in breaking up the HAN agglomerates. Thus, better dispersion of HAN was obtained, although some small agglomerates of HAN were still observed.

  2. On the viability of PTSD Checklist (PCL) short form use: analyses from Mississippi Gulf Coast Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    PubMed

    Hirschel, Michael J; Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2010-06-01

    One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane Katrina survivors (N = 337). Corrected item-total and corrected item-cluster correlations were calculated and compared with those obtained by Lang and Stein. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall correct classification of the 4 item subsets were evaluated. With methodology approximating Lang and Stein's work, the current data would lead to the development of different screening versions of the PCL. Although some psychometric support was achieved (e.g., high sensitivity), use of the Lang and Stein PCL item subsets for screening natural disaster survivors appears unjustified on the basis of the present data.

  3. PCL assay application in superoxide anion-radical scavenging capacity of tea Camellia sinensis extracts.

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Sidor, Andrzej; Reguła, Julita; Kulczyński, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Plant polyphenols are known for their limiting of adverse effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. The photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay allows to evaluate the antiradical activity of a compound in the presence of a superoxide anion-radical (O •-), which is one of the ROS directly associated with the human body. In this work, determination of the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of different tea extracts using the PCL assay was performed. Investigations were conducted on different tea leaves extracts. The study included five kinds of tea leaves subjected to aqueous and ethanol extraction procedure. Catechins content was evaluated using HPLC. Antiradical activity of the samples was conducted with use of Photochem assay. Analysis of total catechins content in tea aqueous extracts enabled them to be arranged as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black, while for ethanol extracts it was: yellow = green > white > red > black. The examined tea extracts were ranked from highest to lowest water-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACW) values as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black. The results of lipid-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACL) values for aqueous extracts were similar; however, were approximately 50% lower than those presented as ACW. The second examined group were ethanol extracts, which ranked for ACW values: yellow > green = red = white > black, while ACL values ranked as follows: yellow > white = black = red > green. PCL assay results were correlated with total catechin content in aqueous extracts. Antiradical activity of different tea leaves extracts in PCL assay, showed that the highest activity was found in extracts of yellow tea; the lowest, however, was identified in black tea extracts.

  4. Evaluation and Analysis of Array Antennas for Passive Coherent Location (PCL) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-15

    follows: Boresight: The direction that the antenna is designed to point. Main Lobe: The primary or maximum beam of the antenna. Beamwidth: The width...Since low cost and covertness are the primary needs for PCL systems, this fact results in not manipulating the receiver aperture itself. For this...Radar Systems (3rd Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001. [15] Gaspare, Galati . Advanced Radar Techniques and Systems. United Kingdom

  5. Mechanical fatigue performance of PCL-chondroprogenitor constructs after cell culture under bioreactor mechanical stimulus.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Juan Alberto; Sencadas, Vitor; Silva, Sonia C M; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Correia, Vitor; Gama, Francisco M; Gomez Ribelles, José Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

    2016-02-01

    In tissue engineering of cartilage, polymeric scaffolds are implanted in the damaged tissue and subjected to repeated compression loading cycles. The possibility of failure due to mechanical fatigue has not been properly addressed in these scaffolds. Nevertheless, the macroporous scaffold is susceptible to failure after repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is related to inherent discontinuities in the material due to the micropore structure of the macro-pore walls that act as stress concentration points. In this work, chondrogenic precursor cells have been seeded in poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with fibrin and some were submitted to free swelling culture and others to cyclic loading in a bioreactor. After cell culture, all the samples were analyzed for fatigue behavior under repeated loading-unloading cycles. Moreover, some components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were identified. No differences were observed between samples undergoing free swelling or bioreactor loading conditions, neither respect to matrix components nor to mechanical performance to fatigue. The ECM did not achieve the desired preponderance of collagen type II over collagen type I which is considered the main characteristic of hyaline cartilage ECM. However, prediction in PCL with ECM constructs was possible up to 600 cycles, an enhanced performance when compared to previous works. PCL after cell culture presents an improved fatigue resistance, despite the fact that the measured elastic modulus at the first cycle was similar to PCL with poly(vinyl alcohol) samples. This finding suggests that fatigue analysis in tissue engineering constructs can provide additional information missed with traditional mechanical measurements.

  6. Water/O2-plasma-assisted treatment of PCL membranes for biosignal immobilization.

    PubMed

    Saşmazel, Hilal Türkoğlu; Manolache, Sorin; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to obtain COOH functionalities on the surface of poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) membranes using low-pressure water/O(2)-plasma-assisted treatment. PCL membranes were prepared using the solvent-casting technique. Then, low-pressure water/O(2) plasma treatments were performed in a cylindrical, capacitively coupled RF-plasma-reactor in three steps: H(2)O/O(2)-plasma treatment; in situ (oxalyl chloride vapors) gas/solid reaction to convert -OH functionalities into -COCl groups; and hydrolysis for final -COOH functionalities. Optimization of plasma modification processes was done using the DoE software program. COOH and OH functionalities on modified surfaces were detected quantitatively using the fluorescent labeling technique and an UVX 300G sensor. Chemical structural information of untreated, plasma treated and oxalyl chloride functionalized PCL membranes were acquired using pyrolysis GC/MS and ESCA analysis. High-resolution AFM images revealed that nanopatterns were more affected than micropatterns by plasma treatments. AFM images recorded with amino-functionalized tips presented increased size of the features on the surface that suggests higher density of the carboxyls on the nanotopographical elements. Low-pressure water/O(2)-plasma-treated and oxalyl chloride functionalized samples were biologically activated with insulin and/or heparin biosignal molecules using a PEO (polyoxyethylene bis amine) spacer. The success of the immobilization process was checked qualitatively by ESCA analysis. In addition, fluorescent labeling techniques were used for the quantitative determination of immobilized biomolecules. Cell-culture experiments indicated that biomolecule immobilization onto PCL scaffolds was effective on L929 cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the presence of heparin.

  7. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG-b-PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG-b-PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG-b-PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle could pose potential hazards

  8. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG-b-PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG-b-PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG-b-PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle could pose potential hazards

  9. Starch/PCL composite nanofibers by co-axial electrospinning technique for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Komur, B; Bayrak, F; Ekren, N; Eroglu, M S; Oktar, F N; Sinirlioglu, Z A; Yucel, S; Guler, O; Gunduz, O

    2017-03-29

    In this study, starch and polycaprolactone (PCL), composite nanofibers were fabricated by co-axial needle electrospinning technique. Processing parameters such as polymer concentration, flow rate and voltage had a marked influence on the composite fiber diameter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical and physical properties (such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity) of the composite fibres were evaluated. Moreover, a cell culture test was performed in order to determine their cytotoxicity for wound dressing application. The effect of starch ratio in the solution on the properties and morphological structure of the fibers produced was presented. With lower starch concentration values, the fibers have greater ultimate tensile strength characteristic (mostly 4 and 5 wt%). According to SEM results, it can be figured out that the nanofibers fabricated have good spinnability and morphology. The mean diameter of the fibers is about 150 nm. According to results of cell culture study, the finding can be determined that the increase of starch in the fiber also increases the cell viability. Composite nanofibers of starch/PCL have been prepared using a co-axial needle electrospinning technique. PCL was successfully encapsulated within starch. Fiber formation was observed for different ratio of starch. With several test, analysis and measurement performed, some important parameters such as quality and effectuality of each fiber obtained for wound dressing applications were discussed in detail.

  10. Star-shaped PCL/PLLA blended fiber membrane via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Li, Haotian; Qiao, Tiankui; Song, Ping; Guo, HuiLing; Song, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Baochang; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fiber mesh has been a candidate for guided bone regeneration membrane. However, its poor mechanics property has been limited in clinical application. In this study, various star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactones) (PCLs) are successfully synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and mixed with poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) to be made into blended membranes through electrospinning. Their corresponding properties are evaluated including morphology, thermodynamics, mechanics, and cytotoxicity. The blended fibers show smooth surface and well-distributed structure, which have slight differences in morphology with the change of arm number of star-shaped PCL. Crystallization of the fibrous membrane is influenced by star-shaped PCLs. Glass temperature drops from 64.23 °C for pure PLLA membrane to 53.62-49 °C for the blended membranes. The membranous tensile strength is depended strongly on star-shaped PCLs. The tensile strength goes up with arm number increasing; on the contrary, at the same arm number, the mechanics strength decreases with molecular weight increasing. And the fibrous membrane containing 20 wt.% star-shaped PCL shows better mechanics property compared to the other membranes. The star-shaped PCL/PLLA fiber membrane is not cytotoxicity.

  11. Cotton fabric functionalisation with menthol/PCL micro- and nano-capsules for comfort improvement.

    PubMed

    Mossotti, Raffaella; Ferri, Ada; Innocenti, Riccardo; Zelenková, Tereza; Dotti, Francesca; Marchisio, Daniele L; Barresi, Antonello A

    2015-01-01

    Cotton functionalisation with poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) micro- and nano-capsules containing menthol was carried out with the aim of introducing a long-lasting refreshing sensation. The preparation of the polymer micro- and nano-capsules was carried out by solvent displacement technique. A confined impinging jets mixer was used in order to ensure fast mixing and generate a homogeneous environment where PCL and menthol can self-assemble. The micro- and nano-capsules and the functionalised fabrics were characterised by means of DSC, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM imaging. Micro- and nano-capsules of different size, from about 200 to about 1200 nm, were obtained varying menthol to PCL ratio (from 0.76 to 8), overall concentration and flow rate (i.e. mixing conditions). The inclusion of menthol was confirmed by DSC analysis. A patch test was carried out by 10 volunteers. Micro-capsules were found to be effective in conferring the fabric a refreshing sensation without altering skin physiology.

  12. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: in vitro cell culture studies.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adhesion and metabolic activity of human corneal cells on PCL based nanofiber matrices.

    PubMed

    Stafiej, Piotr; Küng, Florian; Thieme, Daniel; Czugala, Marta; Kruse, Friedrich E; Schubert, Dirk W; Fuchsluger, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    In this work, polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a basic polymer for electrospinning of random and aligned nanofiber matrices. Our aim was to develop a biocompatible substrate for ophthalmological application to improve wound closure in defects of the cornea as replacement for human amniotic membrane. We investigated whether blending the hydrophobic PCL with poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) or chitosan (CHI) improves the biocompatibility of the matrices for cell expansion. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEp) and human corneal keratocytes (HCK) were used for in vitro biocompatibility studies. After optimization of the electrospinning parameters for all blends, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and water contact angle were used to characterize the different matrices. Fluorescence staining of the F-actin cytoskeleton of the cells was performed to analyze the adherence of the cells to the different matrices. Metabolic activity of the cells was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for 20days to compare the biocompatibility of the materials. Our results show the feasibility of producing uniform nanofiber matrices with and without orientation for the used blends. All materials support adherence and proliferation of human corneal cell lines with oriented growth on aligned matrices. Although hydrophobicity of the materials was lowered by blending PCL, no increase in biocompatibility or proliferation, as was expected, could be measured. All tested matrices supported the expansion of human corneal cells, confirming their potential as substrates for biomedical applications.

  14. Influence of water/O₂ plasma treatment on cellular responses of PCL and PET surfaces.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu Şaşmazel, Hilal; Aday, Sezin; Manolache, Sorin; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2011-01-01

    In this study, low pressure water/O₂ plasma treatment was performed in order to obtain COOH functionalities on the surface of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) membranes as well as non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF) discs. The plasma treatments were performed in a cylindrical, capacitively coupled RF-plasma-reactor and then following steps were performed: in situ (oxalyl chloride vapors) gas/solid reaction to convert -OH functionalities into -COCl groups; and hydrolysis under open laboratory conditions using air moisture for final-COOH functionalities. COOH and OH functionalities on modified surfaces were detected quantitatively by using fluorescent labeling technique and an UVX 300G sensor. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to evaluate the relative surface atomic compositions and the carbon and oxygen linkages located in non-equivalent atomic positions of untreated and modified surfaces. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis showed that nanoscale features of the PCL surfaces are dramatically changed during the surface treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated the changes in the relatively smooth appearance of the untreated NWPF discs after the plasma treatment. Periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were used in cell culture studies. Cell culture results showed that plasma treated PCL membranes and NWPF discs were favorable for the PDL cell spreading, growth and viability due to the presence of functional groups and/or nanotopographies on their surfaces.

  15. Electrospun gelatin/PCL and collagen/PLCL scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Liu, Zhenling; Feng, Bei; Hu, Renjie; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Hao; Yin, Meng; Huang, Huimin; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Electrospun hybrid nanofibers prepared using combinations of natural and synthetic polymers have been widely investigated in cardiovascular tissue engineering. In this study, electrospun gelatin/polycaprolactone (PCL) and collagen/poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) scaffolds were successfully produced. Scanning electron micrographs showed that fibers of both membranes were smooth and homogeneous. Water contact angle measurements further demonstrated that both scaffolds were hydrophilic. To determine cell attachment and migration on the scaffolds, both hybrid scaffolds were seeded with human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. Scanning electron micrographs and MTT assays showed that the cells grew and proliferated well on both hybrid scaffolds. Gross observation of the transplanted scaffolds revealed that the engineered collagen/PLCL scaffolds were smoother and brighter than the gelatin/PCL scaffolds. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the engineered blood vessels constructed by collagen/PLCL electrospun membranes formed relatively homogenous vessel-like tissues. Interestingly, Young's modulus for the engineered collagen/PLCL scaffolds was greater than for the gelatin/PCL scaffolds. Together, these results indicate that nanofibrous collagen/PLCL membranes with favorable mechanical and biological properties may be a desirable scaffold for vascular tissue engineering.

  16. Psychopathy and the predictive validity of the PCL-R: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Hare, R D; Clark, D; Grann, M; Thornton, D

    2000-01-01

    Its controversial past notwithstanding, psychopathy has emerged as one of the most important clinical constructs in the criminal justice and mental health systems. One reason for the surge in theoretical and applied interest in the disorder is the development and widespread adoption of reliable and valid methods for its measurement. The Hare PCL-R provides researchers and clinicians with a common metric for the assessment of psychopathy, and has led to a surge in replicable and meaningful findings relevant to the issue of risk for recidivism and violence, among other things. Most of the research thus far has been based on North American samples of offenders and forensic psychiatric patients. We summarize this research and compare it with findings from several other countries, including England and Sweden. We conclude that the ability of the PCL-R to predict recidivism, violence, and treatment outcome has considerable cross-cultural generalizability, and that the PCL-R and its derivatives play a major role in the understanding and prediction of crime and violence.

  17. Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grann, M; Långström, N; Tengström, A; Kullgren, G

    1999-04-01

    Psychopathy as conceptualized with Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised, PCL-R, has attracted much research during the 1990s. In the Scandinavian countries, few studies that empirically support the validity of North American risk assessment techniques in our regional context have been published. The purpose of this paper is to explore the predictive power of the PCL-R in a population of personality-disordered violent offenders subjected to forensic psychiatric evaluation in Sweden. Following release from prison (n = 172), discharge from forensic psychiatric treatment (n = 129), or probation (n = 51), a total of 352 individuals were followed for up to 8 years (mean = 3.7 years) with reconviction for violent crime as endpoint variable (base rate 34%). As the estimate of predictive power, the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUC of ROC) analysis was calculated. For PCL-R scores to predict 2-year violent recidivism, AUC of ROC was .72 (95% CI: .66-.78). In addition, the personality dimension of psychopathy (Factor 1) and the behavioral component (Factor 2) both predicted 2-year recidivism significantly better than random: AUC of ROC .64 (95% CI: .57-.70) and .71 (95% CI: .65-.77), respectively. We conclude that psychopathy is probably as valid a predictor of violent recidivism in Swedish forensic settings as seen in previous North American studies.

  18. Factor structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Craig S; Kosson, David S; Forth, Adelle E; Hare, Robert D

    2006-06-01

    Two studies are reported on the underlying dimensions of the psychopathy construct in adolescents as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). In Study 1, the PCL: YV item ratings for 505 male adolescents incarcerated in 5 different settings in North America were used to test the fit of 3 models that have been hypothesized to represent the structure of psychopathy in adults. A 4th model based on parceling PCL: YV items was also tested. In Study 2, these models were tested with a sample of 233 male adolescents incarcerated in 2 facilities in the United Kingdom. Model fit results indicated that the 18-item 4-factor model developed by Hare (2003) and a modified version of a 13-item 3-factor model developed by Cooke and Michie (2001) were associated with generally good fit. Because the 4-factor model is a less saturated model than the 3-factor model (better parameter to data point ratio), it survived a riskier test of disconfirmation. Implications for the nature of psychopathy in youth are discussed.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells growth and proliferation enhancement using PLA vs PCL based nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Lotfy, Ahmed; El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-12-01

    Electrospinning of polymers is the most commonly used technique for nanofiber fabrication. polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been shown to be ideal for nanofiber preparation in various biomedical applications, due to characteristics such as biodegradablity and their ability to promote the cell growth, similar to native tissues. The aim of this study was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable PLA and PCL-based nanofibrous scaffolds for enhancing stem cell growth and proliferation. The scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning, and their physicochemical properties were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of the developed scaffolds was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from both adipose tissue and bone marrow, were seeded onto the prepared nanofibrous scaffolds. The effect of scaffold type, and structural characteristics on survival and proliferation of MSCs were evaluated. Our results show that after full physicochemical characterization of PCL and PLA nanofibrous scaffolds both were safe and non-toxic to the evaluated cells and both scaffolds supported cell attachment and proliferation of bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs.

  20. Axially aligned 3D nanofibrous grafts of PLA-PCL for small diameter cardiovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Krishna Kumar; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Axially aligned nanofibrous matrices were evaluated as small diameter cardiovascular grafts. Grafts were prepared using the poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) physical blends in the ratios of 75:25 and 25:75 with the dimension of (40 × 0.2 × 4) millimeter by electrospinning using dynamic collector (1500 RPM). Hydrophobicity and tensile stress were significantly higher in PLA-PCL (75:25), whereas tensile strain and fiber density were significantly higher in PLA-PCL (25:75). Properties such as anastomatic strength porosity, average pore size, degradation with retained fiber orientation, and thromboresistivity were comparable between blends. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) adhesion on the scaffolds was observed within 24 h. Cell viability and proliferation were rationally influenced by the aligned nanofibers. Gene expression reveals the grafts thromboresistivity, elasticity, and aided neovascularization. Thus, these scaffolds could be an ideal candidate for small diameter blood vessel engineering.

  1. Comparison of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) Administered via a Mobile Device Relative to a Paper Form.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Kuhn, Eric; Hoffman, Julia E; Ruzek, Josef; Acierno, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly used to administer self-report measures of mental health symptoms. There are significant differences, however, in the way that information is presented on mobile devices compared to the traditional paper forms that were used to administer such measures. Such differences may systematically alter responses. The present study evaluated if and how responses differed for a self-report measure, the PTSD Checklist (PCL), administered via mobile device relative to paper and pencil. Participants were 153 trauma-exposed individuals who completed counterbalanced administrations of the PCL on a mobile device and on paper. PCL total scores (d = 0.07) and item responses did not meaningfully or significantly differ across administrations. Power was sufficient to detect a difference in total score between administrations determined by prior work of 3.46 with a d = 0.23. The magnitude of differences between administration formats was unrelated to prior use of mobile devices or participant age. These findings suggest that responses to self-report measures administered via mobile device are equivalent to those obtained via paper and they can be used with experienced as well as naïve users of mobile devices. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Biocorrosion and osteoconductivity of PCL/nHAp composite porous film-based coating of magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Amna, Touseef; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2013-04-01

    The present study was aimed at designing a novel porous hydroxyapatite/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (nHAp/PCL) hybrid nanocomposite matrix on a magnesium substrate with high and low porosity. The coated samples were prepared using a dip-coating technique in order to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant and to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloys. The mechanical and biocompatible properties of the coated and uncoated samples were investigated and an in vitro test for corrosion was conducted by electrochemical polarization and measurement of weight loss. The corrosion test results demonstrated that both the pristine PCL and nHAp/PCL composites showed good corrosion resistance in SBF. However, during the extended incubation time, the composite coatings exhibited more uniform and superior resistance to corrosion attack than pristine PCL, and were able to survive severe localized corrosion in physiological solution. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the composite film was determined by the rapid formation of uniform CaP nanoparticles on the sample surfaces during immersion in SBF. The mechanical integrity of the composite coatings displayed better performance (˜34% higher) than the uncoated samples. Finally, our results suggest that the nHAp incorporated with novel PCL composite membranes on magnesium substrates may serve as an excellent 3-D platform for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, and growth in bone tissue. This novel as-synthesized nHAp/PCL membrane on magnesium implants could be used as a potential material for orthopedic applications in the future.

  3. The sustained delivery of temozolomide from electrospun PCL-Diol-b-PU/gold nanocompsite nanofibers to treat glioblastoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Irani, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Haririan, Ismaeil

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the PCL-Diol-b-PU/Au nanocompsite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning process during two different stages to load an anticancer temozolomide (TMZ) drug into the nanofibers. The first stage was the incorporation of Au nanoparticles into the nanofibers and the second stage was coating the gold nanoparticles on the surface of PCL-Diol-b-PU/Au composite nanofibers. The prepared nanofibrous formulations were characterized using FTIR, SEM and TEM analysis. Box-Behnken-design was used to investigate the influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, applied voltage to tip-collector distance ratio and collector speed on the morphology and fiber diameter of PCL-Diol-b-PU/Au nanofibers. Drug loading efficiency, in vitro release profiles of TMZ from PCL-Diol-b-PU/Au and gold-coated PCL-Diol-b-PU/Au composite nanofibers as well as in vitro antitumor efficacy against U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were carried out. The TMZ release data were well described using Korsmayer-Peppas kinetic model in which results indicated Fickian diffusion of TMZ from nanofibers. The obtained results revealed the higher efficiency of PCL-Diol-b-PU/Au@TMZ nanofibrous implants for treatment of glioblastoma tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone-Healing Capacity of PCL/PLGA/Duck Beak Scaffold in Critical Bone Defects in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Son, Soo Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are repaired using either natural or synthetic bone grafts. Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are widely used as synthetic materials for tissue engineering. This study aimed to investigate the bone-healing capacity of PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold in critical bone defects and the oxidative stress status of the graft site in a rabbit model. The in vivo performance of 48 healthy New Zealand White rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, was evaluated. The rabbits were assigned to the following groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (PCL/PLGA hybrid scaffolds), group 3 (PCL/PLGA/TCP hybrid scaffolds), and group 4 (PCL/PLGA/DB hybrid scaffolds). A 5 mm critical defect was induced in the diaphysis of the left radius. X-ray, micro-CT, and histological analyses were conducted at (time 0) 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and osteocalcin) were measured and oxidative stress status was determined. X-ray, micro-CT, biochemistry, and histological analyses revealed that the PCL/PLGA/duck beak scaffold promotes new bone formation in rabbit radius by inducing repair, suggesting that it could be a good option for the treatment of fracture. PMID:27042660

  5. Fabrication and mechanical properties of PLLA/PCL/HA composites via a biomimetic, dip coating, and hot compression procedure.

    PubMed

    Charles, L F; Shaw, M T; Olson, J R; Wei, M

    2010-06-01

    Currently, the bone-repair biomaterials market is dominated by high modulus metals and their alloys. The problem of stress-shielding, which results from elastic modulus mismatch between these metallic materials and natural bone, has stimulated increasing research into the development of polymer-ceramic composite materials that can more closely match the modulus of bone. In this study, we prepared poly(L: -lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PLLA/HA/PCL) composites via a four-step process, which includes surface etching of the fiber, the deposition of the HA coating onto the PLLA fibers through immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), PCL coating through a dip-coating process, and hot compression molding. The initial HA-coated PLLA fiber had a homogeneous and continuous coating with a gradient structure. The effects of HA: PCL ratio and molding temperature on flexural mechanical properties were studied and both were shown to be important to mechanical properties. Mechanical results showed that at low molding temperatures and up to an HA: PCL volume ratio of 1, the flexural strain decreased while the flexural modulus and strength increased. At higher mold temperatures with a lower viscosity of the PCL a HA: PCL ratio of 1.6 gave similar properties. The process successfully produced composites with flexural moduli near the lower range of bone. Such composites may have clinical use for load bearing bone fixation.

  6. Portuguese version of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)-I: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and reliability.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2015-03-30

    The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Storey, Jennifer E; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the "norms" for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a 1-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores, classical test theory indices of its structural reliability, the factor structure of test items, and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative.

