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Sample records for double staining antigens

  1. Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    He, Xianli; Ren, Junping; Xu, Fangling; Ferguson, Monique R; Li, Guangyu

    2009-11-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and investigating distribution of WNV in monkey brain, paraffin-embedded monkey brain tissue were retrospectively studied by immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV. Antibodies against neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WNV were used to develop the method of double-label immunohistochemical staining, which allowed independent assessment of neuron status and WNV distribution. A range of immunohistochemical WNV infection in monkey brain was observed in both neurons and neuroglia cells in terms of the thickness of lesion staining, and the WNV staining was slightly higher in neuroglia cells than in neurons. All these findings suggest that WNV invasion in the brain plays a crucial role in neurological damage by inducing central nervous system (CNS) cell dysfunction or cell death directly.

  2. Astra blue and basic fuchsin double staining of plant materials.

    PubMed

    Kraus, J E; de Sousa, H C; Rezende, M H; Castro, N M; Vecchi, C; Luque, R

    1998-09-01

    Methods for double staining plant materials using astra blue and basic fuchsin are described here. These methods can be applied to free hand and microtome sections embedded in paraffin, paraplast or historesin. Also, they can be used to study isolated epidermal peels and pollen preparations. Temporary, semipermanent and permanent preparations were studied. Astra blue stained polysaccharides of the cell wall such as cellulose and pectins. Basic fuchsin showed an affinity for lignified, suberized or cutinized walls. The easy preparation of the reagents, excellent color contrast of the histological preparations, and brief staining times of some methods makes them useful for both routine research and didactic purposes. Also, excellent color or black and white photomicrography can be obtained after the double staining described here.

  3. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  4. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  5. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  6. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  7. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  8. Immunohistochemical staining of chlamydial antigen in emerald tree boas (Corallus caninus).

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott; Origgi, Francesco; Heard, Darryl; Detrisac, Carol

    2002-11-01

    Of 120 privately owned captive-bred and wild-collected emerald tree boas (ETBs) (Corallus caninus), 97 died or were euthanatized. Eighteen snakes were necropsied, and tissues were collected from all major organs and processed for light microscopy. Histologic examination demonstrated histiocytic granulomas in the small intestine, heart, and esophageal tonsils of one ETB, small intestine of a second ETB, and in an esophageal tonsil of a third ETB. Within the center of these granulomas, small, basophilic, punctate organisms were demonstrated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Transmission electron microscopic examination of an intestinal granuloma demonstrated developmental stages of organisms consistent with members of the family Chlamydiaceae. An immunoperoxidase staining technique and 2 different commercially available monoclonal antibodies against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen was used to identify chlamydial antigen in these lesions. Liver of a puff adder (Bitis arietans) with previously reported systemic chlamydiosis served as the positive control. Both monoclonal antibodies stained antigen in these granulomas. Additionally, macrophages within aggregates of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the colon, small intestine, and esophageal tonsils of 3 other ETBs contained antigen. Although both antibodies labeled antigen in serial sections of tissue, a difference in staining intensity was noted.

  9. Staining of surface antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 in tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, M; Brade, L; Fasske, E; Brade, H

    1992-01-01

    Surface labeling of chlamydial elementary and reticulate bodies in L929 cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L2 was monitored by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the major outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Different staining and fixation procedures were used to detect these surface antigens during the developmental cycle. Anti-major outer membrane protein MAb yielded a clear staining pattern of exclusively chlamydial inclusions independent of the fixation or staining technique used. Anti-LPS MAb gave a faint staining pattern of reticulate bodies when methanol fixation was used and showed that LPS was released from chlamydiae into the host cell cytoplasm and into the surroundings of the infected host cell. However, when paraformaldehyde-glutardialdehyde fixation was used, extracellular LPS staining was not observed. The data show that chlamydial LPS is loosely bound in the bacterial outer membrane but suggest that shedding of LPS is a fixation artifact. Images PMID:1398957

  10. Detection of non-A, non-B hepatitis antigen by immunocytochemical staining.

    PubMed Central

    Burk, K H; Oefinger, P E; Dreesman, G R

    1984-01-01

    Liver tissue obtained from a chimpanzee during the acute phase of an experimental non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis virus infection was studied by a sensitive immunocytochemical staining procedure for the presence of NANB viral antigens. Initial investigations were conducted with a model system of hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens for purposes of comparing two immunocytochemical staining methods. Of these two procedures, an immunoperoxidase procedure, utilizing an avidin-biotinylated enzyme complex, was at least 40-fold more sensitive than a conventional immunoperoxidase technique for the detection of HBV-specific tissue antigens. Utilization of the avidin-biotin-amplified immunoperoxidase staining procedure, in conjunction with four primary convalescent antisera obtained from NANB hepatitis-implicated donors, resulted in the observation of NANB virus-associated antigen in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes from an infected chimpanzee liver. These same human antisera were not reactive with a number of uninfected control cells nor with cells infected with HBV, hepatitis A virus, or cytomegalovirus. Preincubation of one of these convalescent NANB sera, or IgG derived thereof, with an acute-phase serum obtained from a NANB hepatitis virus-infected chimpanzee abolished the antibody reactivity. We conclude from these observations that selected convalescent sera from NANB hepatitis virus-infected patients contain low levels of antibody that specifically react with a cytoplasmic antigen associated with NANB virus-infected hepatocytes. Images PMID:6203116

  11. [Diagnostic value of agglutination reaction with buffered Brucella antigen stained with rose bengal].

    PubMed

    Chenchev, I; Khristoforov, L; Peshkov, I; Kostov, G; Mineva, I

    1978-01-01

    A specific buffered antigen has been obtained, employing a method developed by the authors, stained with Bengal rose and intended for performing a fast agglutination reaction to confirm brucellosis. The antigen produces a clear and demonstrative agglutination reaction with positive sera. Practically, the test is readily carried out, and can be made a routine both in every serologic laboratory and for investigations under field conditions. The reaction produced with this antigen can determine dependably the epizootic status on a farm or in the herd. The diagnostic value of the antigen is essential, especially with swine. Besides, it shows a wide a diagnostic scope for brucellosis with all species of animals (97--98 per cent).

  12. [Differentiation of non-specific positive brucellosis reactions using an antigen stained with rose bengal].

    PubMed

    Chenchev, I; Khristoforov, L; Peshkov, I; Kostov, G; Mineva, I

    1977-01-01

    A Brucella buffered antigen, stained with Bengal rose by a method of the authors, was obtained. It showed a high distinguishing capacity with regard to the nonspecific agglutinations after Huddleson and Wright at a negative complement-fixation test for brucellosis with sera from cattle, pigs, sheep, and horses. Such differentiation, however, proved to be incomplete and for sera of different animals varied within the range of 34 to 0.0 per cent.

  13. Carcinoma of the ureter with extensive squamous differentiation and positive immunoperoxidase staining for carcinoembryonic antigen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fulks, R M; Falace, P B

    1985-01-01

    A case of ureteral carcinoma with extensive squamous differentiation and positive staining for carcinoembryonic antigen by the immunoperoxidase method is presented. Ureteral carcinoma should be added to the list of tumors that may produce carcinoembryonic antigen or antigen-like material.

  14. Double-Staining Method for Differentiation of Morphological Changes and Membrane Integrity of Campylobacter coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jose L.; Mascellaro, Salvatore; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Javier

    2002-01-01

    We developed a double-staining procedure involving NanoOrange dye (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.) and membrane integrity stains (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit; Molecular Probes) to show the morphological and membrane integrity changes of Campylobacter coli cells during growth. The conversion from a spiral to a coccoid morphology via intermediary forms and the membrane integrity changes of the C. coli cells can be detected with the double-staining procedure. Our data indicate that young or actively growing cells are mainly spiral shaped (green-stained cells), but older cells undergo a degenerative change to coccoid forms (red-stained cells). Club-shaped transition cell forms were observed with NanoOrange stain. Chlorinated drinking water affected the viability but not the morphology of C. coli cells. PMID:12324366

  15. Computer analysis of corneal innervation density using a novel double stain in rat corneal whole mounts

    PubMed Central

    JACOT, JORGE L.; GLOVER, JOEL P.; ROBISON, W. GERALD

    1997-01-01

    Computerised morphometry and a double stain technique were utilised to examine the corneal nerves in whole mounts. This novel stain combines the nonspecific acetylcholinesterase(NsAchE) and gold chloride(AuCl) procedures to enhance staining contrast and facilitate computerised detection of corneal nerves. Fresh rat corneas were dissected, and the Descemet's membrane-endothelium complex was removed. Then the corneas were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde with 50 m m Na-K phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) and 8% sucrose for 30 min. They were rinsed and stained singly with NsAchE or AuCl, or were double stained using NsAchE followed by AuCl. Between NsAchE and AuCl staining the corneas were stored frozen in OCT compound at −70°C. Flat mounts of whole corneas were photographed before and after the second staining. Measurable stromal innervation density (mean± S.D.) in age-matched corneas stained with AuCl(3.90±0.36 mm/mm2) was not significantly different from that of NsAchE stained corneas. However, double staining compared with NsAchE staining of the same corneas revealed a 48±27% increase in demonstrable innervation density of the subepithelial nerve plexus (7.95±0.86 mm/mm2 vs 5.52±1.31 mm/mm2, respectively). Improved visualisation of epithelial nerves and their fine ramifications (leashes) was also obtained by double staining. This novel combination of 2 procedures enhances the detection of corneal nerves for analysis by computerised morphometry and provides a more representative estimate of total corneal innervation density. PMID:9306196

  16. Application of Immunohistochemical Staining to Detect Antigen Destruction as a Measure of Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Onul, Abdullah; Colvard, Michael D.; Paradise, William A.; Elseth, Kim M.; Vesper, Benjamin J.; Gouvas, Eftychia; Deliu, Zane; Garcia, Kelly D.; Pestle, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrocautery and directed energy devices (DEDs) such as lasers, which are used in surgery, result in tissue damage that cannot be readily detected by traditional histological methods, such as hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alternative staining methods, including 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to stain live tissue, have been reported. Despite providing superior detection of damaged tissue relative to the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method, the MTT method possesses a number of drawbacks, most notably that it must be carried out on live tissue samples. Herein, we report the development of a novel staining method, “antigen destruction immunohistochemistry” (ADI), which can be carried out on paraffin-embedded tissue. The ADI method takes advantage of epitope loss to define the area of tissue damage and provides many of the benefits of live tissue MTT staining without the drawbacks inherent to that method. In addition, the authors provide data to support the use of antibodies directed at a number of gene products for use in animal tissue for which there are no species-specific antibodies commercially available, as well as an example of a species-specific direct antibody. Data are provided that support the use of this method in many tissue models, as well as evidence that ADI is comparable to the live tissue MTT method. PMID:22723525

  17. Application of immunohistochemical staining to detect antigen destruction as a measure of tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Onul, Abdullah; Colvard, Michael D; Paradise, William A; Elseth, Kim M; Vesper, Benjamin J; Gouvas, Eftychia; Deliu, Zane; Garcia, Kelly D; Pestle, William J; Radosevich, James A

    2012-09-01

    Electrocautery and directed energy devices (DEDs) such as lasers, which are used in surgery, result in tissue damage that cannot be readily detected by traditional histological methods, such as hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alternative staining methods, including 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to stain live tissue, have been reported. Despite providing superior detection of damaged tissue relative to the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method, the MTT method possesses a number of drawbacks, most notably that it must be carried out on live tissue samples. Herein, we report the development of a novel staining method, "antigen destruction immunohistochemistry" (ADI), which can be carried out on paraffin-embedded tissue. The ADI method takes advantage of epitope loss to define the area of tissue damage and provides many of the benefits of live tissue MTT staining without the drawbacks inherent to that method. In addition, the authors provide data to support the use of antibodies directed at a number of gene products for use in animal tissue for which there are no species-specific antibodies commercially available, as well as an example of a species-specific direct antibody. Data are provided that support the use of this method in many tissue models, as well as evidence that ADI is comparable to the live tissue MTT method.

  18. Combined double CK5/P63 stain: useful adjunct test for diagnosing pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nazneen; Cohen, Cynthia; Lawson, Diane; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2012-11-01

    Increasing demand for accurate differentiation of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) from other subtypes can be challenging for pathologists. This is more so in fine-needle aspirations (FNA) since the sample is small and SQCC may show degenerative changes and necrosis that distort the cellular features. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable adjunct, and CK5/6 and P63 immunoreactivity is found to be basically restricted to SQCC. In our study, we evaluated the efficiency of CK5/P63 double staining in the diagnosis of pulmonary SQCC in cell blocks (CB) of lung FNA. We used a cohort including 24 CB of lung SQCC and 34 CB of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC). IHC was performed for CK5/P63 double stain. Seventeen of 24 (70%) lung SQCC were positive for the double stain CK5/P63. Two (8%) were positive for CK5 alone and two (8%) were positive for P63 alone. Thus, a total 19 of 24(79%) SQCC of the lung were positive for CK5 and P63 each. In ADC, no immunoreactivity was detected for CK5 alone or combined CK5/P63. Three of 34(8%) ADC were positive for P63. This first study of double staining of CK5/P63 in FNA CB shows a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 100% for SQCC of the lung. When each marker staining alone is included, the sensitivity for CK5 and P63 increases to 79% each. This double stain can help in the diagnosis of pulmonary SQCC with an accuracy of 88% and a positive predictive value of 100%.

  19. Use of commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies for immunofluorescence double staining.

    PubMed

    Bzorek, Michael; Stamp, Inger Merete; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Frederiksen, Lisbeth

    2008-07-01

    Immunohistochemistry, that is, the use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to detect cell and tissue antigens at a microscopical level is a powerful tool for both research and diagnostic purposes. Especially in the field of hematologic disease, there is often a need to detect several antigens synchronously, and we report here a fast and easy technique for demonstrating more than 1 antigen in 1 slide using immunofluorescence. We have used commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies (Cyclin D1, CD3, CD5, CD23, etc.) paired with mouse monoclonal antibodies (CD7, CD20, CD79a, Pax-5, etc.) for double immunofluorescence labeling on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies in combination with mouse monoclonal antibodies proved useful in double immunofluorescence labeling on paraffin-embedded tissue, and all combinations used yielded excellent results.

  20. Intracellular staining for TNF and IFN-gamma detects different frequencies of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Badovinac, V P; Harty, J T

    2000-04-21

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes are important mediators of adaptive immunity against certain viral, protozoan and bacterial pathogens. Activated CD8(+) T cells are able to induce cytolysis of infected cells (perforin and CD95-CD95L mediated pathways) and also elaborate cytokines, including IFN-gamma and TNF after appropriate MHC class I-peptide recognition. New technologies for the detection of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, including tetrameric MHC class I-peptide complexes, intracellular IFN-gamma staining and IFN-gamma ELISPOT analysis have revised our understanding of the magnitude of the CD8(+) T cell response to infection. Here, using intracellular cytokine staining, we compare detection of IFN-gamma and TNF in the analysis of pathogen-specific CD8(+) T cell lines and CD8(+) T cells after primary viral infection (LCMV) or secondary bacterial infection (Listeria monocytogenes). Under multiple conditions and with multiple epitopes, we find that staining for intracellular IFN-gamma consistently detects a higher frequency of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells than detection of intracellular TNF. However, (a) intracellular staining for TNF can be used to detect antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and (b) intracellular staining for cytokines is a useful approach for in vitro characterization of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell lines.

  1. Combining immunodetection with histochemical techniques: the effect of heat-induced antigen retrieval on picro-Sirius red staining.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Victoria L

    2014-12-01

    Picro-Sirius red is a routine diagnostic stain intended for the histological visualization of collagen fibers (fibrosis) in tissue. Multi-label immunohistochemistry is a powerful tool used by researchers to visualize different cell types and their location within a tissue specimen, and to observe co-localization of antigens. Combining the specificity of immunodetection with the simplicity of Sirius red staining will allow researchers to visualize multi-antigen detection in relation to fibrosis, a common histological feature of injury in many chronic diseases. Pre-treatment of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) specimens with antigen retrieval is essential for the work-up of most commercially available antibodies. The most common form of antigen retrieval involves boiling tissue specimens in buffer to break the cross-linkages caused by formalin fixation. However, this method causes tissue modification and collagen fiber shrinkage leading to suboptimal results when counterstaining for Sirius red. Reduced heat and enzymatic digestion are antigen retrieval methods compatible with Sirius red counterstaining. This paper will discuss the difficulties faced when combining these two staining methods, and provide a detailed method for the simultaneous detection of antigen and Sirius red in FFPE tissues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Double Staining Cytologic Samples with Quantitative Feulgen-Thionin and Anti–Ki-67 Immunocytochemistry as a Method of Distinguishing Cells with Abnormal DNA Content from Normal Cycling Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gerald; Guillaud, Martial; Follen, Michele; MacAulay, Calum

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ploidy analysis of Feulgen-thionin stained cervical cytology specimens has been shown to detect cases of high grade cervical dysplasia. However, ploidy analysis alone cannot always distinguish between cells with abnormal DNA content and normal cycling cells. We sought to use double staining with anti-Ki-67 immunocytochemistry to improve ploidy analysis. Study Design Cervical cytology specimens from 49 patients with various diagnoses, mostly dysplasias, from a previous study were used. Samples were double stained with Feulgen-thionin and anti-Ki-67 immunocytochemistry. Ki-67-negative cells were non-cycling, so non-diploid Ki-67-negative cells were likely truly abnormal cells. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ability to identify high-grade dysplasias was 0.73 for double staining and 0.74 for thionin-only ploidy analysis on cytospin specimens. At 90% specificity, sensitivities for double staining and thionin alone were 45% and 32%, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Double staining with Feulgen-thionin and anti-Ki-67 immunocytochemistry does not improve the ability of ploidy analysis of cervical cytology specimens to separate high- and low-grade dysplasias, but our insights into the technical aspects of double staining, especially the effects of antigen retrieval, give hope that this technique could be applied to other immunocytochemical stains that would have a greater ability to improve ploidy analysis. PMID:23301387

  3. In Situ Peptide-MHC-II Tetramer Staining of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, P. Patrick; Skinner, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    The invention of peptide-MHC-tetramer technology to label antigen-specific T cells has led to an enhanced understanding of T lymphocyte biology. Here we describe the development of an in situ pMHC-II tetramer staining method to visualize antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in tissues. This method complements other methods developed that similarly use MHC class II reagents to stain antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in situ. In this study, we used group A streptococcus (GAS) expressing a surrogate peptide (2W) to inoculate C57BL/6 mice, and used fresh nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) in optimizing the in situ staining of 2W:I-Ab specific CD4+ T cells. The results showed 2W:I-Ab tetramer-binding CD4+ T cells in GAS-2W but not GAS infected mice. This method holds promise to be broadly applicable to study the localization, abundance, and phenotype of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in undisrupted tissues. PMID:26067103

  4. A double staining method using SYTOX green and calcofluor white for studying fungal parasites of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2013-07-01

    We propose a double staining method based on the combination of two fluorochromes, calcofluor white (CFW; specific chitinous fluorochrome) and SYTOX green (nucleic acid stain), coupled to epifluorescence microscopy for counting, identifying, and investigating the fecundity of parasitic fungi of phytoplankton and the putative relationships established between hosts and their chytrid parasites. The method was applied to freshwater samples collected over two successive years during the terminal period of autumnal cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic lake. The study focused on the uncultured host-parasite couple Anabaena macrospora (cyanobacterium) and Rhizosiphon akinetum (Chytridiomycota). Our results showed that up to 36.6% of cyanobacterial akinetes could be parasitized by fungi. Simultaneously, we directly investigated the zoosporic content inside the sporangia and found that both the host size and intensity of infection conditioned the final size and hence fecundity of the chytrids. We found that relationships linking host size, final parasite size, and chytrid fecundity were conserved from year to year and seemed to be host-chytrid couple specific. We concluded that our double staining method was a valid procedure for improving our knowledge of uncultured freshwater phytoplankton-chytrid couples and so of the quantitative ecology of chytrids in freshwater ecosystems.

  5. A Double Staining Method Using SYTOX Green and Calcofluor White for Studying Fungal Parasites of Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2013-01-01

    We propose a double staining method based on the combination of two fluorochromes, calcofluor white (CFW; specific chitinous fluorochrome) and SYTOX green (nucleic acid stain), coupled to epifluorescence microscopy for counting, identifying, and investigating the fecundity of parasitic fungi of phytoplankton and the putative relationships established between hosts and their chytrid parasites. The method was applied to freshwater samples collected over two successive years during the terminal period of autumnal cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic lake. The study focused on the uncultured host-parasite couple Anabaena macrospora (cyanobacterium) and Rhizosiphon akinetum (Chytridiomycota). Our results showed that up to 36.6% of cyanobacterial akinetes could be parasitized by fungi. Simultaneously, we directly investigated the zoosporic content inside the sporangia and found that both the host size and intensity of infection conditioned the final size and hence fecundity of the chytrids. We found that relationships linking host size, final parasite size, and chytrid fecundity were conserved from year to year and seemed to be host-chytrid couple specific. We concluded that our double staining method was a valid procedure for improving our knowledge of uncultured freshwater phytoplankton-chytrid couples and so of the quantitative ecology of chytrids in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23603679

  6. Immunochemical characterization of EBV antigens detected by double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Sternås, L; Kallin, B; Luka, J; Klein, G

    1982-01-01

    Double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony) tests gave regularly positive reactions when extracts of [35S]-methionine-labeled, n-butyrate-induced P3HR-1 cells were allowed to react with serum pools with high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers from Burkitt lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, but not with EBV antibody-negative sera. Similarly prepared extracts of noninduced P3HR-1 cells gave no precipitation lines with the antibody-positive sera. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and compared with immunoprecipitates obtained by indirect immunoprecipitation in solution. Three lines precipitated on the Ouchterlony plate were analyzed; these lines were located at close (a), intermediate (b), and distant (c) positions in relation to the antigen well. Precipitate (a) contained polypeptides with molecular weights of 165,000 (165K), 152K, 138K, 134K, 103K, and 55K. Precipitate (b) contained 152K and 138K as the major components, while 55K was relatively underrepresented. Precipitate (c) contained 90K and 55K as major components, while 152K was a minor component. The method is suitable for the study of possible subtype differences between defined antigenic components of the early and late EBV-determined antigen complexes.

  7. Immunoferritin Localization of Intracellular Antigens: The Use of Ultracryotomy to Obtain Ultrathin Sections Suitable for Direct Immunoferritin Staining

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Richard G.; Tokuyasu, K. T.; Singer, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A general method for the ultrastructural localization of intracellular proteins and antigens by immunoferritin techniques has been developed. The method involves direct staining of ultrathin sections of mildly glutaraldehyde-fixed and frozen tissues cut by means of a cryo-ultramicrotome. Bovine pancreatic sections were cut, mounted on grids, and stained with ferritin-rabbit antibovine RNase conjugates. After negative staining with 0.2% phosphotungstic acid, electron micrographs revealed specific labeling of all of the zymogen granules and the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. No significant labeling was seen in the nucleus, mitochondria, or cell sap regions. The observation that no significant labeling was found in any region of rat pancreatic sections was consistent with the fact that rat RNase is immunologically non-crossreactive with bovine RNase. In addition, the labeling seen in bovine pancreas was completely absent if the sections were first incubated with free antibody. The method used here avoids prolonged fixation, dehydration, and other harsh chemical or physical treatments, and should extend the usefulness of immunoferritin techniques to the intracellular localization of many protein antigens beyond previously available methods. Images PMID:4124304

  8. Immunofluorescent Staining for the Detection of the Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Frozen Liver Sections of Human Liver Chimeric Mice.

    PubMed

    Allweiss, Lena; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Dandri, Maura

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the causative agent for chronic hepatitis B infection, which affects an estimate of 240 million people worldwide and puts them at risk of developing terminal liver disease. The life cycle of the virus and its interactions with the host immune system are still incompletely understood, and currently available treatment options rarely achieve a cure. Therefore, basic research and new drug development are needed. One parameter for measuring the intrahepatic activity of the virus is monitoring the production of the HBV core antigen (HBcAg), which not only serves as the main structural protein of its nucleocapsid but is also recruited to the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the nuclear HBV genome responsible for infection persistence. Here, we report a sensitive immunofluorescence staining method to detect HBcAg in cryopreserved liver sections. The method combines conventional immunofluorescence staining procedures with the Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) system.