  8. Sign On to Computers: A Dictionary of Computer Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zier, Cathy Diane; And Others

    This manual defines basic computer terminology and presents sign language gestures for the terms. The manual uses the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf's Manually Coded English Sign Language System, a compilation of signs derived from Signing Exact English and American Sign Language; it also indicates those instances where fingerspelling is…

  9. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Page Content Article Body Although stress is a ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  10. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Dermatomyositis (DM) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? For many decades, DM was considered “ polymyositis with ...

  11. Signs and Symptoms (Smallpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smallpox Website NIH Smallpox Research CDC Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Poxvirus Diseases Signs and Symptoms Recommend on ... Smallpox Website NIH Smallpox Research CDC Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Poxvirus Diseases File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km about 7.5 mile diameter crater imaged by NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft looks vaguely like a stop sign.

  13. MENTOR/PROTEGE SIGNING

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-07

    MENTOR PROTÉGÉ AGREEMENT SIGNING CEREMONY, DECEMBER 7, 2015 L TO R STANDING: STEVE MILEY, TYLER COCHRAN, STEVE WOFFORD, DAVID BROCK (ALL NASA) L TO R SEATED: DANIEL ADAMSKI (AEROJET ROCKETDYNE), JOE MCCOLLISTER (NASA), EDWINA CIOFFI (ICO RALLY)

  14. The osteogenesis of bone marrow stem cells on mPEG-PCL-mPEG/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold via solid freeform fabrication.

    PubMed

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Chen, Yo-Yu; Lai, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Jiang, Cho-Pei

    2014-01-01

    The study described a novel bone tissue scaffold fabricated by computer-aided, air pressure-aided deposition system to control the macro- and microstructure precisely. The porcine bone marrow stem cells (PBMSCs) seeded on either mPEG-PCL-mPEG (PCL) or mPEG-PCL-mPEG/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) composite scaffold were cultured under osteogenic medium to test the ability of osteogenesis in vitro. The experimental outcomes indicated that both scaffolds possessed adequate pore size, porosity, and hydrophilicity for the attachment and proliferation of PBMSCs and the PBMSCs expressed upregulated genes of osteogensis and angiogenesis in similar manner on both scaffolds. The major differences between these two types of the scaffolds were the addition of HA leading to higher hardness of PCL/HA scaffold, cell proliferation, and VEGF gene expression in PCL/HA scaffold. However, the in vivo bone forming efficacy between PBMSCs seeded PCL and PCL/HA scaffold was different from the in vitro results. The outcome indicated that the PCL/HA scaffold which had bone-mimetic environment due to the addition of HA resulted in better bone regeneration and mechanical strength than those of PCL scaffold. Therefore, providing a bone-mimetic scaffold is another crucial factor for bone tissue engineering in addition to the biocompatibility, 3D architecture with high porosity, and interpored connection.

  15. The Osteogenesis of Bone Marrow Stem Cells on mPEG-PCL-mPEG/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffold via Solid Freeform Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Jiang, Cho-Pei

    2014-01-01

    The study described a novel bone tissue scaffold fabricated by computer-aided, air pressure-aided deposition system to control the macro- and microstructure precisely. The porcine bone marrow stem cells (PBMSCs) seeded on either mPEG-PCL-mPEG (PCL) or mPEG-PCL-mPEG/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) composite scaffold were cultured under osteogenic medium to test the ability of osteogenesis in vitro. The experimental outcomes indicated that both scaffolds possessed adequate pore size, porosity, and hydrophilicity for the attachment and proliferation of PBMSCs and the PBMSCs expressed upregulated genes of osteogensis and angiogenesis in similar manner on both scaffolds. The major differences between these two types of the scaffolds were the addition of HA leading to higher hardness of PCL/HA scaffold, cell proliferation, and VEGF gene expression in PCL/HA scaffold. However, the in vivo bone forming efficacy between PBMSCs seeded PCL and PCL/HA scaffold was different from the in vitro results. The outcome indicated that the PCL/HA scaffold which had bone-mimetic environment due to the addition of HA resulted in better bone regeneration and mechanical strength than those of PCL scaffold. Therefore, providing a bone-mimetic scaffold is another crucial factor for bone tissue engineering in addition to the biocompatibility, 3D architecture with high porosity, and interpored connection. PMID:24868523

  16. Paclitaxel-Loaded TPGS-b-PCL Nanoparticles: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cells versus mPEG-b-PCL Nanoparticles and Abraxane®.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Lorena; Legaspi, Maria J; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicines have become an attractive platform for the development of novel drug delivery systems in cancer chemotherapy. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the best well-investigated nanosized carriers for delivery of antineoplastic compounds. The "Pegylation strategy" of drug delivery systems has been used in order to improve carrier biodistribution, however, some nanosized systems with PEG on their surface have exhibited poorly-cellular drug internalization. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to compare in vitro performance of two paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NPs systems based on two biocompatible copolymers of alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (TPGS-b-PCL) and methoxyPEG- block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL) in terms of citotoxicity and PTX cellular uptake. Fur- thermore, TPGS-b-PCL NPs were also copared with the commercially available PTX nano-sized formulation Abraxane®. Both TPGS-b-PCL and mPEG-b-PCL derivates were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone employing microwaved radiation. NPs were obtained by a solvent evaporation technique where the PTX content was determined by reverse-phase HPLC. The resulting NPs had an average size between 200 and 300 nm with a narrow size distribution. Also both NPs systems showed a spherical shape. The in vitro PTX release profile from the NPs was characterized employing the dialysis membrane method where all drug-loaded formulations showed a sustained and slow release of PTX. Finally, in vitro assays demonstrated that PTX-loaded TPGS- b-PCL exhibited a significant higher antitumor activity than PTX-loaded mPEG-b-PCL NPs and Abraxane® against an estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and an estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells lines. Furthermore TPGS-b-PCL NPs showed a significant increase on PTX cellular uptake, for both breast cell lines, in comparison with mPEG-b-PCL NPs and Abraxane®. Overall findings confirmed

  17. Detecting Signs of Intrusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    your systems, you should investigate any warnings they sound. Although monitors are not fool- proof, they can be part of an effective early warning ...Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Detecting Signs of Intrusion Robert Firth Gary Ford Barbara Fräser John Kochmar...1997 Detecting Signs of Intrusion Robert Firth Gary Ford Barbara Fräser John Kochmar Suresh Konda John Richael Derek Simmel Networked Systems

  18. Fabricating and controlling PCL electrospun microfibers using filament feeding melt electrospinning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Junghyuk; Ahsani, Vahid; Xiangxiao Yao, Selina; Mohtaram, Nima K.; Lee, Patrick C.; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-02-01

    The process of melt electrospinning has received noteworthy attention due to its ability to fabricate micro scaled polymer fibers. Recently, a melt electrospinning process has been attracting attention for biomedical applications, in particular with scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering. In order to enhance cell attachment and proliferation on scaffolds, it is important to control fiber diameters to create an environment to which cells can attach, grow, and proliferate with ease. However, because electrospinning is a process with many parameters, it is particularly difficult to precisely control the diameter of the resulting fibers. Also, polymer powders or pellets melted in nozzles are typically used for melt electrospinning. However, a filament feeding melt electrospinning process has not been yet been implemented. In this study, we developed a melt electrospinning device which can feed PCL (Polycaprolactone, Mw: 80 000 g mol-1) filaments for advanced electrospun fiber diameter control. The PCL filaments were first fabricated by a small scale micro-compounder and then fed into the melting chamber of the electrospinning device. The system was then heated to a desired temperature, and the melt was extruded through a nozzle. The potential difference between the nozzle and counter electrode then drew down the PCL extrudate, creating fine microfibers. Temperature was controlled and monitored via a customized temperature control system. In order to control the dispensing of the PCL filaments, a customized control algorithm using NI (National Instruments) LabVIEW was used. In order to actively cool PCL filaments, a miniature computer fan was attached on the side of the melting chamber so that the filaments would not buckle. This paper reveals the investigation of significant process parameters that influence fiber diameters and their optimization. For instance, applied voltages, distances between the nozzle and a counter electrode, processing temperatures, and

  19. ROP and ATRP Fabricated Dual Targeted Redox Sensitive Polymersomes Based on pPEGMA-PCL-ss-PCL-pPEGMA Triblock Copolymers for Breast Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Lale, Shantanu V; Mahajan, Shveta; Choudhary, Veena; Koul, Veena

    2015-05-06

    To minimize cardiotoxicity and to increase the bioavailability of doxorubicin, polymersomes based on redox sensitive amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate)-poly(caprolactone)-s-s-poly(caprolactone)-poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate) (pPEGMA-PCL-ss-PCL-pPEGMA) with disulfide linkage were designed and developed. The polymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone followed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of PEGMA. The triblock copolymers demonstrated various types of nanoparticle morphologies by varying hydrophobic/hydrophilic content of polymer blocks, with PEGMA content of ∼18% in the triblock copolymer leading to the formation of polymersomes in the size range ∼150 nm. High doxorubicin loading content of ∼21% was achieved in the polymersomes. Disulfide linkages were incorporated in the polymeric backbone to facilitate degradation of the nanoparticles by the intracellular tripeptide glutathione (GSH), leading to intracellular drug release. Release studies showed ∼59% drug release in pH 5.5 in the presence of 10 mM GSH, whereas only ∼19% was released in pH 7.4. In cellular uptake studies, dual targeted polymersomes showed ∼22-fold increase in cellular uptake efficiency in breast cancer cell lines (BT474 and MCF-7) as compared to nontargeted polymersomes with higher apoptosis rates. In vivo studies on Ehrlich's ascites tumor (EAT) bearing Swiss albino mouse model showed ∼85% tumor regression as compared to free doxorubicin (∼42%) without any significant cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin. The results indicate enhanced antitumor efficacy of the redox sensitive biocompatible nanosystem and shows promise as a potential drug nanocarrier in cancer therapeutics.

  20. Physical tuning of cellulose-polymer interactions utilizing cationic block copolymers based on PCL and quaternized PDMAEMA.

    PubMed

    Utsel, Simon; Bruce, Carl; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Fogelström, Linda; Carlmark, Anna; Malmström, Eva; Wågberg, Lars

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the objective was to synthesize and evaluate the properties of a compatibilizer based on poly(ε-caprolactone) aimed at tuning the surface properties of cellulose fibers used in fiber-reinforced biocomposites. The compatibilizer is an amphiphilic block copolymer consisting of two different blocks which have different functions. One block is cationic, quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and can therefore electrostatically attach to anionic reinforcing materials such as cellulose-based fibers/fibrils under mild conditions in water. The other block consists of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) which can decrease the surface energy of a cellulose surface and also has the ability to form physical entanglements with a PCL surface thereby improving the interfacial adhesion. Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) were used to synthesize three block copolymers with the same length of the cationic PDMAEMA block but with different lengths of the PCL blocks. The block copolymers form cationic micelles in water which can adsorb to anionic surfaces such as silicon oxide and cellulose-model surfaces. After heat treatment, the contact angles of water on the treated surfaces increased significantly, and contact angles close to those of pure PCL were obtained for the block copolymers with longer PCL blocks. AFM force measurements showed a clear entangling behavior between the block copolymers and a PCL surface at about 60 °C, which is important for the formation of an adhesive interface in the final biocomposites. This demonstrates that this type of amphiphilic block copolymer can be used to improve interactions in biocomposites between anionic reinforcing materials such as cellulose-based fibers/fibrils and less polar matrices such as PCL.

  1. Recidivism in female offenders: PCL-R lifestyle factor and VRAG show predictive validity in a German sample.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.

  2. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  3. Vital Signs Rate Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    S15 VITAL SIGNS RTE NETER(U) TEXAS R FW4D A UNIV COLLEGE 1/1 STATION IENGINEERING PROGM C S LESSAD ET RL. SEP 8? USRFSN-TR-$?-14 F33615-S3-D-0602...UNCLMSIFIED F/O 6/12 ML IIB 125 11 128 11.2.5_ ka7 U S S SS S S S S S0 02.2 36 * . * * * . - * . - .. . - - . Q -- .* USAFSAM-TR-87-1 4 VITAL SIGNS RATE...UNIT ELEMENT NO. INO.I NO. IACESSION NO. 622027 2729 02 21 11 TITLE ft ml’S111111:1111"ll vital Signs Rae ~t= 12. PERSONAL AUTWOR(S) Lessard, Cierles

  4. Eponymous signs in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

  5. Solar powered highway sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, R. L.; Hutter, W.

    1980-09-01

    A roadside sign was equipped with lights powered by photovoltaic solar panels to improve nighttime visibility and evaluate equipment performance and needs. The photovoltaic panels were found to be reliable and effective for powering flashing lights on a highway warning sign. Cost of the panels is high so their use should be limited to locations where commercial electrical power is not available. Solar electric systems should be carefully designed to minimize costs and produce a reliable system. Sufficient prediction for the solar panels should be provided in areas where theft or vandalism might be a problem.

  6. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bi-Lan; Shen, Yong-mei; Zhang, Qiong-wen; Li, Yu-li; Luo, Min; Liu, Ze; Li, Yan; Qian, Zhi-yong; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Hua-shan

    2013-01-01

    Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL) that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future.

  7. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) hybrid sheets containing polymeric micelles: Effects of inner structures on the material properties of the sheets.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Ryosuke; Takami, Taku; Uchida, Yusuke; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, we clarify the effects that the composition of three types of sheets-the PCL sheet, the PCL-BC (PCL-block copolymer composite) sheet, and the PCL-PM (PCL-polymeric micelle composite) sheet-can have on (1) the sheets' inner structure, (2) the dispersity of hydrophilic compounds in the sheets, (3) the sheets' mechanical properties, and (4) the sheets' degradability. Our results show that (1) the PCL-PM sheet can disperse hydrophilic compounds uniformly, (2) the molecular state (free or micellar) of a co-existing compound (PEG-b-PCL block copolymers) affects the strength and the inner structures of the sheets, whereas the presence of a co-existing compound affects the flexibility of the sheets, and (3) according to our degradation experiment, hard-to-handle PCL having extremely low hydrolysis could serve as materials with a controllable surface morphology by the effective use of co-existing compounds. The results obtained in this paper show that the PCL-CM sheet, with its uniformly dispersed polymeric micelles providing hydrophilic spaces, could be an effective biomaterial platform for incorporating hydrophilic polymers.

  8. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi-Lan; Shen, Yong-mei; Zhang, Qiong-wen; Li, Yu-li; Luo, Min; Liu, Ze; Li, Yan; Qian, Zhi-yong; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Hua-shan

    2013-01-01

    Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL) that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. PMID:24101869

  9. The risk of sacrificing the PCL in cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty and the relationship to the sagittal inclination of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Pasquale; Fioravanti, Giulio; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Cinotti, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    In cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA), a partial avulsion of PCL may occur when en-bloc tibial osteotomy is performed. We evaluated the effects of a tibial cut performed with different degrees of posterior slope on PCL insertion and whether the results are affected by the sagittal inclination of the patient's tibial plateau. We selected 83 MRIs of knees showing mild or no degenerative changes. The effects of a simulated tibial cut performed with a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's tibial plateau inclination on PCL insertion in the proximal tibia were investigated. The results were correlated with the degree of posterior inclination of the tibial plateau. Every angle we used for the tibial cut caused a PCL avulsion greater than 50%. The percentage of PCL avulsion significantly increased with increasing the posterior slope of the tibial cut. Patients with sagittal tibial plateau inclination <5° showed greater PCL avulsion than those with sagittal inclination >8°. Most of the PCL insertion is likely to be sacrificed when resection of the proximal tibia is performed en-block. The risk of PCL avulsion is reduced in patients showing a marked posterior inclination of the tibial plateau, but even in this group of patients a surgical technique aimed at sparing most of the PCL insertion is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Signs in Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of signs in Elizabeth George Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver," in which a settler youth and a young Indian learn to communicate by signs, and how the signs reveal much about each character's culture. Summarizes the plot elements of the book, including characters who are not as sympathetic to the Indian point of view.…

  11. Efficacy of certolizumab pegol on signs and symptoms of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis: 24-week results of a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled Phase 3 study

    PubMed Central

    Landewé, R; Braun, J; Deodhar, A; Dougados, M; Maksymowych, W P; Mease, P J; Reveille, J D; Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Stach, C; Hoepken, B; Fichtner, A; Coteur, G; de Longueville, M; Sieper, J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). Methods Patients with active axSpA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). In total 325 patients were randomised. Primary endpoint was ASAS20 (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society 20) response at week 12. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) linear. Results Baseline disease activity was similar between AS and nr-axSpA. At week 12, ASAS20 response rates were significantly higher in CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W arms versus placebo (57.7 and 63.6 vs 38.3, p≤0.004). At week 24, combined CZP arms showed significant (p<0.001) differences in change from baseline versus placebo in BASFI (−2.28 vs −0.40), BASDAI (−3.05 vs −1.05), and BASMI (−0.52 vs −0.07). Improvements were observed as early as week 1. Similar improvements were reported with CZP versus placebo in both AS and nr-axSpA subpopulations. Adverse events were reported in 70.4% vs 62.6%, and serious adverse events in 4.7% vs 4.7% of All CZP versus placebo groups. No deaths or malignancies were reported. Conclusions CZP rapidly reduced the signs and symptoms of axSpA, with no new safety signals observed compared to the safety profile of CZP in RA. Similar improvements were observed across CZP dosing regimens, and in AS and nr-axSpA patients. PMID:24013647

  12. Mechanical response of 3D Insert(®) PCL to compression.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, M; Perrault, C M; Lacroix, D

    2017-01-01

    3D polymeric scaffolds are increasingly used for in vitro experiments aiming to mimic the environment found in vivo, to support for cellular growth and to induce differentiation through the application of external mechanical cues. In research, experimental results must be shown to be reproducible to be claimed as valid and the first clause to ensure consistency is to provide identical initial experimental conditions between trials. As a matter of fact, 3D structures fabricated in batch are supposed to present a highly reproducible geometry and consequently, to give the same bulk response to mechanical forces. This study aims to measure the overall mechanical response to compression of commercially available 3D Insert PCL scaffolds (3D PCL) fabricated in series by fuse deposition and evaluate how small changes in the architecture of scaffolds affect the mechanical response. The apparent elastic modulus (Ea) was evaluated by performing quasi-static mechanical tests at various temperatures showing a decrease in material stiffness from 5MPa at 25°C to 2.2MPa at 37°C. Then, a variability analysis revealed variations in Ea related to the repositioning of the sample into the testing machine, but also consistent differences comparing different scaffolds. To clarify the source of the differences measured in the mechanical response, the same scaffolds previously undergoing compression, were scanned by micro computed tomography (μCT) to identify any architectural difference. Eventually, to clarify the contribution given by differences in the architecture to the standard deviation of Ea, their mechanical response was qualitatively compared to a compact reference material such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study links the geometry, architecture and mechanical response to compression of 3D PCL scaffolds and shows the importance of controlling such parameters in the manufacturing process to obtain scaffolds that can be used in vitro or in vivo under reproducible

  13. The preosteoblast response of electrospinning PLGA/PCL nanofibers: effects of biomimetic architecture and collagen I

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yunzhu; Chen, Hanbang; Xu, Yang; Yang, Jianxin; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Constructing biomimetic structure and incorporating bioactive molecules is an effective strategy to achieve a more favorable cell response. To explore the effect of electrospinning (ES) nanofibrous architecture and collagen I (COL I)-incorporated modification on tuning osteoblast response, a resorbable membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(caprolactone) (PLGA/PCL; 7:3 w/w) was developed via ES. COL I was blended into PLGA/PCL solution to prepare composite ES membrane. Notably, relatively better cell response was delivered by the bioactive ES-based membrane which was fabricated by modification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and COL I. After investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and mechanical test, polyporous three-dimensional nanofibrous structure with low tensile force and the successful integration of COL I was obtained by the ES method. Compared with traditional PLGA/PCL membrane, the surface hydrophilicity of collagen-incorporated membranes was largely enhanced. The behavior of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell infiltration and proliferation on membranes was studied at 24 and 48 hours. The negative control was fabricated by solvent casting. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphology demonstrated that all the ES membranes were more favorable for promoting the cell adhesion and spreading than the casting membrane. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that biomimetic architecture, surface topography, and bioactive properties of membranes were favorable for cell growth. Analysis of β1 integrin expression level by immunofluorescence indicated that such biomimetic architecture, especially COL I-grafted surface, plays a key role in cell adhesion and proliferation. The real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that both surface topography and bioactive properties could facilitate the cell adhesion. The combined effect of biomimetic architecture with enhanced

  14. The preosteoblast response of electrospinning PLGA/PCL nanofibers: effects of biomimetic architecture and collagen I.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yunzhu; Chen, Hanbang; Xu, Yang; Yang, Jianxin; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

    Constructing biomimetic structure and incorporating bioactive molecules is an effective strategy to achieve a more favorable cell response. To explore the effect of electrospinning (ES) nanofibrous architecture and collagen I (COL I)-incorporated modification on tuning osteoblast response, a resorbable membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(caprolactone) (PLGA/PCL; 7:3 w/w) was developed via ES. COL I was blended into PLGA/PCL solution to prepare composite ES membrane. Notably, relatively better cell response was delivered by the bioactive ES-based membrane which was fabricated by modification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and COL I. After investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and mechanical test, polyporous three-dimensional nanofibrous structure with low tensile force and the successful integration of COL I was obtained by the ES method. Compared with traditional PLGA/PCL membrane, the surface hydrophilicity of collagen-incorporated membranes was largely enhanced. The behavior of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell infiltration and proliferation on membranes was studied at 24 and 48 hours. The negative control was fabricated by solvent casting. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphology demonstrated that all the ES membranes were more favorable for promoting the cell adhesion and spreading than the casting membrane. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that biomimetic architecture, surface topography, and bioactive properties of membranes were favorable for cell growth. Analysis of β1 integrin expression level by immunofluorescence indicated that such biomimetic architecture, especially COL I-grafted surface, plays a key role in cell adhesion and proliferation. The real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that both surface topography and bioactive properties could facilitate the cell adhesion. The combined effect of biomimetic architecture with enhanced

  15. Two-, three-, and four-factor PCL-R models in applied sex offender risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Christopher M; Meyer, Robert G; Van Nort, James J; Tristan, Luciano

    2006-06-01

    The authors compared 2-, 3-, 4-factor, and 2-factor/4-facet Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) models in a previously unpublished sample of 1,566 adult male sex offenders assessed under applied clinical conditions as part of a comprehensive state-mandated community notification risk assessment procedure. "Testlets" significantly improved the performance of all models. The 3-factor model provided the best fit to the current data, followed by the 2-factor/4-facet model. The 2-factor model was not supported.

  16. Case study: Reinforcement of 45S5 bioglass robocast scaffolds by HA/PCL nanocomposite coatings.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Azadeh; Eqtesadi, Siamak; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro; Salamon, David; Castkova, Klara

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the mechanical enhancement provided by nanocomposite coatings deposited on robocast 45S5 bioglass (BG) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. In particular, a nanocomposite layer consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, as reinforcing phase, in a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix was deposited onto the surface of the BG struts conforming the scaffold. Three different HA nanopowders were used in this study. The effect of particle size and morphology of these HA nanopowders on the mechanical performance of 45S5 BG scaffolds is evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  18. PHBV/PCL microparticles for controlled release of resveratrol: physicochemical characterization, antioxidant potential, and effect on hemolysis of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Jessica Bitencourt Emilio; Riekes, Manoela Klüppel; de Oliveira, Viviane Matoso; Michel, Milton Domingos; Stulzer, Hellen Karine; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara; Farago, Paulo Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Microparticles of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing resveratrol were successfully prepared by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation. All formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency values higher than 80%. PHBV microparticles revealed spherical shape with rough surface and presence of pores. PCL microparticles were spherically shaped with smooth surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between resveratrol and polymers. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. These PHBV/PCL microparticles delayed the dissolution profile of resveratrol. Release profiles were better fitted to biexponential equation. The hypochlorous-acid-scavenging activity and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation discoloration assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of PHBV/PCL microparticles was kept, but was dependent on the microparticle morphology and dissolution profile. Resveratrol-loaded PHBV/PCL microparticles showed no cytotoxic effect on red blood cells.

  19. PHBV/PCL Microparticles for Controlled Release of Resveratrol: Physicochemical Characterization, Antioxidant Potential, and Effect on Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Jessica Bitencourt Emilio; Riekes, Manoela Klüppel; de Oliveira, Viviane Matoso; Michel, Milton Domingos; Stulzer, Hellen Karine; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara; Farago, Paulo Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Microparticles of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing resveratrol were successfully prepared by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation. All formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency values higher than 80%. PHBV microparticles revealed spherical shape with rough surface and presence of pores. PCL microparticles were spherically shaped with smooth surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between resveratrol and polymers. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. These PHBV/PCL microparticles delayed the dissolution profile of resveratrol. Release profiles were better fitted to biexponential equation. The hypochlorous-acid-scavenging activity and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation discoloration assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of PHBV/PCL microparticles was kept, but was dependent on the microparticle morphology and dissolution profile. Resveratrol-loaded PHBV/PCL microparticles showed no cytotoxic effect on red blood cells. PMID:22666135

  20. The role of hydroxyapatite as solid signal on performance of PCL porous scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Pagani, Stefania; Martini, Desiree; Baldini, Nicola; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2008-08-01

    Highly porous composites made up of biodegradable poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) particles have been developed as substrate for bone-tissue regeneration. The processing technique consists of phase inversion and particulate (salt crystals) leaching. Three different HA contents (13, 20 and 26 vol %) in PCL-based composite were considered in this study. Pore microstructure with fully interconnected network and pore sizes ranging around a few hundred of mum (macroporosity) was obtained as a result of salt particles removal by leaching process. Several microns (microporosity) porosity was also created through phase inversion of polymer solution. Total porosity up to 95% was achieved. Human marrow stromal cells (MSC) were seeded onto porous PCL-based composites for 1-5 weeks and cultured in osteogenic medium. MSC were able to adhere and grow on PCL-based substrates with a plateau at 3-4 weeks. However, the small effect of bioactive signals on the biological response evaluated in MSC cell culture suggests a prior role of topography on the biological response. Importantly, the presence of HA as a bioactive solid signal determines an increase of mechanical properties. On the overall, the results indicated that porous PCL-based composites are potential candidate for bone substitution with beneficial influence on structural characteristics by solid signal addition.

  1. Identifying the cutoff score for the PCL-R scale (psychopathy checklist-revised) in a Brazilian forensic population.

    PubMed

    Morana, Hilda Clotilde Penteado; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Câmara, Fernando Portela

    2005-01-06

    This study introduces a Portuguese-language version of psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R) [Harv. Mental Health Lett. 12 (1995) 4] in the Brazilian penitentiary system. Hare's scale is used extensively in many other countries. In a forensic population sample of 56 male subjects classified as psychopaths and non-psychopaths [Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991], 33 correlated to global personality disorder (GPD) and 23 to partial personality disorder (PPD), respectively, subtypes of antisocial personality disorder [Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991]. Subjects were evaluated through psychiatric and neurological examinations, review of judicial records, Rorschach and PCL-R. A control group of 30 subjects without criminological or psychiatric history was also evaluated with the same instruments. PCL-R validation and identification of cutoff score for Psychopathy (GPD group) was assessed through the concurrent use of the Rorschach. PCL-R cutoff score for the Brazilian population was set at 23. Sensitivity was determined at 84.8%, and reliability was high (Kappa index = 0.87). GPD individuals were characterized as clearly psychopathic according to PCL-R criteria while PPD individuals can only be considered mildly psychopathic, with better chance of rehabilitation.

  2. Using the PCL-R to help estimate the validity of two self-report measures of psychopathy with offenders.

    PubMed

    Poythress, Norman G; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Skeem, Jennifer L; Douglas, Kevin S; Edens, John F; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-06-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent for estimating the construct validity of these self-report measures with offenders. Compared with the LPSP, the PPI displayed higher zero-order correlations with the PCL-R, better convergent and discriminant validity, and more consistent incremental utility in predicting PCL-R scores. Furthermore, using a variant of Westen and Rosenthal's approach to evaluating the construct validity of a new measure, compared with the LPSP, the PPI's pattern of associations with measures of 35 external criterion variables was more similar to the pattern observed for the PCL-R. Results generally provide stronger support for the validity of the PPI than the LPSP in offender populations using the PCL-R as a provisional benchmark, particularly for assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy.

  3. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering fabricated from two different materials by the rapid prototyping technique: PCL versus PLGA.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hee; Park, Dae Sung; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Taek Rim; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2012-11-01

    Three dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds for the treatment of critical defect have been usually fabricated by salt leaching or gas forming technique. However, it is not easy for cells to penetrate the scaffolds due to the poor interconnectivity of pores. To overcome these current limitations we utilized a rapid prototyping (RP) technique for fabricating tissue engineered scaffolds to treat critical defects. The RP technique resulted in the uniform distribution and systematic connection of pores, which enabled cells to penetrate the scaffold. Two kinds of materials were used. They were poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(D, L-lactic-glycolic acid) (PLGA), where PCL is known to have longer degradation time than PLGA. In vitro tests supported the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. A 12-week animal study involving various examinations of rabbit tibias such as micro-CT and staining showed that both PCL and PLGA resulted in successful bone regeneration. As expected, PLGA degraded faster than PCL, and consequently the tissues generated in the PLGA group were less dense than those in the PCL group. We concluded that slower degradation is preferable in bone tissue engineering, especially when treating critical defects, as mechanical support is needed until full regeneration has occurred.

  4. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  5. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  6. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  7. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  8. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  9. Sign-away Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Catherine E.

    1976-01-01

    Why would mental health clients sign release-of-information forms unless they thought a refusal to do so would jeopardize their access to service? The author believes that the practice of not advising clients of their rights to privacy has ethical implications that can compromise the value of the treatment. (Author)

  10. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  11. The effect of benazepril on survival times and clinical signs of dogs with congestive heart failure: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, long-term clinical trial.

    PubMed

    1999-05-01

    To test the efficacy and tolerability of long-term administration of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in dogs with heart failure. The study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 16 centers in France, Italy, Switzerland and UK. A total of 162 dogs with class II and III (ISACHC classification) heart failure caused by chronic valvular disease (CVD) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were enrolled. Benazepril (minimum dosage, 0.25 mg/kg) or placebo were administered orally once daily for up to 34 months, either alone or as add-on therapy to "standard therapy" i.e. diuretics and/or digoxin and/or anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mean survival time (to death or withdrawal from the study due to worsening of heart failure) was 2.7 times longer in the benazepril treated group (428 days) as compared with the placebo group (158 days). Differences reached statistical significance (p<0.05 Cox proportional hazards model, 44% reduction in risk). The survival rate after one year was 49% with benazepril and 20% with placebo. Benazepril produced a statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction (by 46%) in the risk of worsening of heart failure (to ISACHC class III) when therapy was initiated early (in ISACHC class II). In sub-group analyses, a statistically significant (p<0.05) benefit of benazepril was reached for both survival and worsening endpoints for dogs with CVD (n=125), but not for the small sample of dogs with DCM (37). Benazepril also improved the exercise tolerance and global clinical condition at day 28 (p<0.05). As compared to the placebo group, dogs treated with benazepril presented with the same frequency of undesirable clinical events and fewer biochemical disturbances (less frequent increases in plasma urea or creatinine and decreases in plasma potassium). Benazepril extended the useful life-span of dogs with ISACHC class II and III heart failure (due to CVD) and was well tolerated.

  12. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  13. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  14. Phosphorous bonding in PCl3:H2O adducts: A matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prasad Ramesh; Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.

    2017-01-01

    Non-covalent interaction between PCl3 and H2O was studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. Computations indicated that the adducts are stabilized through novel P⋯O type phosphorus bonding and conventional Psbnd Cl⋯H type hydrogen bonding interactions, where the former adduct is the global minimum. Experimentally, the P⋯O phosphorus bonded adduct was identified in N2 matrix, which was evidenced from the shifts in the vibrational wavenumbers of the modes involving PCl3 and H2O sub-molecules. Atoms in Molecules and Natural Bond Orbital analyses have been performed to understand the nature of interactions in the phosphorus and hydrogen bonded adducts. Interestingly, experimental evidence for the formation of higher PCl3sbnd H2O adduct was also observed in N2 matrix.

  15. Ergonomic guidelines for traffic sign design increase sign comprehension.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Tamar; Shinar, David

    2006-01-01

    This research directly tests the relationship between comprehension probability of highway signs and the extent to which they comply with three ergonomic principles of design: sign-content compatibility, familiarity, and standardization. A recent study that evaluated comprehension of traffic signs in four different countries showed that comprehension level varies widely and is apparently related to the extent that the sign's design incorporates ergonomic guidelines for good design (D. Shinar, R. E. Dewar, H. Summala, and L. Zakowska 2003). Participants were presented with 30 signs and asked to describe each sign's meaning. They then evaluated each sign in terms of each of three ergonomic principles. In addition, a group of human factors/ergonomics experts evaluated each sign on its standardization and compatibility. There were high correlations between the ratings of the students and the ratings of the experts on compatibility (rho = .94) and on standardization (rho = .84), validating the use of the students' evaluations of the signs on these variables. There was a great variability in signs' comprehension and high and statistically significant correlations between the comprehension level of each sign and the extent to which it complied with compatibility (R = .76), familiarity (R = .89), and standardization (R = .88) principles. The more signs conform to universal ergonomic principles of good design, the more likely they are to be comprehended by drivers of different cultural backgrounds. Sign design should be guided by established ergonomics principles to enhance comprehension, especially for drivers who have not had any prior encounters with specific signs.

  16. Alternating block polyurethanes based on PCL and PEG as potential nerve regeneration materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyao; Li, Dandan; Niu, Yuqing; He, Tao; Chen, Kevin C; Xu, Kaitian

    2014-03-01

    Polyurethanes with regular and controlled block arrangement, i.e., alternating block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PUCL-alt-PEG) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-diol) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was prepared via selectively coupling reaction between PCL-diol and diisocyanate end-capped PEG. Chemical structure, molecular weight, distribution, and thermal properties were systematically characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, GPC, DSC, and TGA. Hydrophilicity was studied by static contact angle of H2O and CH2I2. Film surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy, and mechanical properties were assessed by universal test machine. Results show that alternating block polyurethanes give higher crystal degree, higher mechanical properties, and more hydrophilic and rougher (deep ravine) surface than their random counterpart, due to regular and controlled structure. Platelet adhesion illustrated that PUCL-alt-PEG has better hemocompatibility and the hemacompatibility was affected significantly by PEG content. Excellent hemocompatibility was obtained with high PEG content. CCK-8 assay and SEM observation revealed much better cell compatibility of fibroblast L929 and rat glial cells on the alternating block polyurethanes than that on random counterpart. Alternating block polyurethane PUC20-a-E4 with optimized composition, mechanical, surface properties, hemacompatibility, and highest cell growth and proliferation was achieved for potential use in nerve regeneration.

  17. ADSCs on PLLA/PCL Hybrid Nanoscaffold and Gelatin Modification: Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadikhan, Maedeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Parivar, Kazem; Yaghmaei, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    Background Development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has led to designing scaffolds and their modification to provide a better microenvironment which mimics the natural niche of the cells. Gelatin surface modification was applied to improve scaffold flexibility and cytocompatibility. Methods PLLA/PCL aligned fibrous scaffold was fabricated using electrospinning method. ADSCs were seeded after O2 plasma treatment and gelatin coating of the scaffolds. The morphological and mechanical properties of blends were assessed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), tensile test and ATR-FTIR. The cells proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Results Based on the results, it is supposed that gelatin coating is a brilliant method of surface modification which significantly increases the mechanical properties of scaffold without any changes on the construction or on the direction of nanofibers which conducts cell's elongation. MTT analysis exhibited that ADSCs attachment, viability and proliferation significantly (p < 0.05) increased after gelatin treatment. Conclusion Gelatin surface modification is a highly beneficial method to improve cytocompatibility, flexibility and mechanical features of the scaffolds which doesn't affect the nanofibers construction. Proliferation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) as a remarkable source of stem cells was investigated for the first time on PLLA/PCL hybrid scaffold. PMID:25926950

  18. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Song, Yang; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Jianan; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2011-04-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 µm were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E(corr)) and smaller corrosion currents (I(corr)) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 °C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents.

  19. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol-gel technique for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Catauro, M; Bollino, F; Papale, F; Marciano, S; Pacifico, S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol-gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between TiOH groups in the sol-gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells.

  20. Polymeric matrices based on graft copolymers of PCL onto acrylic backbones for releasing antitumoral drugs.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Gustavo A; Gallardo, Alberto; San Román, Julio; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Zurita, Mercedes; Vaquero, Jesús

    2003-03-15

    Graft copolymers of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) on poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAm), poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), or on copolymers of poly(DMAm-co-MMA) have been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). These partially biodegradable copolymer matrices have been proposed as drug delivery systems for the release of low-molecular-weight glycosides. Octyl-N-acetyl-6-O-[2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-3-hydroxypropyl]-alpha-D-glucosamide, a synthetic carbohydrate able to inhibit the proliferation of human malignant glioma cells in culture and transplanted glioma in rats was selected as drug model. The in vitro aqueous behavior of four drug-loaded and unloaded graft copolymers of different MMA: DMAm and PCL ratios has been analyzed performing swelling, degradation, and drug release experiments. An intimate dependence of the aqueous behavior with the composition has been found. The higher was the DMAm content, the higher was the hydrophilicity of the synthesized systems as well as the swelling, degradation, and drug release rate. In vivo experiments in pigs demonstrated the very good tolerance of drug-loaded implanted polymeric discs, and that >95% of the charged drug is released after 2 months' implantation.

  1. Comparison of Selective Laser Melted Titanium and Magnesium Implants Coated with PCL

    PubMed Central

    Matena, Julia; Petersen, Svea; Gieseke, Matthias; Teske, Michael; Beyerbach, Martin; Kampmann, Andreas; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Haferkamp, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Degradable implant material for bone remodeling that corresponds to the physiological stability of bone has still not been developed. Promising degradable materials with good mechanical properties are magnesium and magnesium alloys. However, excessive gas production due to corrosion can lower the biocompatibility. In the present study we used the polymer coating polycaprolactone (PCL), intended to lower the corrosion rate of magnesium. Additionally, improvement of implant geometry can increase bone remodeling. Porous structures are known to support vessel ingrowth and thus increase osseointegration. With the selective laser melting (SLM) process, defined open porous structures can be created. Recently, highly reactive magnesium has also been processed by SLM. We performed studies with a flat magnesium layer and with porous magnesium implants coated with polymers. The SLM produced magnesium was compared with the titanium alloy TiAl6V4, as titanium is already established for the SLM-process. For testing the biocompatibility, we used primary murine osteoblasts. Results showed a reduced corrosion rate and good biocompatibility of the SLM produced magnesium with PCL coating. PMID:26068455

  2. Growth factors delivery from hybrid PCL-starch scaffolds processed using supercritical fluid technology.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Gomez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; García-González, Carlos A

    2016-05-20

    Synthetic polymeric scaffolds to be used as surrogates of autologous bone grafts should not only have suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties, but also contain bioactive agents such as growth factors (GFs) to facilitate the tissue growth. For this purpose, cost-effective and autologous GFs sources are preferred to avoid some post-surgery complications after implantation, like immunogenicity or disease transmission, and the scaffolds should be processed using methods able to preserve GFs activity. In this work, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds incorporating GFs were processed using a green foaming process based on supercritical fluid technology. Preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF), a natural and highly available cocktail of GFs obtained from platelet rich plasma (PRP), was used as GF source. PCL:starch:PRGF (85:10:5 weight ratio) porous solid scaffolds were obtained by a supercritical CO2-assisted foaming process at 100 bar and 37 °C with no need of post-processing steps. Bioactivity of GFs after processing and scaffold cytocompatibility were confirmed using mesenchymal stem cells. The performance of starch as GF control release component was shown to be dependent on starch pre-gelification conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradable PCL/fibroin/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds prepared by supercritical foaming for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Gomez, Luis; García-González, Carlos A; Wang, Jiamian; Yang, Fang; Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador; Cenis, Jose Luis; Reyes, Ricardo; Delgado, Araceli; Évora, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2017-07-15

    Regenerative medicine seeks advanced solutions for bone repair in the form of bioactive synthetic scaffolds by using simple and reproducible processing techniques. In this work, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)-based porous scaffolds with improved osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties were processed by supercritical foaming through a careful tuning of components and processing conditions. Composite scaffolds were prepared from various combinations of PCL, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). The green and cost-effective supercritical CO2 foaming method applied rendered solid scaffolds with 67-70% porosity. The incorporation of fibroin and nHA in the scaffolds increased the compressive modulus, cellular adhesion and calcium deposition. The composite scaffolds were tested in vivo in a large-scale calvarial defect model, and bone regeneration was evaluated for up to 14 weeks after implantation. Histomorphometric results showed that all implanted constructs gave rise to the endochondral bone formation and unveiled the synergistic effect of silk fibroin and nHA on the bone repair extent. The information gathered may shed light on the design and processing criteria of bioactive bone scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Magnesium Ferrite-Based PCL/Aloe Vera Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Zanshe; Rahman, Shekh; Yarmolenko, Sergey; Sankar, Jagannathan; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2017-01-01

    Composite nanofibers of biopolymers and inorganic materials have been widely explored as tissue engineering scaffolds because of their superior structural, mechanical and biological properties. In this study, magnesium ferrite (Mg-ferrite) based composite nanofibers were synthesized using an electrospinning technique. Mg-ferrite nanoparticles were first synthesized using the reverse micelle method, and then blended in a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, and Aloe vera, a natural polymer, to create magnetic nanofibers by electrospinning. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties, and cellular compatibility of the magnetic nanofibers were analyzed. Mg-ferrite/PCL/Aloe vera nanofibers showed good uniformity in fiber morphology, retained their structural integrity, and displayed magnetic strength. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that magnetic nanofibers supported 3T3 cell viability. We believe that the new composite nanofibrous membranes developed in this study have the ability to mimic the physical structure and function of tissue extracellular matrix, as well as provide the magnetic and soluble metal ion attributes in the scaffolds with enhanced cell attachment, and thus improve tissue regeneration. PMID:28800071

  5. Three-dimensional printed PCL-hydroxyapatite scaffolds filled with CNTs for bone cell growth stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Oliveira, Filipe J; Silva, Rui F; Neto, Miguel A; Fernandes, M Helena; Amaral, Margarida; Vallet-Regí, María; Vila, Mercedes

    2016-08-01

    A three-phase [nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), carbon nanotubes (CNT), mixed in a polymeric matrix of polycaprolactone (PCL)] composite scaffold produced by 3D printing is presented. The CNT content varied between 0 and 10 wt % in a 50 wt % PCL matrix, with HA being the balance. With the combination of three well-known materials, these scaffolds aimed at bringing together the properties of all into a unique material to be used in tissue engineering as support for cell growth. The 3D printing technique allows producing composite scaffolds having an interconnected network of square pores in the range of 450-700 μm. The 2 wt % CNT scaffold offers the best combination of mechanical behaviour and electrical conductivity. Its compressive strength of ∼4 MPa is compatible with the trabecular bone. The composites show typical hydroxyapatite bioactivity, good cell adhesion and spreading at the scaffolds surface, this combination of properties indicating that the produced 3D, three-phase, scaffolds are promising materials in the field of bone regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1210-1219, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Naproxen conjugated mPEG-PCL micelles for dual triggered drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Karami, Zahra; Sadighian, Somayeh; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Parsa, Maliheh; Rezaee, Saeed

    2016-04-01

    A conjugate of the NSAIDs drug, naproxen, with diblock methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) copolymer was synthesized by the reaction of copolymer with naproxen in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The naproxen conjugated copolymers were characterized with different techniques including (1)HNMR, FTIR, and DSC. The naproxen conjugated mPEG-PCL copolymers were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The TEM analysis revealed that the micelles had the average size of about 80 nm. The release behavior of conjugated copolymer was investigated in two different media with the pH values of 7.4 and 5.2. In vitro release study showed that the drug release rate was dependant on pH as it was higher at lower pH compared to neutral pH. Another feature of the conjugated micelles was a more sustained release profile compared to the conjugated copolymer. The kinetic of the drug release from naproxen conjugated micelles under different values of pH was also investigated by different kinetic models such as first-order, Makoid-Banakar, Weibull, Logistic, and Gompertz. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of implant diameter, drug loading and end-capping on praziquantel release from PCL implants.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yaqiong; Guo, Shengrong; Wu, Weiping

    2010-02-15

    Praziquantel (PZQ)-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) cylindrical implants were fabricated and characterized. Implant diameter (3, 4 and 8mm), drug loading (25% and 50%), and the end-capping were investigated to evaluate their effects on drug release. The evolution of implants with release time was conducted in terms of implant microstructure, crystallinity, drug content and molecular weight of PCL. The results showed that drug release was fastest for the implant with a diameter of 3mm and slowest for the implant with a diameter of 8mm; drug release from the implant with a drug content of 50% was faster than that from the implant with a drug content of 25%; the release of PZQ from the end-capped implants was slightly slower than that from the corresponding end-uncapped implants. The effect of drug loadings on PZQ release was related with diameter of the implants and the effect was weakened as diameter of the implants increased. The drug release data for all the implants were best fitted with Ritger-Peppas model, therefore Fickian diffusion was the predominant release mechanism. The evolution of implants with release time verified that PZQ was gradually released from the exterior to the interior of the implants.

  8. Comparison of Selective Laser Melted Titanium and Magnesium Implants Coated with PCL.

    PubMed

    Matena, Julia; Petersen, Svea; Gieseke, Matthias; Teske, Michael; Beyerbach, Martin; Kampmann, Andreas; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Haferkamp, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo

    2015-06-10

    Degradable implant material for bone remodeling that corresponds to the physiological stability of bone has still not been developed. Promising degradable materials with good mechanical properties are magnesium and magnesium alloys. However, excessive gas production due to corrosion can lower the biocompatibility. In the present study we used the polymer coating polycaprolactone (PCL), intended to lower the corrosion rate of magnesium. Additionally, improvement of implant geometry can increase bone remodeling. Porous structures are known to support vessel ingrowth and thus increase osseointegration. With the selective laser melting (SLM) process, defined open porous structures can be created. Recently, highly reactive magnesium has also been processed by SLM. We performed studies with a flat magnesium layer and with porous magnesium implants coated with polymers. The SLM produced magnesium was compared with the titanium alloy TiAl6V4, as titanium is already established for the SLM-process. For testing the biocompatibility, we used primary murine osteoblasts. Results showed a reduced corrosion rate and good biocompatibility of the SLM produced magnesium with PCL coating.

  9. Recidivism is related to psychopathy (PCL-R) in a group of men convicted of homicide.

    PubMed

    Laurell, Jenny; Dåderman, Anna M

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that psychopaths are a group with high risk for criminality. Despite that, researchers and clinicians have not yet agreed on a general cause of psychopathy. However Raine [Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311-326.] advocated a biosocial model of violent behaviour where the greatest risk for criminal behaviour occurred when both heredity and environmental risk factors (e.g., social class, childhood history) were present. In this follow-up study, 35 men convicted of homicide were assessed retrospectively for psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Information on personal history, as well as from legal documents and records of offences committed by the subjects was also obtained. Fourteen of the 35 men were classified as psychopaths. Two men, both rated as psychopaths, had criminal parents. Twenty-seven of the men had a social relationship with their victim, and eleven out of these were rated as psychopaths. There was no difference in PCL-R scores between those who had a social relationship with their victim and those who did not. The psychopaths relapsed more frequently than the nonpsychopaths into criminality after their prison term. This result confirms previous research indicating that psychopathy is a risk factor for recidivism. It is, therefore, very important that psychopaths get the best possible treatment, aftercare, and supervision.

  10. Thermoresponsive biodegradable PEG-PCL-PEG based injectable hydrogel for pulsatile insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Payyappilly, Sanal; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2014-05-01

    An injectable biodegradable hydrogel was prepared for temperature-responsive pulsatile release of insulin. Triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) was prepared by ring opening bulk copolymerization and characterized using FT-IR, (1) HNMR, and gel permeation chromatography. Aqueous solution of PECE formed an injectable hydrogel, which was solution at room temperature and transformed into gel at 37°C. The temperature-responsive sol-gel transition and crystallinity of PECE hydrogel was studied and compared with pluronic, a well-studied nonbiodegradable injectable hydrogel. In vitro release study revealed that insulin release profile of PECE was similar to pluronic, and its viscosity was 1/30(th) of pluronic sol at 10,000 s(-1) shear rate. Release behavior of insulin from PECE hydrogels followed Fickian diffusion of first order. Insulin retained its secondary structure after release as confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum. A threefold increase in Fickian diffusion coefficient was evidenced when temperature was increased from 34 to 40°C because of crystalline melting of PCL part of PECE. Pulsatile release of insulin showed a correlation coefficient of 0.90 with the change of temperature.