  9. Immunofluorescent staining of influenza virus antigen in fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of experimentally infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lück, P C; Helbig, J H; Witzleb, W

    1989-01-01

    Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of experimentally influenza virus-infected hamsters were treated with 0.25% trypsin and tested for virus antigen by indirect immunofluorescent staining. The results were comparable to those obtained with aceton-fixed cryo-microtome sections. As far as we know, this is the first description of influenza virus demonstration in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue after reactivation by trypsin-treatment. This technique may be useful for influenza virus detection in human autopsy cases. It allows an etiological diagnosis even when fresh tissue for cryocut sections or virus cultivation is not available.

  10. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  11. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Mascarella, C; Guarnotta, C; Castiglia, M; Pantuso, G; Fiorentino, E

    2014-03-05

    Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO), posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA) combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS), with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  12. Immunohistochemical double stains against Ki67/MART1 and HMB45/MITF: promising diagnostic tools in melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Patricia Switten; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Steiniche, Torben

    2011-06-01

    Distinction between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions may be difficult by today's methods, even for highly skilled dermatopathologists, emphasizing the need for improved diagnostic tools. We have studied the discriminative abilities of immunohistochemical (IHC) double stains using the IHC markers Ki67 combined with MART1, and HMB45 combined with MITF. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 50 melanomas and 78 benign nevi were stained using a simple simultaneous IHC double staining technique. Both simple semiquantitative estimates of the immunopositivity in the deepest third of the lesions and full-scale quantitative measurements of the Ki67 and HMB45 indices were performed, and scores for melanomas and nevi were compared. The differences between melanomas and nevi were significant (P < 0.0001) using either analysis or stain. The misclassification rates for melanomas and nevi were generally lower for Ki67/MART1 stains than for HMB45/MITF stains. In the simple semiquantitative Ki67/MART1 analysis, the misclassification rates were 6% (2%-17%) for melanomas and 12% (6%-21%) for nevi. In full-scale quantitative analysis the corresponding rates were 4% (1%-14%) and 8% (4%-16%), and by combining Ki67 and HMB45 indices, the misclassification rates were 0% (0%-7%) for melanomas and 13% (7%-22%) for nevi. We conclude that both semiscale and fullscale quantitative analyses of Ki67/MART1 stains are valuable diagnostic tools to distinguish melanomas and nevi with a large degree of certainty. The HMB45/MITF stains may serve as adjuncts to predict malignancy and the diagnostic potential of combining the HMB45 and Ki67 indices are promising. The IHC double stains may potentially reduce misinterpretations of melanomas in histopathology.

  13. Enhanced antigen detection in immunohistochemical staining using a 'digitized' chimeric antibody.

    PubMed

    Eng, Hui-Yan; Wang, Cheng-I; Xue, Yuezhen; Lee, Chia-Yin; Zulkifli, Sarah Binte; Chiam, Poh-Cheang; Ghadessy, Farid J; Lane, David P

    2016-01-01

    The immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of mouse tissue sections using antibodies of mouse origin can result in high nonspecific background due to the staining of endogenous immunoglobulins (Igs) by enzyme-conjugated secondary antibodies. In order to obviate this issue, we developed a chimeric mouse-human anti-p53 monoclonal antibody (MH242) by grafting the variable regions of a known mouse antibody into a human Ig scaffold. This facilitated use of an anti-human secondary antibody, and resulted in near-zero background when compared with its parental mouse monoclonal antibody (PAb242). Furthermore, the chimeric antibody enabled reproducible detection of mutant p53 (homozygous R172H) expression in mouse tissue, an observation hitherto largely equivocal based on the use of existing antibodies. The approach we describe leads to the generation of tractable antibody reagents, whose integrity can be readily verified through DNA sequencing of expressor plasmids. The wide-spread adoption of such 'digitized' antibodies should reduce experimental disparities that can commonly arise through variations in antibody quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Novel DNA staining method and processing technique for the quantification of undamaged double-stranded DNA in epidermal tissue sections by PicoGreen probe staining and microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Gagna, Claude E; Kuo, Hon-Reen; Chan, Norman J; Mitacek, Eugene J; Spivak, Alla; Pasquariello, Tiffany D; Balgobin, Chandrika; Mukhi, Ruhayna; Lambert, W Clark

    2007-10-01

    Histotechnological processing of DNA can cause damage to and loss of DNA and can change its structure. DNA probes have severe tissue-staining limitations. New DNA probes and improved histotechnology are needed to enhance the characterization of fixed tissue-bound DNA. Our team developed a novel DNA staining technique and histotechnological processing procedure that improves tissue-bound DNA retention and the qualification and quantification of intact double-stranded (ds)-B-DNA. We used the ultrasensitive PicoGreen ds-DNA probe for the histochemical characterization of ds-DNA. Fifteen fixatives were examined to determine which were best for preventing DNA denaturation and retaining original DNA content and structures. Our use of a microwave-vacuum oven reduced heating temperatures, shortened heating and processing times, and enhanced fixation. We achieved better qualitative and quantitative results by using superior tissue-acquisition techniques (e.g., reduced prefixation times) and improved histotechnology. We also compared our novel approach with archival tissues, delayed fixation, less sophisticated and conventional histological processing techniques, and by experimenting with preservation of tissue-bound ds-Z-DNA. Results demonstrate that our histotechnological procedure and nucleic acid staining method significantly improve the retention of intact, undamaged ds-DNA which, in turn, allows the investigator to more precisely quantify the content and structures of unaltered and undamaged tissue-bound ds-B-DNA.

  15. A double fluorescence staining protocol to determine the cross-sectional area of myofibers using image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Fassel, T. A.; Schultz, E.; Greaser, M. L.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A double fluorescence staining protocol was developed to facilitate computer based image analysis. Myofibers from experimentally treated (irradiated) and control growing turkey skeletal muscle were labeled with the anti-myosin antibody MF-20 and detected using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC). Extracellular material was stained with concanavalin A (ConA)-Texas red. The cross-sectional area of the myofibers was determined by calculating the number of pixels (0.83 mu m(2)) overlying each myofiber after subtracting the ConA-Texas red image from the MF-20-FITC image for each region of interest. As expected, myofibers in the irradiated muscle were smaller (P < 0.05) than those in the non-irradiated muscle. This double fluorescence staining protocol combined with image analysis is accurate and less labor-intensive than classical procedures for determining the cross-sectional area of myofibers.

  16. Diagnostic utility of epithelial and melanocitic markers with double sequential immunohistochemical staining in differentiating melanoma in situ from invasive melanoma.

    PubMed

    Parra-Medina, Rafael; Morales, Samuel David

    2017-02-01

    Identification of melanoma in situ and its distinction from invasive melanoma is important because of its significant impact on morbidity and mortality. However, this interpretation can cause pitfalls in the diagnosis even with the use of immunohistochemistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of epithelial makers (AE1/AE3, CK5/6, and p63) combined with melanocytic markers (HMB-45, S-100, or Melan-A) using dual-color immunohistochemical staining, performed on a single slide by sequentially applying the antibodies. In this study, we show 4 cases in which examination of routine hematoxylin and eosin slides did not allow for clear-cut distinction between in situ and invasive melanoma and highlight the utility of the double-staining method. Therefore, we recommend this double-staining method with melanocytic and epithelial markers as a helpful adjunct to the diagnosis of cases with a differential diagnosis between in situ and invasive melanoma.

  17. Double diffusion in gel reactions with antigens insoluble in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Felix; Loza, Ulana; Czechowski, Donna

    2004-08-01

    Ethanol-soluble, but saline-insoluble antigens were prepared as saline suspensions and studied in double diffusion reactions in a soft agarose gel. Positive reactions were observed with syphilis and SLE sera tested against the Kahn antigen as well as against commercial cardiolipin reagents. Also, ethanol-soluble brain antigen was studied for organ-specific reactions with rabbit immune sera. It was shown that double diffusion in gel can be employed as an analytical procedure for studies on reactions of saline suspensions of ethanol-soluble antigens.

  18. Poxvirus antigen staining of immune cells as a biomarker to predict disease outcome in monkeypox and cowpox virus infection in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Song, Haifeng; Janosko, Krisztina; Johnson, Reed F; Qin, Jing; Josleyn, Nicole; Jett, Catherine; Byrum, Russell; St Claire, Marisa; Dyall, Julie; Blaney, Joseph E; Jennings, Gerald; Jahrling, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    Infection of non-human primates (NHPs) such as rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with monkeypox virus (MPXV) or cowpox virus (CPXV) serve as models to study poxvirus pathogenesis and to evaluate vaccines and anti-orthopox therapeutics. Intravenous inoculation of macaques with high dose of MPXV (>1-2×10(7) PFU) or CPXV (>10(2) PFU) results in 80% to 100% mortality and 66 to 100% mortality respectively. Here we report that NHPs with positive detection of poxvirus antigens in immune cells by flow cytometric staining, especially in monocytes and granulocytes succumbed to virus infection and that early positive pox staining is a strong predictor for lethality. Samples from four independent studies were analyzed. Eighteen NHPs from three different experiments were inoculated with two different MPXV strains at lethal doses. Ten NHPs displayed positive pox-staining and all 10 NHPs reached moribund endpoint. In contrast, none of the three NHPs that survived anticipated lethal virus dose showed apparent virus staining in the monocytes and granulocytes. In addition, three NHPs that were challenged with a lethal dose of MPXV and received cidofovir treatment were pox-antigen negative and all three NHPs survived. Furthermore, data from a CPXV study also demonstrated that 6/9 NHPs were pox-antigen staining positive and all 6 NHPs reached euthanasia endpoint, while the three survivors were pox-antigen staining negative. Thus, we conclude that monitoring pox-antigen staining in immune cells can be used as a biomarker to predict the prognosis of virus infection. Future studies should focus on the mechanisms and implications of the pox-infection of immune cells and the correlation between pox-antigen detection in immune cells and disease progression in human poxviral infection.

  19. Poxvirus Antigen Staining of Immune Cells as a Biomarker to Predict Disease Outcome in Monkeypox and Cowpox Virus Infection in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haifeng; Janosko, Krisztina; Johnson, Reed F.; Qin, Jing; Josleyn, Nicole; Jett, Catherine; Byrum, Russell; Claire, Marisa St.; Dyall, Julie; Blaney, Joseph E.; Jennings, Gerald; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of non-human primates (NHPs) such as rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with monkeypox virus (MPXV) or cowpox virus (CPXV) serve as models to study poxvirus pathogenesis and to evaluate vaccines and anti-orthopox therapeutics. Intravenous inoculation of macaques with high dose of MPXV (>1–2×107 PFU) or CPXV (>102 PFU) results in 80% to 100% mortality and 66 to 100% mortality respectively. Here we report that NHPs with positive detection of poxvirus antigens in immune cells by flow cytometric staining, especially in monocytes and granulocytes succumbed to virus infection and that early positive pox staining is a strong predictor for lethality. Samples from four independent studies were analyzed. Eighteen NHPs from three different experiments were inoculated with two different MPXV strains at lethal doses. Ten NHPs displayed positive pox-staining and all 10 NHPs reached moribund endpoint. In contrast, none of the three NHPs that survived anticipated lethal virus dose showed apparent virus staining in the monocytes and granulocytes. In addition, three NHPs that were challenged with a lethal dose of MPXV and received cidofovir treatment were pox-antigen negative and all three NHPs survived. Furthermore, data from a CPXV study also demonstrated that 6/9 NHPs were pox-antigen staining positive and all 6 NHPs reached euthanasia endpoint, while the three survivors were pox-antigen staining negative. Thus, we conclude that monitoring pox-antigen staining in immune cells can be used as a biomarker to predict the prognosis of virus infection. Future studies should focus on the mechanisms and implications of the pox-infection of immune cells and the correlation between pox-antigen detection in immune cells and disease progression in human poxviral infection. PMID:23577120

  20. Catalase and superoxide dismutase double staining zymogram technique for Deinococcus and Kocuria species exposed to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Manish R; Yadav, Radhika; Desai, Anjana

    2009-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase expression is associated with oxidative stress. Existing techniques for the individual staining of SOD and catalase have been described in the past. The objective of this study was to achieve a simple and rapid technique for the double staining of bacterial SOD and catalase on the same polyacrylamide gel. SOD detection was carried out using nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction followed by ferricyanide precipitation for negative staining of the catalase enzyme on the same gel. The staining procedure resulted in pale blue SOD bands while catalase appeared as yellow bands against a greenish blue background on the same gel. This technique was used to detect changes in the polymorphic forms of these enzymes in Deinococcus radiodurans R1 and Kocuria sp. C2 subjected to stresses like UV and gamma radiation and desiccation.

  1. Simultaneous quantitation of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies by double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Aggerbeck, H; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Heron, I

    1996-04-19

    A dual, double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antibodies in sera has been developed. In the double antigen format one arm of the antibody binds to antigen coated microtitre wells and the other arm binds to labelled antigen to provide a fluorescent signal. This assay was found to be functionally specific for IgG antibodies and showed a good correlation with established toxin neutralization assays. Furthermore, the double antigen set-up was species independent, permitting the direct use of existing international references of animal origin to measure protective antibody levels in humans in international units (IU/ml). The detection limit corresponded to 0.0003 IU/ml with Eu(3+)-labelled toxoids and to 0.0035 IU/ml using Sm(3+)-labelled toxoids. The assay was fast with a high capacity making it a suitable method for serological surveillance studies.

  2. Double-sided staining with a gold probe and silver enhancement to detect alpha-amylase and sugar moieties in the mouse salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Menghi, G; Marchetti, L; Bondi, A M; Accili, D; Sabbieti, M G; Materazzi, G

    1999-07-01

    In the present study we report the development of an ultrastructural electron microscopic double-sided staining technique that, using gold probes of 10 nm and enhancement of the gold signal by silver amplification, allows the demonstration of two antigenic sites on the same section. The labeling was carried out in the following manner: one face of uncoated floating grids was incubated with an antibody directed to alpha-amylase, followed by a secondary gold-labeled antibody, amplification of gold particles, drying and carbon coating; subsequently, the reverse face of the same grid, was processed for lectin cytochemistry, with and without sialidase digestion, and it was incubated with HRP-conjugated lectins, anti-HRP antibody and protein-A gold. Also the reverse sequence of steps and amplification of gold signal after the first or second labeling were experimented. The resultant small and large particles revealed different distributional patterns of antigenic sites on the opposite faces of the same tissue section. The transparency of the resin-embedded ultrathin sections in the electron beam allowed the simultaneous visualization of the gold probes of different sizes present on the two faces. The analysis of immunolabeling revealed that the alpha-amylase is chiefly secreted by the parotid and submandibular glands. The application of this double-sided staining technique also indicated that, when present in glycosylated form, the alpha-amylase enzyme does not contain sialic acid in the submandibular and sublingual glands; conversely, its location on the electron-dense areas of target granules in the parotid acinar cells seems to suggest that a sialylated isoenzymatic form can occur within these granule regions where sialic, acid linked to beta-galactose, was found to be located.

  3. Double immunohistochemical staining method for HIF-1alpha and its regulators PHD2 and PHD3 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Mary M; Toth, Karoly; Chintala, Sreenivasulu; Rustum, Youcef M

    2010-07-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha) is expressed in the nuclei of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions, and is regulated, in part, by cytoplasmic prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). As HIF-1alpha is selectively expressed in tumor cells, inhibitors are being developed for cancer therapy. Although methods for the detection of HIF-1alpha and PHDs are available, an immunohistochemical double staining method for these markers in individual tumor cells is not available. For method development a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) xenograft, A253, was used as a known positive control tissue for HIF-1alpha in well-differentiated areas without microvessels. This laboratory showed that tumor cells in these areas are strongly positive for hypoxia markers. Another human, poorly differentiated SCC xenograft, FaDu, without hypoxic areas, was used as a negative control. PHD2 and 3 immunostaining was optimized individually using the human kidney. To optimize HIF-1alpha detection the pressure cooker time for antigen retrieval, concentration of the primary antibody, amplification reagent, and DAB development time were decreased. Casein blocking further decreased the background. Double staining resulted in brown nuclei for HIF-1alpha (DAB), and pink cytoplasmic staining for PHD2, 3 (fast red). The isotype-matched controls were negative. Normal human tissues had no detectable HIF-1alpha, but expressed PHD2, 3. The potential use of this new and improved method was confirmed by analyzing 15 surgical biopsies of oropharyngeal SCC of which 6 were positive for HIF-1alpha. This new method defined the optimal conditions for detection of HIF-1alpha and PHDs in individual tumor cells and could have a diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  4. Antigenic characterisitcs of Moraxella nonliquefaciens fimbriae in double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Frøholm, L O

    1978-08-01

    Rabbit antisera against purified fimbriae (pili) from Moraxella nonliquefaciens detected three fimbrial antigenic components, one or two of which appeared to be present in other fimbriated strains of M. nonliquefaciens and the closely related M. bovis. Maximal precipitation with the antisera required some denaturation of the antigen. Ultrasonication, repeated freeze-thawing, heating, and agents like KBr, NaSCN and urea were effective in liberating the antigen in diffusible forms. The morphology of the fimbriae was altered by heat treatment in 1 M KBr.

  5. Flow cytometry, with double staining with Nile red and anti-CD3 antibody, to detect phospholipidosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats treated with amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Perico, Maria Elisa; Crivellente, Federica; Faustinelli, Ivo; Suozzi, Anna; Cristofori, Patrizia

    2009-12-01

    A flow cytometry method, to monitor peripheral lymphocytes phospholipidosis, has been set up using a single staining with Nile red and double staining with Nile red and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Blood has been collected from rats treated with amiodarone (phospholipidogenic antiarrhythmic drug). By flow cytometer, it is possible to detect phospholipids, using Nile red, a probe for intracellular lipids staining, changing its fluorescence on the stained lipid basis. CD3 antigen has been selected to focus on T cells, to evaluate whether these cells are the target of phospholipidosis amiodarone-dependent. In the study A, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with three different doses (75, 150, and 300 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of amiodarone or vehicle alone, for 14 days, followed by 14 days of recovery: Data obtained show that by flow cytometry, with Nile red alone, it is possible to detect a dose- and time-related response of phospholipidosis-positive lymphocytes; a partial recovery is also assessed. In the study B, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single dose (300 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of amiodarone, for 14 days: Data obtained show that animals treated with amiodarone have a significant increase of phospholipidosis-positive lymphocytes (p = 0.008), in particular of CD3+ cells (p = 0.0056). Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed data obtained by flow cytometry. This work shows that flow cytometry with Nile red could be a good tool to monitor ex vivo phospholipidosis in lymphocyte cells of animals treated with amiodarone: The phospholipidogenic effect is more evident focusing on CD3+ T lymphocytes, thus suggesting that these cells are probably the target of phospholipidosis.

  6. Double-Staining Epifluorescence Technique to Assess Frequency of Dividing Cells and Bacteriovory in Natural Populations of Heterotrophic Microprotozoa †

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a double-staining procedure for use with epifluorescence microscopy which allows the detection both of dividing cells and of ingested bacteria in food vacuoles of heterotrophic microprotozoa. Microprotozoan cells are stained sequentially with the DNA-specific fluorochrome DAPI (4′,6-diami-dino-2-phenylindole) and the nonspecific protein stain fluorescein isothiocyanate. During microscopic examination, heterotrophic microprotozoan cells are first located with fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence and then epifluorescence filter sets are switched to permit inspection under DAPI fluorescence of the cell nuclei and of the contents of food vacuoles. Among in situ populations of estuarine microprotozoa sampled over a tidal cycle, we found from 2.2 to 5.2% of the heterotrophic cells in a recognizable stage of division (nuclei elongated or double). Batch culture growth experiments were also carried out both with natural populations and with two isolated species of estuarine microprotozoa. In these experiments, the frequency of dividing cells ranged from 1.2 to 3.8% and appeared to be negatively correlated with growth rate. Microprotozoan populations sampled in continental shelf waters off Savannah, Ga., had mean frequencies of dividing cells ranging from 2.0 to 5.0%. A large fraction of cells in heterotrophic microprotozoan populations (an average of 27.4 ± 1.0% in estuarine water and of 30.1 ± 4.8% in shelf water) had DAPI-stained inclusions, presumably recently ingested bacteria, in their food vacuoles. Images PMID:16346446

  7. Staining for factor VIII related antigen and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) in 230 tumours. An assessment of their specificity for angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Leader, M; Collins, M; Patel, J; Henry, K

    1986-11-01

    In this study we examined the staining reactivity of commercially available antisera to factor VIII related antigen (F VIII RAg) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) on sections from 230 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumours. These included 196 sarcomas, 20 carcinomas and 14 angiomas. All angiomas showed positive staining for F VIII RAg; all carcinomas showed negative staining; the vasoformative areas of all angiosarcomas stained positively but only four of six angiosarcomas showed positive staining of their solid areas; of seven Kaposi's sarcomas, all showed positive staining of vessels and six showed positive staining of the spindle cell component. In the remaining 181 non-vascular sarcomas there was a false positive result in four tumours (2.2%), three of which had a history of irradiation. Pre-radiotherapy biopsies of these three tumours stained negatively with anti-F VIII RAg. UEA-I was demonstrated in all the angiomas studied, in all angiosarcomas (including the solid components) and in well-formed vessels of all Kaposi's sarcomas, but only in the spindle cell component of 3/6. However, there was an unacceptably high rate of false positive staining amongst the carcinomas and non-vascular sarcomas. In conclusion, F VIII RAg is a specific but not a sensitive marker of angiosarcomas; UEA-I is a sensitive but not a specific marker of angiosarcomas.

  8. Brilliant Blue G double staining enhances successful internal limiting membrane peeling with minimal adverse effect by low cellular permeability into live cells.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Notomi, Shoji; Tachibana, Takashi; Oishi, Seiichiro; Asato, Ryo; Yamashita, Takehiro; Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Enaida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2015-02-01

    Brilliant Blue G is used as a surgical adjuvant for retinal surgery. Although BBG double or multiple staining was reported, the effectiveness and safety of repeated staining is still elusive. To further examine the effectiveness and safety, we examined BBG in clinical cases in vivo, primary cell culture in vitro, and surgically resected specimen ex vivo. A retrospective interventional case series with in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed. Vitrectomy was performed in 28 cases of epiretinal membrane with BBG single to multiple staining. The surgically resected membranes were stained by BBG with or without cellular fixation. Primary cell cultures were examined with BBG and live/death cell markers, such as Calcein AM and TUNEL. Single staining provided satisfactory staining in seven cases. Double or multiple staining substantially visualized internal limiting membrane (21 cases), especially the edges of remaining internal limiting membrane (11 cases). Adverse retinal staining was not noted and the final visual acuity showed no difference with multiple staining. The live cells barely stained with BBG, while some dead cells were stained. Brilliant Blue G multiple staining substantially enhanced the visualization of internal limiting membrane. The absence of abnormal staining supports the safety of repeated BBG staining.

  9. Assessment of Neuronal Viability Using Fluorescein Diacetate-Propidium Iodide Double Staining in Cerebellar Granule Neuron Culture.

    PubMed

    Jiajia, Lin; Shinghung, Mak; Jiacheng, Zheng; Jialing, Wang; Dilin, Xu; Shengquan, Hu; Zaijun, Zhang; Qinwen, Wang; Yifan, Han; Wei, Cui

    2017-05-10

    Primary cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs) have been widely used as an in vitro model in neuroscience and neuropharmacology research. However, the co-existence of glial cells and neurons in CGN culture might lead to biases in the accurate assessment of neuronal viability. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Propidium Iodide (PI) double staining has been used to measure cell viability by simultaneously evaluating the viable and dead cells. We used FDA-PI double staining to improve the sensitivities of the colorimetric assays and to evaluate neuronal viability in CGNs. Furthermore, we added blue fluorescent DNA stains (e.g., Hoechst) to improve the accuracy. This protocol describes how to improve the accuracy of assessment of neuronal viability by using these methods in CGN culture. Using this protocol, the number of glial cells can be excluded by using fluorescence microscopy. A similar strategy can be applied to distinguish the unwanted glial cells from neurons in various mixed cell cultures, such as primary cortical culture and hippocampal culture.