  11. Delivery of the photosensitizer Pc 4 in PEG-PCL micelles for in vitro PDT studies.

    PubMed

    Master, Alyssa M; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Kenney, Malcolm E; Oleinick, Nancy L; Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2010-05-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 is a second-generation photosensitizer that has several properties superior to other photosensitizers currently approved by the FDA, and it has shown significant promise for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in several cancer cells in vitro and model tumor systems in vivo. However, because of the high hydrophobicity of Pc 4, its formulation for in vivo delivery and favorable biodistribution become challenging. To this end, we are studying encapsulation and delivery of Pc 4 in block copolymer micelles. Here, we report the development of biocompatible PEG-PCL micelle nanoparticles, encapsulation of Pc 4 within the micelle core by hydrophobic association with the PCL block, and in vitro PDT studies of the micelle-formulated Pc 4 in MCF-7c3 human breast cancer cells. Our studies demonstrate efficient encapsulation of Pc 4 in the micelles, intracellular uptake of the micelle-formulated Pc 4 in cells, and significant cytotoxic effect of the formulation upon photoirradiation. Quantitative estimation of the extent of Pc 4 loading in the micelles and the photocytotoxicity of the micelle-incorporated Pc 4 demonstrate the promise of our approach to develop a biocompatible nanomedicine platform for tumor-targeted delivery of Pc 4 for site-selective PDT.

  12. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics in melt-drawn PCL/PLA microfibrillar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kelnar, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the system poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid)/clay C15 and related microfibrillar composites has been studied using a simple method based on mathematical treatment of the DSC cumulative crystallization curves in their inflection point. The method provides three kinetic parameters: temperature of start of crystallization, temperature of maximum crystallization rate, and numerical value of the maximum crystallization rate. In the range of cooling rates 5 - 20°C/min, the temperatures of crystallization start and of maximum crystallization rate are determined with standard deviation of 0.3 and 0.4°C, respectively. Average standard deviation of maximum crystallization rate is 1.0 K-1 corresponding to coefficient of variation 5.8 %. Repeatability is slightly better at lower cooling rates. The modified samples show intensive nucleation effect during the non-isothermal crystallization, as demonstrated by their values of temperatures of crystallization start and of maximum crystallization rate that are significantly higher than that of neat PCL. The highest maximum crystallization rate has been found for the blend PCL/PLA 80/20. The proposed method does not refer to any crystallization model and does not require exact determination of the starting point of crystallization. On the other hand, it does not provide any information about dimensionality of crystal growth. The method is particularly useful for characterizing a series of samples derived by modification of the neat polymer.

  13. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5)

    PubMed Central

    Ashbaugh, Andrea R.; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; Herbert, Christophe; El-Hage, Wissam; Brunet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of a French version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and to further validate the existing English version of the measure. Undergraduate students (n = 838 English, n = 262 French) completed the PCL-5 as well as other self-report symptom measures of PTSD and depression online. Both the English and French versions PCL-5 total scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency (English: α = .95; French: α = .94), and strong convergent and divergent validity. Strong internal consistency was also observed for each of the four subscales for each version (α’s > .79). Test-retest reliability for the French version of the measure was also very good (r = .89). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor DSM-5 model was not a good fit of the data. The seven-factor hybrid model best fit the data in each sample, but was only marginally superior to the six-factor anhedonia model. The French version of the PCL-5 demonstrated the same psychometric qualities as both the English version of the same measure and previous versions of the PCL. Thus clinicians serving French-speaking clients now have access to this highly used screening instrument. With regards to the structural validity of the PCL-5 and of the new PTSD diagnostic structure of the DSM-5, additional research is warranted. Replication of our results in clinical samples is much needed. PMID:27723815

  14. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5).

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Andrea R; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; Herbert, Christophe; El-Hage, Wissam; Brunet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of a French version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and to further validate the existing English version of the measure. Undergraduate students (n = 838 English, n = 262 French) completed the PCL-5 as well as other self-report symptom measures of PTSD and depression online. Both the English and French versions PCL-5 total scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency (English: α = .95; French: α = .94), and strong convergent and divergent validity. Strong internal consistency was also observed for each of the four subscales for each version (α's > .79). Test-retest reliability for the French version of the measure was also very good (r = .89). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor DSM-5 model was not a good fit of the data. The seven-factor hybrid model best fit the data in each sample, but was only marginally superior to the six-factor anhedonia model. The French version of the PCL-5 demonstrated the same psychometric qualities as both the English version of the same measure and previous versions of the PCL. Thus clinicians serving French-speaking clients now have access to this highly used screening instrument. With regards to the structural validity of the PCL-5 and of the new PTSD diagnostic structure of the DSM-5, additional research is warranted. Replication of our results in clinical samples is much needed.

  15. Vertical phase separation and liquid-liquid dewetting of thin PS/PCL blend films during spin coating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Yang, Jinghui; Wang, Qi; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Thin films of an amorphous polymer, polystyrene (PS), and a crystalline polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), blend were prepared by spin coating a toluene solution. Surface chemical compositions of the blend films were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the surface and interface topographical changes were followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). By changing the PS concentration and keeping the PCL concentration of the solution at 1 wt %, a great variety of morphologies were constructed. The results show that the morphology of the blend films can be divided into three regions with increasing PS concentration. In region I, PS island domains are embedded in PCL crystals when the PS concentration is lower than 0.3 wt % and the size of the PS island increases with increasing PS concentration. In region II, holes with different sizes surrounded by a low rim are obtained when the concentration of PS is between 0.35 and 0.5 wt %. After selectively washing the PS domains, we studied the interface morphology of PS/PCL and found that the upper PS-rich layer extended into the bottom PCL layer, forming a trench surrounding the holes. In region III, an enriched two-layer structure with the PS-rich layer on top of the blend films and the PCL-rich crystal layer underneath is obtained when the concentration of PS is higher than 0.5 wt %. Last, the formation mechanism of the different surface and interface morphologies is further discussed in terms of the vertical phase separation to a layered structure, followed by liquid-liquid dewetting and crystallization processes during spin coating.

  16. Targeted delivery of Bcl-2 conversion gene by MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA cationic copolymer to combat therapeutic resistant cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibiao; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Xiaohong; Chua, Ming Xuan; Wu, Yun-Long

    2017-07-01

    Deregulation of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 protein expression was a key feature in human cancers with therapeutic resistance. Nuclear receptor Nur77 could induce the conformation change of Bcl-2 protein and converted it into an apoptosis inducer by "enemy to friend" strategy. However, the safe and effective delivery of this gene to combat therapeutic resistant cancer remained largely unexplored. In this report, we designed an amphiphilic cationic MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymer, comprising biocompatible and hydrophilic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG), biodegradable and hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), cationic poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) segments, and folic acid (FA) as targeting group, as a high efficient Nur77 gene carrier to folate receptor (FR) highly expressed and therapeutic resistant HeLa/Bcl-2 cancer cells. Interestingly, due to the incorporation of PCL and PEG segments, this MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymer showed less toxicity but better gene transfection efficiency than non-viral gene carrier gold standard PEI (25kDa). This might be due to the formation of micelles to stabilize polyplex for enhanced gene transfection ability. More importantly, MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymer exhibited excellent growth inhibition ability on therapeutic resistant HeLa/Bcl-2 cancer cells, which was FR overexpressed HeLa cervical cancer cells with high expression of Bcl-2 protein, thanks to its FA induced targeting ability, high gene transfection efficiency, and low cytotoxicity. This work signifies the first time that cationic amphiphilic MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymers could be utilized for the gene delivery to therapeutic resistant cancer cells with high expression of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 protein and the positive results are encouraging for the further design of polymeric platforms for combating drug resistant tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biocompatibility Properties of Polyamide 6/ PCL Blends Composite Textile Scaffold using EA.hy926 Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdal-Hay, Abdalla; Abdelrazek Khalil, Khalil; Al-Jassir, Fawzi F; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira

    2017-02-27

    Enhancing the cytocompatibility profiles including cell attachment, growth and viability of designed synthetic scaffolds have a pivotal role in tissue engineering applications. Polymer blending is one of the most effective methods for providing new desirable biomaterials for tissue scaffolds. This article reports a novel polyamide 6/ poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PA6/PCL) blends solution by varying the concentrations ratios of PA6 and PCL which was fabricated to create composite fibrous tissue scaffolds. Highly porous blends fibrous scaffold has been fabricated and their suitability as cell-support for EA.hy926 human endothelial cells has been studied. Our results demonstrated that the unique nanoscale morphological properties and tune porosity of the blends scaffold were controlled. We found that these properties are mainly depending on the PA6/PCL blending viscosity value, and the viscosity of the blending solution has an intense effect on the properties of the blends scaffold. The influence of the scaffolds extraction fluids and the scaffold direct contact of both of the metabolic viability and the DNA integrity of EA.hy926 endothelial cells as well as the cell/ scaffold interaction analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope, after different co-culturing intervals, demonstrated that PA6/PCL blend scaffolds showed different behavior. Blend scaffolds of PA6/PCL of 90:10 ratio proved to be excellent endothelial cell carrier, which provided a good cell morphology, DNA integrity and viability, induced DNA synthesis/replication, and enhanced cell proliferation, attachment, and invasion. These results indicate that blends of PA6/PCL composite fibers is a promising 3D substitute for the next generation of synthetic tissue scaffold that could soon find clinical applications.

  18. Co-delivery of docetaxel and chloroquine via PEO-PPO-PCL/TPGS micelles for overcoming multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunhuan; Zhang, Zhiqing; Shi, Jiaxing; Wang, Fang; Luan, Yuxia

    2015-11-30

    The combination of two or more drug is a promising strategy to suppress the multidrug resistance (MDR) through different action mechanisms. Co-delivery drugs via polymeric micelle can minimize the amount of each drug and reduce toxic side effects. Here we co-encapsulate anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX) and autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) in complex micelles based on poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PEO-PPO-PCL) and D-α-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol) (TPGS) for enhancing anticancer effects. Two series copolymer with different length of hydrophobic chain were synthesized (PEO68-PPO34-PCL18 and PEO68-PPO34-PCL36) in our lab. The dual-drug micelles possessed nanosize and sustained release profile in vitro. Drug-loaded micelles have low hemolysis rate (<5%), indicating that they are safe for use in vivo. Studies on cellular uptake demonstrate that the micelles can effectively accumulate in cancer cells. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity with different DTX/CQ mass ratio are studied and the sample with a DTX/CQ ratio of 0.8/0.2 is found to have the strongest synergism effect. The co-delivery micelles have obviously higher therapeutic effects against MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells than either free drug or individually DTX-loaded micelles. The IC50 values of DTX/CQ-loaded PEO68-PPO34-PCL18/TPGS and PEO68-PPO34-PCL36/TPGS micelles are 134.16 and 194.74 fold smaller than that of free DTX after 48 h treatment with MCF-7/ADR cells, respectively. Therefore, the as-prepared co-delivery of DTX and CQ based on PEO-PPO-PCL/TPGS micelles can provide a promising combined therapeutic strategy for enhanced antitumor therapy.

  19. Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqing; Cosme, Jaqueline G L; Xu, Tao; Miszuk, Jacob M; Picciani, Paulo H S; Fong, Hao; Sun, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to ∼300 μm for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

  20. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  1. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  2. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  3. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  4. Expedition 18 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov signs the door of a hotel room at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing for the launch aboard a Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan carrying Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 18 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke signs the door of a hotel room at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing for the launch aboard a Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan carrying Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. NASA EPA MOA Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-25

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson, right, sign a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to promote collaboration between the two agencies for cooperation in environmental and Earth sciences and environmental management applications as students from the Howard University Middle School of Mathematics and Science look on, Monday, April 26, 2010, at the school in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. NASA EPA MOA Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-25

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson, right, answer questions from students and faculty from the Howard University Middle School of Mathematics and Science after signing a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to promote collaboration between the two agencies for cooperation in environmental and Earth sciences and environmental management applications, Monday, April 26, 2010, at the school in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. NASA EPA MOA Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-25

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, foreground, speaks with Howard University students after he and and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson, right, signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to promote collaboration between the two agencies for cooperation in environmental and Earth sciences and environmental management applications at the Howard University Middle School of Mathematics and Science, Monday, April 26, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. The Integral Sign Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith

    2007-07-01

    We will observe the unusual warped disk galaxy known as the Integral Sign Galaxy, UGC 3697, with a small two-position WFPC2 mosaic. Observations will be obtained in three broad band filters and the resulting image will be released on the 19th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope on ~April 24, 2009. Multidrizzled mosaics will be made available through the archive.

  10. Expedition 37 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow crewmates, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov, Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Hopkins, Kotov and Ryazanskiy on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 37 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow crewmates, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov and NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Hopkins, Kotov and Ryazanskiy on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 35 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-28

    Expedition 35 Soyuz Commander Pavel Vinogradov performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow crewmates, Flight Engineers Chris Cassidy and Alexander Misurkin depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station, Thursday, March 28, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Vinogradov, Cassidy and Misurkin on a five and a half month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 39 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-25

    Expedition 39 Flight Engineer Oleg Artemyev, left, of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut hotel as Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of Roscosmos, looks on, Tuesday, March 25, 2014, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Artemyev, Skvortsov, and fellow crew member Flight Engineer Steve Swanson of NASA will launch in their Soyuz TMA-12M spacecraft to the International Space Station to begin a six-month mission. Photo Credit (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. Expedition 35 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-28

    Expedition 35 NASA Flight Engineer Chris Cassidy performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow crewmates, Soyuz Commander Pavel Vinogradov and Flight Engineer Alexander Misurkin depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station, Thursday, March 28, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Cassidy, Vinogradov and Misurkin on a five and a half month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 37 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-25

    Expedition 37/38 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow crewmates, NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins, Russian Flight Engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station on Wednesday, Sept. 25, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Hopkins, Kotov and Ryazanskiy on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 35 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-28

    Expedition 35 Russian Flight Engineer Alexander Misurkin performs the traditional door signing before he and fellow crewmates, Soyuz Commander Pavel Vinogradov and NASA Flight Engineer Chris Cassidy depart the Cosmonaut Hotel for their Soyuz launch to the International Space Station, Thursday, March 28, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Misurkin, Vinogradov and Cassidy on a five and a half month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Planetary Vital Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  18. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Holt, Gineke A.; Arendsen, Jeroen; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink-van Doorn, Andrea J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hendriks, Emile A.

    2009-02-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of such shortcomings: data-driven methods (which include almost all current methods) have difficulty recognizing signs that deviate too much from the examples that were used to train the method. Insight into human sign processing is needed to solve these problems. Perceptual research on sign language can provide such insights. This paper discusses knowledge derived from a set of sign perception experiments, and the application of such knowledge in ASLR. Among the findings are the facts that not all phases and elements of a sign are equally informative, that defining the 'correct' form for a sign is not trivial, and that statistical ASLR methods do not necessarily arrive at sign representations that resemble those of human beings. Apparently, current ASLR methods are quite different from human observers: their method of learning gives them different sign definitions, they regard each moment and element of a sign as equally important and they employ a single definition of 'correct' for all circumstances. If the object is for an ASLR method to handle natural sign language, then the insights from sign perception research must be integrated into ASLR.

  19. Psychopathy and ethnicity: structural, item, and test generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) in Caucasian and African American Participants.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D J; Kosson, D S; Michie, C

    2001-12-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) is an important measure in both applied and research settings. Evidence for its validity is mostly derived from male Caucasian participants. PCL-R ratings of 359 Caucasian and 356 African American participants were compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT) analyses. Previous research has indicated that 13 items of the PCL-R can be described by a 3-factor hierarchical model. This model was replicated in this sample. No cross-group difference in factor structure could be found using CFA; the structure of psychopathy is the same in both groups. IRT methods indicated significant but small differences in the performance of 5 of the 20 PCL-R items. No significant differential test functioning was found, indicating that the item differences canceled each other out. It is concluded that the PCL-R can be used, in an unbiased way, with African American participants.

  20. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Tyrone, Martha E.; Mauk, Claude E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech. PMID:20607146

  1. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  2. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  3. Expedition 39 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-25

    Expedition 39 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut hotel prior to departing the hotel for launch in a Soyuz rocket with fellow crew mates, Flight Engineer Steve Swanson of NASA and Flight Engineer Oleg Artemyev of Roscosmos, Tuesday, March 25, 2014, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Skvortsov, Swanson, and Artemyev will launch in their Soyuz TMA-12M spacecraft to the International Space Station to begin a six-month mission. Photo Credit (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Expedition 42 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-23

    Expedition 42 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing the hotel for launch in a Soyuz rocket with fellow crewmates, Flight Engineers Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Terry Virts of NASA, Sunday, Nov. 23, 2014 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for the early hours of Nov. 24 Kazakhstan time and will carry Shkaplerov, Cristoforetti, and Virts into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Expedition 42 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-23

    Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing the hotel for launch in a Soyuz rocket with fellow crewmates, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA), Sunday, Nov. 23, 2014 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for the early hours of Nov. 24 Kazakhstan time and will carry Virts, Shkaplerov, and Cristoforetti into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Expedition 39 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-25

    Expedition 39 Flight Engineer Oleg Artemyev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut hotel prior to departing the hotel for launch in a Soyuz rocket with fellow crew mates, Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of Roscosmos, and Flight Engineer Steve Swanson of NASA, Tuesday, March 25, 2014, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Artemyev, Skvortsov, and Swanson will launch in their Soyuz TMA-12M spacecraft to the International Space Station to begin a six-month mission. Photo Credit (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  7. Expedition 39 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-25

    Expedition 39 Flight Engineer Steve Swanson of NASA, performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut hotel prior to departing the hotel for launch in a Soyuz rocket with fellow crew mates, Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, and Flight Engineer Oleg Artemyev of Roscosmos, Tuesday, March 25, 2014, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Swanson, Skvortsov and, and Artemyev will launch in their Soyuz TMA-12M spacecraft to the International Space Station to begin a six-month mission. Photo Credit (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Expedition 42 Door Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-23

    Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA), performs the traditional door signing at the Cosmonaut Hotel prior to departing the hotel for launch in a Soyuz rocket with fellow crewmates, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA, Sunday, Nov. 23, 2014 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for the early hours of Nov. 24 Kazakhstan time and will carry Cristoforetti, Virts, and Shkaplerov into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Seeing the signs.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease, causing meningitis and/or septicaemia, can kill within hours and leave a significant number of survivors with lifelong disability. Even though there are now three meningococcal vaccines in the U.K. routine immunisation schedule, not all cases will be prevented. There are also other bacterial, viral and fungal causes of meningitis that are not prevented by vaccines, it is too early to assess the impact of recent changes to the schedule and it is vital that everyone is aware of the signs and symptoms, and remains vigilant.

  10. Sign of coma.

    PubMed

    Skjaerlund, J M

    1988-06-15

    The oblique focusing defect of spherical lenses, known as coma, is described by Seidel as the second of five correction terms (third order) to the Gauss theory. The concept is clear for a refracting surface that is free of spherical aberration; however, the impossibility of eliminating spherical aberration from a single lens with spherical surfaces can confuse the understanding of the second aberration, coma. A way of understanding the comatic effect even in the presence of spherical aberration is described. Confusion over the sign of coma, as indicated by mistakes in optics textbooks, is addressed. This paper suggests corrections to some interpretations of coma found in the literature.

  11. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  12. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease A nagging cough or slight wheeze may ... prepare for you next office visit. Questions about Lung Health? Call our Lung HelpLine. Get free counseling ...

  13. Surface modification of MPEG-b-PCL-based nanoparticles via oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine for malignant melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Peng, Lixia; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Qin

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on malignant melanoma, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (MPEG-b-PCL NPs) that had their surfaces modified with polydopamine (PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs@PDA) were prepared as drug vehicles. The block copolymer MPEG-b-PCL was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The PTX-loaded NPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation technique. The PTX-loaded NPs and PTX-loaded NPs@PDA were characterized in terms of size and size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin-6-loaded NPs@PDA could be internalized by human melanoma cell line A875 cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was greatly enhanced after PDA modification. The antitumor efficacy of the PTX-loaded NPs@PDA was investigated in vitro by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and in vivo by a xenograft tumor model. The PTX-loaded NPs@PDA could significantly inhibit tumor growth compared to Taxol(®) and precursor PTX-loaded NPs. All the results suggested that the PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs that had their surfaces modified with PDA are promising nanocarriers for malignant melanoma therapy.

  14. Utilization of Molecular Dynamics Simulation Coupled with Experimental Assays to Optimize Biocompatibility of an Electrospun PCL/PVA Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Sarmadi, Morteza; Shamloo, Amir; Mohseni, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to address the possibility of using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, as a computational framework, coupled with experimental assays, to optimize composite structures of a particular electrospun scaffold. To this aim, first, MD simulations were performed to obtain an initial theoretical insight into the capability of heterogeneous surfaces for protein adsorption. The surfaces were composed of six different blends of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and PCL (polycaprolactone) with completely unlike hydrophobicity. Next, MTT assay was performed on the electrospun scaffolds made from the same percentages of polymers as in MD models to gain an understanding of the correlation between protein adsorption on the composite surfaces and their capability for cell proliferation. To perform simulations, two ECM (extracellular matrix) protein fragments, namely, collagen type I and fibronectin, two essential proteins for initial cell attachment and eventual cell proliferation, were considered. To evaluate the strength of protein adsorption, adhesion energy and final conformations of proteins were studied. For MTT analysis, different blends of PCL/PVA electrospun scaffolds were prepared, on which endothelial cells were cultured for one week. Theoretical results indicated that the samples with more than 50% of PCL significantly represented stronger protein adsorption. In agreement with simulation results, experimental analysis also demonstrated that the more hydrophobic the surface became, the better initial cell attachment and cell proliferation could be achieved, which was particularly better observed in samples with more than 70% of PCL.

  15. Utilization of Molecular Dynamics Simulation Coupled with Experimental Assays to Optimize Biocompatibility of an Electrospun PCL/PVA Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Sarmadi, Morteza; Shamloo, Amir; Mohseni, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to address the possibility of using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, as a computational framework, coupled with experimental assays, to optimize composite structures of a particular electrospun scaffold. To this aim, first, MD simulations were performed to obtain an initial theoretical insight into the capability of heterogeneous surfaces for protein adsorption. The surfaces were composed of six different blends of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and PCL (polycaprolactone) with completely unlike hydrophobicity. Next, MTT assay was performed on the electrospun scaffolds made from the same percentages of polymers as in MD models to gain an understanding of the correlation between protein adsorption on the composite surfaces and their capability for cell proliferation. To perform simulations, two ECM (extracellular matrix) protein fragments, namely, collagen type I and fibronectin, two essential proteins for initial cell attachment and eventual cell proliferation, were considered. To evaluate the strength of protein adsorption, adhesion energy and final conformations of proteins were studied. For MTT analysis, different blends of PCL/PVA electrospun scaffolds were prepared, on which endothelial cells were cultured for one week. Theoretical results indicated that the samples with more than 50% of PCL significantly represented stronger protein adsorption. In agreement with simulation results, experimental analysis also demonstrated that the more hydrophobic the surface became, the better initial cell attachment and cell proliferation could be achieved, which was particularly better observed in samples with more than 70% of PCL. PMID:28118371

  16. Bone marrow stem cells implantation with alpha-cyclodextrin/MPEG-PCL-MPEG hydrogel improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Tang, Qi-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Tao; Wu, De-Qun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Okello, Emmy

    2009-10-01

    Cellular transplantation represents a promising therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is limited by low transplanted cell retention and survival within the ischemic tissue. This study was designed to investigate whether injectable alpha-cyclodextrin/poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone-(dodecanedioic acid)-polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-PCL-MPEG) hydrogel could improve cell transplant retention and survival, reduce infarct expansion and inhibit left ventricle (LV) remodeling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were encapsulated in alpha-cyclodextrin/MPEG-PCL-MPEG hydrogel and maintained their morphologies during the cell culturing. MTT assays were used for in vitro cell viability studies of the hydrogel and were shown to be non-cytotoxic. Seven days after MI, 100 microl of alpha-cyclodextrin solution containing 2 x 10(7) BMSCs and 100mul of MPEG-PCL-MPEG solution were injected into the infarcted myocardium simultaneously and the solutions solidified immediately. Injection of culture medium or cell alone served as controls. Four weeks after treatment, histological analysis indicated that the hydrogel was absorbed, and the injection of BMSCs with hydrogel had increased cell retention and vessel density around the infarct, and subsequently prevented scar expansion compared with BMSCs injection alone. Echocardiography studies showed that injection of BMSCs with hydrogel increased the LV ejection function and attenuated left ventricular dilatation. This study indicated that the injection of BMSCs with alpha-cyclodextrin/MPEG-PCL-MPEG hydrogel was an effective strategy which could enhance the effect of cellular transplantation therapy for myocardial infarction.