  10. Clinical outcomes of double staining and additional ILM peeling during ERM surgery.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ha Na; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong; Yun, Il Han

    2013-08-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) patients after vitrectomy and ERM removal with or without additional indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 43 patients with an idiopathic ERM that underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal between July 2007 and April 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: triamcinolone-assisted simple ERM peeling only (group A, n = 23) and triamcinolone-assisted ERM peeling followed by ICG staining and peeling of the remaining internal ILM (group B, n = 20). No difference was found between the two groups in terms of visual acuity, macular thickness, P1 amplitude or implicit time on multifocal-electroretinogram (mfERG) at six and 12 months postoperatively. In group B, ICG staining after ERM peeling demonstrated that the ILM had been removed together with the ERM in 12 eyes (60%), and all 12 eyes showed punctate retinal hemorrhages during ERM peeling. There was no recurrence of an ERM in either group. Additional procedures involving ICG staining and ILM peeling during ERM surgery do not appear to have an additive effect on the clinical outcomes in terms of visual acuity, retinal function based on mfERG, or recurrence rate.

  11. Comparing two methods of plastination and glycerin preservation to study skeletal system after Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Setayesh M.; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Rabiei, Abbas A.; Hanaei, Mahsa S.; Rashidi, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastination is a new method of preserving tissue samples for a long time. This study aimed to compare the new plastination technique with the conventional preservative method in glycerin for fetus skeleton tissues and young rats dyed by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 groups of 1-day, 3-day, 12-day and mature rats were selected and, after being anesthetized and slaughtered, their skin was completely removed. In Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining method, first the samples were fixed in 95% ethanol and then their cartilages were dyed by 0.225% Alcian blue solution; after that, they were cleared in 1% KOH. Then, the bones were dyed in 0.003% Alizarin red solution and finally the tissue was decolorized in 95% ethanol. In each group, half of the samples were preserved by the conventional method in a glycerin container and the other half were plastinated. Results: In the present study, the samples preserved by plastination technique were dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible. Quality of coloring had an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Transparency of the plastinated samples had also an inverse relationship with rats’ age. Therefore, skeletal tissue of younger rats had higher quality and transparency in both preservation methods (glycerin and plastination). Conclusion: This study showed that plastination technique was an appropriate method in comparison with glycerin preservation, which conserved skeletal tissue of fetus and young rats colored by Alizarin red- Alcian blue double staining. And the final result was that plastination technique can generate dry, odorless, indecomposable and tangible samples. PMID:23930264

  12. DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Telomeres Play Important Roles in Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human-infecting microbial pathogens all face a serious problem of elimination by the host immune response. Antigenic variation is an effective immune evasion mechanism where the pathogen regularly switches its major surface antigen. In many cases, the major surface antigen is encoded by genes from the same gene family, and its expression is strictly monoallelic. Among pathogens that undergo antigenic variation, Trypanosoma brucei (a kinetoplastid), which causes human African trypanosomiasis, Plasmodium falciparum (an apicomplexan), which causes malaria, Pneumocystis jirovecii (a fungus), which causes pneumonia, and Borrelia burgdorferi (a bacterium), which causes Lyme disease, also express their major surface antigens from loci next to the telomere. Except for Plasmodium, DNA recombination-mediated gene conversion is a major pathway for surface antigen switching in these pathogens. In the last decade, more sophisticated molecular and genetic tools have been developed in T. brucei, and our knowledge of functions of DNA recombination in antigenic variation has been greatly advanced. VSG is the major surface antigen in T. brucei. In subtelomeric VSG expression sites (ESs), VSG genes invariably are flanked by a long stretch of upstream 70-bp repeats. Recent studies have shown that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), particularly those in 70-bp repeats in the active ES, are a natural potent trigger for antigenic variation in T. brucei. In addition, telomere proteins can influence VSG switching by reducing the DSB amount at subtelomeric regions. These findings will be summarized and their implications will be discussed in this review. PMID:25576484

  13. Detection of Chlamydia psittaci (ovis) antigen in tissue sections and McCoy cells using streptavidin-biotin and the IMAGEN staining method.

    PubMed

    Amin, J D; Wilsmore, A J

    1994-01-01

    Two procedures for identifying chlamydial antigen in infected McCoy cells and tissue sections are described. Both the streptavidin-biotin method and the IMAGEN test clearly detected chlamydial antigen in ovine placental tissue sections and in infected McCoy cells before they could be detected by conventional stains. The streptavidin-biotin method is lengthy, but specific and sensitive, and the slides can be kept indefinitely for later examination. By contrast, the IMAGEN test is a single step procedure which requires fluorescent microscopy and slides can only be kept for up to 1 week before examination.

  14. Localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in conventional paraffin sections of the liver. Comparison of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and orcein staining methods with regard to their specificity and reliability as antigen marker.

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, N. C.; Sachdeva, R.

    1975-01-01

    Hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) has been demonstrated in conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue by peroxidase and fluorescent immunostaining as well as by orcein. Complete locational and morphologic identity is seen between material stained by specific immunologic methods and by orcein. The antigen is restricted to the cytoplasm and is generally observed in the hepatocyte; it is present in three morphologic forms. Certain morphologic forms can even be identified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Results of immunostaining procedures indicate that the antigen demonstrated in this study consists entirely of surface coat of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). This seems to be the only component revealed by orcein staining. The latter is considered to be a good marker of the surface antigen and to have certain advantages over immunostaining. It is suggested that suitability of conventional paraffin sections for the detection of HBAg has wide and important implications. Images Figures 1-5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:55076

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antigen with antibody to 38 kDa antigen versus Ziehl Neelsen staining in tissue granulomas of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Madhu Mati; Budhwar, Puja

    2007-01-01

    Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis often presents a diagnostic challenge because of its diverse clinical manifestations and low yield of acid fast bacilli in tissue sections. The aim of the present study is immuno-histochemical localization of tuberculous bacilli or their components that persist in the granulomas but have lost the property of staining with acid fast stains and to assess the advantage of immuno-staining over conventional Ziehl Neelsen staining. Immuno-histochemical staining using species-specific monoclonal anti-body to 38 kDa protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was done on 69; 36 cases of confirmed extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and 33 non-tuberculous cases, in archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections OBERVATIONS: AFB positivity was observed in only 36.1% of tuberculous granulomas while immuno-histochemical staining was positive in 100% of tuberculous granulomata with zero false positivity and negativity. The immuno-hiostochemical localization of tuberculous bacilli and their components in tissue sections may be an efficient diagnostic adjunct to conventional ZN staining for the diagnosis of granulomas of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The technique is simple, sensitive and specific. It can be standardized and performed by trained technicians in routine laboratory. This will also help in clinical decision-making and in reducing the usual practice of prescribing empirical anti-tubercular treatment based on clinical suspicion alone in the absence of demonstrable evidence of tuberculous infection.

  16. Lack of reactivity of paracoccidioidomycosis sera in the double immunodiffusion test with the gp43 antigen: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    del Negro, G M; Benard, G; de Assis, C M; Vidal, M S; Garcia, N M; Otani, C; Shikanai-Yasuda, M A; da S Lacaz, C

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two patients with chronic active paracoccidioidomycosis yielded negative double immunodiffusion results with a culture filtrate antigen from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis routinely used in our laboratory. Complement fixation tests were positive for both sera using a polysaccharide-rich antigen. This study reports the results of a more extensive serological investigation of these two sera. Both a somatic antigen and a saline extract from the fungus yielded positive results in the double immunodiffusion. However, the immunodominant 43 kDa glycoprotein antigen showed negative results, although it was recognized by both sera in the Western blot assay. The value of the double immunodiffusion as a single serological test in paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis is discussed.

  17. Recent advancement of observing living cells in the esophagus using CM double staining: endocytoscopic atypia classification.

    PubMed

    Minami, H; Inoue, H; Yokoyama, A; Ikeda, H; Satodate, H; Hamatani, S; Haji, A; Kudo, S

    2012-04-01

    Magnification endoscopy enables in vivo evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Furthermore, endocytoscopy (ECS) with ultra-high magnification enables in vivo observation of cellular atypia during routine endoscopic examination. The purpose of this study is to clarify the efficacy of ECS and endocytoscopic atypia (ECA) classification in various types of benign and malignant pathology in the esophagus. Consecutive 110 patients, who underwent ECS in our institution from March 2003 to December 2009, were included in this study. One hundred and forty-six esophageal lesions were classified according to ECA classification, and these endocytoscopic images were compared with histological images. We categorized endocytoscopic images into five categories according to size and uniformity of nuclei, number of cells and regularity of cellular arrangement. Eighty-one out of 89 ECA-1 to ECA-3 lesions (91.0%) corresponded to Vienna categories 1 to 3. Seventy-one out of 84 ECA-4 or ECA-5 lesions (91.2%) corresponded to Vienna category 4 or 5. Overall accuracy of ECS was 91.3%, providing images similar to conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, with ECS, we can take an 'optical biopsy' even in patients with cardiovascular disease without interrupting anticoagulant therapy. A newly designed single charge-coupled device endocytoscope allows observation of target tissue noninvasibly from regular magnification to ultra-high magnification. The development of ECS has opened the door to in vivo cellular imaging, enabling endoscopic diagnosis of tissue cytological atypia during routine endoscopic examination.

  18. Application of an indirect immunofluorescent staining method for detection of Salmonella enteritidis in paraffin slices and antigen location in infected duck tissues.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bin; Cheng, An-Chun; Wang, Ming-Shu; Deng, Shu-Xuan; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Yin, Nian-Chun; Cao, Ping; Cao, Sheng-Yan

    2008-02-07

    To detect Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in paraffin slices and antigen location in infected duck tissues. The rabbits were immunized with purified bacillus to obtain S. enteritidis-specific antibody, which were then extracted by the caprylic-ammonium sulphate method, purified through High-Q columns. An indirect immuno-fluorescent staining method (IFA) was established to detect the S. enteritidis antigen in paraffin slices. Detected S. enteritidis in each organ tissue of ducklings experimentally infected with S. enteritidis. The gland of Garder, heart, kidney, spleen, liver, brain, ileum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius from S. enteritidis experimentally infected ducklings were positive or strongly positive, and the S. enteritidis antigen mainly distributed in the infected cell cytoplasm. IFA is an intuitionist, sensitive and specific method in detecting S. enteritidis antigen in paraffin wax slices, and it is a good method in diagnosis and antigen location of S. enteritidis. We also conclude that the gland of Garder, heart, kidney, spleen, liver, ileum, jejunum are target organs in S. enteritidis infections of duck, and S. enteritidis is an intracellular parasitic bacterium.

  19. Methyl-beta-Cyclodextrin treatment and filipin staining reveal the role of cholesterol in surface membrane antigen sequestration of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium lung-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Tallima, Hatem; El Ridi, Rashika

    2005-06-01

    Ex vivo lung-stage larvae of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium do not bind specific antibodies in the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test (IF), probably as a result of confinement of the surface membrane antigens in immobile, lipid-rich sites. Treatment with the membrane-impermeable, cholesterol-extracting drug methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and staining with filipin III (filipin), a fluorescent polyene antibiotic widely used for the detection and quantitation of cholesterol in biomembranes, allowed us to examine the role of cholesterol in surface membrane antigen sequestration of S. mansoni and S. haematobium ex vivo lung-stage larvae. Treatment of S. mansoni larvae with MBCD elicited appreciable cholesterol depletion as judged by filipin-cholesterol fluorescence diminution, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in specific antibody binding in IF, thus suggesting that cholesterol plays a predominant role in sequestration of the surface membrane antigens of S. mansoni lung-stage schistosomula. Despite that, MBCD induced an almost complete depletion of cholesterol from the outer membrane of S. haematobium larvae; no increase in specific antibody binding in IF was evident, implying that cholesterol is not responsible for masking surface membrane antigens of S. haematobium lung-stage larvae.

  20. PCR-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha typing of blood stained light and dark blue denim fabric.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, S A; Marino, M A; Belgrader, P

    1996-05-01

    Obtaining typable PCR products from DNA purified from blood stained blue denim has been difficult since inhibitors of PCR in blue denim apparently co-purify with the DNA. Organic and chelex extraction methods were tested for their ability to purify typable DNA from either light or dark blue denim fabric both stained with blood. DNA purified from the light blue denim using either method was successfully used in obtaining correct HLA-DQ alpha typing results. The chelex, but not the organic, procedure was able to yield typable DNA when the dark blue denim was the substrate. Therefore, the chelex method may be more effective than the organic method in preventing compounds that inhibit PCR from co-purifying with the DNA.

  1. Optimization and Validation of an 8-Color Intracellular Cytokine Staining (ICS) Assay to Quantify Antigen-Specific T Cells Induced by Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Helen; Thomas, Evan; Stucky, Jason; Frank, Ian; Moodie, Zoe; Huang, Yunda; Chiu, Ya-Lin; McElrath, M. Juliana; De Rosa, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Candidate HIV-1 vaccines currently being evaluated in clinical trials are designed to elicit HIV-1-specific cellular immunity. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays allow sensitive, quantitative ex vivo assessments of antigen-specific T cells including immunophenotyping of responding cells and measurement of multiple effector functions. Additionally, the use of banked cryopreserved PBMC samples makes this assay attractive in the setting of large efficacy trials where it is less feasible to perform immunoassays on freshly isolated samples. Here we describe extensive studies to optimize and quantitatively validate the 8-color ICS assay for use in clinical trials of candidate vaccines, which includes measurement of viable IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-4 secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We show that omission of viability dye staining results in an over-estimate of the true antigen-specific T cell response by up to two-fold. After optimization, the 8-color assay was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, limit of quantitation and robustness. The assay has a lower quantitation limit, generally below 0.04%, depending on the cytokine subset. Additionally, with appropriate gating, the 8-color assay gives comparable cytokine-positive responses to those observed with the conventional 4-color assay. In conclusion, we provide the first description of a quantitatively validated ICS assay, which permits quantitative and qualitative evaluation of vaccine-induced immunogenicity and analysis of immune correlates of protection. PMID:17451739

  2. A double blind randomised controlled clinical trial comparing a novel anti-stain and calculus reducing dentifrice with a standard fluoride dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Adrian K; Marlow, Ian; Rawlinson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    This clinical trial tested the anti-stain efficacy at 3 and 6 months of a novel, sodium polyaspartate-containing, anti-stain dentifrice. In addition, the efficacy of the new dentifrice in controlling gingival inflammation and inhibition of calculus deposition was tested. Participants were recruited to this double blind randomised control clinical trial, and allocated to either test or control groups. The presence of stain and calculus were entry criteria. Measurements of stain, calculus and gingival inflammation were recorded using the Shaw and Murray Stain score, Volpe-Manhold Calculus score and the Modified Gingival Index respectively. Measurements were made at baseline, prior to the removal of stain and calculus, and after 3 and 6 months. Missing data were imputed by and the outcomes were analysed using univariate analysis. At three months, toothpaste containing sodium polyaspartate was better (difference of mean 1.13 with SEM 0.57) than control for the control of dental stain (p<0.05). Stain scores also showed a trend in favour of the test product (difference of mean 1.03 with SEM 0.78) at six months (p>0.05). There was no difference between toothpastes with respect to calculus deposition or gingival inflammation. Toothpaste containing sodium polyaspartate was more effective than a control toothpaste at preventing deposition of dental stain for 3 months after professional tooth cleaning but showed no significant effect at 6 months. Sodium polyaspartate toothpaste was more effective than a control toothpaste at preventing dental stain formation and maybe helpful in controlling staining between episodes of scaling and polishing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid detection of total and viable Legionella pneumophila in tap water by immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Keserue, Hans‐Anton; Baumgartner, Andreas; Felleisen, Richard; Egli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary We developed a rapid detection method for Legionella pneumophila (Lp) by filtration, immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining, and flow cytometry (IMS‐FCM method). The method requires 120 min and can discriminate ‘viable’ and ‘membrane‐damaged’ cells. The recovery is over 85% of spiked Lp SG 1 cells in 1 l of tap water and detection limits are around 50 and 15 cells per litre for total and viable Lp, respectively. The method was compared using water samples from house installations in a blind study with three environmental laboratories performing the ISO 11731 plating method. In 53% of the water samples from different taps and showers significantly higher concentrations of Lp were detected by flow cytometry. No correlation to the plate culture method was found. Since also ‘viable but not culturable’ (VNBC) cells are detected by our method, this result was expected. The IMS‐FCM method is limited by the specificity of the used antibodies; in the presented case they target Lp serogroups 1–12. This and the fact that no Lp‐containing amoebae are detected may explain why in 21% of all samples higher counts were observed using the plate culture method. Though the IMS‐FCM method is not yet fit to completely displace the established plating method (ISO 11731) for routine Lp monitoring, it has major advantages to plating and can quickly provide important insights into the ecology of this pathogen in water distribution systems. PMID:23062200

  4. Virtual Double Staining: A Digital Approach to Immunohistochemical Quantification of Estrogen Receptor Protein in Breast Carcinoma Specimens.

    PubMed

    Lykkegaard Andersen, Nina; Brügmann, Anja; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Nielsen, Søren; Friis Lippert, Michael; Vyberg, Mogens

    2017-02-28

    Visual assessment of immunohistochemically detected estrogen receptor protein is prone to interobserver and intraobserver variation due to its subjective evaluation. The aim of this study was to validate a new image analysis system based on virtual double staining (VDS) by comparing visual and automated scorings of ER in tissue microarrays of breast carcinomas. Tissue microarrays were constructed of 112 consecutive resection specimens of breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry assays for ER and pancytokeratin was applied on separate serial sections. ER scoring was visually performed by 5 observers using the histoscore (H-score) method. The Visiopharm ER image analysis protocol (APP) software application using VDS technique was applied separating stromal cells from carcinoma and other epithelial cells based on the pancytokeratin reaction. Using color deconvolution, polynomial filters, and nuclear segmentation the APP determined the percentage of positive cells and their intensity, and calculated the resulting H-score. On the basis of 1% cutoff VDS was perfectly correlated with visual assessment (κ=1). Using H-score, a very high agreement between VDS and visual ER assessment was seen (R=0.950). Image analysis has the attributes to eliminate the shortcomings of visual ER evaluation by generating automated, reproducible, and objective results of ER assessment.

  5. Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gram stain; Feces - Gram stain; Stool - Gram stain; Joint fluid - Gram stain; Pericardial fluid - Gram stain; Gram ... body to test. This could be from a joint, from the sac around your heart, or from ...

  6. Diabetes mellitus is associated with short prostate-specific antigen doubling time after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sangchul; Sohn, Seung June; Lee, Sang Eun

    2013-02-01

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with postoperative outcomes, including prostate-specific antigen doubling time, among men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Data of 661 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for node-negative prostate cancer and were followed up for ≥3 years postoperatively at our institution were analyzed. Associations between diabetes mellitus at surgery and outcomes following radical prostatectomy, such as biochemical recurrence-free survival and prostate-specific antigen doubling time, were examined. Aggressive recurrence was defined as biochemical recurrence with prostate-specific antigen doubling time <9 months. Of the 661 total subjects, DM (n = 67, 10.1 %) and non-DM group (n = 594, 89.9 %) showed no significant differences in various clinicopathologic parameters including age and PSA. DM group had lower postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival than non-DM group, with observed difference approaching statistical significance (log-rank, p = 0.077). On multivariate analysis, DM at surgery was significantly associated with aggressive recurrence following RP (p = 0.048). Pathologic Gleason score (p = 0.008) and seminal vesicle invasion (p = 0.010) were also significantly associated with aggressive recurrence on multivariate analysis. Our results show that pre-existing DM in men with PCa is associated with more aggressive recurrence, suggesting that DM may affect disease progression following RP. Further investigation would be needed to elucidate exact biologic interaction between DM and PCa and also assess causal relationships that potentially could be modified to improve long-term outcome in patients with the two diseases.

  7. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivoire, Becky L.; Groathouse, Nathan A.; TerLouw, Stephen; Neupane, Kapil Dev; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Khadge, Saraswoti; Kunwar, Chatra B.; Macdonald, Murdo; Hawksworth, Rachel; Thapa, Min B.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Tibbals, Melinda; Smith, Carol; Dube, Tina; She, Dewei; Wolff, Mark; Zhou, Eric; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mason, Robin; Sizemore, Christine; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. Methods A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. Findings In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens

  8. Rapid detection of total and viable Legionella pneumophila in tap water by immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Keserue, Hans-Anton; Baumgartner, Andreas; Felleisen, Richard; Egli, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We developed a rapid detection method for Legionella pneumophila (Lp) by filtration, immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining, and flow cytometry (IMS-FCM method). The method requires 120 min and can discriminate 'viable' and 'membrane-damaged' cells. The recovery is over 85% of spiked Lp SG 1 cells in 1 l of tap water and detection limits are around 50 and 15 cells per litre for total and viable Lp, respectively. The method was compared using water samples from house installations in a blind study with three environmental laboratories performing the ISO 11731 plating method. In 53% of the water samples from different taps and showers significantly higher concentrations of Lp were detected by flow cytometry. No correlation to the plate culture method was found. Since also 'viable but not culturable' (VNBC) cells are detected by our method, this result was expected. The IMS-FCM method is limited by the specificity of the used antibodies; in the presented case they target Lp serogroups 1-12. This and the fact that no Lp-containing amoebae are detected may explain why in 21% of all samples higher counts were observed using the plate culture method. Though the IMS-FCM method is not yet fit to completely displace the established plating method (ISO 11731) for routine Lp monitoring, it has major advantages to plating and can quickly provide important insights into the ecology of this pathogen in water distribution systems. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Double Diffusion Precipitin Reactions in Gels, and its Application to Characterization of Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Allison, A. C.; Humphrey, J. H.

    1960-01-01

    The distribution of antigen and antibody in radial double diffusion systems was studied by means of materials labelled with 131I or 14C. These studies showed that, once a precipitate begins to form, the assumption that antigen and antibody obey the laws of free diffusion is invalid. They also showed that, in the systems used, no antigen and very little antibody diffused past the zone of visible precipitation. It was found that accurate estimates of the diffusion constants of antigens could be obtained by allowing antigen and antibody to diffuse from troughs set at right angles and by measuring the angle of the precipitin line. Examples of the use of this method, and a theoretical treatment are given. An alternative method for estimating the size of antigens is to use the `molecular sieve' properties of gelatin gels, which are sharply graded with the concentration of the gel. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:13792817

  10. Value of endoscopic methylene blue and Lugol's iodine double staining and detection of GST-Π and telomerase in the early diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Shuang-Hong; Zhang, Kun-He; Li, Bi-Ming; Chen, Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expressions of GST-Π and telomerase activity in esophageal carcinoma and premalignant lesions and to investigate the value of endoscopic methylene blue (MB) and Lugol's iodine double staining. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with esophagopathy were sprayed endoscopically with MB and Lugol's iodine in proper order and the areas stained blue and brown, and the area between the blue and brown stains were obtained. Depending on the pattern of mucosal staining, biopsy specimen was obtained. GST-Π and telomerase activity in specimens were examined by immunohis-tochemistry and PCR-based silver staining telomeric repeat amplification protocol, respectively. RESULTS: After MB and Lugol's iodine staining, the area between both the colors was obtained in 64 of the 72 patients and the areas were stained blue and brown in all of the 72 patients. Association test of two simultaneous ordinal categorical data showed a correlation between the esophageal mucosal staining and the esophageal histology (P<0.005). The expression of GST-Π and telomerase activity in esophageal carcinoma and premalignant lesions increased. The expression of GST-Π and telomerase activity in dysplasia and carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal epithelium (P<0.005). The expression in hyperplasia was slightly higher than that in normal epithelium. With the lesions progressing from low- to moderate- to high-grade dysplasia, the positive rate increased (P<0.025). Expression of GST-Π was correlated with that of telomerase activity in dysplasia and carcinoma (j = 0.4831, P<0.005; j = 0.3031, P<0.025, respectively); but there was no correlation between them in normal epithelium and hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: The expression of GST-Π and telomerase may be an early event in the carcinogenesis of esophagus. They may play an induced and synergistic role with each other in the carcinogenesis of esophagus. Endoscopic MB and Lugol's iodine double staining and detection of GST-Π and

  11. Tracking in vivo migration and distribution of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining during cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-li; Li, Suo-lin; Wen, Ming; Wen, Jun-ye; Han, Jie; Zhang, Hong-zhen; Gao, Fei; Cai, Jian-hui

    2013-08-01

    Killing of targeted tumors during adoptive cell transfer therapy is associated with cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) numbers, immunophenotype, tumor-specificity, and in vivo residence time, migration, and distribution. Therefore, tracing in vivo persistence, migration, and distribution of CTLs is important for cancer immunotherapy. Optimal staining concentration for CTL proliferation was determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and killing efficiencies of CTLs or carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CFSE-CTLs) for malignant melanoma cells in vitro were compared. Additionally, CFSE-CTLs were intravenously transfused to mice receiving B16 melanoma, and their residence time, migration, and distribution in vivo were observed by measuring fluorescence intensities of CFSE-CTLs per gram of tissue (%FI/g) in various tissues and analyzing tumor/non-tumor (T/NT) values. Anti-tumor effects of transferred CTLs and correlation between %FI/g and D-value of tumor size were analyzed. Five-micromolar CFSE was optimal for labeling CTLs with minimal cytotoxicity. No significant difference occurred between CTLs and CFSE-CTLs for tumor cell killing (P = 0.849) or interleukin-2 (P = 0.318) and interferon-γ (P = 0.201) levels. Distribution of CTLs in vivo varied with time. A negative correlation between %FI/g in tumors and D-value of tumor sizes by Spearman correlation analysis was observed. CTLs were recruited to and killed tumors from 6 hours to 3 days after cell infusion. CTLs were observed up to three weeks later in the tumor, liver, kidneys, and spleen; this was related to the abundant blood supply or the nature of immune organs. CCK-8 assay is a novel method to select optimal CFSE staining concentrations. Fluorescence intensity of transferred CTLs reflects their killing efficiency of tumors. CFSE fluorescent markers can trace in vivo CTL persistence, migration, and distribution because of its stability

  12. Method for analysis of antigen-antibody precipitins in double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, E L; Swanson, M S; Byrd, A W

    1988-01-01

    Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antigen-antibody precipitin bands obtained by two-dimensional double immunodiffusion were systematically analyzed and compared using a microcomputer and a SPSS-PC statistical analysis package. Precipitins rated in respective agarose concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 1.5% were obtained from twofold dilutions of a calf thymus nuclear extract (CTNE) containing RNP antigen. These dilutions were reacted against the same dilutions of plasma containing anti-RNP antibody. A Mean Quality Index Score was calculated at each agarose concentration from the sum of ratings assigned for the intensity (thickness) of precipitin bands times the sum of ratings assigned for the clarity (clearness and sharpness) of the precipitin bands. This product was divided by the total number of possible precipitin reactions. The Mean Quality Index Score for the 0.4% agarose was significantly higher than the other concentrations (p less than or equal to 0.05). This method or similar approaches may allow a more systematic way of comparing precipitins developed in gel immunodiffusion.

  13. Gram Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Gram Stain Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Gram's Stain Formal name: Gram Stain Related tests: Susceptibility Testing , ...

  14. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid-associated infectious morbidity: a randomized, double-blind trial of ampicillin-sulbactam prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Adair, C D; Ernest, J M; Sanchez-Ramos, L; Burrus, D R; Boles, M L; Veille, J C

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intrapartum prophylactic administration of ampicillin-sulbactam in reducing intraamniotic infection and postpartum endometritis in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF). Patients with intrapartum meconium-stained AF were randomized to receive either ampicillin-sulbactam or normal saline (placebo) intravenously at the time of diagnosis of meconium and every 6 hours until delivery. The outcomes of the two groups were compared with respect to intra-amniotic infection and postpartum endometritis. During the study period, 332 patients with meconium-stained AF were approached for participation, and 120 patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Patient demographics, labor, and delivery characteristics were similar. Ampicillin-sulbactam reduced the incidence of intra-amniotic infection from 23.3 to 6.7%, (P = .02; relative risk [RR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.98). The incidence of postpartum endometritis was also reduced, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant (8.3 versus 16.7%, P = .16; RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.30-1.33). Prophylactic intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam significantly reduces intra-amniotic infection in patients with meconium-stained AF.

  15. [Usefulness of systematic chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique for the detection of dysplasia in patients with premalignant gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    Yep-Gamarra, Víctor; Díaz-Vélez, Cristian; Araujo, Isis; Ginès, Àngels; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Premalignant gastric lesions have an increased risk to develop gastric cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of systematic endoscopy that includes chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique for the detection of dysplasia in patients with premalignant gastric lesions. This longitudinal, prospective study was performed in patients with gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia who were referred for endoscopy less than 6 months after the initial diagnosis. The second endoscopy was performed in three phases: phase 1, exhaustive and systematic review of the mucosa with photographic documentation and biopsies of suspicious areas; phase 2, chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique using acetic acid 1.2% and indigo carmine 0.5%; phase 3, topographic mapping and random biopsies. A total of 50 patients were included. Nine (18%) had atrophic gastritis, 38 (76%) had intestinal metaplasia, and 3 (6%) had low-grade dysplasia. Systematic endoscopy with chromoendoscopy using a double dye staining technique detected more patients with dysplasia (9 versus 3, p<.05), and a larger number of biopsies with the diagnosis of dysplasia were obtained. This occurred for visible (6 vs. 0, p<.05) and non-visible lesions (6 vs. 3, p=NS). In one patient, initial low-grade dysplasia was not detected again in the systematic endoscopy, giving a global endoscopic performance for the detection of lesions of 92%. Patients with premalignant gastric lesions have synchronous lesions with greater histological severity, which are detected when systematic endoscopy is conducted with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. ImmunoCard STAT! cartridge antigen detection assay compared to microplate enzyme immunoassay and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast staining technique for detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly

    2012-02-01

    Cryptosporidium species infect humans and a wide range of animals worldwide; outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported in several countries. Routine diagnostic methods may be insufficient to demonstrate the presence of these organisms. The study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the antigen detection immuno-cartridge test, ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA), compared to the combined gold standard: modified Kinyoun's acid-fast technique confirmed with the microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens. Three hundred fifteen formalin-fixed stool specimens were submitted for testing. The Kinyoun's acid-fast-stained smear revealed 24 positive samples for Cryptosporidium (of which 23 specimens were confirmed by the EIA) and 291 negative samples (of which 289 were negative by EIA). Agreement between the three used tests was shown in 22 positive and 288 negative samples for Cryptosporidium. Kappa score of agreement between the immuno-cartridge test and EIA was 0.957, p = 0.000. The sensitivity of the immuno-cartridge test was 96% (95% confidence interval (CI), 87% to 104%) and the total accuracy of the test was 97% (95% CI, 93-103). The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium cartridge assay is easy to use and does not require specialized training or equipment and is useful in routine diagnosis and screening for Cryptosporidium especially where rapid, point of care testing is needed or where other reliable tests are unfeasible with a performance comparable to the EIA and acid-fast technique.

  17. Identification of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled cells during mouse spermatogenesis by heat-induced antigen retrieval in lectin staining and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Nakata, Hiroki; Kumchantuek, Tewarat; Gewaily, Mahmoud Saad; Iseki, Shoichi

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication occurs during S-phase in spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes during spermatogenesis. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into synthesized DNA and is detectable in the nucleus by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To identify BrdU-labeled spermatogenic cells, the spermatogenic stages must be determined by visualizing acrosomes and detecting cell type-specific marker molecules in the seminiferous tubules. However, the antibody reaction with BrdU routinely requires denaturation of the DNA, which is achieved by pretreating tissue sections with hydrochloric acid; however, this commonly interferes with further histochemical approaches. Therefore, we examined optimal methods for pretreating paraffin sections of the mouse testis to detect incorporated BrdU by an antibody and, at the same time, visualize acrosomes with peanut agglutinin (PNA) or detect several marker molecules with antibodies. We found that the use of heat-induced antigen retrieval (HIAR), which consisted of heating at 95C in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) for 15 min, was superior to the use of 2 N hydrochloric acid for 90 min at room temperature in terms of the quality of subsequent PNA-lectin histochemistry with double IHC for BrdU and an appropriate stage marker protein. With this method, we identified BrdU-labeled spermatogenic cells during mouse spermatogenesis as A1 spermatogonia through to preleptotene spermatocytes.

  18. Naturally occurring double-stranded RNA and immune responses. III. Immunogenicity and antigenicity in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, P G; Naysmith, J D

    1975-01-01

    Naturally occurring, double-stranded RNA (ds-RNA)) was immunogenic when injected into mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, dogs and baboons. The response to native material administered intravenously (i.v.) was strongest in rabbits and mice, and weakest in baboons. Mice, guinea-pigs and baboons injected with ds-RNA complexed with methylated BSA emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant all gave high antibody responses. When ds-RNA was given in aerosol form to mice and guinea-pigs the response was weaker than that following i.v. injection, and baboons did not respond to antigen given as an aerosol. In most species the immune response obtained was predominantly IgM in nature, and there was no evidence for cell-mediated immunity in any species. The only evidence of an adverse reaction associated with repeated administration of ds-RNA was a systemic anaphylactic-type response in a small group of mice given ds-RNA repeatedly in aerosol form and challenged with ds-RNA i.v. PMID:811555

  19. Prostate-Specific Antigen Working Group’s Guidelines on PSA Doubling Time

    PubMed Central

    Arlen, Philip M.; Bianco, Fernando; Dahut, William L.; D’Amico, Anthony; Figg, William D.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Gulley, James L.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Kattan, Michael W.; Lee, Andrew; Regan, Meredith M.; Sartor, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific antigen is a glycoprotein found almost exclusively in normal and neoplastic prostate cells. PSA doubling time, or the change in PSA level over time, has emerged as a useful predictive marker for assessing disease outcome in patients with prostate cancer. It is important to agree on definitions and values for the calculation of PSADT and to develop a common approach to outcome analysis and reporting. Methods In September 2006 a conference was held at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland to define these parameters and develop guidelines for their use. Results The PSA Working Group defined the following criteria regarding PSADT: (1) calculation of PSADT, (2) evidence to support PSADT as a predictive factor in the setting of biochemical recurrence, and (3) use of PSADT as a stratification factor in clinical trials. Conclusions We propose that investigators calculate PSADT prior to enrolling patients on clinical studies and calculate it as an additional measurement of therapeutic activity. We believe we have developed practical guidelines for the calculation of PSADT and its use as a measurement of prognosis and outcome. Furthermore, the use of common standards for PSADT in clinical trials is important as we determine which treatments should progress to randomized trials in which “hard” end points such as survival will be employed. PMID:18423743

  20. Double pass 595 nm pulsed dye laser at a 6 minute interval for the treatment of port-wine stains is not more effective than single pass.

    PubMed

    Peters, M A D; van Drooge, A M; Wolkerstorfer, A; van Gemert, M J C; van der Veen, J P W; Bos, J D; Beek, J F

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the first choice for treatment of port wine stains (PWS). However, outcome is highly variable and only a few patients achieve complete clearance. The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and safety of single pass PDL with double pass PDL at a 6 minute interval. We conducted a randomized within-patient controlled study on PWS resistant to multiple single pass PDL treatments. In each patient two similar PWS areas were randomly allocated to PDL treatment (595 nm, 7 mm spot size, 1.5 mseconds pulse duration) using, as a control treatment, a single pass (12 J/cm(2)) or, as a new treatment, a double pass PDL (11 J/cm(2), second pass 6 minutes after the first pass). Both test areas were treated two times, 8 weeks apart. PWS clearance was assessed by two blinded dermatologists, and by color measurement (L*a*b) using reflectance spectroscopy, at 3 months follow-up. Sixteen out of 17 included patients completed follow-up. The mean number of treatments before inclusion was 15. Overall color assessed by spectrophotometer showed no improvement for either single or double pass PDL. Blinded Physician Global Assessment and Patient Global Assessment showed a high variability in outcome, with mostly only moderate improvement of the PWS for either single pass or double pass PDL. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in any of the outcomes between single pass and double pass PDL. At the chosen settings and after two treatment sessions, double pass PDL at a 6 minute interval does not result in improved clearance of PWS as compared to single pass treatment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Visualisation of Microglia with the use of Immunohistochemical Double Staining Method for CD-68 and Iba-1 of Cerebral Tissue Samples in Cases of Brain Contusions.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Belakaposka-Srpanova, Viktorija; Bitoljanu, Natasa; Cakar, Ljupco; Cakar, Zdravko; Rosoklija, Gorazd

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years it has been confirmed that the main component of the immune response in an injury of the nerve cell comes from microglia and macrophages. The main challenge in the field of microglia research is to detect the different stages of cellular activation by visualization of the cell morphology. The existing visualization techniques are based on surface molecules expression in resting and activated microglia cells. For visualization of the microglial cells and their functional state we used double labeling method for cd-68 and iba1 in brain contusions with different survival time. Microglia are stained brown with Iba-1, whereas microglia impregnated with black, grainy color, represents activated microglia stained with CD 68. We had significantly positive results, and we were able to observe changes in the morphology of the microglia that correlated with the survival time. Using double labeling with Iba-1 and cd68 we were able to determine their physiological state based on the morphology and immunoreactivity.

  2. Two-color multiparametric method for flow cytometric DNA analysis of carcinomas using staining for cytokeratin and leukocyte-common antigen.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, R J; Visscher, D W; Crissman, J D

    1989-12-01

    Solid tumors contain heterogenous cell populations, resulting in flow cytometric (FCM) DNA quantitations of a mixture of tumor and host cells. Such mixed populations can result in dilution of the tumor cells by the host cells, in difficulty defining the diploid reference mean and in histogram peak overlap, precluding cell-cycle analysis. In this study, epithelial (tumor) cells and contaminating host cells in 100 consecutively accessioned human mammary and colorectal carcinomas were segregated in a multiparametric two-color FCM DNA analysis of intact, ethanol-fixed cells. These two carcinomas and bladder carcinomas contain a cytoskeleton of simple epithelium that is selectively stained with an FITC-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cytokeratin (CK: CAM 5.2-FITC). This MAb detects the CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19 consistently present in all layers of normal and neoplastic urothelium, colonic epithelium and mammary epithelium. Gating on CK in these tumors enables the nonstaining leukocytes, stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells to be excluded from DNA analysis. A separate aliquot of each tumor evaluated was labeled with an MAb to leukocyte-common antigen (LCA-FITC) to serve as a patient-specific intrinsic diploid reference standard. Both the CK-labeled and LCA-labeled cells were then dual labeled for DNA with propidium iodide. This method (1) correctly identified the intrinsic diploid (LCA-positive) channel, allowing an accurate definition of normal cell DNA content for calculation of the DNA index; and (2) resulted in an increased sensitivity in the identification of both diploid and abnormal hyperdiploid tumor cell populations. It also (3) limited DNA cell cycle analysis to urothelial, colonic and mammary epithelial cells, the majority of which were neoplastic in carefully selected tumor samples. In addition, this method (4) clarified near-tetraploid populations that overlap the normal nonepithelial G2M region by diminishing the normal G2M peak and accentuating the

  3. Antikinetochore and antitopoisomerase I antibodies in systemic scleroderma: comparative study using immunoblotted recombinant antigens, immunofluorescence, and double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Jarzabek-Chorzelska, M; Blaszczyk, M; Kolacinska-Strasz, Z; Chorzelski, T; Jabłońska, S; Maul, G G

    1990-01-01

    In 135 patients with systemic scleroderma, we compared three different methods to determine antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) specificity: indirect immunofluorescence, double immunodiffusion, and, employing recombinant antigens, immunoblotting using both marker autoantigens of this disease. A characteristic Scl-70 antibody pattern was found on HEp-2 cells in 83.8% of the patients, double immunodiffusion was positive for the Scl-70 antibodies in 81.9%, and immunoblot with the recombinant topoisomerase I (Topo I) was positive in 71% of the patients. For the centromere autoantibodies we found a high concordance between the anticentromere antibody (ACA) pattern on HEp-2 cells (27 patients positive) and the detection of recombinant kinetochore in immunoblotting (26 patients positive). The three testing techniques gave comparable results, except that the Topo I recombinant antigen used in immunoblotting reacted strongly with fewer than expected of the known Scl-70-positive sera. However, a method using recombinant antigens expressing all epitopes (rather than one of the epitopes of Topo I) will undoubtedly become the method of choice for detecting antibodies in systemic scleroderma. Using the immunoblotting technique with the recombinant antigens we detected in four patients antibodies against both Topo I and kinetochore. More severe symptoms of systemic scleroderma were found in patients who had both antibodies. The combined presence of both marker autoantibodies is therefore not as rare as previously reported and may predict severe disease.

  4. Double immunofluorescent staining of rat macrophages in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue using two monoclonal mouse antibodies.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Raymond A; Isidro, Angel A; Cruz, Myrella L; Hernandez, Siomara; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2015-12-01

    The conventional approach of double immunostaining to visualize more than one protein in tissues or cells using antibodies from two different host species is not always feasible due to limitations with antibody availability. Previously reported methodologies for performing multiple immunostains on the same tissue or cells with antibodies originating from the same species are varied in their complexity, sensitivity, and approach to prevent unwanted interactions between antibodies. In the ever-expanding field of macrophage biology, much more is known about mouse and human macrophages than their rat counterparts. The limited availability of validated and well-characterized monoclonal antibodies from different species is one factor responsible for preventing advances in rat macrophage biology. Here we describe an immunostaining method for identifying and examining rat macrophages that is sufficiently sensitive for use in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and that uses only commercially available reagents and antibodies. This method can be used to help characterize both physiological and pathophysiological processes in rat macrophages and can be adapted for use with any two antibodies from the same species of origin as long as one of the antibodies is biotinylated.

  5. Development of early post-ischemic injury in the liver as evaluated by a double staining method combining an intravital dye exclusion test and alizarin red S.

    PubMed

    Jennische, E

    1985-11-01

    The early development of post-ischemic cell injury was investigated in rat livers. Rats were subjected to 90 minutes of liver ischemia, followed by periods of re-perfusion from 10 minutes to 3 hours. The ischemia-induced injury was quantified by using a double staining method. An intravital dye exclusion test with Evans blue was combined with a histochemical stain for calcium, Alizarin red S (ARS). It was found that the markers identified two populations of injured cells, positive for Evans blue (EBA) and ARS respectively. The number of injured cells increased successively during the re-perfusion period. The overlapping between the two populations was small during the early post-ischemic phase but increased with increasing re-perfusion time. Treatment with ruthenium red, a blocker of mitochondrial calcium uptake, during the re-perfusion period significantly reduced the number of ARS-positive cells, while the number of EBA-positive cells was not affected. It is suggested that the two markers used identify cell populations, which are injured by different mechanisms operating in the post-ischemic phase. These mechanisms may or may not be dependent on calcium.

  6. Gram staining.

    PubMed

    Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  7. Gram staining.

    PubMed

    Coico, R

    2001-05-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  8. Detection of anti-extractable nuclear antigens in connective tissue diseases: comparison between passive hemagglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Siracusano, A; Agelli, M; Ioppolo, S; Quintieri, F; Bombardieri, S

    1985-01-01

    Antibodies to the three major components of the complex called soluble extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) were detected by passive hemagglutination (HA), counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and double immunodiffusion (DI) in 256 patients with connective tissue diseases. Anti-ENA antibodies were demonstrated by all the three employed methods in only 44.9% of the cases. These methods were not able to detect all antibodies to these antigens or any single specificity; CIE was however the most sensitive method for anti-RNP and HA for anti-Sm antibodies, while DI was the most suitable technique for serum samples with multiple anti-ENA specificities. Only in less than 50% of the cases the specificity detected by HA was comparable with that given by CIE or DI. Hence, for detecting anti-ENA antibodies a combination of these methods should be maintained, at least until more precise and reliable methods will become available.

  9. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  10. Detection of human papilloma viruses in paraffin wax sections with biotinylated synthetic oligonucleotide probes and immunogold staining.

    PubMed

    Cubie, H A; Norval, M

    1989-09-01

    Human papilloma virus was detected by in situ hybridisation in routinely processed paraffin wax sections using a synthetically produced oligonucleotide probe, end-labelled with biotin, and amplified with anti-biotin-immunogold silver staining (anti-biotin-IGSS). This system proved more sensitive than amplification with streptavidin-biotinylated alkaline phosphatase for detecting human papilloma virus type 16 in cervical tissues. The method was successfully combined with antigen staining for papilloma virus common antigens in skin and genital warts. This simple and quick method, using non-radioactively labelled synthetic probes, may be useful for the detection of other viruses in stored material and may be suitable for other double staining procedures.

  11. Resolution of Viable and Membrane-Compromised Bacteria in Freshwater and Marine Waters Based on Analytical Flow Cytometry and Nucleic Acid Double Staining

    PubMed Central

    Grégori, Gérald; Citterio, Sandra; Ghiani, Alessandra; Labra, Massimo; Sgorbati, Sergio; Brown, Spencer; Denis, Michel

    2001-01-01

    The membrane integrity of a cell is a well-accepted criterion for characterizing viable (active or inactive) cells and distinguishing them from damaged and membrane-compromised cells. This information is of major importance in studies of the function of microbial assemblages in natural environments, in order to assign bulk activities measured by various methods to the very active cells that are effectively responsible for the observations. To achieve this task for bacteria in freshwater and marine waters, we propose a nucleic acid double-staining assay based on analytical flow cytometry, which allows us to distinguish viable from damaged and membrane-compromised bacteria and to sort out noise and detritus. This method is derived from the work of S. Barbesti et al. (Cytometry 40:214–218, 2000) which was conducted on cultured bacteria. The principle of this approach is to use simultaneously a permeant (SYBR Green; Molecular Probes) and an impermeant (propidium iodide) probe and to take advantage of the energy transfer which occurs between them when both probes are staining nucleic acids. A full quenching of the permeant probe fluorescence by the impermeant probe will point to cells with a compromised membrane, a partial quenching will indicate cells with a slightly damaged membrane, and a lack of quenching will characterize intact membrane cells identified as viable. In the present study, this approach has been adapted to bacteria in freshwater and marine waters of the Mediterranean region. It is fast and easy to use and shows that a large fraction of bacteria with low DNA content can be composed of viable cells. Admittedly, limitations stem from the unknown behavior of unidentified species present in natural environments which may depart from the established permeability properties with respect to the fluorescing dyes. PMID:11571170

  12. Harmonization of light scatter and fluorescence flow cytometry profiles obtained after staining peripheral blood leucocytes for cell surface-only versus intracellular antigens with the Fix & Perm reagent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elaine Sobral; Peres, Rodrigo Tosta; Almeida, Julia; Lécrevisse, Quentin; Arroyo, María Elena; Teodósio, Cristina; Pedreira, Carlos Eduardo; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Staining for intracellular markers with the Fix & Perm reagent is associated with variations in the scatter properties of leucocytes, limiting automated analysis of flow cytometry (FCM) data. Here, we investigated those variables significantly contributing to changes in the light scatter, autofluorescence, and bcl2 staining characteristics of peripheral blood (PB) leucocytes, after fixation with Fix & Perm. Our major aim was to evaluate a new mathematical approach for automated harmonization of FCM data from datafiles corresponding to aliquots of a sample treated with cell-surface-only versus Fix & Perm intracellular staining techniques. Overall, neither the anticoagulant used nor sample storage for <24 h showed significant impact on the light scatter and fluorescence properties of PB leucocytes; similarly, the duration of the fixation period (once >15 min were used) had a minimum impact on the FCM properties of PB leucocytes. Conversely, changes in cell/protein concentrations and the fixative/sample (vol/vol) ratio had a clear impact on the light scatter features of some populations of leucocytes. Accordingly, lower cell/protein concentrations were associated with lower scatter values, particularly for the neutrophils. Such changes could be partially corrected through the use of higher fixative to sample volume ratios. Despite the variable changes detected between aliquots of the same sample treated with cell surface-only versus intracellular staining procedures, the new mathematical approach here proposed and evaluated for automated harmonization of common parameters in both datafiles, could correct the FCM profiles of leucocytes derived from cells undergoing conventional fixation/permeabilization procedures, and made them indistinguishable from those corresponding to aliquots of the same sample treated with cell-surface-only staining techniques.

  13. Double phase treatment with flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser and long pulsed Nd:YAG laser for resistant port wine stains in adults. Preliminary reports.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Pier L; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Tretti Clementoni, Matteo; Naldi, Luigi; Galimberti, Michela

    2016-06-01

    Flashlamp-pumped pulsed (FLPP) dye laser still represents the standard treatment for the majority of port wine stains (PWSs), but the results on thick PWSs remain unpredictable, and many of these lesions fail to completely respond. Our aim was to report on the results obtained on unresponsive PWSs to standard laser treatments, by using a double phase laser treatment strategy using two laser passes in the same session. Eleven adult patients with facial PWS resistant to dye laser were enrolled. Laser sessions were scheduled every 8 weeks, and each of them consisting of two laser passes. In phase one, two different laser wavelengths (595 nm and 1064 nm) were delivered consecutively to each affected area. In the second phase, the PWS was treated using a pulse stacking technique with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among the remaining ten, 5 (50%) patients showed an excellent improvement (>75%), 3 (30%) patients showed a good improvement (51-75%), and 2 (20%) patients had no or minimal improvement (0-25%). Our results suggest that the combination of different wavelengths in the same session can be helpful for PWSs resistant to standard laser treatments. However, in most patients two treatment phases were necessary.