  17. Properties of PLA/PCL particles as vehicles for oral delivery of the androgen hormone 17α-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Sacchetin, Priscila Soares Costa; Setti, Rafaela Ferreira; Vieira e Rosa, Paulo de Tarso; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce PLA (poly(lactic acid)) and PCL (polycaprolactone) oral carriers through the precipitation of the polymer solutions using supercritical CO2 as an antisolvent for the controlled release of the hydrophobic model drug 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). Such drug is a steroidal hormone used orally to develop and sustain primary and secondary male sex characteristics, e.g. for female Nile tilapia sex reversal in aquaculture. The influence of hormone, PLA and PCL concentrations on particle formation was analyzed, showing that high PCL concentrations produced particles with rougher surfaces and greater mean diameters. The incorporation efficiency of MT ranged from 20 to 51%, and its addition resulted in increases in particle mean diameter from 23 to 54 μm. Aggregation was observed for particles incorporating or not MT and high concentrations of MT led to the formation of more amorphous structures, changing the thermal behavior of the particles. The exposure of the PLA/PCL particles to pH conditions simulating gastrointestinal fish conditions showed that hormone release fraction at acidic pH ranged from 8 to 63% (over 2h), while in the basic pH the proportion released varied from 23 to 60% (over 10h), reaching levels adequate for the desired in vivo activity.

  18. Surface modification of MPEG-b-PCL-based nanoparticles via oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine for malignant melanoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wei; Peng, Lixia; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Qin

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on malignant melanoma, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (MPEG-b-PCL NPs) that had their surfaces modified with polydopamine (PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs@PDA) were prepared as drug vehicles. The block copolymer MPEG-b-PCL was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The PTX-loaded NPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation technique. The PTX-loaded NPs and PTX-loaded NPs@PDA were characterized in terms of size and size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin-6-loaded NPs@PDA could be internalized by human melanoma cell line A875 cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was greatly enhanced after PDA modification. The antitumor efficacy of the PTX-loaded NPs@PDA was investigated in vitro by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and in vivo by a xenograft tumor model. The PTX-loaded NPs@PDA could significantly inhibit tumor growth compared to Taxol® and precursor PTX-loaded NPs. All the results suggested that the PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs that had their surfaces modified with PDA are promising nanocarriers for malignant melanoma therapy. PMID:25945046

  19. When experts disagreed, who was correct? A comparison of PCL-R scores from independent raters and opposing forensic experts.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Katrina A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Hawes, Samuel W; Murrie, Daniel C

    2012-12-01

    Researchers recently found that Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) scores reported by state experts were much higher than those reported by defense experts in sexually violent predator cases pursued for civil commitment (Murrie, Boccaccini, Johnson, & Janke, 2008), which raised the question of which scores were more accurate. In this study, two independent raters rescored the PCL-R from file review for 44 offenders from that sample who had opposing evaluator scores (allegiance cases) and 44 who had state expert, but not defense expert, scores (comparison cases). The independent raters agreed with one another in their scoring of the allegiance and comparison cases (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] ICCA,1 = .95), but they disagreed with both state (ICCA,1 = .29) and defense (ICCA,1 = .14) experts in the allegiance cases. Agreement was stronger between state experts and independent raters for the comparison cases (ICCA,1 = .63), but the independent raters assigned significantly higher PCL-R scores than experts for both the allegiance and comparison cases. These findings suggest that offenders who were selected for rescoring by the defense may have been more difficult to score. Findings also raise questions about the extent to which PCL-R scores based on correctional file review only are comparable to those based on file and interview.

  20. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-02-01

    In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  1. Cu-releasing BG/PCL Coating on Mg with Antibacterial and Anticorrosive Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyun; Zheng, Kai; Liang, Ruifang; Mainka, Astrid; Taccardi, Nicola; Roether, Judith A; Detsch, Rainer; Goldmann, Wolfgang; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2017-08-23

    Copper (Cu)-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles (Cu-BGNs) were introduced in polycaprolactone (PCL) coating systems to improve the bioactivity, antibacterial property, and corrosion resistance of vulnerable magnesium matrices under physiological conditions. The influence of different amounts of Cu-BGNs in PCL coatings was thoroughly investigated determining the wettability, electrochemical properties, and antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus carnosus and Escherichia coli, as well as their cyto-compatibility. Cu-BGNs were observed randomly scattered in PCL coatings. Increasing concentration of Cu-BGNs resulted in slightly decreasing water contact angle, and reducing anti-corrosion properties of the Cu-BGNs composite coatings. Yet higher Cu-BGNs content in coatings led to more calcium phosphate formation on the surface after 7 days of immersion in DMEM, which was confirmed by FTIR and XPS. The growth of S. carnosus and E. coli was inhibited by Cu2+ ion released from Cu-BGN coatings. In addition, both direct and indirect cyto-compatibility experiments showed that the viability and proliferation of MG-63 cells on Cu-BGN coatings were highly increased compared to pure magnesium; however, an additional increase of Cu-BGNs concentration showed a slight decrease of cell proliferation and cell activity. In summary, Cu-BGN/PCL composite coatings impart magnesium-based biomaterials antibacterial and anticorrosive properties for clinical applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Predicting the elastic properties of selective laser sintered PCL/β-TCP bone scaffold materials using computational modelling.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McHugh, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This study assesses the ability of finite element (FE) models to capture the mechanical behaviour of sintered orthopaedic scaffold materials. Individual scaffold struts were fabricated from a 50:50 wt% poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blend, using selective laser sintering. The tensile elastic modulus of single struts was determined experimentally. High resolution FE models of single struts were generated from micro-CT scans (28.8 μm resolution) and an effective strut elastic modulus was calculated from tensile loading simulations. Three material assignment methods were employed: (1) homogeneous PCL elastic constants, (2) composite PCL/β-TCP elastic constants based on rule of mixtures, and (3) heterogeneous distribution of micromechanically-determined elastic constants. In comparison with experimental results, the use of homogeneous PCL properties gave a good estimate of strut modulus; however it is not sufficiently representative of the real material as it neglects the β-TCP phase. The rule of mixtures method significantly overestimated strut modulus, while there was no significant difference between strut modulus evaluated using the micromechanically-determined elastic constants and experimentally evaluated strut modulus. These results indicate that the multi-scale approach of linking micromechanical modelling of the sintered scaffold material with macroscale modelling gives an accurate prediction of the mechanical behaviour of the sintered structure.

  3. Reliability and Validity Evaluation of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in Swedish Correctional and Forensic Psychiatric Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Strand, Susanne; Belfrage, Henrik; Fransson, Goran; Levander, Sten

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability…

  4. Assessing measurement invariance of PCL-R assessments from file reviews of North American and German offenders.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Neumann, Craig S; Stadtland, Cornelis; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Hare, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural research on psychopathy necessitates assessment methods that are generalizable across linguistic and cultural differences. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the factorial structure of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) assessments obtained from file reviews of North-American (N=2622) and German (N=443) male offenders. The analyses indicated that the 18 item, 4-factor model of the PCL-R obtained with the standard PCL-R protocol (interview and file review) also holds for file review data. On a factor-by-factor level, the data are commensurate with strong factorial invariance of factor loadings and item thresholds for the Interpersonal and Lifestyle factors, and with likely metric invariance for the Affective factor. The Antisocial factor showed structural differences between the two samples. The results imply that cultural or environmental factors more strongly influence the judgment and/or expression of antisociality. Based on the results, cross-cultural comparisons between North-American and German offenders in terms of PCL-R psychopathy should be limited to the Interpersonal and Lifestyle factors. Further research using data obtained through the standard protocol (i.e., interview plus file information) is encouraged.

  5. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  6. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  7. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  8. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  9. Effect of platy and tubular nanoclays on behaviour of biodegradable PCL/PLA blend and related microfibrillar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelnar, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    Blending of ductile poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and rigid polylactic acid (PLA) is a promising way to tailor biodegradable materials with broad range of properties. But the mutual incompatibility of both polyesters leads to compromised behaviour only. Alternative to PCL/PLA blends is application of PLA in the form of short fibres, however, difficult dispergation of flexible fibres including their poor adhesion and limited processing is a significant restriction. More effective is in situ formation of polymeric fibre-reinforced materials using microfibrillar composites (MFC) concept based on melt- or cold-drawing of a polymer blend. Important advantage of MFC is efficient dispersion and bonding of in-situ formed reinforcing fibres This work deals with combination of structure-directing and reinforcing effects of montmorillonite (oMMT) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) in the PCL/PLA 80/20 blend with in-situ formation of PLA fibrils in the PCL matrix. In the resulting microfibrillar composite, reinforcement by rigid PLA fibrils is combined with strengthening of both components by the nanofiller (NF). Moreover, PLA fibrils formation via melt-drawing is only possible after nanofiller addition due to favourable affecting of rheological parameters of the polymer components. The structure-properties relationship and complex effect of NF on microfibrillar composite performance, causing e.g., quite comparable parameters of both microfibrillar composites in spite of lower reinforcing effect of halloysite nanotubes on components, are discussed.

  10. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-06

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  11. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  12. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  13. Dictionary of Braille Music Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krolick, Bettye

    This dictionary gathers into a single resource definitions of braille music signs used since 1888 and provides explanations of the wide variety of formats in which these signs have been used at different times by publishers around the world. More than 400 music signs and approximately 100 literary abbreviations are included, but musical terms are…

  14. Quine and the Segregrational Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, George

    1999-01-01

    In the context of theory of integrational linguistics, the segregational sign is distinguished from the integrational sign, and the operation of the former is analyzed. Focus is on how logic guides the sign, and how the theory of W. V. Quine accounts for these issues. (MSE)

  15. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon signing bills into law (signing statements). Particularly since omnibus bills have become prevalent, signing statements have often been used... veto of the entire bill. In recent years, there has been considerable public discussion and criticism...

  16. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  17. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  18. Manual signing in adults with intellectual disability: influence of sign characteristics on functional sign vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics. Phonological and referential characteristics were assigned to the signs by speech-language pathologists. The iconicity (i.e., transparency, guessing the meaning of the sign; and translucency, rating on a 6-point scale) of the signs were tested in 467 students. Sign functionality was studied in 119 adults with ID (mean mental age of 50.54 months) by means of a questionnaire, filled out by a support worker. A generalized linear model with a negative binomial distribution (with log-link) showed that semantic category was the factor with the strongest influence on sign functionality, with grammatical class, referential concreteness, and translucency also playing a part. No sign phonological characteristics were found to be of significant influence on sign use. The meaning of a sign is the most important factor regarding its functionality (i.e., whether a sign is used in everyday communication). Phonological characteristics seem only of minor importance.

  19. Psychopathy (PCL-R) in a forensic psychiatric sample of homicide offenders: some reliability issues.

    PubMed

    Laurell, Jenny; Dåderman, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have shown that psychopathy is overrepresented among homicide offenders. There is a consensus that Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised PCL-R is currently the most valid and useful tool for rating psychopathy (e.g., [Fulero, S. M. (1995). Review of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. In J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Twelfth Mental Measurements Yearbook (pp. 453-454). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute]). Usually, when making a rating of psychopathy, both an interview and an examination of the subject's files are used. However, it has been discussed what is really required to be able to rate psychopathy in a reliable manner. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively rate the degree of psychopathy in 35 homicide offenders being subjected to forensic psychiatric assessment. These ratings of psychopathy were carried out using forensic psychiatric files and courts'; verdicts only. Another aim was to examine the reliability of PCL-R in this specific Swedish sample of homicide offenders. There was a good agreement between the two raters with respect to the categorical diagnosis of psychopathy (Cohen's kappa=.81, p<.001), which indicates that retrospective ratings of psychopathy are well suited for research purposes. The prevalence of psychopathy among the homicide offenders was 31.4% (using a cut-off score of 30), which means that the construct of psychopathy may contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of homicide. In the planning of treatment for homicide offenders, a consideration of possible psychopathy is necessary. As criminal psychopaths are known to relapse into violent criminality, it is very important that they are given efficient treatment, placement and management.

  20. Solid freeform fabrication and in-vitro response of osteoblast cells of mPEG-PCL-mPEG bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Chen, Yo-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Lee, Hung-Maan

    2013-04-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging approach to provide viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a good candidate of bone scaffold because of several advantages such as hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and intrinsic resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. However, its low compressive strength limits application for bone regeneration. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a hydrophobic nonionic polymer, is adopted to enhance the compressive strength of PEG alone.We aimed to investigate the in-vitro response of osteoblast-like cells cultured with porous scaffolds of triblock PEG-PCL-PEG copolymer fabricated by an air pressure-aided deposition system. A desktop air pressure-aided deposition system that involves melting and plotting PEG-PCL-PEG was used to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds having rectangular pores. The experimental results showed that PEG-PCL-PEG with a molecular weight of 25,000 can be melted and stably deposited through a heating nozzle at an air pressure of 0.3 MPa and no crack occurs after it solidifies. The scaffolds with pre-determined pore size of 400× 420 μm and a porosity of 79 % were fabricated, and their average compressive strength was found to be 18.2 MPa. Osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1, were seeded on fabricated scaffolds to investigate the in-vitro response of cells including toxicity and cellular locomotion. In a culture period of 28 days, the neutral-red stained osteoblasts were found to well distributed in the interior of the scaffold. Furthermore, the cellular attachment and movement in the first 10 h of cell culture were observed with time-lapse microscopy indicating that the porous PEG-PCL-PEG scaffolds fabricated by air pressure-aided deposition system is non-toxicity for osteoblast-like cells.

  1. Photocatalytic antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticles into coaxial electrospun PCL fibers to prevent infections from skin injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado-Prone, G.; Silva-Bermúdez, P.; García-Macedo, J. A.; Almaguer-Flores, A.; Ibarra, C.; Velasquillo-Martínez, C.

    2017-02-01

    Antibacterial studies of inorganic nanoparticles (nps) have become important due to the increased bacterial resistance against antibiotics. We used Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO nps), which possess excellent photocatalytic properties with a wide band gap (Eg), are listed as "generally recognized as safe" by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have shown antibacterial activity (AA) against many bacterial strains. The AA of ZnO nps is partly attributed to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) by photocatalysis. When ZnO nps in aqueous media are illuminated with an energy PCL) fibers obtained by electrospinning technique. To optimize the use of ZnO nps concentration, we developed coreshell coaxial electrospun fibers where the core corresponded to PCL and the shell to a mixture of ZnO nps/PCL. Thus, ZnO nps were only dispersed on the surface of the fibers increasing its superficial contact area. We evaluated the AA against E. coli of different electrospun ZnO nps/PCL fibers under two different conditions: UVA pre-illumination and darkness. Preliminary results suggest that the AA against E. coli is better when electrospun ZnO nps/PCL were preilluminated with UVA than under darkness conditions.

  2. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign.

  3. Short- and long-term recidivism prediction of the PCL-R and the effects of age: a 24-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively examined the short- and long-term prediction of several recidivism outcomes as a function of psychopathy and age in a sample of 273 Canadian federal inmates with an average 24 years post-release follow-up. Offenders were rated using the original 22-item Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL: Hare, 1980) based on extensive archival file information, and the ratings were used to compute the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) and the 4 facet scores. PCL-R total scores and the Lifestyle and Antisocial facets, but not the Interpersonal and Affective facets, showed mostly small and some moderate predictive efficacy for general and nonviolent recidivism over 3-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year fixed follow-ups, and predicted violence recidivism at shorter follow-ups. Age at release was negatively correlated with all recidivism outcomes and follow-up periods for both high and low PCL-R rated offenders, and uniquely predicted all recidivism outcomes after controlling for the PCL-R using Cox regression survival analysis. Increased age was consistently linked to recidivism reduction even for psychopathic offenders. The results showed that both PCL-R scores and age contributed to the prediction of recidivism; however, the PCL-R facets made differential contributions that varied with the type of offense (violent vs. nonviolent) and follow-up time (shorter vs. longer). The results have implications for both risk assessment using the PCL-R and potentially for risk reduction interventions.

  4. The identification of Pcl1-interacting proteins that genetically interact with Cla4 may indicate a link between G1 progression and mitotic exit.

    PubMed Central

    Keniry, Megan E; Kemp, Hilary A; Rivers, David M; Sprague, George F

    2004-01-01

    In budding yeast, Cla4 and Ste20, two p21-activated kinases, contribute to numerous morphogenetic processes. Loss of Ste20 or Cla4 individually confers distinct phenotypes, implying that they regulate different processes. However, loss of both proteins is lethal, suggesting some functional overlap. To explore the role(s) of Cla4, we and others have sought mutations that are lethal in a cla4 Delta strain. These mutations define >60 genes. Recently, both Ste20 and Cla4 have been implicated in mitotic exit. Here, we identify a genetic interaction between PHO85, which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, and CLA4. We further show that the Pho85-coupled G(1) cyclins Pcl1 and Pcl2 contribute to this Pho85 role. We performed a two-hybrid screen with Pcl1. Three Pcl1-interacting proteins were identified: Ncp1, Hms1, and a novel ATPase dubbed Epa1. Each of these proteins interacts with Pcl1 in GST pull-down experiments and is specifically phosphorylated by Pcl1.Pho85 complexes. NCP1, HMS1, and EPA1 also genetically interact with CLA4. Like Cla4, the proteins Hms1, Ncp1, and Pho85 appear to affect mitotic exit, a conclusion that follows from the mislocalization of Cdc14, a key mitotic regulator, in strains lacking these proteins. We propose a model in which the G(1) Pcl1.Pho85 complex regulates mitotic exit machinery. PMID:15082539

  5. Signs for You and Signs for Me: The Double Aspect of Semiotic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    The comments below are meant to show that considerations of public and private realms and the tension between these realms arise in a natural and persistent way in discussions connected with semiotics. In particular, they arise out of the themes of body and sociocultural mathematical meaning-making, which are recurring themes of the papers in this…

  6. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Vetter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69), while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior. PMID:18778472

  7. Yeast Gcn4p Stabilization Is Initiated by the Dissociation of the Nuclear Pho85p/Pcl5p Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bömeke, Katrin; Pries, Ralph; Korte, Virginia; Scholz, Eva; Herzog, Britta; Schulze, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Protein stability of the c-jun-like yeast bZIP transcriptional activator Gcn4p is exclusively controlled in the yeast nucleus. Phosphorylation by the nuclear Pho85p cyclin-dependent protein kinase, a functional homolog of mammalian Cdk5, initiates the Gcn4p degradation pathway in complex with the cyclin Pcl5p. We show that the initial step in Gcn4p stabilization is the dissociation of the Pho85p/Pcl5p complex. Pcl7p, another nuclear and constantly present cyclin, is required for Gcn4p stabilization and is able to associate to Pho85p independently of the activity of the Gcn4p degradation pathway. In addition, the nuclear cyclin-dependent Pho85p kinase inhibitor Pho81p is required for Gcn4p stabilization. Pho81p only interacts with Pcl5p when Gcn4p is rapidly degraded but constitutively interacts with Pcl7p. Our data suggest that Pcl7p and Pho81p are antagonists of the Pho85p/Pcl5p complex formation in a yet unknown way, which are specifically required for Gcn4p stabilization. We suggest that dissociation of the Pho85p/Pcl5p complex as initial step in Gcn4p stabilization is a prerequisite for a shift of equilibrium to an increased amount of the Pho85p/Pcl7p complexes and subsequently results in decreased Gcn4p phosphorylation and therefore increased stability of the transcription factor. PMID:16611745

  8. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  9. Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training.

  10. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/.

  11. Mussel-inspired functionalization of PEO/PCL composite coating on a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Xu, Demin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-05-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium-based implants in physiological environments in vivo not only will quickly deteriorate their mechanical strengths but will also lead to a severe change of the micro-environment around the implants, which may cause the final failure of magnesium-based implants. In this work, a polycaprolactone (PCL) layer was prepared to seal the plasma electrolytic oxidization coating (PEO) to form a PEO/PCL composite coating on a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy, followed by further surface functionalization with polydopamine. The in vitro degradation behaviors of the bare AZ31 alloy and coated samples were evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF) using the potentiodynamic polarization curve test and the static immersion test. The bioactivity of the samples was investigated using the SBF soaking test. The cytocompatibility of all samples was evaluated using the cytotoxicity test and analysis of the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) directly cultivated on the sample surface. The results showed that the PCL layer successfully sealed the pores of the PEO coating, and then the polydopamine layer formed on its surface. The in vitro degradation tests showed that the PEO/PCL composite coating improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ31 alloy in SBF with a more positive corrosion potential and a lower corrosion current density. Due to the protection of the PEO/PCL composite coating, the surrounding environment showed nearly no influence on the degradation of the coated sample, which led to no obvious local alkalization and hydrogen evolution. Moreover, compared with the AZ31 alloy and PEO coating, the PEO/PCL composite coating was more suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation. After further surface functionalization by polydopamine, the corrosion resistance of the composite coating was maintained, while its bioactivity was significantly enhanced with a large amount of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on its surface after

  12. Landsat 6 contract signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  13. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  14. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  15. Chvostek's sign in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeeshaan U; Absamara, Rania; Ahmed, Mas

    2014-01-01

    Chvostek's Sign was first described in 1876, as a clinical clue associated with patients who suffered from latent tetany, and is induced by percussion of the angle of the jaw. However, over the years many clinicians have called into question the strength of the association with latent tetany, particularly in paediatric practice. This review examines the variation in techniques used to elicit the sign in studies conducted on this phenomenon in children as well as how differences in the classification of a positive Chvostek's sign have lead to varied reports on the strength of the association. Furthermore, an appraisal of the literature regarding the proposed mechanism of Chvostek's sign is reported alongside analysing other diseases which have been associated with Chvostek's sign to uncover any unifying mechanism for the presence of this clinical sign in children.

  16. Signs of intelligence in cross-fostered chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B T; Gardner, R A

    1985-02-13

    In cross-fostering, the young of one species are reared by adults of another, as in the classical ethological studies of imprinting and song-learning. In our laboratory, infant chimpanzees were reared under human conditions that included two-way communication in American Sign Language (A.S.L.), the gestural language of the deaf in North America. A large body of evidence from five chimpanzees demonstrated stage by stage replication of basic aspects of the acquisition of speech and signs by hearing and deaf children. Here we review evidence that, under double-blind conditions: (i) the chimpanzees communicated information in A.S.L. to human observers; (ii) independent human observers agreed in their identification of the chimpanzee signs, (iii) the chimpanzees could use the signs to refer to natural language categories: DOG for any dog, FLOWER for any flower, SHOE for any shoe.

  17. Awareness of Deaf Sign Language and Gang Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Morgan, Robert L.

    There have been increasing incidents of innocent people who use American Sign Language (ASL) or another form of sign language being victimized by gang violence due to misinterpretation of ASL hand formations. ASL is familiar to learners with a variety of disabilities, particularly those in the deaf community. The problem is that gang members have…

  18. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  19. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  20. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  1. POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH AUTOGRAFT OF THE DOUBLE SEMITENDINOSUS MUSCLES AND MIDDLE THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS TENDON WITH DOUBLE FEMORAL AND SINGLE TIBIAL TUNNELS: CLINICAL RESULTS IN TWO YEARS FOLLOW UP

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Ricardo de Paula Leite; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix; Aihara, Tatsuo; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Avakian, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surgical aspects that may offer good anatomic and functional results in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using an autologous graft of the quadriceps tendon and double semitendinosus through a double femoral tunnel. Methods: Fourteen patients with isolated PCL lesions, instability and pain were operated on by arthroscopy and evaluated according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scales. Posterior knee laxity was examined with a KT1000 arthrometer. Results: The mean postoperative posterior side-to-side difference was between 0-2 mm in 57.1% of patients and between 3 and 5 mm in 35.7% of cases. The average Lysholm score was 93 points in the final follow-up. In the IKDC evaluation, 3 patients were graded A, 10 were graded B, and 1 patient was graded C. Conclusions: Double bundle arthroscopic PCL reconstruction based on the anatomical positioning of the tunnels, with double semitendinosus tendon and single quadriceps, provides a clinically evident reduction in symptoms and restores satisfactory stability, although no statistically significant difference was found due to the small sample. PMID:27027083

  2. Estimation of the poly (ε-caprolactone) [PCL] and α-cyclodextrin [α-CD] stoichiometric ratios in their inclusion complexes [ICs], and evaluation of porosity and fiber alignment in PCL nanofibers containing these ICs.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ganesh; Gupta, Bhupender S; Tonelli, Alan E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the utilization of Proton-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) to quantify the stoichiometric ratios between poly (ε-caprolactone) [PCL] and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) present in their non-stoichiometric inclusion complexes [(n-s)-ICs]. This paper further describes the porosity and fiber alignment of PCL nanofibers nucleated by the [(n-s)-ICs] during electrospinning. (1)H NMR indicated that the two non-stoichiometric inclusion complexes utilized in this study had differing stoichiometric ratios that were closely similar to those of the starting ratios used to make them. Studies on porosity and fiber alignments were conducted on the scanning electron microscope images using ImageJ. The data indicates that both fiber alignment as well as porosity values remain almost the same over all the samples. Thus we can conclude the improvement in mechanical properties was due only to the loading of the ICs, and their subsequent interaction with bulk unthreaded PCL.

  3. Spanish and English Versions of the PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C): Testing for Differential Item Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Interpretation of ethnic differences in PTSD is predicated on demonstration that differences are not due to measurement bias. This is difficult when multiple languages are used in the assessment. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine possible differential item functioning (DIF) across English and Spanish versions of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Data were derived from two assessments of Hispanics (Ns = 304, 213), who were hospitalized with physical injuries. After correction for multiple testing, univariate tests revealed no statistically significant DIF effects; multivariate tests revealed some indication of DIF at the initial assessment only. This bias was inconsistent across waves and unlikely to be substantively consequential, indicating that the two versions of the PCL-C were generally equivalent. PMID:18720394

  4. Controlled release of metronidazole from composite poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) rings for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Kehinde, Timilehin; Zhang, Xiangming; Khajotia, Sharukh; Schmidtke, David W; Starly, Binil

    2013-06-01

    Dental implants provide support for dental crowns and bridges by serving as abutments for the replacement of missing teeth. To prevent bacterial accumulation and growth at the site of implantation, solutions such as systemic antibiotics and localized delivery of bactericidal agents are often employed. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a novel method of controlled localized delivery of antibacterial agents to an implant site using a biodegradable custom fabricated ring. The study involved incorporating a model antibacterial agent (metronidazole) into custom designed poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) composite rings to produce the intended controlled release profile. The rings can be designed to fit around the body of any root form dental implants of various diameters, shapes and sizes. In vitro release studies indicate that pure (100%) alginate rings exhibited an expected burst release of metronidazole in the first few hours, whereas Alginate/PCL composite rings produced a medium burst release followed by a sustained release for a period greater than 4 weeks. By varying the PCL/alginate weight ratios, we have shown that we can control the amount of antibacterial agents released to provide the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) needed for adequate protection. The fabricated composite rings have achieved a 50% antibacterial agent release profile over the first 48 h and the remaining amount slowly released over the remainder of the study period. The PCL/alginate agent release characteristic fits the Ritger-Peppas model indicating a diffusion-based mechanism during the 30-day study period. The developed system demonstrates a controllable drug release profile and the potential for the ring to inhibit bacterial biofilm growth for the prevention of diseases such as peri-implantitis resulting from bacterial infection at the implant site. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paclitaxel-loaded PCL-TPGS nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo performance compared with Abraxane®.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Helguera, Gustavo; Legaspi, Maria J; Gonzalez, Lorena; Hocht, Christian; Taira, Carlos; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop Cremophor(®) EL-free nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with Paclitaxel (PTX) in order to improve the drug i.v. pharmacokinetic profile and to evaluate its activity against commercially available formulations such as Taxol(®) and Abraxane(®). PTX-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PCL-TPGS) NPs were prepared using three different techniques: (i) by nanoprecipitation (NPr-method), (ii) by emulsion-solvent evaporation homogenized with an Ultra-Turrax(®) (UT-method) and (iii) by emulsion-solvent evaporation homogenized with an ultrasonicator (US-method). The NPs prepared by US-method showed the smallest size and the highest drug content. The NPs exhibited a slow and continuous release of PTX. The in vitro anti-tumoral activity was assessed using two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) with the WTS assay. Cytotoxicity studies with both cell lines showed that PTX-loaded PCL-TPGS NPs exhibited better anti-cancer activity compared to PTX solution and the commercial formulation Abraxane(®) at different concentrations. Importantly, in the case of triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, the IC50 value for PTX-loaded PCL-TPGS NPs was 7.8 times lower than Abraxane(®). Finally, in vivo studies demonstrated that PTX-loaded PCL-TPGS NPs exhibited longer systemic circulation time and slower plasma elimination rate than Taxol(®) and Abraxane(®). Therefore, the novel NPs investigated might be an alternative nanotechnological platform for PTX delivery system in cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PCL rupture tibial avulsion in a contact athlete teen with open physis. One case presentation and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Larrain, Mario; Rocco, Eduardo Di; Riatti, Patricio; Ferreyra, Facundo; Cianciosi, Juan Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Given the infrequency and lack of consensus in the treatment of children and adolescents with these injuries, we decided to write this report with the aim of present a case of PCL tibial avulsion in a contact athlete teen with open physis and a review of the literature published. Materials and Methods: RF.male, 13 years, rugby, suffers French tackle and fall on knees flexed. 3 months post-trauma consultation with left knee pain, joint fluid and sport limitation. Whidout instability but "not feeling well". The posterior drawer test + + / ++++, gravitational test +. Rx posterior drawer: 8mm difference between the two nenes. MRI: tibial avulsion PCL. We interpreted as symptomatic PCL injury in athletes, surgery (arthroscopy + posterior approach) is decided reintegration of chondral fragment in 1 time P.OP: no load 4 Weeks . plaster wedge extension 6 weeks, then 3 months and passive immobilizer progressive mobility. Results: 0-90 mobility achieving in 8th week. The 3rd month drawer rx 4mm. MRI posterior translation of the 4th month reintegration of LCP with anchor . 6ª month later minimally elongated drawer with stop net. 11th month continuous strengthening recrearional and sports activities. Discussion and Conclusion: Most avulsion of PCL in patients with open physis probably be for greater strength and endurance ligament compared with the phisis and bone at this age. We suspected in patients with vague knee pain, with or without instability, history of trauma and normal Rx a correct examination and MRI to be essential for diagnosis. We beleave that athletes with open physis, because of the risk of joint degeneration, surgery is justified to restore kinematics, prevent osteoarthritis and resume activity prior to the injury.

  7. Thermogravimetric pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo waste via Asymmetric Double Sigmoidal (Asym2sig) function deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuihan; Miao, Wei; Zhou, Cheng; Wu, Hongjuan

    2017-02-01

    Thermogravimetric kinetic of bamboo waste (BW) pyrolysis has been studied using Asymmetric Double Sigmoidal (Asym2sig) function deconvolution. Through deconvolution, BW pyrolytic profiles could be separated into three reactions well, each of which corresponded to pseudo hemicelluloses (P-HC), pseudo cellulose (P-CL), and pseudo lignin (P-LG) decomposition. Based on Friedman method, apparent activation energy of P-HC, P-CL, P-LG was found to be 175.6kJ/mol, 199.7kJ/mol, and 158.4kJ/mol, respectively. Energy compensation effects (lnk0,z vs. Ez) of pseudo components were in well linearity, from which pre-exponential factors (k0) were determined as 6.22E+11s(-1) (P-HC), 4.50E+14s(-1) (P-CL) and 1.3E+10s(-1) (P-LG). Integral master-plots results showed pyrolytic mechanism of P-HC, P-CL, and P-LG was reaction order of f(α)=(1-α)(2), f(α)=1-α and f(α)=(1-α)(n)(n=6-8), respectively. Mechanism of P-HC and P-CL could be further reconstructed to n-th order Avrami-Erofeyev model of f(α)=0.62(1-α)[-ln(1-α)](-0.61)(n=0.62) and f(α)=1.08(1-α)[-ln(1-α)](0.074) (n=1.08). Two-steps reaction was more suitable for P-LG pyrolysis.

  8. Pip, a Novel Activator of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Geneviève; Barends, Sharief; Rigali, Sébastien; van Rij, E. Tjeerd; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are important factors for interactions between bacteria and other organisms. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 produces the antifungal secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) that inhibits growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radius lycopersici the causative agent of tomato foot and root rot. Our previous work unraveled a cascade of genes regulating the PCN biosynthesis operon, phzABCDEFGH. Via a genetic screen, we identify in this study a novel TetR/AcrR regulator, named Pip (phenazine inducing protein), which is essential for PCN biosynthesis. A combination of a phenotypical characterization of a pip mutant, in trans complementation assays of various mutant strains, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified Pip as the fifth DNA-binding protein so far involved in regulation of PCN biosynthesis. In this regulatory pathway, Pip is positioned downstream of PsrA (Pseudomonas sigma factor regulator) and the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, while it is upstream of the quorum-sensing system PhzI/PhzR. These findings provide further evidence that the path leading to the expression of secondary metabolism gene clusters in Pseudomonas species is highly complex. PMID:16997957

  9. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J.; Murphy, William L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO3 concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO3 substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. PMID:22014948

  10. Enzymatic behavior of laccase following interaction with γ-CD and immobilization into PCL nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Canbolat, M Fatih; Savas, Hasan Basri; Gultekin, Fatih

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the effects of CD use on enzymatic activity, following enzyme immobilization into nanofibers. There is almost no research available on the change in enzyme activity following interaction with cyclodextrin and electrospun nanofiber mats together. Laccase enzyme was immobilized into nanofibrous structures by various techniques, with and without γ-CD addition, and the enzymatic activity of the laccase was analyzed. SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses were used for the characterization of the resulting structures. Our results showed that cyclodextrin use has a positive effect on the enzyme's activity, and increases its stability. The enzymes treated by cyclodextrin showed activation after complex formation trials, and no activation loss or enzyme denaturation was detected. Our conclusions were supported by the enzyme activity test results, which also showed that immobilization by encapsulation methods gave better activity results than layering methods. Another important finding concerned the laccase's stable characteristics that helped to maintain its enzyme activation after the freeze drying process. Among all test groups, the best activity result was recorded by laccase-γ-CD complex encapsulated PCL nanofibers with 96.48 U/mg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical study of PLA-PCL fibers during in vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A C; Vieira, J C; Ferra, J M; Magalhães, F D; Guedes, R M; Marques, A T

    2011-04-01

    The aliphatic polyesters are widely used in biomedical applications since they are susceptible to hydrolytic and/or enzymatic chain cleavage, leading to α-hydroxyacids, generally metabolized in the human body. This is particularly useful for many biomedical applications, especially, for temporary mechanical supports in regenerative medical devices. Ideally, the degradation should be compatible with the tissue recovering. In this work, the evolution of mechanical properties during degradation is discussed based on experimental data. The decrease of tensile strength of PLA-PCL fibers follows the same trend as the decrease of molecular weight, and so it can also be modeled using a first order equation. For each degradation stage, hyperelastic models such as Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and second reduced order, allow a reasonable approximation of the material behavior. Based on this knowledge, constitutive models that describe the mechanical behavior during degradation are proposed and experimentally validated. The proposed theoretical models and methods may be adapted and used in other biodegradable materials, and can be considered fundamental tools in the design of regenerative medical devices where strain energy is an important requirement, such as, for example, ligaments, cartilage and stents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetics of nucleation and crystallization in poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schmelzer, Jurn; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn}; Schick, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The recently developed differential fast scanning calorimetry (DFSC) is used for a new look at the crystal growth of poly(3-caprolactone) (PCL) from 185 K, below the glass transition temperature, to 330 K, close to the equilibrium melting temperature. The DFSC allows temperature control of the sample and determination of its heat capacity using heating rates from 50 to 50,000 K/s. The crystal nucleation and crystallization halftimes were determined simultaneously. The obtained halftimes cover a range from 3 102 s (nucleation at 215 K) to 3 109 s (crystallization at 185 K). After attempting to analyze the experiments with the classical nucleation and growth model, developed for systems consisting of small molecules, a new methodology is described which addresses the specific problems of crystallization of flexible linear macromolecules. The key problems which are attempted to be resolved concern the differences between the structures of the various entities identified and their specific role in the mechanism of growth. The structures range from configurations having practically unmeasurable latent heats of ordering (nuclei) to being clearly-recognizable, ordered species with rather sharp disordering endotherms in the temperature range from the glass transition to equilibrium melting for increasingly perfect and larger crystals. The mechanisms and kinetics of growth involve also a detailed understanding of the interaction with the surrounding rigid-amorphous fraction (RAF) in dependence of crystal size and perfection.

  13. Annonaceous acetogenins nanosuspensions stabilized by PCL-PEG block polymer: significantly improved antitumor efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jingyi; Li, Yanhong; Li, Yijing; Xiao, Yao; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) have shown superior antitumor activity against a variety of cancer cell lines, but their clinical application has been limited by their poor solubility. In this study, ACGs-nanosuspensions (NSps) were successfully prepared by a precipitation ultrasonic method using monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol)2000–poly (ε-caprolactone)2000 (mPEG2000–PCL2000) as a stabilizer. The resultant ACGs-NSps had a mean particle size of 123.2 nm, a zeta potential of −20.17 mV, and a high drug payload of 73.68%. ACGs-NSps were quite stable in various physiological solutions, and they exhibited sustained drug release. Compared to free drug, ACGs-NSps exhibited stronger cytotoxicity against 4T1, MCF-7, and HeLa cells. An in vivo real-time biodistribution investigation after labeling with 1,1′-dioctadecyltetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide, a noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence probe, demonstrated that ACGs-NSps could effectively accumulate in tumor. An in vivo antitumor activity study in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice revealed that ACGs-NSps achieved much better therapeutic efficacy than the traditional dosage form (oil solution) even at 1/10 of the dose (74.83% vs 45.53%, P<0.05), demonstrating that NSp was a good dosage form for ACGs to treat cancer. PMID:27486323

  14. Extensive theoretical study on the excited states of the PCl+ molecule including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Siyuan; Liu, Yufang

    2017-07-01

    The entire 23 Λ-S states of the PCl+ molecule have been studied by using the high-level relativistic MRCI+Q method with full-electron aug-cc-pCVQZ-DK basis set. The potential energy curves(PECs) and wavefunctions of the states have been calculated. From the PECs, the spectroscopic constants of the bound states are also determined, and the good agreements could be found with the experiments. The high density region of states exhibits many PECs' crossings, which lead to complicated interaction of the states. Here, the interactions arising from the dipolar interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect have been discussed in detail. Under the influence of the SOC effect, the A2Π state is perturbed by the 14Σ- state. Considering the SOC effect, total 45 Ω states are generated from the original 23 Λ-S states. The transition properties are also predicted, including the transition dipole moments, Franck-Condon factors, and radiative lifetimes. The lifetimes of the transitions A2Π1/2-X2Π1/2 and A2Π3/2-X2Π3/2 are determined to be 478.9 ns and 487.0 ns(v'=0), respectively.

  15. Surface investigation on biomimetic materials to control cell adhesion: the case of RGD conjugation on PCL.

    PubMed

    Causa, Filippo; Battista, Edmondo; Della Moglie, Raffaella; Guarnieri, Daniela; Iannone, Maria; Netti, Paolo A

    2010-06-15

    The cell recognition of bioactive ligands immobilized on polymeric surfaces is strongly dependent on ligand presentation at the cell/material interface. While small peptide sequences such as Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) are being widely used to obtain biomimetic interfaces, surface characteristics after immobilization as well as presentation of such ligands to cell receptors deserve more detailed investigation. Here, we immobilized an RGD-based sequence on poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a largely widespread polymeric material used in biomedical applications, after polymer aminolysis. The surface characteristics along with the efficacy of the functionalization was monitored by surface analysis (FTIR-ATR, contact angle measurements, surface free energy determination) and spectrophotometric assays specially adapted for the analytical quantification of functional groups and/or peptides at the interface. Particular attention was paid to the evaluation of a number, morphology, and penetration depth of immobilized functional groups and/or peptides engrafted on polymeric substrates. In particular, a typical morphology in peptide distribution was evidenced on the surface raised from polymer crystallites, while a significant penetration depth of the engrafted molecules was revealed. NIH3T3 fibroblast adhesion studies verified the correct presentation of the ligand with enhanced cell attachment after peptide conjugation. Such work proposes a morphological and analytical approach in surface characterization to study the surface treatment and the distribution of ligands immobilized on polymeric substrates.

  16. Comprehensive mechanical characterization of PLA fabric combined with PCL to form a composite structure vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaojing; Wang, Fujun; Douglas, Graeham; Zhang, Ze; Guidoin, Robert; Wang, Lu

    2017-05-01

    Vascular grafts made by tissue engineering processes are prone to buckling and twisting, which can impede blood flow and lead to collapse of the vessel. These vascular conduits may suffer not only from insufficient tensile strength, but also from vulnerabilities related to compression, torsion, and pulsatile pressurization. Aiming to develop a tissue engineering-inspired blood conduit, composite vascular graft (cVG) prototypes were created by combining a flexible polylactic acid (PLA) knitted fabric with a soft polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix. The graft is to be populated in-situ with cellular migration and proliferation into the device. Comprehensive characterizations probed the relationship between structure and mechanical properties of the different cVG prototypes. The composite grafts exhibited major improvements in mechanical characteristics compared to single-material devices, with particular improvement in compression and torsional resistance. A commercial expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular graft was used as a control against the proposed composite vascular grafts. CVG devices showed high tensile strength, high bursting strength, and improved suture retention. Compression, elastic recovery, and compliance were similar to those for the ePTFE graft. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examination of psychopathy in female homicide offenders--confirmatory factor analysis of the PCL-R.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Putkonen, Hanna; Grönroos, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    The construct of psychopathy is essential in explaining criminal behavior, but unfortunately the empirical research on psychopathy in women has been inconsistent. In this study the underlying structure of psychopathy in women was examined by testing the two-factor model by Hare (2003) and the three-factor solution by Cooke and Michie (2001) using confirmatory factor analysis. We replicated the study by Warren et al. (2003) using a nationwide sample of 97 female homicide offenders in order to facilitate the comparison of results. The prevalence of psychopathy in the present study was 9.3% with a cut-off of >or=30 and 21.6% with a cut-off of >or=25. The best fit for the data out of the tested models was the three-factor model with six testlets. The two-factor model proved to be too simple a model for the female homicide data. The findings regarding comorbidity of psychopathy with personality disorders show that the concept of psychopathy includes diagnostic criteria of several personality disorders, but further research is needed to establish a possible superordinate dimension. Further research on the PCL-R and putative gender differences in the expression of psychopathy in women and men as well as on the putative impact of cultural differences on the instrument is clearly needed.

  18. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the three- and four-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of 646 adolescent females to test the fit of the three- and four-factor models. We also investigated the fit of these models in more homogeneous subsets of the full sample to examine whether fit was invariant across geographical region and setting. Analyses indicated adequate fit for both models in the full sample and was generally acceptable for both models in North American and European subsamples and for participants in less restrictive (probation/detention/clinic) settings. However, in the incarcerated subsample, the four-factor model achieved acceptable fit on only two of four indices. Although model fit was not invariant across continent or setting, invariance could be achieved in most cases by simply allowing factor loadings on one PCL: YV item to vary across groups. In summary, in contrast to prior studies with small samples, current findings show that both the three- and four-factor models fit adequately in a large sample of adolescent females, and the factor loadings are largely similar for North American and European samples and for long-term incarcerated and shorter-term incarcerated/probation/clinic samples. PMID:22731675

  19. Integration of PCL and PLA in a monolithic porous scaffold for interface tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; Botta, Luigi; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio

    2016-10-01

    A novel bi-layered multiphasic scaffold (BLS) have been fabricated for the first time by combining melt mixing, compression molding and particulate leaching. One layer has been composed by polylactic acid (PLA) presenting pore size in the range of 90-110µm while the other layer has been made of polycaprolactone (PCL) with pores ranging from 5 to 40µm. The different chemo-physical properties of the two biopolymers combined with the tunable pore architecture permitted to realize monolithic functionally graded scaffolds engineered to be potentially used for interface tissues regenerations. BLS have been characterized from a morphological and a mechanical point of view. In particular, mechanical tests have been carried out both in air and immersing the specimens in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37°C, in order to evaluate the elastic modulus and the interlayer adhesion strength. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts have been cultured and co-cultured in order to investigate the cells permeation trough the different layers. The results indicate that the presented method is appropriate for the preparation of multiphasic porous scaffolds with tunable morphological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, the cells seeded were found to grow with a different trend trough the different layers thus demonstrating that the presented device has good potential to be used in interface tissue regeneration applications.

  20. Coaxial electrospun PCL/Gelatin-MA fibers as scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, P; Santos, P; Alves, P; Miguel, Sónia P; Carvalho, Marco P; de Sá, Kevin D; Correia, I J; Ferreira, P

    2017-07-26

    Coaxial electrospinning is a technique that allows the production of nanofibers with a core-shell structure. Such fibers present several advantages as materials for the preparation of scaffolds, namely due to the possibility of combining a core with the desired mechanical properties with a shell prepared from biocompatible materials that will establish proper interactions with the host. Herein, core-shell fibrous meshes, composed of a polycaprolactone (PCL) core and a functionalized gelatin shell, were prepared by coaxial electrospinning and then photocrosslinked under UV light aiming to be used in vascular tissue regeneration. The suitability of the meshes for the pretended biomedical application was evaluated by assessing their chemical/physical properties as well as their haemo and biocompatibility in vitro. The obtained results revealed that meshes' shell prepared with a higher content of gelatin showed fibers with diameters presenting a unimodal distribution and a mean value of 600nm. Moreover, those fibers with higher content of gelatin also displayed lower water contact angles, and therefore higher hydrophilicities. Such features are crucial for the good biologic performance displayed by these meshes, when in contact with blood and with Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D-printed PCL scaffolds for the cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Daniela; Rezende, Rodrigo Alvarenga; Santi, Bruna; Pereira, Frederico David Alencar de Sena; Inforçatti Neto, Paulo; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Pranke, Patricia

    2016-04-06

    Tissue engineering is a field which is currently under a great deal of investigation for the development and/or restoration of tissue and organs, through the combination of cell therapy with biomaterials. Rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing is a versatile technology which makes possible the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) structures from a wide range of materials with complex geometry and accuracy, such as scaffolds. The aim of this study has been to investigate the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells with poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) biomaterials used for obtaining scaffolds through additive manufacturing. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and biological assays were performed to analyse the successful interaction between the cells and the biomaterials. As a result, the number of viable cells attached to the scaffolds was lower when compared to the control group; however, it was possible to observe cells in the scaffolds since day 1 of analysis, with regions of confluence after 21 days of seeding. To conclude, these biomaterials are interesting if used as medical artifacts, principally in tissue with prolonged regeneration time and which requires 3D supports with good mechanical properties.

  2. Controlled green tea polyphenols release from electrospun PCL/MWCNTs composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shijun; Li, Long; Yang, Guang; Li, Jingrong; Luo, Chao; Gong, Tao; Zhou, Shaobing

    2011-12-15

    Poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PCL/MWCNTs) composite nanofibers with various content of green tea polyphenols (GTP) were successfully fabricated via an electrospinning technology to maintain the chemical structural stability of GTP. The non-covalent interaction between MWCNTs and GTP was measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR. The topographical features of the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dispersibility of MWCNTs and the distribution of GTP in nanofibers were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), respectively. In vitro degradation was also characterized in terms of the morphological change and the mass loss of the nanofiber meshes. In vitro GTP release behavior was investigated in phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) at 37°C. Alamar blue assays were performed to estimate the cytotoxicity of the nanofibers with normal osteoblast cells and the antiproliferative effects to A549 and Hep G2 tumor cells. The results exhibited that the GTP-loaded composite nanofibers possessed a significant inhibition effect to tumor cells. Therefore, GTP, as a multifunctional drug, encapsulated into polymer composite nanofibers, must have broad application prospects in cancer therapy.