  14. Confocal microscopy with double immunofluorescence staining reveals the functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 expressed in myoepithelial cells of human submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qianwen; Zhang, Yan; Cong, Xin; Cai, Zhigang; Han, Jingyan; Su, Yunchao; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guan-Gyan

    2012-05-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) mainly surround acini and intercalated ducts in the human salivary glands. The contraction of MECs provides the expulsive force to promote salivation. We previously found functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was expressed in rabbit and human submandibular glands and increased saliva secretion. However, it was unknown whether TRPV1 was expressed in MECs of submandibular glands. In this study, we observed the immunoflourescence of TRPV1 was not only located in serous acini and ducts but also surround the basal layer of the acinus and intercalated ducts of human submandibular glands. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed colocalization of TRPV1 with calponin, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin, which indicated the myoepithelial expression of TRPV1. Treating submandibular gland tissues with capsaicin, an agonist of TRPV1, substantially increased the phosphorylation of the 20-kDa regulatory light-chain subunit of myosin (MLC(20) ), a crucial molecule for contraction of smooth muscle cells, in MECs. Pretreatment with capsazepine, a specific TRPV1 inhibitor, blocked capsaicin-induced MLC(20) phosphorylation. These results suggest that TRPV1 is expressed in MECs of the human submandibular gland and mediates myoepithelial contraction via a mechanism involving MLC(20) phosphorylation.

  15. Novel fusion proteins for the antigen-specific staining and elimination of B cell receptor-positive cell populations demonstrated by a tetanus toxoid fragment C (TTC) model antigen.

    PubMed

    Klose, Diana; Saunders, Ute; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Jacobi, Annett Marita; Nachreiner, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    In an earlier study we developed a unique strategy allowing us to specifically eliminate antigen-specific murine B cells via their distinct B cell receptors using a new class of fusion proteins. In the present work we elaborated our idea to demonstrate the feasibility of specifically addressing and eliminating human memory B cells. The present study reveals efficient adaptation of the general approach to selectively target and eradicate human memory B cells. In order to demonstrate the feasibility we engineered a fusion protein following the principle of recombinant immunotoxins by combining a model antigen (tetanus toxoid fragment C, TTC) for B cell receptor targeting and a truncated version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA') to induce apoptosis after cellular uptake. The TTC-ETA' fusion protein not only selectively bound to a TTC-reactive murine B cell hybridoma cell line in vitro but also to freshly isolated human memory B cells from immunized donors ex vivo. Specific toxicity was confirmed on an antigen-specific population of human CD27(+) memory B cells. This protein engineering strategy can be used as a generalized platform approach for the construction of therapeutic fusion proteins with disease-relevant antigens as B cell receptor-binding domains, offering a promising approach for the specific depletion of autoreactive B-lymphocytes in B cell-driven autoimmune diseases.

  16. ELECTRON STAINS

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, C. Richard; Beer, Michael

    1961-01-01

    Chemical studies have been carried out on the interaction of DNA with uranyl salts. The effect of variations in pH, salt concentration, and structural integrity of the DNA on the stoichiometry of the salt-substrate complex have been investigated. At pH 3.5 DNA interacts with uranyl ions in low concentration yielding a substrate metal ion complex with a UO2++/P mole ratio of about ½ and having a large association constant. At low pH's (about 2.3) the mole ratio decreases to about ⅓. Destruction of the structural integrity of the DNA by heating in HCHO solutions leads to a similar drop in the amount of metal ion bound. Raising the pH above 3.5 leads to an apparent increase in binding as does increasing the concentration of the salt solution. This additional binding has a lower association constant. Under similar conditions DNA binds about seven times more uranyl ion than bovine serum albumin, indicating useful selectivity in staining for electron microscopy. PMID:13788706

  17. Development and Application of a Double-Antigen Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies to Porcine Circovirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Meng; Luo, Wei; Jiang, Daliang; Li, Runcheng; Zhao, Wenwei; Chen, Guoliang; Yang, Xingdong

    2012-01-01

    A double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) antibodies using the well-characterized recombinant PCV2 capsid protein. In a comparative test of 394 pig sera against an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test and a commercial ELISA kit (also based on the recombinant PCV2 capsid protein), the results showed that the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the assay were, respectively, 90.61, 94.02, and 91.62% compared with IIF and 94.38, 95.28, and 94.67% compared with the commercial ELISA kit. Assay of 12 PCV-free pigs over a 5-week period produced only PCV2-negative titers by all 3 methods. These results and the seroprofiles of 4 pig farms obtained by both the commercial ELISA kit and the double-antigen sandwich ELISA indicate that the sandwich ELISA is a reliable method for detection of antibodies to PCV2. Additionally, the method described here permits the use of undiluted test serum samples simultaneously loaded with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antigen into the test well, and the complete test procedure can be performed in less than 90 min. This double-antigen sandwich ELISA should be a useful tool to aid swine industry professionals in deciding the intervention strategies for the control of PCV2-associated diseases. PMID:22815145

  18. Preliminary staining of bacteria: simple stains.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Simple staining involves directly staining the bacterial cell with a positively charged dye in order to see bacterial detail, in contrast to negative staining where the bacteria remain unstained against a dark background. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Stain-Decolorize-Stain (SDS): a new technique for multiple staining.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Yan; Gu, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Multiple staining of more than one gene/antigen on a single tissue section is an indispensable tool in cell and tissue research. However, most of the available multiple staining techniques have limitations, and there has been no technique to simultaneously visualize and distinguish tissue antigens, nucleotide sequences and other chemical compounds on the same slide. Here, we present a practical and economic multiple stain technique, with which multiple cellular components including mRNA (with in situ hybridization), antigen epitope (with immunohistochemistry) and chemical molecules (with histochemistry) can be stained on a single tissue section to study their relationship. In addition, this technique also offers the possibility to evaluate morphology with an H&E staining on the same sections. We used the placenta, pancreas, breast ductal carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, cerebellum, tonsil and heart tissue sections to evaluate the applicability of this new technique. The sensitivity and specificity of the technique have been tested, and an optimal protocol is recommended. Its applications in surgical pathology and research are discussed. This technique offers a novel tool to evaluate the relationship among multiple components at the same or adjacent locations to meet the needs of pathology diagnosis and research.

  20. An ultrasensitive squamous cell carcinoma antigen biosensing platform utilizing double-antibody single-channel amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Dan; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Fan, Dawei; Pang, Xuehui; Li, Yueyun; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-10-15

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor was developed for ultrasensitive detection of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), which was based on the double-antibody single-channel amplification strategy. For the first time, human immunoglobulin antibody (anti-HIgG) was used as the supporting framework to amplify the loading quantity of SCCA antibody (anti-SCCA). In this strategy, SCCA can be detected without using mesoporous nanometers to amplify the signal. In addition, Pd icosahedrons were first used as the connecter to immobilize the antibodies and strengthen the sensitivity. Only one touch point exists under the limited condition between a sphere and another shape in geometry, thus the Pd icosahedron is an excellent candidate as the role of connecter. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) decorated with mercapto-functionalized graphene sheets (Au@GS) were synthesized as the transducing materials. The fabricated immunosensor exhibited an excellent detection limit of 2.8 pg/mL and wide linear range of 0.01-5 ng/mL. This kind of immunosensor would provide a potential application in clinical diagnosis.

  1. DAPI Staining of Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Wendy F; Sullivan, William

    2007-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONDrosophila embryos can be stained with specific fluorescent probes or antibodies through either direct or indirect immunofluorescence. In particular, several effective probes exist for visualizing DNA. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is a commonly used DNA-binding dye. Because it is specific for double-stranded DNA, no prior RNase treatment is required. While the embryo staining method described here uses DAPI, other fluorescent DNA probes can be processed similarly.

  2. Comparative analysis of the diagnostic performance of six major Echinococcus granulosus antigens assessed in a double-blind, randomized multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Carmen; Ferreira, Henrique B; Monteiro, Karina M; Rosenzvit, Mara; Kamenetzky, Laura; García, Hector H; Vasquez, Yessika; Naquira, Cesar; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Lorca, Myriam; Contreras, María; Last, Jerry A; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G

    2005-06-01

    The serodiagnosis of hydatid disease is a valuable instrument for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of high-risk populations. In the past decade a wealth of reports on the diagnostic performance of numerous antigens have been produced. However, their diagnostic value has been estimated under different conditions, using different serum collection, therefore precluding their direct comparison. Here we report an unbiased comparison of the same batch of six major E. granulosus antigens, namely, hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), native antigen B (AgB), two recombinant AgB subunits, an AgB-derived synthetic peptide, and recombinant cytosolic malate dehydrogenase from E. granulosus (EgMDH), against the same serum collection. The double-blind analysis was performed using a standardized protocol and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) data analysis by a network of six South American laboratories. High intercenter reproducibility was attained, and the intralaboratory analysis allowed the comparative ranking of the antigen panel. HCF, AgB, and its AgB8/1 subunit exhibited equivalent diagnostic efficiencies, 81.4% +/- 0.5%, 81.3% +/- 0.6%, and 81.9% +/- 2.0%, respectively; with a more favorable balance toward specificity in the case of the last antigen. The diagnostic efficiencies for the other three antigens were 76.8% +/- 6.8%, 69.1% +/- 2.7%, and 66.8% +/- 2.1%, for the peptide, the AgB8/2 subunit, and the EgMDH, respectively. The study also included an analysis of batch-to-batch variation in the diagnostic performance of different HCF regional preparations. Based on these results, a suggested recommendation on the use of these antigens was drawn.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Diagnostic Performance of Six Major Echinococcus granulosus Antigens Assessed in a Double-Blind, Randomized Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Carmen; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Monteiro, Karina M.; Rosenzvit, Mara; Kamenetzky, Laura; García, Hector H.; Vasquez, Yessika; Naquira, Cesar; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Lorca, Myriam; Contreras, María; Last, Jerry A.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G.

    2005-01-01

    The serodiagnosis of hydatid disease is a valuable instrument for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of high-risk populations. In the past decade a wealth of reports on the diagnostic performance of numerous antigens have been produced. However, their diagnostic value has been estimated under different conditions, using different serum collection, therefore precluding their direct comparison. Here we report an unbiased comparison of the same batch of six major E. granulosus antigens, namely, hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), native antigen B (AgB), two recombinant AgB subunits, an AgB-derived synthetic peptide, and recombinant cytosolic malate dehydrogenase from E. granulosus (EgMDH), against the same serum collection. The double-blind analysis was performed using a standardized protocol and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) data analysis by a network of six South American laboratories. High intercenter reproducibility was attained, and the intralaboratory analysis allowed the comparative ranking of the antigen panel. HCF, AgB, and its AgB8/1 subunit exhibited equivalent diagnostic efficiencies, 81.4% ± 0.5%, 81.3% ± 0.6%, and 81.9% ± 2.0%, respectively; with a more favorable balance toward specificity in the case of the last antigen. The diagnostic efficiencies for the other three antigens were 76.8% ± 6.8%, 69.1% ± 2.7%, and 66.8% ± 2.1%, for the peptide, the AgB8/2 subunit, and the EgMDH, respectively. The study also included an analysis of batch-to-batch variation in the diagnostic performance of different HCF regional preparations. Based on these results, a suggested recommendation on the use of these antigens was drawn. PMID:15956395

  4. Staining Proteins in Gels

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and is often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins with SYPRO Orange and SYPRO Ruby are also demonstrated here. PMID:19066521

  5. Staining proteins in gels.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-07-08

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and is often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins with SYPRO Orange and SYPRO Ruby are also demonstrated here.

  6. Simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen binds specifically to double-stranded DNA but not to single-stranded DNA or DNA/RNA hybrids containing the SV40 regulatory sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Auborn, K J; Markowitz, R B; Wang, E; Yu, Y T; Prives, C

    1988-01-01

    Simian virus 40 T antigen has been shown previously to bind specifically with high affinity to sites within the regulatory region of double-stranded simian virus 40 DNA. Using competition filter binding and the DNA-binding immunoassay, we show that T antigen did not bind specifically to either early or late single-stranded DNA containing these binding sites. Moreover, T antigen did not bind these sequences present in single-stranded RNA, RNA/RNA duplexes, or RNA/DNA hybrids. T antigen did, however, bind as efficiently to single-stranded DNA-cellulose as to double-stranded DNA-cellulose. This binding was nonspecific because it was independent of the presence of T-antigen-binding sites. The implications of these observations are discussed. Images PMID:3367427

  7. Detection of human papilloma viruses in paraffin wax sections with biotinylated synthetic oligonucleotide probes and immunogold staining.

    PubMed Central

    Cubie, H A; Norval, M

    1989-01-01

    Human papilloma virus was detected by in situ hybridisation in routinely processed paraffin wax sections using a synthetically produced oligonucleotide probe, end-labelled with biotin, and amplified with anti-biotin-immunogold silver staining (anti-biotin-IGSS). This system proved more sensitive than amplification with streptavidin-biotinylated alkaline phosphatase for detecting human papilloma virus type 16 in cervical tissues. The method was successfully combined with antigen staining for papilloma virus common antigens in skin and genital warts. This simple and quick method, using non-radioactively labelled synthetic probes, may be useful for the detection of other viruses in stored material and may be suitable for other double staining procedures. Images PMID:2551931

  8. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor, developed a differential staining technique that is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. This multistep, sequential staining protocol separates bacteria into four groups based on cell morphology and cell wall structure: Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Gram-positive rods, and Gram-negative rods. The Gram stain is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  9. Differential staining of bacteria: capsule stain.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Donald P; Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial capsules are composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides and/or polypeptides, and are associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Unfortunately, capsules do not stain well with crystal violet, methylene blue, or other simple stains. This unit describes two methods of capsule staining. The first is a wet-mount method using india ink; the capsule is visualized as a refractile zone surrounding a cell. The second is a direct-staining dry-mount method that precipitates copper sulfate and leaves the capsule as a pale blue zone. Both methods are easily performed within approximately 5 min.

  10. Templating Water Stains for Nanolithography

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Ssu; Chen, Xin; Chen, Jixin; Cremer, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Herein, a nanoscale patterning technique is demonstrated for creating twin features in polymers and metals. The process works by combining evaporative staining with a templating process. Well-ordered hexagonally arrayed double rings were fabricated using hydrophobic spherical templates. The diameter of the rings, the width of individual rings, and the spacing between concentric and adjacent rings could be tuned by varying the solution conditions. Arrays could be made without the outer ring by employing hydrophilic templates. PMID:17637019

  11. Characterization of a double-CRD-mutated Gal-8 recombinant protein that retains co-stimulatory activity on antigen-specific T-cell response.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matías Nicolás; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; André-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Caramelo, Julio Javier; Cattaneo, Valentina; Campetella, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Galectins (Gals) constitute a family of mammalian lectins with affinity for β-galactosides, characterized by the presence of conserved CRDs (carbohydrate-recognition domains). We have found previously that Gal-8, from the tandem-repeat group with two linked CRDs, exerts two separate actions on CD4(+)T-cells: antigen-independent proliferation and, at lower concentration, antigen-specific co-stimulation. Whereas proliferation can be ascribed to the pro-inflammatory role of Gal-8, the co-stimulatory activity of borderline T-cell-specific responses allows the proposal of Gal-8 as an adjuvant in vaccination. To study the relevance of glycan-lectin interaction to these T-cell activities, we generated a double-mutated protein (Gal-8mut) by replacing canonical arginine residues on each CRD, so as to abolish sugar-binding capacity. As expected, Gal-8mut was unable to bind to lactosyl-Sepharose, confirming that lactose recognition was precluded; however, preservation of lectin activity was still evident since Gal-8mut displayed haemoagglutinatory effects and binding capacity to the T-cell surface. To search for glycan affinity, a glycan microarray analysis was conducted which revealed that Gal-8mut lost most low- and intermediate-, but retained high-, affinity interactions, mainly to polylactosamines and blood group antigens. These findings were supported further by molecular modelling. Regarding biological activity, Gal-8mut was unable to induce T-cell proliferation, but efficiently co-stimulated antigen-specific responses, bothin vitroandin vivo.Therefore Gal-8mut represents a useful tool to dissect the specificities of lectin-glycan interactions underlying distinctive Gal-8 activities on T-cell biology. Moreover, given its distinguishing properties, Gal-8mut could be used to enhance borderline immune responses without the non-specific pro-inflammatory activity or other potential adverse effects.

  12. Differential staining of bacteria: flagella stain.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Donald P; Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial flagella are appendages used for motility. Their presence is a useful tool for identification and differentiation of prokaryotes. Since flagella are too thin to be seen by compound light microscopy, staining methods employ the use of a mordant (often tannic acid) to make them thick enough to see using an oil immersion objective. Two protocols are described. Basic Protocol 1 is a modified Leifson method and is the one that many microbiologists have adapted. Basic Protocol 2 is a wet-mount stain using a Ryu stain and is included because the stain is stable at room temperature. Both of these methods are fairly time-consuming, taking from 15 to as long as 60 min to perform.

  13. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  14. Immunoperoxidase staining characteristics of Dirofilaria immitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K I; Atwell, R B

    1991-01-01

    The immunoperoxidase staining characteristics of Dirofilaria immitis and pulmonary tissues from infected dogs were studied by using the following sera: anti-fresh D immitis, anti-processed D immitis, anti-dog IgG, anti-dog IgG Fc, anti-dog IgM and anti-dog C3. Marked staining was observed using anti-fresh D immitis serum. Body cavity fluid and cuticle were strongly stained and hypodermis, muscle, lateral cord, testis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct and uterus were moderately stained. Oesophagus and intestine were mildly stained. Degenerate worms were stained by all antisera. The intact and cut surfaces of microfilariae and eggs and sperm present in filariae were stained, but not their internal contents. Circulating and stored immotile microfilariae did not stain. Excreted eggs, presumed to be unfertilized and, or, degenerate, stained positively. Immunoperoxidase staining of routinely processed histological samples provides a means of assessing D immitis antigen.

  15. [Evaluation of different pathological staining methods for classifying renal amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhanmei; Cao, Wei

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the effect of special staining and immunohistochemical staining in distinguishing the types of renal amyloidosis to improve the diagnosis accuracy. Congo red staining with different methods, and immunohistochemical staining of Kappa, Lambda and Amyloid A with different antigen retrieval methods were used for staining frozen and paraffin-embedded renal tissue sections. Wright's Congo red staining produced a better contrast and a higher resolution and showed a greater stability than the other 2 methods after repeated use for staining the renal tissue sections (P<0.05). Immunofluorescent staining produced better results in frozen renal tissue sections than in paraffin-embedded tissues. Immunofluorescent staining produced had better performance than immunohistochemical staining in paraffin-embedded tissues. The retrieval effect with protein kinase K was the best among the antigen retrieval methods in paraffin-embedded tissues. Wright's Congo red staining is better than the other 2 methods in diagnosing renal amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical staining of Kappa, Lambda and Amyloid A in frozen renal tissue sections is necessary to discriminate the types of renal amyloidosis. For paraffin-embedded renal tissues, antigen retrieval using protein kinase K is better than the other 2 methods.

  16. Selective killing of lung cancer cells using carcinoembryonic antigen promoter and double suicide genes, thymidine kinase and cytosine deaminase (pCEA-TK/CD).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuan; Peng, Gui-Lin; Liu, Qi-Cai; Li, Fu-Li; Zou, Xu-Sen; He, Jian-Xing

    2012-03-01

    The application of gene therapy in cancer treatment is limited by non-specific targeting. In the present study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid, containing a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter and double suicide genes thymidine kinase (TK) and cytosine deaminase (CD), henceforth referred to as pCEA-TK/CD. Our results showed that the CEA promoter can specifically drive target gene expression in CEA-positive lung cancer cells. In the presence of prodrugs 5-flucytosine and ganciclovir, pCEA-TK/CD transfection decreased inhibitory concentration 50 and increased apoptosis and cyclomorphosis. Our result suggests that gene therapy using pCEA-TK/CD may be a promising new approach for treating lung cancer.

  17. Comparative double-blind trial of the effectiveness and antigenicity of semisynthetic human insulin and purified porcine insulin in newly treated diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Larkins, R G; Zajac, J; Saunders, R; Read, A; Hopper, J L

    1986-04-01

    A double-blind comparative trial of the effectiveness and antigenicity of semisynthetic human insulin (Novo) and highly purified (Monocomponent) porcine insulin was performed over a 12 month period in 20 diabetic subjects newly treated with insulin. Human insulin was shown to be indistinguishable from porcine insulin of comparable purity with respect to plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and insulin dose requirements. Human insulin was no less antigenic than porcine insulin; significant IgG-associated insulin binding activity was detected in six of the ten patients in the human insulin treated group and four of the ten patients in the porcine insulin treated group. In all patients, the binding activity was of low capacity. No adverse reactions to human insulin were noted. It is concluded that semisynthetic human insulin, like purified porcine insulin, is safe and effective. Although there may be advantages for human insulin in the setting of insulin allergy, this study does not indicate that human insulin has advantages over purified porcine insulin with respect to elicitation of antibodies of the IgG class.

  18. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria.

  19. A morphological and functional study on antigen binding and endocytosis by immunocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Goud, B; Antoine, J C; Gonatas, N K; Stieber, A; Avrameas, S

    1980-01-01

    Immunoenzymatic techniques were used to study antigen binding and endocytosis by lymph node cells of rats immunized against horseradish peroxidase, hen ovalbumin and rabbit IgG. The number of antigen-binding cells varied and depended on the type of antigen used, the time after immunization, and was higher after a booster injection. In secondary responses (4 days after booster), about 80% of antigen-binding cells were proplasmocytes and plasmocytes; by a double staining procedure it was found that 82% of these cells bore in addition to surface antigen, specific intracytoplasmic antibody as well. About 20% of antigen-binding cells were small and medium lymphocytes which did not contain detectable intracytoplasmic antibody. For ultrastructural studies of the endocytosis, peroxidase was used as the antigen. This antigen was found in cytoplasmic compartments which consisted of vesicles, cisternae and large round bodies (lysosomes?) often located near the Golgi apparatus. However, the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, involved in the synthesis of specific antibody were not sites of retrieval of endocytosed antigen. The effect of endocytosis of antigen on the secretion and synthesis of antibody was studied by the local haemolysis plaque assay and biosynthetic labelling. No change was detected in antibody secretion and synthesis as a result of antigen endocytosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7007216

  20. Iron Stain on Wood

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  1. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laser therapy is most successful in removing port-wine stains. It is the only method that can destroy the tiny blood vessels in the skin without causing much damage to the skin. The exact type ... on the person's age, skin type, and particular port-wine stain.

  2. Dramatic Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  3. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of soft-shelled turtle iridovirus antigens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Yang, J X; Lin, X M; Zhu, C H; He, J Q; Liu, H; Lin, T L

    2010-08-01

    A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of the soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) was developed using a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against STIV and anti-STIV rabbit serum. Using DAS-ELISA, the detection limit of STIV was found to be 10(3)PFU/ml. The positive rate of 15 STIV samples was 100%, while the positive rate of 100 other aquatic virus samples was 0%. These data show that DAS-ELISA is highly specific and sensitive for the detection of STIV. In clinical tests, 128 samples isolated from pond-reared turtles were subjected to DAS-ELISA and PCR. The overall agreement between the results obtained by DAS-ELISA and PCR was 98.4%. The results indicate that the DAS-ELISA method could be used for diagnosing diseases caused by STIV. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical significance of the prostate-specific antigen doubling time prior to and following radical prostatectomy to predict the outcome of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hisashi; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a larger number of prostate cancers in the early phase have been successfully detected. Although decisions to perform prostate biopsies are routinely based on PSA levels, the PSA level is easily influenced by benign prostatic hyperplasia, with poor specificity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the clinical significance of prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) prior to and following radical prostatectomy. In total, 488 patients with T1c-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy were included. Preoperative and postoperative PSADT were retrospectively correlated with pathological and clinical outcomes. Preoperative PSADT was measured in 204 of the 488 patients. In total, 16 out of 20 patients with a preoperative PSADT of >24 months had a cancer confined to the prostate compared with 105 of 184 patients with a PSADT of <24 months. The PSA non-recurrence rate at 5 years for patients with a preoperative PSADT of >24 months was significantly better compared with those with a preoperative PSADT of <24 months (P=0.011). Patients with a PSADT of >24 months and stable PSADT were associated with PSA recurrence following surgery, based on multivariate analysis. Postoperative PSADT was measured in 51 of 111 patients with PSA failure following surgery. Pathologically, 7 of 8 patients with a post-PSADT of >24 months had a cancer confined to the prostate compared with 14 of 43 patients with a post-PSADT of <24 months. These results suggest that patients with longer preoperative PSADTs appeared to have a favorable pathological result and a higher PSA non-recurrence rate compared with those with shorter preoperative PSADTs. A longer postoperative PSADT may facilitate the observation of patients with PSA recurrence without immediate secondary treatments. PMID:28357104

  5. Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

    1992-01-01

    Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia.

  6. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclooxygenases with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saed, Ghassan M

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is an important tool that is often used for the diagnosis of several diseases in the pathology laboratory. The quality and sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining is affected by formalin fixation, which results in variable loss of antigenicity, known as a masking effect. While the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry is excellent for certain antigens, other antigens such as COX-1 and COX-2 are difficult to identify, especially in formalin-fixed, paraffin sections. Antigen retrieval is a technique that re-exposes epitopes and allows detection of masked antigens with standard immunohistochemical procedures. One common method involves partial, enzymatic pre-digestion with trypsin or pepsin while other, nonenzymatic procedures or heat-mediated antigen retrieval methods include pressure-cookers, hot plates, or microwave (MW) irradiation of tissue sections in water or a variety of antigen-retrieval solutions. In this chapter, we will describe a technique that provides a more reliable, much simpler approach for the demonstration of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in frozen, vibratome or paraffin sections, and/or cells in cultures.

  7. T cells bearing anti-CD19 and/or anti-CD38 chimeric antigen receptors effectively abrogate primary double-hit lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Keichiro; Yoshida, Tetsumi; Takei, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Naomi; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Junya; Ichinohe, Tatsuo

    2017-06-08

    Patients with B cell lymphomas bearing MYC translocation combined with translocation involving other genes, such as BCL2, BCL3, or BCL6, defined as double-hit lymphoma (DHL), have a poor prognosis. Recent studies expanded the concept to include double-expressing lymphoma (DEL) that co-overexpresses MYC protein with either of those proteins. Accordingly, we defined cytogenetic DHL and DEL as primary DHL. An adoptive T cell immunotherapy with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has been clinically shown to exhibit cytotoxicity in refractory neoplasias. We revealed the marked cytotoxicity of anti-CD19- and/or anti-CD38-CAR T cells against primary DHL cells from patients. CD19- and/or CD38-specific T cells were co-cultured with cytogenetic DHL (n = 3) or DEL (n = 2) cells from five patients for 3 days. We examined whether T cells retrovirally transduced with each vector showed cytotoxicity against DHL cells. Anti-CD19- and/or anti-CD38-CAR T cells were co-cultured with primary DHL cells at an E:T ratio of 1:2 for 3 days. Anti-CD19- and anti-CD38-CAR T cells completely abrogated these DHL cells, respectively. Anti-CD19-CAR T cells synergistically exerted collaborative cytotoxicity against these primary DHL cells with anti-CD38-CAR T cells. Therefore, refractory DHL cells can be efficiently abrogated by the clinical use of T cells with anti-CD19- and/or anti-CD38-CAR.

  8. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... their own, they can be treated. In fact, laser therapies can make many port-wine stains much ... mark might be. The good news is that lasers (highly concentrated light energy) can make many port- ...

  9. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... their own, they can be treated. In fact, laser therapies can make many port-wine stains much less ... aren't as effective — or as safe — as laser therapy. Laser surgery is the only treatment that works ...

  10. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    A normal result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning ...

  11. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to ... sample of fluid will be taken from the pericardium. This is done through a procedure called pericardiocentesis . ...

  12. Candida, fluorescent stain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This microscopic film shows a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Image ...

  13. Pleural fluid gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Gram stain). A laboratory specialist uses a microscope to look for bacteria on the slide. If bacteria are present, the color, number, and structure of the cells are used to identify the type of bacteria. This test will be ...

  14. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  15. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  16. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time predicts clinical outcome and survival in prostate cancer patients treated with combined radiation and hormone therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Andrew K. . E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org; Levy, Larry B.; Cheung, Rex; Kuban, Deborah

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time predicts clinical outcomes in patients with prostate cancer that has been treated with combined radiation and hormone therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 621 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with radiation therapy and hormone therapy between 1989 and 2003. 'Any' clinical failure was defined as any distant, nodal, or local failure, or the use of salvage therapy. 'True' clinical failure was defined as any distant, nodal, or local failure. PSA doubling time was calculated by using the log PSA values from patients with a PSA failure as defined by the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology Oncology consensus statement. One hundred thirty-seven men were at intermediate risk for PSA failure (as determined by T2b, Gleason score of 7, or PSA 10.1-0 ng/mL) and 484 men were at high risk for failure (T2c-4; Gleason 8-10; or PSA >20 ng/mL). Pretreatment PSA value, Gleason score, tumor stage, timing and duration of hormone therapy, radiation therapy dose, and PSA doubling time were analyzed for any associations with time to clinical failure by using Cox regression analysis. Estimates of survival were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Pairwise comparisons were made by using the log-rank test. Results: Sixty-two men experienced any clinical failure, and 22 men experienced true clinical failure. Multivariate analysis revealed that pretreatment PSA (p = 0.013), Gleason score (p = 0.0019), and a PSA doubling time (PSADT) {<=}8 months (p < 0.001) were independently associated with time to any clinical failure. Tumor stage, hormone therapy timing, hormone therapy duration, and radiation therapy dose were not statistically significant on multivariate or univariate analysis. Only hormone therapy duration (p 0.008) and PSADT {<=}8 months (<0.001) were significantly associated with time to true clinical failure. The estimated 5-year rate of any clinical

  17. Staining of nasal mucosa to examine remodelling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S K; Williams, J L; Drake-Lee, A; Egginton, S

    2009-02-01

    The process of embedding tissue in paraffin degrades many important molecules involved in respiratory epithelial remodelling. We therefore examined alternative methods. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp biopsies were either placed in formalin or immediately snap-frozen in the operating theatre. Novel protocols for staining remodelling markers were compared with current methods. Our method, using a mixture of three lectins, stained a significantly greater proportion of samples, compared with using Ulex europeaus lectin alone (84 vs 62 per cent; p < 0.005). Comparison of different proliferation markers showed that Ki67 was more suitable than proliferating cell nuclear antigen for frozen sections. This study indicates that our robust, repeatable methods for examining whole mounts and for staining capillaries, cell proliferation and nuclei on the same section of nasal mucosa are superior to current methods. The use of fresh tissue that has not been paraffin-embedded would allow a greater suite of epitopes to be examined in the future.

  18. Primer for Immunohistochemistry on Cryosectioned Rat Brain Tissue: Example Staining for Microglia and Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Evilsizor, Megan N.; Ray-Jones, Helen F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Ziebell, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is a widely used technique for detecting the presence, location, and relative abundance of antigens in situ. This introductory level protocol describes the reagents, equipment, and techniques required to complete immunohistochemical staining of rodent brain tissue, using markers for microglia and neuronal elements as an example. Specifically, this paper is a step-by-step protocol for fluorescent visualization of microglia and neurons via immunohistochemistry for Iba1 and Pan-neuronal, respectively. Fluorescence double-labeling is particularly useful for the localization of multiple proteins within the same sample, providing the opportunity to accurately observe interactions between cell types, receptors, ligands, and/or the extracellular matrix in relation to one another as well as protein co-localization within a single cell. Unlike other visualization techniques, fluorescence immunohistochemistry staining intensity may decrease in the weeks to months following staining, unless appropriate precautions are taken. Despite this limitation, in many applications fluorescence double-labeling is preferred over alternatives such as 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) or alkaline phosphatase (AP), as fluorescence is more time efficient and allows for more precise differentiation between two or more markers. The discussion includes troubleshooting tips and advice to promote success. PMID:25992867

  19. Standardizing Immunohistochemistry: A New Reference Control for Detecting Staining Problems.

    PubMed

    Sompuram, Seshi R; Vani, Kodela; Tracey, Brian; Kamstock, Debra A; Bogen, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    A new standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC) control for breast cancer testing comprises formalin-fixed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor peptide antigens covalently attached to 8-µm glass beads. The antigen-coated beads are suspended in a liquid matrix that hardens upon pipetting onto a glass microscope slide. The antigen-coated beads remain in place through deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and immunostaining. The intensity of the beads' stain provides feedback regarding the efficacy of both antigen retrieval and immunostaining. As a first report, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the new IHC controls ("IHControls"). To evaluate sensitivity, various staining problems were simulated. IHControls detected primary and secondary reagent degradation similarly to tissue controls. This first group of IHControls behaved similarly to tissue controls expressing high concentrations of the antigen. The IHControls were also able to detect aberrations in antigen retrieval, as simulated by sub-optimal times or temperatures. Specificity testing revealed that each antigen-coated bead was specific for its cognate IHC test antibody. The data support the conclusion that, like tissue controls, IHControls are capable of verifying the analytic components of an immunohistochemical stain. Unlike tissue controls, IHControls are prepared in large bulk lots, fostering day-to-day reproducibility that can be standardized across laboratories.

  20. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  1. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  2. Shimmering Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Gail Murray

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for fifth- and sixth-graders where they create a translucent design of colored cellophane on black paper inspired by the stained-glass windows of the Middle Ages and the artwork of Lewis Comfort Tiffany. Enables the students to become crafts people rather than just observers of the past. (CMK)

  3. Stained-Glass Pastels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

  4. Exposure to Agent Orange is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based recurrence and a rapid PSA doubling time after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar R.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Terris, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and report the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer and previous exposure to Agent Orange (AO), particularly in relationship to race. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 1495 veterans who had undergone RP the clinicopathological characteristics, biochemical progression rates, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT) after recurrence between AO-exposed and unexposed men were compared using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses, and stratified by race. RESULTS The 206 (14%) men with AO exposure were more likely to be black (P = 0.001), younger (P < 0.001), treated more recently (P < 0.001), have a higher body mass index (P = 0.001), have clinical stage T1 disease (P < 0.001), and have lower preoperative PSA levels (P = 0.001). After adjusting for several clinical characteristics, AO exposure was not significantly related to adverse pathological features but was significantly associated with biochemical progression risk (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.09, P = 0.004) and shorter PSADT (P < 0.001) after recurrence (8.2 vs 18.6 months). When stratified by race, these associations were present and similar in both races, with no significant interaction between race and AO exposure for predicting biochemical recurrence or mean adjusted PSADT (P interaction >0.20). CONCLUSIONS Patients with AO exposure and treated with RP were more likely to be black, present with lower risk features, have an increased risk of biochemical progression, and shorter PSADT after recurrence. When stratified by race, the association between AO exposure and poor outcomes was present in both races. These findings suggest that among selected men who choose RP, AO exposure might be associated with more aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:19298411

  5. Denosumab and bone metastasis-free survival in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: exploratory analyses by baseline prostate-specific antigen doubling time.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Oudard, Stephane; Shore, Neal; Fizazi, Karim; Sieber, Paul; Tombal, Bertrand; Damiao, Ronaldo; Marx, Gavin; Miller, Kurt; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Morote, Juan; Ye, Zhishen; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-10-20

    Denosumab, an anti-RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis-free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months. A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died. In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets. Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression.

  6. Denosumab and Bone Metastasis–Free Survival in Men With Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Exploratory Analyses by Baseline Prostate-Specific Antigen Doubling Time

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew R.; Saad, Fred; Oudard, Stephane; Shore, Neal; Fizazi, Karim; Sieber, Paul; Tombal, Bertrand; Damiao, Ronaldo; Marx, Gavin; Miller, Kurt; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Morote, Juan; Ye, Zhishen; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Denosumab, an anti–RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis–free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months. Patients and Methods A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died. Results In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets. Conclusion Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression. PMID:24043751

  7. The effect of the frequency and duration of prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement on PSA doubling time calculations in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paller, CJ; Olatoye, D; Xie, S; Zhou, X; Denmeade, SR; Eisenberger, MA; Antonarakis, ES; Carducci, MA; Rosner, GL

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSADT) is an attractive intermediate endpoint for assessing novel therapies in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC). This study explores whether PSADT calculations are influenced by frequency/duration of PSA measurements, and whether statistical variability leads investigators to find false significant results. Methods In retrospective analyses of two BRPC cohorts: Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) patients who deferred therapy and placebo patients on a randomized clinical trial (RCT), we calculated changes in PSADT from early measurements to later measurements using subsets of available PSAs for patients with ≥6 and ≥9 PSAs. We simulated hypothetical single-arm trials using randomly selected, 50-patient subsets and simulated two-arm RCTs. Results JHH cohort (n=205) had median follow-up 58 months, median age 61 years, and median Gleason 7. PSA variability changed with duration of PSA measurement as median within-patient PSADT increases for men with >6 PSAs ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 months by PSA subset while increases for men with ≥9 PSAs ranged from 3.9 to 4.1 months. Frequency of measurement did not change PSA variability as PSADT increase was unchanged when odd values were used instead of all values. Approximately 30% of JHH men experienced >200% increases in PSADT. Up to 62% of 50-patient single-arm simulations detected significant PSADT change, whereas simulated RCTs did not. Results were supported in the RCT placebo cohort; 46% of patients experienced PSADT increases >200%. Conclusion These data suggest that calculated PSADT in BRPC may naturally increase over time in the absence of therapy and may be influenced by duration of PSA follow-up. As a result, single arm trials could show false significant increases despite the lack of active treatment of these patients. Placebo-controlled RCTs including clinical endpoints are recommended to screen novel agents in men with BRPC to mitigate bias

  8. Combination of alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP)- and avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase complex (ABAP)-techniques for amplification of immunocytochemical staining of human testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, M S; Schulze, W; Holstein, A F

    1991-01-01

    An amplification procedure was developed for the visualization of antigens in human testis using monoclonal antibodies against desmin and vimentin. The technique combines the high sensitive and specific APAAP- and ABAP-methods. Depending on the quality of the antibodies used and the processing of the material prior to the immunocytochemical staining the amplification technique may be applied either as a single APAAP and ABAP- or as a double APAAP and ABAP-combination. Especially after the double amplification reaction a distinct increase of the staining intensity of the vimentin- (in Sertoli cells, myofibroblasts of the lamina propria, and fibroblasts of the interstitium) and desmin- (in myofibroblasts of the lamina propria and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels) like immunoreactivity was observed. If different diazonium salts were used for the visualization of the alkaline phosphatase activity (e.g. Fast Red TR Salt, Fast Blue BB Salt) desmin- and vimentin-like immunoreactivity can be demonstrated in the same tissue section in a double sequential staining approach. For double staining, the alkaline phosphatase technique may be combined successfully with a technique or a combination that uses peroxidase as a marker.

  9. Modified Field's staining--a rapid stain for Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Afzan, M Yusuf; Sivanandam, S; Kumar, G Suresh

    2010-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan parasite commonly found in the human genitourinary tract, is transmitted primarily by sexual intercourse. Diagnosis is usually by in vitro culture method and staining with Giemsa stain. There are laboratories that use Gram stain as well. We compared the use of modified Field's (MF), Giemsa, and Gram stains on 2 axenic and xenic isolates of T. vaginalis, respectively. Three smears from every sediment of spun cultures of all 4 isolates were stained, respectively, with each of the stains. We showed that MF staining, apart from being a rapid stain (20 s), confers sharper staining contrast, which differentiates the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the organism when compared to Giemsa and Gram staining especially on parasites from spiked urine samples. The alternative staining procedure offers in a diagnostic setting a rapid stain that can easily visualize the parasite with sharp contrasting characteristics between organelles especially the nucleus and cytoplasm. Vacuoles are more clearly visible in parasites stained with MF than when stained with Giemsa.

  10. Double-Antigen Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus-Specific Antibodies in Human or Swine Sera ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei Ping; Lu, Yang; Precioso, Nestor Amadeo; Chen, Hsiao Ying; Howard, Teresa; Anderson, David; Guan, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A new double-antigen sandwich-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of total antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM) specific for hepatitis E virus (HEV) was developed by utilizing well-characterized recombinant protein ET2.1 and its peroxidase-labeled counterpart. Our study showed that the ELISA detected all the positive patient samples (n = 265) regardless of whether they contained IgM or IgG antibodies, or both, while it maintained an excellent specificity of 98.8% with samples from various patient or healthy control groups (total number of samples, 424). The test had a detection limit for anti-HEV IgG antibodies that was equivalent to 62 mIU/ml of the international reference. Compared with the serological status of the specimens determined on the basis of tests performed at the individual collection sites, the testing outcome generated by the new ELISA had a good agreement of 99.3%, with a kappa value of 0.985. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value for the new test reached 98.1% and 100%, respectively. This ELISA had a positive delta value of 4.836 and a negative delta value of 3.314 (where delta is a measure of the number of standard deviations by which the cutoff is separated from the mean of the sample groups) (N. Crofts, W. Maskill, and I. D. Gust, J. Virol. Methods 22:51-59, 1988), indicating that it had an excellent ability to differentiate the infected and noninfected cohorts. Furthermore, the new design enables the detection of antibodies not only in human samples but also in pig samples. Our preliminary data showed that the ELISA could detect seroconversion in samples from pigs at as early as 14 days postinoculation. The potential utility of detecting specific antibodies in pigs will be an added advantage for managing the disease, with suggested zoonotic implications. PMID:18495846

  11. When one plus one equals more than two--a novel stain for renal biopsies is a combination of two classical stains.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Sergey V; Albawardi, Alia; Satoskar, Anjali A; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2010-11-01

    Histologic evaluation of renal biopsies includes multiple ancillary stains, including Periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) and Masson's trichrome (Trichrome). Herein we report an innovative double-stain, derived from two standard stains (PAS and Trichrome). This novel stain not only has advantages of both ancestor stains, but became more distinguishable and colorful, when basement membranes stain dark-violet, whereas the interstitial collagen remains blue. This allows the pathologist immediate estimation of the amount of collagen, tubular atrophy and the degree of interstitial fibrosis in one section. Using computer-based analysis, we confirmed that our innovative double-stain highlights interstitial collagen better than Trichrome stain alone. We strongly recommend renal pathologists to try this innovative stain in their practice.

  12. [Detection and quantification of weak concentrations of antigens using a sensitive and direct method of demonstrating immunoprecipitation reactions].

    PubMed

    Rochu, D; Crespeau, H; Fine, A; Marneux, M; Fine, J M

    1989-09-01

    Using agarose gel coated on GelBond film sheets, and using Coomassie blue stain followed by silver stain, a sensitive microassay has been developed for detecting small amounts of antigen-antibody precipitates, and for quantitating low concentrations of antigen. In order to obtain a high sensitivity, antigen-antibody ratios were adjusted imperatively close to the equivalence in double-diffusion, and for quantitative estimation, single radial immunodiffusion was performed, according to Mancini, by measuring circles at the end point. The use of a double staining procedure allows to detect as little as 8 micrograms/ml antigen by Ouchterlony and 200 ng/ml by Mancini technique. The sensitivity of the method is 100 times greater than classical techniques and other advantages such as the need for minimal amounts of unconcentrated samples, the absence of radioactive labelling, and the absence of interference due to a second or a third antibody coat, make this assay useful for analyzing and quantitating monoclonal antibodies obtained by hybridoma or B-cell immortalization.

  13. Length of stain dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

  14. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis.

  15. Automatic gram-staining with the microstainer II.

    PubMed

    Burdash, N M; West, M E; Bannister, E R

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the Microstainer II, an automatic staining machine, and the traditional, manual gram-staining method using clinical material and known organisms in a double blind study. Gram-reactions were in agreement with 98.4% of the organisms. The machine-stained microorganisms were generally found to be of the same or better quality than manually-stained organisms. Transfer of bacteria from slide to slide or smear to smear was not a significant problem. The Microstainer II would appear to be a useful addition to the large volume bacteriology laboratory.

  16. Several staining techniques to enhance the visibility of Acanthamoeba cysts.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Hikal, Wafaa Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is one of the most common free-living amoebae. It is widespread in the environment and can infect humans causing keratitis. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis leads to extensive corneal inflammation and profound visual loss. Therefore, accurate and rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis is essential for successful treatment and good prognosis. This study was designed to use different staining techniques to facilitate the identification of Acanthamoeba cysts. Acanthamoeba cysts were isolated by cultivation of either corneal scraping specimens or tap water samples onto non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Subcultures were done from positive cultures until unique cysts were isolated. Acanthamoeba cysts were stained temporarily using iodine, eosin, methylene blue, and calcofluor white (CFW) stains and as permanent slides after processing for mounting using modified trichrome, Gimenez and Giemsa staining. These stains were compared on the basis of staining quality including clarity of morphological details, differentiation between cytoplasm and nuclei, color and contrast, and also other characteristics of the staining techniques, including ease of handling, time taken for the procedure, and cost effectiveness. The cysts of Acanthamoeba were recognized in the form of double-walled cysts: the outer wall (ectocyst) that was being differentiated from the variably stained surrounding background and the inner wall (endocyst) that was sometimes stellated, polygonal, round, or oval and visualized as separate from the spherical, sometimes irregular, outline of the ectocyst. Regarding the temporary stains, it was found that they were efficient for visualizing the morphological details of Acanthamoeba cysts. In CFW staining, Acanthamoeba cysts appeared as bluish-white or turquoise oval halos although the internal detail was not evident. On the other hand, the results of permanent-stained slides showed the most consistent stain for identification of

  17. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003453.htm Gram stain of tissue biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet ...

  18. Ghost mycobacteria on Gram stain.

    PubMed Central

    Trifiro, S; Bourgault, A M; Lebel, F; René, P

    1990-01-01

    The Gram stain is a key tool in diagnostic microbiology. Its usefulness with respect to mycobacteria is undefined. The neutrality of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Gram staining of various clinical specimens is described. Images PMID:1688872

  19. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  20. A specific and sensitive double-immunofluorescence method for the demonstration of S-antigen and serotonin in trout and rat pinealocytes by means of primary antibodies from the same donor species.

    PubMed

    Kroeber, S; Schomerus, C; Korf, H W

    1998-04-01

    Immunocytochemical double-labeling methods are important tools in cell and neurobiology. Here we describe a method which is based on double immunofluorescence and allows specific detection of two different antigens located in the same cell compartment by two primary antibodies raised in the same species. As an example, we present the double-immunolabeling method for the S-antigen (SAg), a photoreceptor-specific protein, and the indoleamine serotonin (5HT) in dissociated trout and rat pineal cells immobilized on coverslipped and in frozen sections of the trout pineal organ. As a first step, the preparations on the slides or coverslips were sequentially incubated with the first primary antibody (rabbit anti-SAg), the fluorescein-labeled (anti-rabbit) secondary antibody, and then with normal rabbit serum. Meanwhile, the second primary antibody (rabbit anti-5HT) was coupled to a Cy3-labeled secondary (anti-rabbit) antibody in a reaction tube and excess binding sites were quenched with normal rabbit serum. This complex was applied to the specimens after completion of the first (SAg) immunoreaction on the slide. For control experiments, the first (anti-SAg) or the second (anti-5HT) primary antibody were omitted. Most of the rat and trout pinealocytes were double immunolabeled for SAg and 5HT. In the trout, few cells contained SAg or 5HT immunoreaction only. This underlines the selectivity of each immunoreaction. The results show that the method can be used for the analysis of whole cells and tissue sections by means of conventional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  1. Expression of HLA-DR antigen in human class II mutant B-cell lines by double infection with retrovirus vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Korman, A.J.; Cooper, J.; Pious, D.; Accolla, R.S.; Mulligan, R.C.; Strominger, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A new retrovirus vector containing the gene for hygromycin B resistance (hyg) as a selectable marker under the control of an internal simian virus 40 promoter was constructed. It was used, together with an analogous previously described vector, DO1, which contains the gene for G418 resistance, to introduce and express the genes for the two chains of a human class II major histocompatibility complex antigen in NIH 3T3 cells. In addition, these vectors were used to express DR antigens in two human mutant B-lymphoblastoid cell lines, one of which was deleted for both alleles of the DR..cap alpha.. gene and the other of which expressed no class II antigens because of a genetic defect in a putative trans-acting regulatory factor.

  2. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Ma, Jun-Wu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Min; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Guang-Qing; He, Ji-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hong; Qi, Shu-yun; Lin, Mi; Cai, Hu; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01). In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings. PMID:26930597

  3. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xia; Ma, Jun-Wu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Min; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Guang-Qing; He, Ji-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hong; Qi, Shu-yun; Lin, Mi; Cai, Hu; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01). In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings.