  3. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  4. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language…

  5. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  6. The Typology of Literary Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Robert M.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness for literary studies of some of Pierce's key terms and concepts: icon, index, symbol, image, and diagram. Argues that Pierce's description of signs may be usefully applied to literary signs and particularly to the problem of symbolism. Charts. (RB)

  7. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

  8. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  9. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  10. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  11. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  12. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

  13. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  14. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  15. Drug loaded homogeneous electrospun PCL/gelatin hybrid nanofiber structures for anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiajia; He, Min; Liu, Hao; Niu, Yuzhao; Crawford, Aileen; Coates, Phil D; Chen, Dafu; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-01

    Infection is the major reason for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membrane failure in clinical application. In this work, we developed GTR/GBR membranes with localized drug delivery function to prevent infection by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin blended with metronidazole (MNA). Acetic acid (HAc) was introduced to improve the miscibility of PCL and gelatin to fabricate homogeneous hybrid nanofiber membranes. The effects of the addition of HAc and the MNA content (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of polymer) on the properties of the membranes were investigated. The membranes showed good mechanical properties, appropriate biodegradation rate and barrier function. The controlled and sustained release of MNA from the membranes significantly prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. Cells could adhere to and proliferate on the membranes without cytotoxicity until the MNA content reached 30%. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that MNA-loaded membranes evoked a less severe inflammatory response depending on the dose of MNA than bare membranes. The biodegradation time of the membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. These results indicated the potential for using MNA-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes as anti-infective GTR/GBR membranes to optimize clinical application of GTR/GBR strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable loading and delivery of disulfiram with mPEG-PLGA/PCL mixed nanoparticles for tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Wantong; Tang, Zhaohui; Lei, Tian; Wen, Xue; Wang, Guanyi; Zhang, Dawei; Deng, Mingxiao; Tang, Xing; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-02-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) showed great potential in an in vitro tumor therapy study; however, those results could not be applied to an in vivo study due to the extreme instability of DSF in blood. Here, we describe a system of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PLGA/PCL) mixed nanoparticles (NPs) for DSF loading and delivery. By adjusting the mPEG-PLGA/PCL content ratios, the DSF loading capacity increased to 7.8%, while the hydrodynamic radii of the NPs were around 50-100nm. The DSF-loaded NPs showed high stability in distilled water and 10% serum-containing phosphate buffered saline. The NPs efficiently protected DSF from degradation while maintaining its anti-tumor properties. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetics study demonstrated that NP delivery system enhanced the DSF concentration in the blood after tail vein injection. Finally, DSF delivery using this model effectively slowed the growth of a 4T1 murine xenograft tumor. The anti-tumor efficacy of the anti-alcoholic drug disulfiram has been known for some time. However, its use in the clinical setting is limited due to the underlying instability of the drug. In this study, the authors utilized a nanocarrier system of mPEG-PLGA/PCL for the delivery of this drug. The promising results may allow encapsulation of other drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Antibacterial Performance of a PCL-PDMAEMA Blend Nanofiber-Based Scaffold Enhanced with Immobilized Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda G; Bonkovoski, Letícia C; Garcia, Francielle P; Cellet, Thelma S P; Witt, Maria A; Nakamura, Celso V; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2017-03-22

    In the present study, nanofiber meshes (NFs), composed of polycaprolactone and poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] at 80/20 and 50/50 PCL/PDMAEMA blend ratios, were obtained through electrospinning. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed in situ were then immobilized on NF surfaces through adsorption processes at different pHs. It was possible to observe that the amount of NF-AgNPs can be tuned by changing the pH of AgNPs immobilization and the PCL/PDMAEMA ratio in the blend. The neat NF and NF-AgNPs were characterized with respect to their morphology and mechanical properties. The effects of AgNPs on the antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity of meshes were also evaluated. The antibacterial performance of such NF was improved by the presence of AgNPs. The NF-AgNPs presented good antibacterial effect against S. aureus and partial toxicity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Also, compared with neat PCL/PDMAEMA the NF-AgNPs presented lower cytotoxicity against VERO cells, showing their potential for applications in tissue engineering for different types of cell growth.

  18. Mechanical properties and drug release behavior of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Fereshteh, Zeinab; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Bagri, Akbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-09-01

    This article presents data related to the research article entitled "The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering" [1]. We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research.

  19. Impact of motility and chemotaxis features of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 on its biocontrol of avocado white root rot.

    PubMed

    Polonio, Álvaro; Vida, Carmen; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2017-06-01

    The biocontrol rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 has the ability to protect avocado plants against white root rot produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. Moreover, PCL1606 displayed direct interactions with avocado roots and the pathogenic fungus. Thus, nonmotile (flgK mutant) and non-chemotactic (cheA mutant) derivatives of PCL1606 were constructed to emphasize the importance of motility and chemotaxis in the biological behaviour of PCL1606 during the biocontrol interaction. Plate chemotaxis assay showed that PCL1606 was attracted to the single compounds tested, such as glucose, glutamate, succinate, aspartate and malate, but no chemotaxis was observed to avocado or R. necatrix exudates. Using the more sensitive capillary assay, it was reported that smaller concentrations (1 mM) of single compounds elicited high chemotactic responses, and strong attraction was confirmed to avocado and R. necatrix exudates. Finally, biocontrol experiments revealed that the cheA and fglK derivative mutants reduced root protection against R. necatrix, suggesting an important role for these biological traits in biocontrol by P. chlororaphis PCL1606. [Int Microbiol 20(2):94-104 (2017)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  20. Biophysical characterization of hyper-branched polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-mono-methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (hy-PEI-PCL-mPEG) for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Samsonova, Olga; Sproat, Brian; Merkel, Olivia; Kissel, Thomas

    2011-08-10

    A library of mono-methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) modified hyperbranched PEI copolymers (hy-PEI-PCL-mPEG) was synthesized to establish structure function relationships for siRNA delivery. These amphiphilic block-copolymers were thought to provide improved colloidal stability and endosomal escape of polyplexes containing siRNA. The influence of the mPEG chain length, PCL segment length, hy-PEI molecular weight and the graft density on their biophysical properties was investigated. In particular, buffer capacity, complex formation constants, gene condensation, polyplex stability, polyplex size and zeta-potential were measured. It was found that longer mPEG chains, longer PCL segments and higher graft density beneficially affected the stability and formation of polyplexes and reduced the zeta-potential of siRNA polyplexes. Significant siRNA mediated knockdown was observed for hy-PEI25k-(PCL900-mPEG2k)(1) at N/P 20 and 30, implying that the PCL hydrophobic segment played a very important role in siRNA transfection. These gene delivery systems merit further investigation under in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical properties and drug release behavior of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application

    PubMed Central

    Fereshteh, Zeinab; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Bagri, Akbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data related to the research article entitled “The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering” [1]. We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research. PMID:26966716

  2. Biodegradable self-assembled PEG-PCL-PEG micelles for hydrophobic drug delivery, part 2: in vitro and in vivo toxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, ChangYang; Wang, YuJun; Wang, XiuHong; Wei, XiaWei; Wu, QinJie; Wang, BiLan; Dong, PengWei; Chen, LiJuan; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-02-01

    Polymeric micelles, prepared by self-assembly of biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) copolymer in aqueous solution, were proved to be a potential carrier for hydrophobic drug honokiol in our previous contribution. In this study, the safety of blank PECE micelles was evaluated in vitro and in vivo before its further application in biomedical field. The average particle size of obtained micelle was 83.47 ± 0.44 nm, and polydisperse index was 0.27 ± 0.01. Also, the zeta potential of prepared micelles was about -0.41 ± 0.02 mV. Otherwise, cytotoxicity of PECE micelles was evaluated by cell viability assay using L929 cells, and in vitro hemolytic test was also performed. In vivo acute toxicity evaluation and histopathological study of PECE micelles were conducted in BALB/c mice by intravenous administration. Furthermore, serum chemistry profile and complete blood count test were performed. In acute toxicity test, the mice were observed continuously for 7 days. For histopathological study, samples including heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidneys were histochemical prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). No mortality or significant signs of acute toxicity was observed during the whole observation period, and there is no significant lesion to be shown in histopathological study of major organs. The maximal tolerance dose of PECE micelles (100 mg/mL) by intravenous administration was calculated to be higher than 10 g/kg body weight (b.w.). The results indicated that the obtained PECE micelles was non-toxic after intravenous administration, and could be a safe candidate for hydrophobic drug delivery system.

  3. Double helicenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrach, Steven M.

    2016-12-01

    The even double helicenes with 4-12 phenyl groups in each helix were examined at B3LYP-D3/6-311G(d). The double helicenes with 4-10 phenyl rings are less than twice as strained as their component helicenes; the strain results from twisting about the shared naphthyl moiety, with accompanying loss of aromaticity. These compounds should be reasonable synthetic targets, and computed NMR shifts are provided to aid in their characterization.

  4. Sign change of the flux flow Hall effect in HTSC

    SciTech Connect

    Feigel`man, M.V.; Geshkenbein, V.B.; Larkin, A.I.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1996-11-01

    A novel mechanism for the sign change of the Hall effect in the flux flow region is proposed. The difference {delta}{ital n} between the electron density at the center of the vortex core and that far outside the vortex causes the additional contribution to the Hall conductivity {delta}{sigma}{sub xy} = -{delta}{ital nec}/{ital B}. This contribution can be larger than the conventional one in the dirty case {Delta}{ital T}{tau} {lt} 1. If the electron density inside the core exceeds the electron density far outside, a double sign change may occur as a function of temperature.

  5. Sign change of the flux flow hall effect in HTSC

    SciTech Connect

    Feigel`man, M.V.; Geshkenbein, V.B.; Larkin, A.I. ||; Vinokur, V.M.

    1994-05-01

    A novel mechanism for the sign change of the Hall effect in flux flow region is proposed. The difference {delta}n between the electron density at the center of the vortex core and that far outside the vortex causes the additional contribution to the Hall conductivity {delta}{sigma}{sub xy} = {delta}nec/B. This contribution can be bigger than the conventional one inn the dirty case {Delta}(T){tau} < 1. If the electron density inside the core exceeds the electron density outside the core the double sign change may occur as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  6. Effects of Sign-Language Training on Untrained Sign Use for Single and Multiple Signing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Bradley

    1983-01-01

    Two studies examined cross-modal transfer of sign language performance in 11 and 12 children (ages 6-17) with speech, language, or hearing disorders and mild to moderate retardation. Findings indicated that transfer from receptive to productive signing required explicit training, particularly of complex forms. (CL)

  7. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  8. [Hemiplegia with two Babinski's sign].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Montoya, María C; Camacho, John E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Neurological signs and symptoms are very important to establish a correct neurological diagnosis. We present here a Colombian female patient, 60 years-old, who had ischaemic stroke in the left cerebral media artery. It produced right hemiplegia, motor aphasia, "central" facial palsy and atrophy of right platysma muscle. This latter finding, described originally by Joseph Babinski as "The Babinski Sign" was observed only two years and seven months after the ictus even when she had, previously, been evaluated by several neurologists. The underdiagnosis of clinical signs like the one described here may lead to erroneous diagnosis that will, ultimately, affect neurorehabilitation measures.

  9. Hush sign: a new clinical sign in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Bilir, Erhan; Erdem, Atilla; Gomceli, Yasemin B; Kurt, G Semiha; Serdaroglu, Ayse

    2005-05-01

    Neurologists have been analyzing the clinical behaviors that occur during seizures for many years. Several ictal behaviors have been defined in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Ictal behaviors are especially important in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates. We propose a new lateralizing sign in TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere-the "hush" sign. Our patients were 30- and 21-year old women (Cases 1 and 2, respectively). Their epileptogenic foci were localized to the right mesial temporal region after noninvasive presurgical investigations. Case 1 had no cranial MRI abnormality, whereas cranial MRI revealed right hippocampal atrophy in Case 2. These women repeatedly moved their right index fingers to their mouth while puckering their lips during complex partial seizures. We have named this ictal behavior the "hush" sign. Anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy was performed in both patients, and pathological examinations revealed hippocampal sclerosis. The "hush" sign no longer occurred after seizures were controlled. They were seizure free as of 30 and 31 months of follow-up, respectively. We believe that the "hush" sign may be supportive of a diagnosis of TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere. This sign may occur as a result of ictal activation of a specific brain region in this hemisphere.

  10. Needle-like ion-doped hydroxyapatite crystals influence osteogenic properties of PCL composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Guarino, V; Veronesi, F; Marrese, M; Giavaresi, G; Ronca, A; Sandri, M; Tampieri, A; Fini, M; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2016-02-29

    Surface topography and chemistry both play a crucial role on influencing cell response in 3D porous scaffolds in terms of osteogenesis. Inorganic materials with peculiar morphology and chemical functionalities may be proficiently used to improve scaffold properties-in the bulk and along pore surface-promoting in vitro and in vivo osseous tissue in-growth. The present study is aimed at investigating how bone regenerative properties of composite scaffolds made of poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) can be augmented by the peculiar properties of Mg(2+) ion doped hydroxyapatite (dHA) crystals, mainly emphasizing the role of crystal shape on cell activities mediated by microstructural properties. At the first stage, the study of mechanical response by crossing experimental compression tests and theoretical simulation via empirical models, allow recognizing a significant contribution of dHA shape factor on scaffold elastic moduli variation as a function of the relative volume fraction. Secondly, the peculiar needle-like shape of dHA crystals also influences microscopic (i.e. crystallinity, adhesion forces) and macroscopic (i.e. roughness) properties with relevant effects on biological response of the composite scaffold: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses clearly indicate a reduction of crystallization heat-from 66.75 to 43.05 J g(-1)-while atomic force microscopy (AFM) ones show a significant increase of roughness-from (78.15  ±  32.71) to (136.13  ±  63.21) nm-and of pull-off forces-from 33.7% to 48.7%. Accordingly, experimental studies with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells show a more efficient in vitro secretion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen I and a more copious in vivo formation of new bone trabeculae, thus suggesting a relevant role of dHA to support the main mechanisms involved in bone regeneration.

  11. Sign Language Versus Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1978-01-01

    In the debate over continuities versus discontinuities in the emergence of language, sign language is not taken to be the antithesis, but is presented as the antecedent of spoken languages. (Author/HP)

  12. Meningococcal Disease: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Signs and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  13. Signs of an asthma attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... irritable Feeling nervous or edgy Danger Signs Call 911 or your local emergency number right away if ... asthma, the child's caregivers must know to call 911 if your child has any of these symptoms. ...

  14. Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems Ages & ...

  15. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & Families ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Warning Signs of Mental ...

  16. Aging changes in vital signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Vital signs include body temperature, heart rate (pulse), breathing rate, and blood pressure. ... health and any medical problems you may have. BODY TEMPERATURE Normal body temperature does not change much with ...

  17. Ivy Sign in Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Saglam, Muzaffer; Yildiz, Bulent; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2016-02-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the progressive stenosis and collateral development of the distal internal carotid arteries. In this disease, several collateral vascular structures develop following stenosis and occlusion. The ivy sign is a characteristic Magnetic rezonance imaging (MRI) finding frequently encountered in patients with moyamoya. It can be observed both in post contrast T1-weighted images and Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. While this sign manifests in the form of contrasting on the cortical surfaces due to the formation of leptomeningeal collateral development and increased numbers of pial vascular webs on post contrast images, in FLAIR images it originates from the slow arterial flow in the leptomeningeal collateral vascular structures. In this case, we presented the Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) signs of moyamoya disease and "ivy sign" in MRI and its development mechanism in a 16 years old female patient.

  18. Diagnosing Dementia--Positive Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  19. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  20. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landmark signs. 750.710 Section 750.710 Highways FEDERAL... Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710 Landmark signs. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(c) permits the existence of signs... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or...

  1. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Landmark signs. 750.710 Section 750.710 Highways FEDERAL... Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710 Landmark signs. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(c) permits the existence of signs... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or...

  2. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Landmark signs. 750.710 Section 750.710 Highways FEDERAL... Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710 Landmark signs. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(c) permits the existence of signs... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or...

  3. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landmark signs. 750.710 Section 750.710 Highways FEDERAL... Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710 Landmark signs. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(c) permits the existence of signs... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or...

  4. 23 CFR 750.710 - Landmark signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Landmark signs. 750.710 Section 750.710 Highways FEDERAL... Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.710 Landmark signs. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(c) permits the existence of signs... Secretary, to be landmark signs, including signs on farm structures or natural surfaces, of historic or...

  5. Online-learning provider edX doubles membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2013-03-01

    A major digital education initiative set up by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has just doubled its number of university partners and signed up its first members from outside the US.

  6. Double Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-23

    A double crater, called a crater doublet, is seen in the bottom right part of this image from NASA Dawn spacecraft of asteroid Vesta. This crater doublet was likely formed by the simultaneous impact of two fragments of a split projectile.

  7. Vibrational studies of flexible solid polymer electrolyte based on PCL-EC incorporated with proton conducting NH4SCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H. J.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A flexible solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a FDA approved non-toxic and biodegradable material in the effort to lower environmental impact was prepared. Ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) and ethylene carbonate (EC) were incorporated as the source of charge carriers and plasticizing agent, respectively. When 50 wt.% of ethylene carbonate (EC) was added to PCL-NH4SCN system, the conductivity increased by two orders from of 3.94 × 10- 7 Scm- 1 to 3.82 × 10- 5 Scm- 1. Molecular vibrational analysis via infrared spectroscopy had been carried out to study the interaction between EC, PCL and NH4SCN. The relative percentage of free ions, ion pairs and ion aggregates was calculated quantitatively by deconvoluting the SCN- stretching mode (2030-2090 cm- 1). This study provides fundamental insight on how EC influences the free ion dissociation rate and ion mobility. The findings are also in good agreement to conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results. High dielectric constant value (89.8) of EC had made it an effective ion dissociation agent to dissociate both ion pairs and ion aggregates, thus contributing to higher number density of free ions. The incorporation of EC had made the polymer chains more flexible in expanding amorphous domain. This will facilitate the coupling synergy between ionic motion and polymer segmental motion. Possible new pathway through EC-NH4+ complex sites for ions to migrate with shorter distance has been anticipated. This implies an easier ion migration route from one complex site to another.

  8. Effect of the preparation methods on architecture, crystallinity, hydrolytic degradation, bioactivity, and biocompatibility of PCL/bioglass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dziadek, Michal; Pawlik, Justyna; Menaszek, Elzbieta; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    In this study, two different composition gel derived silica-rich (S2) or calcium-rich (A2) bioactive glasses (SBG) from a basic CaO-P2 O5 -SiO2 system were incorporated into poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix to obtain novel bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The composites were fabricated in the form of highly porous 3D scaffolds using following preparation methods: solvent casting particulate leaching (SCPL), solid-liquid phase separation, phase inversion (PI). Scaffolds containing 21% vol. of each bioactive glass were characterized for architecture, crystallinity, hydrolytic degradation, surface bioactivity, and cellular response. Results indicated that the use of different preparation methods leads to obtain highly porous (60-90%) materials with differentiated morphology: pore shape, size, and distributions. Thermal analysis (DSC) showed that the preparation method of materials and addition of bioactive glass particles into polymer matrix induced the changes of PCL crystallinity. Composites obtained by SCPL and PI method containing A2 SBG rapidly formed a hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate surface layer after incubation in SBF. Bioactive glasses used as filler in composite scaffolds could neutralize the released acidic by-products of the polymer degradation. Preliminary in vitro biological studies of the composites in contact with osteoblastic cells showed good biocompatibility of the obtained materials. Addition of bioactive glass into the PCL matrix promotes mineralization estimated on the basis of the ALP activity. These results suggest that through a process of selection appropriate methods of preparation and bioglass composition it is possible to design and obtain porous materials with suitable properties for regeneration of bone tissue.

  9. Vibrational studies of flexible solid polymer electrolyte based on PCL-EC incorporated with proton conducting NH4SCN.

    PubMed

    Woo, H J; Arof, A K

    2016-05-15

    A flexible solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a FDA approved non-toxic and biodegradable material in the effort to lower environmental impact was prepared. Ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) and ethylene carbonate (EC) were incorporated as the source of charge carriers and plasticizing agent, respectively. When 50 wt.% of ethylene carbonate (EC) was added to PCL-NH4SCN system, the conductivity increased by two orders from of 3.94 × 10(-7) Scm(-1) to 3.82 × 10(-5) Scm(-1). Molecular vibrational analysis via infrared spectroscopy had been carried out to study the interaction between EC, PCL and NH4SCN. The relative percentage of free ions, ion pairs and ion aggregates was calculated quantitatively by deconvoluting the SCN(-) stretching mode (2030-2090 cm(-1)). This study provides fundamental insight on how EC influences the free ion dissociation rate and ion mobility. The findings are also in good agreement to conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results. High dielectric constant value (89.8) of EC had made it an effective ion dissociation agent to dissociate both ion pairs and ion aggregates, thus contributing to higher number density of free ions. The incorporation of EC had made the polymer chains more flexible in expanding amorphous domain. This will facilitate the coupling synergy between ionic motion and polymer segmental motion. Possible new pathway through EC-NH4(+) complex sites for ions to migrate with shorter distance has been anticipated. This implies an easier ion migration route from one complex site to another.

  10. PCL/PHBV blended three dimensional scaffolds fabricated by fused deposition modeling and responses of chondrocytes to the scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kosorn, Wasana; Sakulsumbat, Morakot; Uppanan, Paweena; Kaewkong, Pakkanun; Chantaweroad, Surapol; Jitsaard, Jaturong; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Janvikul, Wanida

    2017-07-01

    In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PCL/PHBV) blended porous scaffolds were fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM). PCL/PHBV filaments, initially prepared at different weight ratios, that is, 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75, were fabricated by the lay-down pattern of 0/90/45/135° to obtain scaffolds with dimension of 6.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 mm(3) and average filament diameters and channel sizes in the ranges of 370-390 µm and 190-210 µm, respectively. To enhance the surface hydrophilicity of the materials, the scaffolds were subsequently subjected to a low pressure oxygen plasma treatment. The untreated and plasma-treated scaffolds were comparatively characterized, in terms of surface properties, mechanical strength, and biological properties. From SEM, AFM, water contact angle, and XPS results, the surface roughness, wettability, and hydrophilicity of the blended scaffolds were found to be enhanced after plasma treatment, while the compressive strength of the scaffolds was scarcely changed. It was, however, found to increase with an increasing content of PHBV incorporated. The porcine chondrocytes exhibited higher proliferative capacity and chondrogenic potential when being cultured on the scaffolds with greater PHBV contents, especially when they were plasma-treated. The PCL/PHBV scaffolds were proven to possess good physical, mechanical, and biological properties that could be appropriately used in articular cartilage regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1141-1150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of a Multiscale Modelling Methodology to Predict the Mechanical Properties of PCL/β-TCP Sintered Scaffold Materials.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McDonnell, Pat; McHugh, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A multiscale modelling methodology to predict the macroscale stiffness of selective laser sintered polycaprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) materials is evaluated. The relationship between a micromechanics-evaluated composite material elastic modulus (E eff) and segment grey-value (GVave) is established for a 90/10 wt% PCL/β-TCP material and compared to the previously established E eff vs. GVave relationship for a 50/50 wt% PCL/β-TCP material. The increase in E eff with GVave was found to be greater for the 90/10 wt% material than for the 50/50 wt% material. Differences in the material microstructures are visible with greater local conglomerations of β-TCP in the 90/10 wt% material compared to the 50/50 wt% material. These results indicate that the relationship between E eff and GVave is material-specific and that one definition cannot be used to describe both materials. We have used the E eff and GVave relationship specific to the 90/10 wt% material to assign element-specific elastic properties in a high resolution macroscale strut finite element model to successfully predict the experimentally-evaluated strut effective stiffness of the 90/10 wt%. These results combined indicate that this multiscale modelling methodology reasonably predicts the effective elastic modulus of selective laser sintering struts with different material configurations, and that it can be used to determine the material-specific definition of the relationship between E eff and GVave for a particular material.

  12. What Are the Signs of Alzheimer's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contents It's important to know the signs of Alzheimer's disease. If you know the signs, you can get help right away. Some signs of the disease are listed here: Diagnosis Doctors now have several methods and tools to ...

  13. Junctions between metals and blends of conducting and biodegradable polymers (PLLA-PPy and PCL-PPy).

    PubMed

    Boutry, C M; Müller, M; Hierold, C

    2012-08-01

    The junctions between newly developed biodegradable conducting polymers (polylactide-polypyrrole PLLA-PPy and polycaprolactone-polypyrrole PCL-PPy) and metal electrodes (Au, Au/Cu, Ag, Ag/Cu, Cu, Cr/Au/Cu, Pd/Au/Cu, Pt/Au/Cu) were studied. The objective was to determine the composite/metal combination having the lowest possible contact resistance and ohmic characteristics. In a first step, different surface treatments, adhesion and metal layers were tested in order to evaluate the contact resistance. Then the current-voltage (IV) characteristics were measured and both ohmic and rectifying behaviour were observed depending on the polymer/metal junctions investigated. The surface treatments studied included an argon sputtering step and a grinding of the polymer surface with the objective of improving the contact between the metal electrode and the polymer. It was found that the most favourable conditions resulted from a process flow without argon sputtering, without grinding for PLLA-PPy and with a slight grinding for PCL-PPy. Moreover the most favourable metal electrodes for PLLA-PPy were Pd/Au/Cu, while the best compromise for PCL-PPy was to use Au/Cu. For the rectifying polymer/metal junctions, the standard thermionic emission model modified with a series resistance was successfully applied to the measured current-voltage IV characteristics. The saturation current density J0, series resistance R, ideality diode factor n and barrier height φB were investigated. The Chot functions were computed for each rectifying junction and the corresponding threshold voltages were calculated. Finally the conductivity of both composites was evaluated as a function of temperature in the range of 30 °C to 80 °C. For PLLA-PPy a decrease of the resistivity was observed when the temperature was increasing, while no clearly recognisable pattern was identified for PCL-PPy in this temperature range. The electrical conductivity of the PLLA-PPy samples was found to follow the empirical

  14. Study of smart antibacterial PCL-xFe3 O4 thin films using mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pai B, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Ajay V; Jain, Shilpee

    2016-01-13

    Surface energy plays a major role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell interactions with biomedical devices. In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-xFe3 O4 nanoparticles (PCL-xFO NPs; x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 wt% FO concentration in PCL) composite thin films were developed for skin tissue regeneration. The surface properties in terms of roughness, surface energy, wettability of the thin films were altered with the incorporation of Fe3 O4 NPs. These thin films show antimicrobial properties and cyto-compatibility with NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The porosity and thickness of the films were controlled by varying RPM of the spin coater. Interestingly, at 1000 RPM the roughness of the film decreased with increasing concentrations of FO NPs in PCL, whereas the surface energy increased with increasing FO NPs concentrations. Furthermore, the spreading of NIH-3T3 cells grown on PCL-xFO thin films was less as compared to control (TCPS), however cells overcame this effect after 48 h of seeding and cells spread similarly to those grown on TCPS after 48 h. Also, the incorporation of FO NPs in thin films induced inner membrane permeabilization in E. coli bacteria leading to bacterial cell death. The viability of E. coli bacteria decreased with increasing concentration of FO NPs in PCL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  15. Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans.