  4. Staining properties and stability of a standardised Romanowsky stain.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the standardised Romanowsky stain of Marshall et al. has been made in a routine haematology laboratory. It was noted that this stain had several advantages over the May-Grünwald Giemsa stain used in most British laboratories. These advantages include ease and speed of preparation, a shorter staining time, and reproducibility of results. These results are described in detail. The stability of the stock stain solution and of the 'working' stain (stock + buffer) has been studied by, respectively, thin-layer chromatography and visible spectroscopy. No change was detected in the composition of the stock solution at ambient temperature over a period of six months. Stability was unaffected by the composition of the container (polyethylene, PyrexTM, or soda-glass) or by daylight. The 'working' solution was stable for 3 hours. Thereafter a precipitate is formed, consisting of thiazine dyes and eosin in a molar ratio of approximately 2:1. PMID:76638

  5. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  6. Preparation and evaluation of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein for detection of total antibodies in human and animal sera by double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yongjun; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xiling; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Zhiyang; Zhou, Minghao; Bao, Changjun; Zhang, Wenshuai; Xu, Yan; Wang, Hua

    2012-02-01

    The recent emergence of the human infection confirmed to be caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in China is of global concern. Safe diagnostic immunoreagents for determination of human and animal seroprevalence in epidemiological investigations are urgently needed. This paper describes the cloning and expression of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SFTSV. An N-protein-based double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was set up to detect the total antibodies in human and animal sera. We reasoned that as the double-antigen sandwich ELISA detected total antibodies with a higher sensitivity than traditional indirect ELISA, it could be used to detect SFTSV-specific antibodies from different animal species. The serum neutralization test was used to validate the performance of this ELISA system. All human and animal sera that tested positive in the neutralization test were also positive in the sandwich ELISA, and there was a high correlation between serum neutralizing titers and ELISA readings. Cross-reactivity was evaluated, and the system was found to be highly specific to SFTSV; all hantavirus- and dengue virus-confirmed patient samples were negative. SFTSV-confirmed human and animal sera from both Anhui and Hubei Provinces in China reacted with N protein in this ELISA, suggesting no major antigenic variation between geographically disparate virus isolates and the suitability of this assay in nationwide application. ELISA results showed that 3.6% of the human serum samples and 47.7% of the animal field serum samples were positive for SFTSV antibodies, indicating that SFTSV has circulated widely in China. This assay, which is simple to operate, poses no biohazard risk, does not require sophisticated equipment, and can be used in disease surveillance programs, particularly in the screening of large numbers of samples from various animal species.

  7. Differential expression of MHC class I antigens on the placenta of the rat. A mechanism for the survival of the fetal allograft

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In some mating combinations in rats, there is a maternal antibody response to the maternal antigenic components of the placenta without any previous immunization of the mother. The highest response occurs in the WF (u) female mated to the DA (a) male, and it is against a unique MHC-encoded class I antigen, the Pa antigen, and not against the major allele-specific transplantation antigen of the DA strain, RT1.Aa. The development of mAbs to the Pa and Aa antigens allowed us to localize these antigens on the placenta and to explore the reason for the differential antibody response to them using immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Both antibodies reacted with the WF X DA placenta and stained the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast of the decidua, the basal trophoblast, Reichert's membrane, and the yolk sac epithelium, but they did not stain the labyrinthine trophoblast. Blocking studies showed that each antibody reacted with a separate molecule in the placenta. Anti-class II mAbs reactive with the a or u haplotype did not stain the WF X DA, DA X DA, or WF X WF placenta; hence, there are no class II antigens in the placenta. Electron microscopic studies of the semiallogeneic WF X DA placenta using the immunogold technique with both single- and double-labeling showed that only the Pa antigen was expressed on the surface of the basal trophoblast, but that both the Pa and Aa antigens were in the cytoplasm of these cells; neither antigen was found in the labyrinthine trophoblast. By contrast, the placenta from the syngeneic DA X DA mating expressed both the Pa and Aa antigens on the surface of the basal trophoblast as well as in the cytoplasm; neither antigen was found in the labyrinthine trophoblast. These observations were quantified morphometrically using electron photomicrographs of single- labeled tissues. Both the Pa and Aa antigens isolated from the plasma membrane of lymphocytes have heavy chains of 46 kD, but those antigens isolated from the

  8. 9 CFR 113.407 - Pullorum antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., preservative content, sensitivity, homogeneity, and hydrogen ion concentration. A serial found unsatisfactory...) Nephelometric determination of bacterial density. The bacterial density shall be 80 ±15 times McFarland No. 1 standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen. (c...

  9. 9 CFR 113.407 - Pullorum antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., preservative content, sensitivity, homogeneity, and hydrogen ion concentration. A serial found unsatisfactory...) Nephelometric determination of bacterial density. The bacterial density shall be 80 ±15 times McFarland No. 1 standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen. (c...

  10. Extrinsic stain removal with a toothpowder: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Khalil; Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Haleem, Abdul; Kareem, Abdul; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Hosein, Tasleem; Khan, Muhammad Usama

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The efficacy of a commercially available toothpowder was compared with toothpaste in removing extrinsic dental stains. Methods In this single-blind, randomized controlled trial, 77 volunteers were included from a residential professional college. All study subjects (control toothpaste users and test toothpowder users) plaque control measures. All study subjects were instructed to rinse with 5 ml 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute, twice and one cup of double tea bag solution three times daily for three weeks. Subjects were randomized into test (n=36) and control (n=36) groups. Toothpaste (control) and toothpowder (test) was used for two weeks to see the effects on removing stains on the labial surfaces of 12 anterior teeth. For measuring dental extrinsic stains Lobene Stain Index (SI) was used. Results The amount of stain following the use of toothpaste and toothpowder was more controlled with the experimental toothpowder. For all sites combined, there was evidence that the experimental toothpowder was significantly superior to toothpaste in reducing stain area (p<.001), stain intensity (p<.001) and composite/product (area × intensity) (p<.001). Conclusion Stain removing efficacy of toothpowder was significantly higher as compared with toothpaste. A toothpowder may be expected to be of benefit in controlling and removing extrinsic dental staining. PMID:25505862

  11. Multispectral enhancement towards digital staining.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-01-01

    Digital staining can be considered as a special form of image enhancement wherein the concern is not only to increase the contrast between the background objects and objects of interest, but to also impart the colors that mark the objects' unique reactions to a specific stain. In this paper, we extended the previously proposed multispectral enhancement methods such that the colors of the background pixels can also be changed. In the previous multispectral enhancement methods a shifting factor is provided to the original spectrum. To implement digital staining, a spectral transformation process is introduced prior to spectral shifting. The enhancement method is applied to multispectral images of H&E stained liver tissue. The resulting digitally stained images show good correlation with the serial-section images of the tissue which are physically stained with Masson's trichrome. We have presented a multispectral enhancement method that can be adjusted to produce digitally stained-images. The current experimental results show the viability of the method. However, to achieve robust enhancement performance issues that arise from variations in staining conditions has to be addressed as well. This would be part of our future work.

  12. Silver stain for electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ammoniacal silver stain used for light microscopy was adapted advantageously for use with very thin biological sections required for electron microscopy. Silver stain can be performed in short time, has more contrast, and is especially useful for low power electron microscopy.

  13. Mouse spleen tissue as a staining intensity reference for immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeonsook; Park, Gyeongsin; Han, Kyungja; Kang, Chang-Suk; Lee, Wonbae

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is widely used in diagnostic practice and research, but it is limited due to its subjective nature and weakness in reproducibility. For successful interpretation, IHC requires an internal reference system that controls for procedural variables and provides a staining intensity reference. We investigated the feasibility of using mouse spleen tissue as an intensity reference in conventional IHC. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse (BALB/c) spleen tissue was stained with variable procedural conditions including primary antibody (Ab) types, antigen retrieval methods, chromogen exposure times, and secondary Ab concentrations. Mouse spleen tissue showed identical staining intensity regardless of primary Ab types, even without primary Ab, and showed minimal differences according to retrieval methods. However, it showed various staining intensities according to chromogen exposure time and secondary Ab concentration. When mouse spleen was included in tissue microarrays and compared with the c-erbB2 IHC scoring system, splenic B cells showed weak membrane staining compatible with score 1+, whereas splenic plasma cells showed strong staining intensity compatible with score 3+. These results show that mouse spleen tissue can serve as a staining intensity reference for the interpretation of IHC.

  14. An evaluation of some commerical Romanowsky stains.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1975-01-01

    The staining properties of 43 commerical Romanowsky-type stains have been studied. Considerable differences in the appearance of stained blood films were observed with different batches of these stains, the staining of red cells being particularly variable. Attempts have been made to correlate staining patterns with stain composition as revealed by thin-layer chromatography and sulphated ash analyses. In this way it has been possible to define some essential requirements for satisfactory staining. PMID:52658

  15. Whole-Mount Skeletal Staining

    PubMed Central

    Rigueur, Diana; Lyons, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    The first step in almost every investigation of skeletal phenotypes is analysis of whole-mount skeletal preparations. Whole-mount skeletal staining permits evaluation of the shapes and sizes of skeletal elements in their appropriate locations. The technique is thus the major method for detecting changes in skeletal patterning. Because cartilage and bone can be distinguished by differential staining, this technique is also a powerful means to assess the pace of skeletal maturation. This protocol covers staining of the pre- and postnatal mouse skeleton using Alcian blue and Alizarin red to identify cartilage and bone, respectively. PMID:24482169

  16. Electrochemical antigen-retrieval of formaldehyde fixed and paraffin-embedded archived leprosy skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Navarro-Fierros; Cecilia, Guillen-Vargas; Sonia, Luquin; la Mora Pedro, Garzon-De; Joaquin, Garcia-Estrada; Mary, Fafutis-Morris

    2004-06-01

    While formaldehyde fixation preserves tissue morphology, it often hinders immunodetection of antigens in paraffin-embedded tissue because the antigens are masked. Antigen unmasking can be achieved with treatments such as microwave irradiation but they often lead to excessive tissue damage. Therefore, an electrochemical antigen-retrieval method (EAR) was devised in which an alternating electric current is passed through the tissue in a chamber containing an electrolyte buffer. The results obtained with this method were compared to those after microwave irradiation using archived samples of formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded lepromatous leprosy skin. The efficacy of the two unmasking procedures was assessed by the immunodetectability of several marker antigens using 24 antibodies. Fifteen antibodies that were directed against transmembrane proteins (CD), and the remaining 9 against cytokeratins 18.6 and 19, laminin, vimentin, S100a, BCG, Ulex europaeus lectin, PCNA, and P21ras. Simple and double immunohistochemistry was performed using the universal ENVISION and LSAB + AP detection systems. After unmasking with the EAR method, immunoreactivity was clearly detected with 22 of the 24 antibodies in single labeling reactions. They include the critical antigens CD3 and CD4 for identifying the T lymphocyte lineages. In contrast, only 20 of the antibodies reacted after microwave irradiation. After double immunolabeling, immunoreactivity was quantitatively similar with both methods. However, the EAR unmasking produced a stronger labeling reaction. Thus, with double labeling immunohistochemistry, EAR made it possible to use higher antibody dilutions and shorter incubation times. Heat damage was also prevented. In conclusion, EAR treatment produces better staining results than microwave irradiation treatment.

  17. Establishment of a carcinoembryonic antigen-producing cell line from human pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kaku, M; Nishiyama, T; Yagawa, K; Abe, M

    1980-10-01

    A human pancreatic carcinoma cell line of islet cell origin (QGP-1) has been established and maintained for over two years. The parent tumor and the cultured cell line produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and there is no evidence of hormone secretion from the tumor cells. The epithelioid cells, which had migrated from rounded, irregular cell aggregates, grow as a confluent monolayer with piling up of cells in some areas, and have a population doubling time of 3.5 days. The modal chromosome number was 50. Exponentially growing cultures produce 76.3 ng of CEA/10(6) cells after 7 days. CEA production was confirmed by immuno-peroxidase staining.

  18. A simple and reliable immunohistochemical method for colocalization of 2 antigens in the same cells of paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Catts, Vibeke S; Chan, Anthony; McCombe, Pamela A

    2013-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) lacks an efficient technique for colocalizing multiple antigens in the same cells of a single tissue section. The development of a methodology which combines the advantage of low cost, high sensitivity, and specificity would benefit clinical diagnosis and general research. On the basis of a newly published method of visualizing 2 antigens on a single paraffin-embedded tissue section, we have further developed a novel sequential technique for colocalizing 2 different antigens in a same cell in a paraffin-embedded tissue section. In this technique, we combined the microwave heating technique (MVT) with normal IHC methods to sequentially double stain a paraffin section; and colocalize 2 antigens in a single cell through result comparison stored in a digital management system. This MVT colocalization method has a higher degree of sensitivity and specificity comparable with conventional staining of both immunofluorescence and IHC systems. The primary advantage of this method is that it is inexpensive and convenient; the antibody(s) used in this method can be generated from the same or different species; it allows colocalization or comparison of different results of cell morphology for any single cell of the section on 2 images, avoids uncertainty when overlapping 2 antigens on a single image.

  19. [A duplicate staining method for permanent specimen of Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae].

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yang, Ding; Pi, Ben-Wei; Niu, Li-Na; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Guo-Ying

    2012-04-30

    With single staining method, Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae specimens were fixed with formaldehyde alcohol acetic acid fixative solution, and stained with alcohol borax-carmine staining solution (4% borax solution 100 ml, carmine 1 g, and 70% alcohol 100 ml). With duplicate staining, the encapsulated larvae specimens were fixed with formaldehyde alcohol acetic acid fixative solution, and double stained with alcohol borax carmine staining solution and fast green staining solution (fast green 0.1 g, 95% alcohol 100 ml). The results showed that with single staining, it was not clear-cut between the cyst and muscle cells although the larva was differentiable, while with duplicate staining, the larva, cyst and muscle cells were distinguished more clearly.

  20. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Skin lesion gram stain Images Viral lesion culture References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  1. Biological staining: mechanisms and theory.

    PubMed

    Horobin, R W

    2002-01-01

    New staining techniques continue to be introduced, and older ones continue to be used and improved. Several factors control specificity, selectivity and visibility of the end product in any procedure using dyes, fluorochromes, inorganic reagents or histochemical reactions applied to sections or similar preparations. Local concentration of the tissue target often determines the intensity of the observed color, as does the fine structure within the object being stained, which may facilitate or impede diffusion of dyes and other reagents. Several contributions to affinity control the specificity of staining. These include electrical forces, which result in accumulation of dye ions in regions of oppositely charged tissue polyions. Weaker short-range attractions (hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces or hydrophobic bonding, depending on the solvent) hold dyes ions and histochemical end products in contact with their macromolecular substrates. Nonionic forces can also increase visibility of stained sites by causing aggregation of dye molecules. Covalent bonds between dye and tissue result in the strongest binding, such as in methods using Schiff's reagent and possibly also some mordant dyes. The rate at which a reagent gains access to or is removed from targets in a section or other specimen affect what is stained, especially when more then one dye is used, together or sequentially. Rate-controlled staining is greatly influenced by the presence and type of embedding medium, such as a resin, that infiltrates the tissue. The rates of chemical reactions are major determinants of outcome in many histochemical techniques. Selective staining of different organelles within living cells is accomplished mainly with fluorochromes and is controlled by mechanisms different from those that apply to fixed tissues. Quantitative structure-activity relations (QSAR) of such reagents can be derived from such molecular properties as hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance, extent of conjugated

  2. Post-embedding Mammalian Tissue for Immunoelectron Microscopy: A Standardized Procedure Based on Heat-Induced Antigen Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    We describe a standardized method of fixation, antigen retrieval, and image contrasting for post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Tissues are fixed with formaldehyde solutions containing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions at pH 7.4 and then at pH 8.5. After dehydration with dimethylformamide, the specimens are embedded in LR-White resin. For antigen retrieval, ultrathin sections are heated in 0.5 M Tris-HCl, pH 9.0, for 1-2 h at 95 °C. After immunogold labeling, the sections are treated with a mixture of tannic acid and glutaraldehyde, with OsO4 solution, and then double-stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The standardized method yields strong and reproducible immunoreactions for many antigens showing excellent image contrast without destruction of fine structures.

  3. Microwave oven-based technique for immunofluorescent staining of paraffin-embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Buggs, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging due to potential modifications of protein structure by exposure to formalin. Heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques can reverse reactions between formalin and proteins that block antibody recognition. Interactions between antibodies and antigens are further enhanced by microwave irradiation, which has simplified immunohistochemical staining protocols. In this report, we modify a technique for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by showing that it works well with several antibodies and buffers. This microwave-assisted method for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining eliminates the need for blocking reagents and extended washes, which greatly simplifies the protocol allowing one to complete the analysis in less than 3 h. PMID:17653827

  4. Microwave oven-based technique for immunofluorescent staining of paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Long, Delwin J; Buggs, Colleen

    2008-02-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging due to potential modifications of protein structure by exposure to formalin. Heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques can reverse reactions between formalin and proteins that block antibody recognition. Interactions between antibodies and antigens are further enhanced by microwave irradiation, which has simplified immunohistochemical staining protocols. In this report, we modify a technique for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by showing that it works well with several antibodies and buffers. This microwave-assisted method for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining eliminates the need for blocking reagents and extended washes, which greatly simplifies the protocol allowing one to complete the analysis in less than 3 h.

  5. Antigen-based therapy with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) vaccine in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Wherrett, Diane K; Bundy, Brian; Becker, Dorothy J; DiMeglio, Linda A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Goland, Robin; Gottlieb, Peter A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Herold, Kevan C; Marks, Jennifer B; Monzavi, Roshanak; Moran, Antoinette; Orban, Tihamer; Palmer, Jerry P; Raskin, Philip; Rodriguez, Henry; Schatz, Desmond; Wilson, Darrell M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Skyler, Jay S

    2011-07-23

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major target of the autoimmune response that occurs in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models of autoimmunity, treatment with a target antigen can modulate aggressive autoimmunity. We aimed to assess whether immunisation with GAD formulated with aluminum hydroxide (GAD-alum) would preserve insulin production in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Patients aged 3-45 years who had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for less than 100 days were enrolled from 15 sites in the USA and Canada, and randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: three injections of 20 μg GAD-alum, two injections of 20 μg GAD-alum and one of alum, or 3 injections of alum. Injections were given subcutaneously at baseline, 4 weeks later, and 8 weeks after the second injection. The randomisation sequence was computer generated at the TrialNet coordinating centre. Patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was the baseline-adjusted geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) of serum C-peptide during the first 2 h of a 4-h mixed meal tolerance test at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included changes in glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and insulin dose, and safety. Analysis included all randomised patients with known measurements. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00529399. 145 patients were enrolled and treated with GAD-alum (n=48), GAD-alum plus alum (n=49), or alum (n=48). At 1 year, the 2-h AUC of C-peptide, adjusted for age, sex, and baseline C-peptide value, was 0·412 nmol/L (95% CI 0·349-0·478) in the GAD-alum group, 0·382 nmol/L (0·322-0·446) in the GAD-alum plus alum group, and 0·413 nmol/L (0·351-0·477) in the alum group. The ratio of the population mean of the adjusted geometric mean 2-h AUC of C-peptide was 0·998 (95% CI 0·779-1·22; p=0·98) for GAD-alum versus alum, and 0·926 (0·720-1·13; p=0·50) for GAD-alum plus alum versus alum. HbA(1c), insulin use, and

  6. A novel double-isotope technique for the enzymatic assay of plasma histamine: application to estimation of mast cell activation assessed by antigen challenge in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Ind, P W; Causon, R; Lee, T H

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of plasma histamine may provide an index of mast cell activation (degranulation) and can be measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay based on its specific conversion to (3H)-methylhistamine in the presence of histamine-N-methyltransferase and (3H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. In this assay, the separation of excess (3H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine from (3H)-methylhistamine requires several steps, for which a correction factors is necessary to maintain precision. In the present modification, duplicate 50-microliters aliquots of each plasma sample were incubated with histamine-N-methyltransferase and (3H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A further aliquot, with an added standard of 200 ng/ml histamine, was incubated with histamine-N-methyl-transferase and (14C)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. This standard was converted to (14C)-methylhistamine, and its recovery at the end of the assay corrected both for varying efficiency of methylation among plasma samples and for losses during the subsequent extraction and separation stages. The sensitivity of the assay was 25 pg/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively. In five asthmatics, antigen challenge caused a 28% fall in FEV1, and this was associated with a twofold to threefold rise in plasma histamine concentration. This assay may thus prove a useful method for assessing the role of mast cell release of mediators in vivo.

  7. A novel double-isotope technique for the enzymatic assay of plasma histamine: application to estimation of mast cell activation assessed by antigen challenge in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Ind, P.W.; Causon, R.; Lee, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of plasma histamine may provide an index of mast cell activation (degranulation) and can be measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay based on its specific conversion to (/sup 3/H)-methylhistamine in the presence of histamine-N-methyltransferase and (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. In this assay, the separation of excess (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine from (/sup 3/H)-methylhistamine requires several steps, for which a correction factors is necessary to maintain precision. In the present modification, duplicate 50-microliters aliquots of each plasma sample were incubated with histamine-N-methyltransferase and (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A further aliquot, with an added standard of 200 ng/ml histamine, was incubated with histamine-N-methyl-transferase and (/sup 14/C)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. This standard was converted to (/sup 14/C)-methylhistamine, and its recovery at the end of the assay corrected both for varying efficiency of methylation among plasma samples and for losses during the subsequent extraction and separation stages. The sensitivity of the assay was 25 pg/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively. In five asthmatics, antigen challenge caused a 28% fall in FEV1, and this was associated with a twofold to threefold rise in plasma histamine concentration. This assay may thus prove a useful method for assessing the role of mast cell release of mediators in vivo.

  8. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    PubMed

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated.

  9. Improved method for combination of immunocytochemistry and Nissl staining.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Andrea; Wittmann, Gábor; Liposits, Zsolt; Fekete, Csaba

    2009-10-30

    Nissl staining is a widely used method to study morphology and pathology of neural tissue. After standard immunocytochemistry, the Nissl staining labels only the nucleus of neurons and the characteristic staining of the neuronal perikarya is absent or very weak. We hypothesized that the RNA degradation during the immunocytochemical treatment results in the loss of cytoplasmic staining with Nissl-dyes. To test this hypothesis, we used RNAse-free conditions for all steps of immunostaining. To further prevent the RNA-degradation by RNAse contaminations, the RNAse inhibitor heparin was added to all antibody-containing solutions. The efficiency of Nissl staining after standard and RNAse-free double-labeling immunocytochemistry was compared using antibodies against c-Fos and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tissues of rats refed after 3 days of fasting. After standard immunocytochemistry, the Nissl-staining labeled the nuclei of neurons and only very faintly the cytoplasm of these cells. The RNAse-free treatment did not alter the distribution of immunoreaction signal, but preserved the staining of neuronal perikarya by the Nissl-dyes. In conclusion, the RNAse-free conditions during immunocytochemistry allow the labeling of neuronal perikarya by Nissl-dyes. The described method facilitates the mapping of immunocytochemical signals and makes possible the light microscopic examination of the innervation of neurons identified by their nuclear protein content.

  10. Technique and staining optimization leucoconcentration.

    PubMed

    Pierrez, J; Guerci, A; Guerci, O

    1987-09-01

    In cytometric clinical application, it is important to obtain cell suspensions rapidly with as little cytological alteration as possible. A procedure has been achieved to prepare cell suspensions for flow cytometric analysis. The leucoconcentration technique, first described by Herbeuval for cytologic analysis, has been modified to be applied in cytometry. This technique involves Saponin lysis of red cells of peripheral blood or bone marrow samples that have been previously fixed with picric acid alcohol solution. Cells in suspension are not shifted and tinctorial affinity is not modified. Then cells have been stained with Mithramycin. Each parameter defined by Crissman has been analyzed to define the best staining conditions. The availability of Leucoconcentration with Mithramycin-DNA-staining permits determination of cell cycle with a fine resolution.