    PubMed

    Bovin, Michelle J; Marx, Brian P; Weathers, Frank W; Gallagher, Matthew W; Rodriguez, Paola; Schnurr, Paula P; Keane, Terence M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5; Weathers, Litz, et al., 2013b) in 2 independent samples of veterans receiving care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 468). A subsample of these participants (n = 140) was used to define a valid diagnostic cutoff score for the instrument using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5; Weathers, Blake, et al., 2013) as the reference standard. The PCL-5 test scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .96), test-retest reliability (r = .84), and convergent and discriminant validity. Consistent with previous studies (Armour et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014), confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data were best explained by a 6-factor anhedonia model and a 7-factor hybrid model. Signal detection analyses using the CAPS-5 revealed that PCL-5 scores of 31 to 33 were optimally efficient for diagnosing PTSD (κ(.5) = .58). Overall, the findings suggest that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used effectively with veterans. Further, by determining a valid cutoff score using the CAPS-5, the PCL-5 can now be used to identify veterans with probable PTSD. However, findings also suggest the need for research to evaluate cluster structure of DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Preparation and characterization of aligned porous PCL/zein scaffolds as drug delivery systems via improved unidirectional freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Fereshteh, Zeinab; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Bagri, Akbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-11-01

    A novel type of drug-delivery scaffold based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein blends was prepared by improved unidirectional freeze-drying. Scaffolds with tube-like pore structure and high porosity, up to 89%, were obtained by adjusting the concentration of the PCL and zein solutions. Characters of the prepared scaffolds, such as microstructural, porosity, and compressive strength, were evaluated. The hydrophilicity and the degradability of the composite films were investigated in contact with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). It was found that the presence of zein accelerates the degradation rate of the scaffolds in the period time of investigation (28days). The results showed an acceptable way for controlling the in vitro degradation behavior of PCL composite scaffolds by adapting the concentration of zein. In vitro protein release and degradation results revealed that the absolute weight loss of the PCL/zein scaffolds exhibited an increasing trend by increasing the amount of zein concentration in the scaffolds. The drug delivery capability of the scaffolds was tested using tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). Sustained release of the drug was obtained, and it was found that the proportion of zein in the scaffold had a great impact on the drug release kinetics. The results demonstrated the potential of the PCL/zein biocomposite scaffolds as a suitable candidate in tissue engineering strategies for bone defect treatment.

  17. Using MMPI-2-RF Correlates to Elucidate the PCL-R and Its Four Facets in a Sample of Male Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Klein Haneveld, Evelyn; Kamphuis, Jan H; Smid, Wineke; Forbey, Johnathan D

    2016-10-07

    This study documents the associations between the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) scale scores and the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) facet scores in a forensic psychiatric sample. Objectives were to determine how the MMPI-2-RF scales might enhance substantive understanding of the nature of the 4 PCL-R facets and to discern possible implications for the treatment of psychopathic patients. A sample of 127 male forensic psychiatric offenders admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital completed the PCL-R and the MMPI-2. Exploratory stepwise regression analyses assessed the prediction of the PCL-R total and its facet scores from MMPI-2-RF scales at its 3 hierarchical levels. Conceptually meaningful results emerged at each level of the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy, including several consistent differences between predictor sets across the facets. Interestingly, ideas of persecution (RC6) was a specific predictor of PCL-R Facet 2, a facet noted for its association with treatment failure. Results are compared and contrasted to the extant body of empirical work to date, and some tentative clinical implications are offered.

  18. Influence of diblock copolymer PCL-mPEG and of various iodinated oils on the formulation by the emulsion-solvent diffusion process of radiopaque polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hallouard, François; Briançon, Stéphanie; Anton, Nicolas; Li, Xiang; Vandamme, Thierry; Fessi, Hatem

    2013-11-01

    This pioneer study in the domain of blood pool contrast media formulation presents the influence of poly-ɛ-caprolactone-monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-mPEG) and oils on the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles by emulsion-solvent diffusion. The nature of the oil used had no influence on the encapsulation rate, even if particles were formulated with a mix of PCL/PCL-mPEG. It did, however, influence the particle size and polydispersity, with macroglycerides appearing to be the lipid structure best suited to obtain the smallest monodisperse particles. When we used PCL-mPEG to form a PEG-hydrated layer to surround the nanoparticles, its tension active property had a favorable effect on particle size and polydispersity. We also showed the strong deleterious effect on particle size and polydispersity when the polymer proportion was increased to over 1% (w/v) in the pre-emulsion organic phase. Conversely, increasing the oil proportion in this organic phase simply resulted in a slight to insignificant deleterious effect on size and polydispersity, enabling the oil proportion to be enhanced up to 3% (w/v). Finally, we showed the favorable combined effect of oil iodination and the presence of PCL-mPEG on particles formulated by emulsion-solvent diffusion leading to the preparation of smaller polymeric iodine-containing particles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  20. Ivy Sign in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Saglam, Muzaffer; Yildiz, Bulent; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the progressive stenosis and collateral development of the distal internal carotid arteries. In this disease, several collateral vascular structures develop following stenosis and occlusion. The ivy sign is a characteristic Magnetic rezonance imaging (MRI) finding frequently encountered in patients with moyamoya. It can be observed both in post contrast T1-weighted images and Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. While this sign manifests in the form of contrasting on the cortical surfaces due to the formation of leptomeningeal collateral development and increased numbers of pial vascular webs on post contrast images, in FLAIR images it originates from the slow arterial flow in the leptomeningeal collateral vascular structures. In this case, we presented the Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) signs of moyamoya disease and “ivy sign” in MRI and its development mechanism in a 16 years old female patient. PMID:27026766

  1. Biomaterials/scaffolds. Design of bioactive, multiphasic PCL/collagen type I and type II-PCL-TCP/collagen composite scaffolds for functional tissue engineering of osteochondral repair tissue by using electrospinning and FDM techniques.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Detlef; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Lam, Christopher X F; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-01-01

    Current clinical therapies for traumatic or chronic injuries involving osteochondral tissue result in temporary pain reduction and filling of the defect but with biomechanically inferior repair tissue. Tissue engineering of osteochondral repair tissue using autologous cells and bioactive biomaterials has the potential to overcome the current limitations and results in native-like repair tissue with good integration capabilities. For this reason, we applied two modem biomaterial design techniques, namely, electrospinning and fused deposition modeling (FDM), to produce bioactive poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/collagen (PCL/Col) type I and type II-PCL-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)/Col composites for precursor cell-based osteochondral repair. The application of these two design techniques (electrospinning and FDM) allowed us to specifically produce the a suitable three-dimensional (3D) environment for the cells to grow into a particular tissue (cartilage and bone) in vitro prior to in vivo implantation. We hypothesize that our new designed biomaterials, seeded with autologous bone marrow-derived precursor cells, in combination with bioreactor-stimulated cell-culture techniques can be used to produce clinically relevant osteochondral repair tissue.

  2. Tumoral calcinosis: sonographic sedimentation sign.

    PubMed

    Chakarun, Corey J; Talkin, Brenna; White, Eric A; Romero, Miriam; Ralls, Philip W

    2011-07-01

    We present the sonographic findings of tumoral calcinosis in two patients compared with conventional radiography, CT, and MRI. Sonography in both patients demonstrated fluid-sedimentation levels, with more echogenic debris layering dependently. This appearance has been referred to as the "sedimentation sign" on conventional radiography and results from dependent layering of hydroxyapatite crystals within cystic spaces of the lesion. There are only three reported cases in the world literature of sonographic findings in patients with tumoral calcinosis. We describe the first two cases of sonography demonstrating the "sedimentation sign," which may aid in the diagnosis of tumoral calcinosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Astronauts & cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-02-22

    S95-04325 (22 March 1995) --- In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar (left), STS-71 mission specialist, signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as her STS-71 crew mates look on. Cosmonauts Anatoliy Y. Solovyov (center), Mir 19 mission commander, and Nikiolai M. Budarin, flight engineer, have been training with Dunbar in both the United States and Russia for the past several months. It is customary for each crew member about to aboard a Russian spacecraft to sign the diary. Dunbar has been in Russia training as alternate researcher for the Mir 18 mission.

  4. Astronauts & cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-02-22

    S95-04324 (22 March 1995) --- In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Norman E. Thagard (left), guest researcher, signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as his Mir 18 crew mates look on. Cosmonauts Vladimir N. Dezhurov (center), mission commander, and Gennadiy M. Strkalov, flight engineer, have been training with Thagard in both the United States and Russia for the past several months. It is customary for each crew member about to aboard a Russian spacecraft to sign the diary.

  5. The Role of Sign Phonology and Iconicity during Sign Processing: The Case of Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to phonological sign features (i.e., hand shape, movement,…

  6. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  7. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  8. The utility of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory (YPI)--Is it meaningful to measure psychopathy in young offenders?

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Stephane M; Strand, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the convergent validity of 2 youth psychopathy instruments, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory (YPI) and their relationship with problem behaviors and recidivism in an Australian sample of young offenders in custody. The PCL: YV demonstrated a capacity to identify severely antisocial youth; however, the tool was unable to differentiate between potentially psychopathic and nonpsychopathic antisocial youth. The YPI was receptive to a wide variety of problem behaviors which precluded the unique identification of core psychopathic traits in the sample. Both instruments were unable to meaningfully distinguish between recidivists and nonrecidivists. As such, the PCL: YV and the YPI demonstrate limited utility for antisocial young offenders in custody. Further research on the durability and developmental manifestation of psychopathy in adolescents is necessary before these instruments are employed in similar contexts. Implications for the clinical use of psychopathy measures are discussed.

  9. Biodegradation of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) film and foam plastic by Pseudozyma japonica sp. nov., a novel cutinolytic ustilaginomycetous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Motaal, Fatma F; El-Sayed, Magdi A; El-Zayat, Soad A; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2014-10-01

    Aliphatic polyesters poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and foam plastic have been shown to be biodegradable by microorganisms, which possess cutinolytic enzymes. Pseudozyma japonica-Y7-09, showed both high growth and enzyme activity on Yeast malt (YM) medium fed with PCL film than on YM medium. The hydrolytic enzyme activity of the culture on p-nitrophenyl butyrate indicated the occurrence of cutinase enzyme. This activity was confirmed by the degradation of PCL film which reached to the maximum (93.33 %) at 15 days and the degradation of foam plastic which reached 43.2 % at 30 days. These results suggest that the extracellular cutinase enzyme of Pseudozyma japonica-Y7-09 may be useful for the biological degradation of plastic wastes.

  10. Reversible TAD Chemistry as a Convenient Tool for the Design of (Re)processable PCL-Based Shape-Memory Materials.

    PubMed

    Defize, Thomas; Riva, Raphaël; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Alexandre, Michaël; Herck, Niels Van; Prez, Filip Du; Jérôme, Christine

    2017-01-01

    A chemically cross-linked but remarkably (re)processable shape-memory polymer (SMP) is designed by cross-linking poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) stars via the efficient triazolinedione click chemistry, based on the very fast and reversible Alder-ene reaction of 1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (TAD) with indole compounds. Typically, a six-arm star-shaped PCL functionalized by indole moieties at the chain ends is melt-blended with a bisfunctional TAD, directly resulting in a cross-linked PCL-based SMP without the need of post-curing treatment. As demonstrated by the stress relaxation measurement, the labile character of the TAD-indole adducts under stress allows for the solid-state plasticity reprocessing of the permanent shape at will by compression molding of the raw cross-linked material, while keeping excellent shape-memory properties.

  11. Cluster analysis of a forensic population with antisocial personality disorder regarding PCL-R scores: differentiation of two patterns of criminal profiles.

    PubMed

    Morana, Hilda Clotilde Penteado; Câmara, Fernando Portela; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2006-12-20

    Fifty six cases of a forensic population were submitted to a cluster analysis to observe the aglomerative behavior in relation to the total scores of the items comprising the PCL-R Psychopathy Checklist Revised [R.D. Hare, Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991]. The analysis indicated two independent types of antisocial personality disorders, not identified in the PCL-R in its standardized form, one of them being strongly associated with criminal conduct and the other with psychopathic personality. Such clusters were stable when the analysis was replicated with other hierarchical algorithms, and also, they were independently extracted via the k-means method without having previously fixed the value for k. One of the clusters concentrated the PCL-R highest scores, indicating that it is the prototypical psychopathic character determinant.

  12. Fabrication and durable antibacterial properties of 3D porous wet electrospun RCSC/PCL nanofibrous scaffold with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Lin, Han; Wang, Yilong; Yang, Guang; Zhao, He; Sun, Dahui

    2017-08-01

    Electrospunnanofibers are used as three-dimensional (3D) scaffold materials that can alter cell attachment and cell proliferation, change the antibacterial properties of materials, and can be used as wound dressings. But the fabrication of porous 3D scaffold structure and the antibacterial properties enhancing are challenges remained to improve. With the states here, a Ranachensinensis skin collagen (RCSC)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)AgNP-loaded3D nanofiber scaffold is fabricated as a wound dressing material by using an improved wet electrospinning method (blending). The nanoscale of the AgNPs is proved. The 3D porous morphologies of the materials with different AgNP loadings, are determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the presence and uniformity distribution of AgNPs is confirmed by Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The silver-ion release rates, antibacterial properties, and cytotoxicities of dressing materials with different AgNP contents are evaluated using ICP-AES, the zone inhibition method, and MTT testing. These results showed that the improved wet electrospun is an effective way to fabricate AgNP loaded 3D scaffold materials with porous structure and nearly 90% porosity and the presence of AgNPs in dressing materials strengthen the antibacterial properties. The RCSC/PCL 3D scaffold materials containing 2.0%AgNP would be promising for dressing materials application nearly without cytotoxicities.

  13. Electric and Magnetic Performances of Self-Doped Sulfonated Polyanilines (SPAN) and Their Copolymers with Polycaprolactone (PCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Y.; Wu, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Epstein, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    A group of ``self-doped'' conducting polymers such as sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) and their copolymers with biodegradable polymers such as poly(caprolactone) (PCL) have been successfully synthesized with varying degrees of sulfonation. By adding terminators, a low molecular weigh (LMw) conducting biocompatible SPAN was obtained. Conducting biodegradable copolymers (CBCP) of SPAN with PCL were also synthesized by reacting LMw SPAN with caprolactone through a Ring Opening Polymerisation (ROP). These copolymers are not only conducting, but also biodegradable, and can be processed into various conducting biodegradable scaffolds (CBS) for tissue engineering applications through electro-spinning, multilayer self- assembling, soft-lithography. The structure and properties of these materials have being characterized with UV-Vis and FT-IR, NMR, GPC, elemental analysis, CV, TGA, DSC, ESR, and four-probe conductivity measurements. We have discovered that pH has effects on the conductivity of polymers, which can be adjusted by varying the degree of sulfonation. A high conducting S-50 sample was measured with a 0.1 S/cm at pH=7.4, which are very interested in the biomedical application. A comprehensive materials evaluation is on the way and the selected results will be presented.

  14. Intra-tumoral delivery of functional ID4 protein via PCL/maltodextrin nano-particle inhibits prostate cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Patel, Divya; Morton, Derrick; Sharma, Pankaj; Gorantla, Yamini; Joshi, Jugal; Nagappan, Perri; Pallaniappan, Ravi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2016-10-18

    ID4, a helix loop helix transcriptional regulator has emerged as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Epigenetic silencing of ID4 promotes prostate cancer whereas ectopic expression in prostate cancer cell lines blocks cancer phenotype. To directly investigate the anti-tumor property, full length human recombinant ID4 encapsulated in biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Maltodextrin (PCL-MD) nano-carrier was delivered to LNCaP cells in which the native ID4 was stably silenced (LNCaP(-)ID4). The cellular uptake of ID4 resulted in increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation and colony formation. Intratumoral delivery of PCL-MD ID4 into growing LNCaP(-)ID4 tumors in SCID mice significantly reduced the tumor volume compared to the tumors treated with chemotherapeutic Docetaxel. The study supports the feasibility of using nano-carrier encapsulated ID4 protein as a therapeutic. Mechanistically, ID4 may assimilate multiple regulatory pathways for example epigenetic re-programming, integration of multiple AR co-regulators or signaling pathways resulting in tumor suppressor activity of ID4.

  15. A Solvent-Free Surface Suspension Melt Technique for Making Biodegradable PCL Membrane Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Suntornnond, Ratima; An, Jia; Tijore, Ajay; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai; Tan, Lay Poh

    2016-03-21

    In tissue engineering, there is limited availability of a simple, fast and solvent-free process for fabricating micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds. This paper presents the first report of a novel surface suspension melt technique to fabricate a micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds without using any organic solvent. Briefly, a layer of polycaprolactone (PCL) particles is directly spread on top of water in the form of a suspension. After that, with the use of heat, the powder layer is transformed into a melted layer, and following cooling, a thin membrane is obtained. Two different sizes of PCL powder particles (100 µm and 500 µm) are used. Results show that membranes made from 100 µm powders have lower thickness, smaller pore size, smoother surface, higher value of stiffness but lower ultimate tensile load compared to membranes made from 500 µm powder. C2C12 cell culture results indicate that the membrane supports cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this novel membrane generation method holds great promise for tissue engineering.

  16. Design, construction and mechanical testing of digital 3D anatomical data-based PCL-HA bone tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Yan, Junwei; Hu, Wenhao; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the techniques of design and construction of CT 3D reconstructional data-based polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold. Femoral and lumbar spinal specimens of eight male New Zealand white rabbits were performed CT and laser scanning data-based 3D printing scaffold processing using PCL-HA powder. Each group was performed eight scaffolds. The CAD-based 3D printed porous cylindrical stents were 16 piece × 3 groups, including the orthogonal scaffold, the Pozi-hole scaffold and the triangular hole scaffold. The gross forms, fiber scaffold diameters and porosities of the scaffolds were measured, and the mechanical testing was performed towards eight pieces of the three kinds of cylindrical scaffolds, respectively. The loading force, deformation, maximum-affordable pressure and deformation value were recorded. The pore-connection rate of each scaffold was 100 % within each group, there was no significant difference in the gross parameters and micro-structural parameters of each scaffold when compared with the design values (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the loading force, deformation and deformation value under the maximum-affordable pressure of the three different cylinder scaffolds when the load was above 320 N. The combination of CT and CAD reverse technology could accomplish the design and manufacturing of complex bone tissue engineering scaffolds, with no significant difference in the impacts of the microstructures towards the physical properties of different porous scaffolds under large load.

  17. The mPEG-PCL Copolymer for Selective Fermentation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Against Candida parapsilosis in the Human Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ming-Shan; Wang, Yanhan; Marito, Shinta; Huang, Stephen; Lin, Wan-Zhen; Gangoiti, Jon A; Barshop, Bruce A; Hyun, Choi; Lee, Woan-Ruah; Sanford, James A; Gallo, Richard L; Ran, Yuping; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Huang, Chun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) fungi coexist in the scalp microbiome. S. lugdunensis interfered with the growth of C. parapsilosis via fermentation. A methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) copolymer functioned as a selective fermentation initiator of S. lugdunensis, selectively triggering the S. lugdunensis fermentation to produce acetic and isovaleric acids. The acetic acid and its pro-drug diethyleneglycol diacetate (Ac-DEG-Ac) effectively suppressed the growth of C. parapsilosis in vitro and impeded the fungal expansion in the human dandruff. We demonstrate for the first time that S. lugdunensis is a skin probiotic bacterium that can exploit mPEG-PCL to yield fungicidal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The concept of bacterial fermentation as a part of skin immunity to re-balance the dysbiotic microbiome warrants a novel avenue for studying the probiotic function of the skin microbiome in promoting health.

  18. Overcoming multidrug resistance of breast cancer cells by the micellar doxorubicin nanoparticles of mPEG-PCL-graft-cellulose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Chen, Yung-Tsung; So, Regina Cheng; Liau, Ian; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The amphiphilic block copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) was grafted to 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) to produce nano-sized micellar nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were loaded with anti-tumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX) and the size of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in aqueous solution to be from 197.4 to 230 nm. The nanoparticles subjected to co-culture with macrophage cells showed that these nanoparticles used as drug carrier are not recognized as foreign bodies. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important factor in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in many cancer cells. In this study, Western blot and Rhodamine 123 were used to monitor the relative P-glycoprotein expression in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/WT and MCF-7/ADR. The endocytosis of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles by breast cancer cells is more efficient observed under a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and a flow cytometry in MCF7/ADR cells, compared to the diffusion of the free drug into the cytoplasm of cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that the nanoparticles made from mPEG-PCL-g-cellulose were effective in overcoming P-gp efflux in MDR breast cancer cells.

  19. Treating colon cancer with a suicide gene delivered by self-assembled cationic MPEG-PCL micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xingmei; Wang, Pan; Men, Ke; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Meijuan; Gou, Maling; Chen, Lijuan; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-03-01

    Biodegradable cationic micelles show promise for applications in gene delivery. In this article, we used DOTAP to modify monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL, MP) micelles in one step, creating novel cationic self-assembled DOTAP and MPEG-PCL hybrid micelles (DMP). These micelles had a mean particle size of 46 +/- 5.6 nm and a zeta potential of 41.8 +/- 0.5 mV, and had the capacity to bind DNA. Compared with PEI25K (the gold standard), DMP micelles had higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity. Moreover, we used DMP to deliver the Survivin-T34A gene (S-T34A, a suicide gene) to treat colon cancer. DMP delivered the Survivin-T34A gene (DMP/S-T34A) and could induce apoptosis in cancer cells, resulting in inhibition of the growth of C-26 colon cancer cells in vitro. An in vivo study indicated that intraperitoneal administration of DMP micelles delivered the Survivin-T34A gene and efficiently inhibited the growth of abdominal metastatic C-26 colon cancer and the malignant ascites. These data suggest that DMP may be a novel gene carrier, and its delivery of the S-T34A gene may have promising applications in the treatment of colon cancer.

  20. Intra-tumoral delivery of functional ID4 protein via PCL/maltodextrin nano-particle inhibits prostate cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Derrick; Sharma, Pankaj; Gorantla, Yamini; Joshi, Jugal; Nagappan, Perri; Pallaniappan, Ravi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    ID4, a helix loop helix transcriptional regulator has emerged as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Epigenetic silencing of ID4 promotes prostate cancer whereas ectopic expression in prostate cancer cell lines blocks cancer phenotype. To directly investigate the anti-tumor property, full length human recombinant ID4 encapsulated in biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Maltodextrin (PCL-MD) nano-carrier was delivered to LNCaP cells in which the native ID4 was stably silenced (LNCaP(-)ID4). The cellular uptake of ID4 resulted in increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation and colony formation. Intratumoral delivery of PCL-MD ID4 into growing LNCaP(-)ID4 tumors in SCID mice significantly reduced the tumor volume compared to the tumors treated with chemotherapeutic Docetaxel. The study supports the feasibility of using nano-carrier encapsulated ID4 protein as a therapeutic. Mechanistically, ID4 may assimilate multiple regulatory pathways for example epigenetic re-programming, integration of multiple AR co-regulators or signaling pathways resulting in tumor suppressor activity of ID4. PMID:27487149