  11. Anti-CXCR3 staining is useful for detecting human cutaneous and mucosal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Fukiwake, Noriko; Moroi, Yoichi; Imafuku, Shinichi; Masuda, Teiichi; Kokuba, Hisashi; Furue, Masutaka; Urabe, Kazunori

    2006-05-01

    Human synovial mast cells (MC) can be immunolabelled with antihuman CXCR3 antibody (Ab) (clone 49801). We have investigated whether cutaneous and mucosal MC are stained with anti-CXCR3 Ab in paraffin-embedded sections. Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence double staining assays were performed with anti-CXCR3, anti-tryptase, and anti-chymase Ab using normal skin, psoriatic skin lesions, and normal colon. When compared with tryptase and chymase staining, 100% of the cutaneous and 98% of the mucosal MC were positive for CXCR3. Anti-CXCR3 staining is a useful marker for human cutaneous and mucosal MC in paraffin-embedded sections.

  12. Automated single-slide staining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, S. M.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus developed to Gram-stain single slides automatically is flexible enough to accommodate other types of staining procedures. Method frees operator and eliminates necessity for subjective evaluations as to length of staining or decolorizing time.

  13. F-actin staining of Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Giansanti, Maria G; Cenci, Giovanni; Gatti, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Preparations of Drosophila testes fixed with paraformaldehyde can be stained for F-actin according to the protocol described here. This staining procedure is particularly suitable for staining the male fusome and the cytokinetic contractile ring.

  14. Whole Blood Cell Staining Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Clift, Vaughan L.; McDonald, Kelly E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for staining particular cell markers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a flexible tube that is reversibly pinched into compartments with one or more clamps. Each compartment of the tube contains a separate reagent and is in selective fluid communication with adjoining compartments.

  15. [Histochemical staining methods for lanthanum].

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    In recent years lanthanum compounds have been widely used in the optical and electronic industries. Although release of lanthanum (La) into the environment and exposure to humans are feared, acute or chronic biologic effects of La remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model for La toxicity and histological staining methods for La. After intraperitoneal injections of lanthanum chloride, white precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Existence of La in the precipitates was confirmed by a X-ray fluorescent microanalysis. Liver tissues from La treated rats were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as a La containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for metals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for La. Alizarin complexone (ALC) was found of capable of staining La in tissue. A simple new technique used was described for light microscopic detection of La.

  16. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Mukunda, Archana; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundhari; Shashidhara, R; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson's, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  17. Von Willebrand Factor Antigen Predicts Response to Double Dose of Aspirin and Clopidogrel by PFA-100 in Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplasty for St Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Gianetti, Jacopo; Parri, Maria Serena; Della Pina, Francesca; Marchi, Federica; Koni, Endrin; De Caterina, Alberto; Maffei, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an emerging risk factor in acute coronary syndromes. Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100) with Collagen/Epinephrine (CEPI) is sensitive to functional alterations of VWF and also identifies patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR). The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double dose (DD) of aspirin and clopidogrel on HPR detected by PFA-100 and its relation to VWF and to its regulatory metalloprotease ADAMTS-13. Between 2009 and 2011 we enrolled 116 consecutive patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI with HPR at day 5 after PCI. Patients recruited were then randomized between a standard dose (SD, n = 58) or DD of aspirin and clopidogrel (DD, n = 58), maintained for 6 months follow-up. Blood samples for PFA-100, light transmittance aggregometry, and VWF/ADAMTS-13 analysis were collected after 5, 30, and 180 days (Times 0, 1, and 2). At Times 1 and 2 we observed a significantly higher CEPI closure times (CT) in DD as compared to SD (P < 0.001). Delta of CEPI-CT (T1 − T0) was significantly related to VWF (P < 0.001) and inversely related to ADAMTS-13 (0.01). Responders had a significantly higher level of VWF at T0. Finally, in a multivariate model analysis, VWF and ADAMTS-13 in resulted significant predictors of CEPI-CT response (P = 0.02). HRP detected by PFA-100 in acute myocardial infarction is reversible by DD of aspirin and clopidogrel; the response is predicted by basal levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13. PFA-100 may be a useful tool to risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes given its sensitivity to VWF. PMID:24453831

  18. Negative image of blastomyces on diff-quik stain.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Dima; Shams, Wael; Ganote, Charles E; Al-Abbadi, Mousa A

    2011-01-01

    Blastomycosis is caused by a dimorphic fungus that can be difficult to diagnose in certain situations. The disease is sometimes serious and can be deadly. Diagnosis by fungal serology and urinary antigens is not easy to establish and unreliable. Culture is also time-consuming and is not easy to perform. Thus, documentation of such an organism on cytology offers a quick and cost-effective alternative. This report describes for the first time identification of the 'negative image' of Blastomyces budding yeast. A 79-year-old man presented with a left lung nodule associated with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration was performed, and a 'negative image' of a yeast with wide base budding was noted on Diff-Quik (DQ)-stained smears. Blastomyces species were confirmed with periodic acid-Schiff fungal stain. Additionally, the fungal capsule contained focally polarizable material on Congo red stain and lacked mucin with mucicarmine stain. Blastomyces yeast forms can be easily identified with DQ staining by their 'negative image'. This feature can be utilized as a quick and cost-effective cytological characteristic to further triage these specimens for confirmation. The information can be of great value to clinicians in making appropriate clinical decisions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Evaluation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining as a sensitive and reliable method for studying cell proliferation in the adult nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chenbo; Pan, Fenghui; Jones, Lynne A; Lim, Miranda M; Griffin, Elizabeth A; Sheline, Yvette I; Mintun, Mark A; Holtzman, David M; Mach, Robert H

    2010-03-10

    Recently, a novel method for detection of DNA synthesis has been developed based on the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), a thymidine analogue, into cellular DNA and the subsequent reaction of EdU with a fluorescent azide in a copper-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition ("Click" reaction). In the present study, we evaluated this method for studying cell proliferation in the adult central nervous system in comparison with the "gold standard" method of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) staining using two behavioral paradigms, voluntary exercise and restraint stress. Our data demonstrate that the number of EdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) slightly increased in an EdU dose-dependent manner in both the control and voluntary exercise (running) mouse groups. The number of EdU-labeled cells was comparable to the number of BrdU-labeled cells in both the control and running mice. Furthermore, EdU and BrdU co-localized to the same cells within the DG. Voluntary exercise significantly increased the number of EdU- and BrdU-positive cells in the DG. In contrast, restraint stress significantly decreased the number of EdU-positive cells. The EdU-positive cells differentiated into mature neurons. EdU staining is compatible with immunohistochemical staining of other antigens. Moreover, our data demonstrated EdU staining can be combined with BrdU staining, providing a valuable tool of double labeling DNA synthesis, e.g., for tracking the two populations of neurons generated at different time points. In conclusion, our results suggest that EdU staining is a fast, sensitive and reproducible method to study cell proliferation in the central nervous system.

  20. Periodontal Stain Test Diagnosis Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    inflammatory loss of attachment and bone in adolescents ; lesions are often associated with incisors and first molars; no evidence of systemic disease . RISK...FACTORS: When determining susceptibility to periodontal disease , patients in the previous classifications should be considered high risk patients if...AD-A247 28411i 11111l l l1113111! Eilli UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL PERIODONTAL STAIN TEST DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM D T IC Prof. E.J. Burkes

  1. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F. L.; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  2. Quantitative studies of immunofluorescent staining*

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Ernst H.; Sepulveda, Marion R.; Barnett, Eugene V.

    1968-01-01

    Reproducible titres of indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining with antinuclear factor (ANF)-containing sera could be obtained with different antihuman IgG conjugates by quantitative adjustments of their characteristics. Conversely, one ANF yielded a broad range of ANF titre (80-640) upon appropriate adjustments of the conjugate characteristics. The same and related characteristics of the conjugates also afforded a basis for quantitatively defining the conditions under which non-specific staining (NSS) appeared. The salient characteristics of the anti-IgG conjugates include: (1) their strength of antiglobulin (expressed as units/ml of precipitating antibody or μg antibody N/ml); (2) their apparent fluorescein concentration (in μg F/ml); (3) their protein concentration (in mg/ml). Optical and immunologic sensitivity ratios are calculated from these conjugate characteristics. Optical sensitivity (expressed as fluorescein concentration to protein concentration (F/P) ratios), immunological sensitivities (expressed as units/1% protein) and the dilution employed serve to characterize quantitatively anti-IgG conjugates adequately to define their specific and non-specific staining properties. PMID:4179321

  3. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  4. Neutral red staining for plant vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Birgit; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-06-01

    For almost 100 years, neutral red has been used to stain living cells and fixed tissue. It can be used as a general-purpose stain, a pH indicator (turning from red to yellow, as the medium becomes alkaline), or a nuclear stain. In this protocol, neutral red is used to stain plant vacuoles.

  5. ANTIGENIC MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Old, Lloyd J.; Stockert, Elisabeth; Boyse, Edward A.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1968-01-01

    Antigenic modulation (the loss of TL antigens from TL+ cells exposed to TL antibody in the absence of lytic complement) has been demonstrated in vitro. An ascites leukemia, phenotype TL.1,2,3, which modulates rapidly and completely when incubated with TL antiserum in vitro, was selected for further study of the phenomenon. Over a wide range of TL antibody concentrations modulation at 37°C was detectable within 10 min and was complete within approximately 1 hr. The cells were initially sensitized to C' by their contact with antibody, thereafter losing this sensitivity to C' lysis together with their sensitivity to TL antibody and C' in the cytotoxic test. The capacity of the cells to undergo modulation was abolished by actinomycin D and by iodoacetamide, and by reducing the temperature of incubation to 0°C. Thus modulation apparently is an active cellular process. Antigens TL. 1,2, and 3 are all modulated by anti-TL.1,3 serum and by anti-TL.3 serum. This modulation affects all three TL components together, even when antibody to one or two of them is lacking. aAnti-TL.2 serum does not induce modulation and in fact impairs modulation by the other TL antibodies. The influence of the TL phenotype of cells upon the demonstrable content of H-2 (D region) isoantigen, first shown in cells modulated in vivo, has been observed with cells modulated in vitro. Cells undergoing modulation show a progressive increase in H-2 (D region) antigen over a period of 4 hr, with no change in H-2 antigens of the K region. Restoration of the TL+ phenotype of modulated cells after removal of antibody is less rapid than TL+ → TL- modulation and may require several cell divisions. PMID:5636556

  6. Investigation of a Novel Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Escape Mutant Affecting Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Golzar; Ueda, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Mutation in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) may affect the efficiency of diagnostic immunoassays or success of vaccinations using HBsAg. Thus, antigenicity and immunogenicity analyses of the mutated HBsAg are necessary to develop novel diagnostic tools and efficient vaccinations. Here, the in vitro antigenicity of three wild-type HBsAg open reading frames (ORFs) (adr4, W1S [subtype adr] and W3S [subtype adr]) isolated from clinically infected patients and nineteen synthesized single/double/multiple amino acid-substituted mutants were tested with commercial ELISA kits. Immunofluorescence staining of transfected cells and Western blot analysis confirmed that these ORFs were expressed at comparable levels in HEK-293 cells. W1S and adr4 were clearly detected, whereas W3S could not be detected. Using the same commercial immunoassay kit, we found that the single mutants, K120P and D123T, were marginally reactive, whereas W3S-aW1S and the double mutant, K120P/D123T, exhibited antigenicity roughly equivalent to the wild-type wako1S. On the other hand, the single mutants of W1S, P120K and T123D, significantly impaired the reactivity, while W1S-aW3S and the double mutant of W1S, P120K/T123D, resulted in a complete loss of antigenicity. In addition, ELISA revealed reduced HBs antigenicity of two mutants, W1S N146G and W1S Q129R/G145R. These commercial ELISA-based antigenic reactivities of HBsAg were also strongly correlated with the predicted Ai alterations of affected amino acids due to the specific mutation. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that lysine (K120) and aspartate (D123) simultaneously affected HBsAg antigenicity, leading to diagnostic failure. These findings will improve diagnostic assays and vaccine development. PMID:28045894

  7. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease.

  8. Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Adachi, A; Sasaki, Y; Ghazizadeh, M

    2008-01-01

    In conventional transmission electron microscopy, uranyl acetate staining is used to enhance the cellular components. However, uranyl acetate is considered a radioactive material that is very toxic if ingested or inhaled and subject to restrictions in many countries. In an attempt to introduce a substitute for uranyl acetate, we evaluated oolong tea extract (OTE) for staining of ultrathin sections. Tissue sections from normal rat liver representing an ideal model organ were processed according to a routine electron microscopic fixation and embedding procedure. Serial ultrathin sections were cut and processed with either routine double electron staining or 0.2% OTE staining for 30-40 min at room temperature followed by lead citrate staining (OTE staining method). Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that all sub-cellular structures in hepatocytes were clearly visible with OTE staining and the quality of staining was highly compatible with those of routine double staining methods. It is suggested that OTE could be used as a non-radioactive and hazard-free substitute for uranyl acetate in transmission electron microscopy staining.

  9. Fluorescence In Blood Stain Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heye, Curtis L.; Thornton, John I.

    1988-04-01

    Two fluorescent probes, ANS and TNS, have been further examined for their effectiveness in acting as fluorescent probes for the detection of blood stain patterns. These materials, which are not fluorescent in aqueous solution, react non-specifically with protein and enable an observer to discern a blood pattern when viewed under UV light at 365 nm. Other possible fluorescent probes have been evaluated and rejected for various reasons; these include luminol, tetramethylbenzidine, p-hvdroxy-phenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 2,7-aminofluorene.

  10. A technique for detection of agglutinating activity of antilymphocytic serum using formalinized and trypan-blue-stained lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Janković, B. D.; Isaković, Katarina; Petrović, Spomenka

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes technical details of a micro-reaction for the in vitro detection of agglutinating potency of antilymphocytic serum produced in rabbits with chicken, rat and dog thymus cells. The titration of antilymphocytic serum includes the use of microtitre plastic plates and lymphocytes treated with formalin and stained with trypan blue stain. Formalinized and stained lymphocytes represent a stable antigen of long durability, and the application of those cells in leucoagglutination increases the accuracy and sensitivity of the reaction. PMID:5477930

  11. ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS IN ALLERGIC HUMAN TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Ben Z.

    1960-01-01

    Skin sensitizing human antibodies were conjugated with various fluorescent dyes without significant loss in their ability to combine with specific antigen in vitro. A biopsy of the skin site challenged with egg albumin in a patient sensitive to this antigen could be stained specifically by the fluorescent reagins. The epithelial cells of the epidermis, sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands in such a challenged site showed specific staining. In addition to the epithelial cells, the most intense staining was in macrophages and in pericapillary cells. The endothelium of the small blood vessels stained less intensely. Fibrous tissue bundles were specifically stained. The immunologic staining with the conjugated reagins was similar to but more intense than that obtained with conjugated rabbit anti-egg albumin globulins. PMID:13739590

  12. Serological diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia of swine by a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody and recombinant antigen (P46) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Okada, Munenori; Asai, Tetsuo; Futo, Satoshi; Mori, Yasuyuki; Mukai, Tetsuya; Yazawa, Shigeto; Uto, Takehiko; Shibata, Isao; Sato, Shizuo

    2005-02-25

    To facilitate the control of enzootic pneumonia (EP) of swine caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the complement fixation (CF) test has been used for the detection of M. hyopneumoniae antibodies. However, the CF test is a cumbersome and time-consuming technique and cross-reactivity are major drawbacks associated with this method. To circumvent these drawbacks, we have developed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), consisting of purified monoclonal antibody (Mab) against the 46 kDa surface antigen (P46) of M. hyopneumoniae and recombinant P46 protein expressed in Escherichia coli, for the detection of antibodies to M. hyopneumoniae in serum samples from pigs experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae and from naturally infected pigs, and compared the practical usefulness of ELISA using the CF test. In experimentally inoculated pigs, the CF and ELISA antibodies were detected at almost the same time, and a good correlation was demonstrated between the CF test and the ELISA. In a survey conducted on field samples, the seropositivity by ELISA in pigs of age 2-6 months was increased. At the time of slaughter, approximately 80% of the animals were seropositive for ELISA. However, a gradual decrease in the prevalence of ELISA positive samples was observed in sows with increasing parity. No correlation was seen between the results obtained with the two methods in the clinical samples. The CF test appears to have limited value for the diagnosis of EP in conventional herds because nonspecific reactions were frequently observed. Therefore, this ELISA is a useful alternative to the CF test currently used for the diagnosis of EP.

  13. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol.

  14. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  15. Propidium iodide (PI) stains Nissl bodies and may serve as a quick marker for total neuronal cell count.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfei; Li, Chunman; Wu, Haihui; Feng, Xianling; Su, Qingning; Li, Shihe; Zhang, Lihong; Yew, David Tai Wai; Cho, Eric Yu Pang; Sha, Ou

    2015-03-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) reacts with both DNA and RNA and is a commonly used fluorescent reagent for nucleic acid staining. The aim of the study was to compare the cellular staining patterns of PI with that of Nissl staining in rat nervous tissues and to report a modified staining method that selectively labels Nissl bodies in neurons. Cryosections and paraffin sections of different tissues of normal Sprague-Dawley rats, including trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, liver, and small intestine, were stained by either PI or the hematoxylin and eosin method. Some sections were treated with RNase or DNase before the above staining, and some were double stained with PI and a Nissl stain. The sections were observed by light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Results showed strong PI signals detected as patterns of granules in the neuronal cytoplasm of all nervous tissues, whereas the staining of neuronal nuclei was weaker. In contrast, nuclei of neuroglial cells were strongly stained by PI, while the cytoplasm was not obviously stained. Pretreatment of the neural tissue with RNase abolished the PI signals. Furthermore, the PI positive granules in neuronal cytoplasm co-localized with Nissl bodies stained by the fluorescent Nissl stain. When the tissue was pretreated with DNase, PI only stained the cytoplasmic granules of neurons, but not that of glial cells. Our results show that PI stains Nissl bodies and may serve as an economical and convenient neuron marker for neuronal cell counting when specific neural markers such as antibodies are not readily available.

  16. Simplified silver-plating stain for flagella.

    PubMed

    West, M; Burdash, N M; Freimuth, F

    1977-10-01

    Rhodes' silver-plating technique for staining flagella was tested for its reliability and convenience as a routine procedure in the clinical laboratory. Modifications were made in the stain preparation and the procedure of staining and were tested with smears of known motile gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. The stain has proved to be accurate and reliable and can be easily utilized with a minimum of training.

  17. Simplified silver-plating stain for flagella.

    PubMed Central

    West, M; Burdash, N M; Freimuth, F

    1977-01-01

    Rhodes' silver-plating technique for staining flagella was tested for its reliability and convenience as a routine procedure in the clinical laboratory. Modifications were made in the stain preparation and the procedure of staining and were tested with smears of known motile gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. The stain has proved to be accurate and reliable and can be easily utilized with a minimum of training. Images PMID:72075

  18. Golgi-Cox Staining Step by Step

    PubMed Central

    Zaqout, Sami; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field. PMID:27065817

  19. Tissue processing and hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ada T; Wolfe, Delia

    2014-01-01

    The hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue section is the cornerstone of anatomical pathology diagnosis. The H&E procedure stains the nucleus and cytoplasm contrasting colors to readily differentiate cellular components. However, staining results are dependent on proper specimen processing, which involves tissue preservation, dehydration, clearing, and paraffin infiltration. While improvements in instrumentation for both tissue processing and staining have been beneficial, limitations in the chemical reagents used must always be considered.

  20. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1995-09-05

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

  1. A novel protocol of whole mount electro-immunofluorescence staining.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongshan; Kao, Winston W Y

    2009-01-01

    into deep tissue and preferentially binds to F-actin. After the whole mount electrofluorescent staining of phalloidin-rhodamine in the mouse cornea, the results were the same as conventional whole mount staining during the healing of epithelial debridement. The cytoplasmic protrusion formed by lamellipodia and filopodia can be clearly demonstrated. These results indicate that the whole mount electro-immunofluorescent staining allows the detection of antigens in all layers of cornea, i.e., epithelium, stroma, and endothelium.

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies Identify Novel Neural Antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Richard; Niday, Evelyn; Matus, Andrew

    1982-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were raised against synaptic plasma membranes from rat cerebellum. The hybridomas were screened with a solid-phase immunoassay, the positive lines were characterized by their immunoperoxidase staining pattern on cerebellum, and the specific polypeptide antigens were identified on protein blots. Among the Mabs described are some that stain only neurons or only glia and others that react with specific parts of cells, such as axons, dendrites, and synapses. Many Mabs reveal novel relationships between antigens and the cells in which they occur. For example, a Mab designated 7D5 reacts with a family of > 30 proteins but stains only glial cells. Several Mabs stain punctate sites of synaptic size and distribution in the cerebellar cortex but each reacts with a different subset of polypeptides. One of the most restricted cytological staining patterns is given by 12D5, which stains punctate sites in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and reacts with a single polypeptide band of apparent Mr 270,000. These results illustrate the feasibility of raising Mabs that can be used to follow the expression of specific gene products during brain development.

  3. Improved staining of phosphoproteins with high sensitivity in polyacrylamide gels using Stains-All.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Tao; Ye, Wei-Jian; Chen, Mao; Zhao, Ting; Zhu, Zhong-Xin; Niu, Chao; Ruan, Dan-Dan; Ni, Mao-Wei; Zhou, Xuan; Jin, Li-Tai

    2013-12-01

    An improved Stains-All (ISA) staining method for phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE was described. Down to 0.5-1 ng phosphoproteins (α-casein, β-casein, or phosvitin) can be successfully selectively detected by ISA stain, which is approximately 120-fold higher than that of original Stains-All stain, but is similar to that of commonly used Pro-Q Diamond stain. Furthermore, unlike the original Stains-All protocol that was time consuming and light unstable, ISA stain could be completed within 60 min without resorting to protect the gels from light during the whole staining procedure. According to the results, it is concluded that ISA stain is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and economic staining method for a broad application to the research of phosphoproteins.

  4. [A method for combining Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunofluorescent staining].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Jin, Ji-Zi; Liu, Dan-Dan; Sun, Wei-Wen; Xu, En

    2016-05-01

    To explore a method for combining Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining with immunofluorescent staining in rats with focal cortical infarction. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) was induced in rats by electrocoagulation. The rat models were randomized into two groups, and frozen sections of the brain tissues from each group were stained with FJB followed by immunofluorescent staining or in the reverse order. FJB staining followed by immunofluorescence staining clearly visualized both FJB-positive and immunofluorescence-positive cells in the frozen sections, but the staining protocol in the reverse sequence failed to clearly show the immunofluorescence-positive cells. FJB staining prior to immunofluorescence staining does not affect the staining effect of protein immunofluorescent staining and better visualizes the positive cells.

  5. Gram staining with an automatic machine.

    PubMed

    Felek, S; Arslan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new Gram-staining machine controlled by a micro-controller and to investigate the quality of slides that were stained in the machine. The machine was designed and produced by the authors. It uses standard 220 V AC. Staining, washing, and drying periods are controlled by a timer built in the micro-controller. A software was made that contains a certain algorithm and time intervals for the staining mode. One-hundred and forty smears were prepared from Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria sp., blood culture, trypticase soy broth, direct pus and sputum smears for comparison studies. Half of the slides in each group were stained with the machine, the other half by hand and then examined by four different microbiologists. Machine-stained slides had a higher clarity and less debris than the hand-stained slides (p < 0.05). In hand-stained slides, some Gram-positive organisms showed poor Gram-positive staining features (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that Gram staining with the automatic machine increases the staining quality and helps to decrease the work load in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

  6. Staining proteins in gels with silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2007-07-01

    INTRODUCTIONSilver staining is one of the commonly used procedures for visualizing proteins in acrylamide gels. All silver staining methods rely on the reduction of ionic to metallic silver to provide metallic silver images; the selective reduction at gel sites occupied by proteins compared to nonprotein sites is dependent on differences in the oxidation-reduction potentials at these sites. There are two broad methodologies for silver staining. One approach (nondiamine silver nitrate stains) uses silver nitrate as the silvering agent and formaldehyde in alkaline carbonate solution as the developing agent, whereas the other approach (diamine or ammoniacal stains) uses ammoniacal silver as the silvering agent and formaldehyde in dilute citric acid as the developing agent. Although protocols using ammoniacal silver are arguably more sensitive and give darker hues than those based on silver nitrate, they are more prone to negative staining, resulting in hollow or "doughnut" spots, give unacceptable backgrounds with tricine-based gel systems, and are not very robust because of their reliance on the ammonia-silver ratio. Additionally, ammoniacal silver staining is more sensitive for basic proteins but less so for very acidic proteins. This protocol describes a silver nitrate staining approach. Its sensitivity is in the low-nanogram range, which is 50-100 times more sensitive than classical Coomassie Blue staining, ~10 times better than colloidal Coomassie Blue staining, and at least twice as sensitive as the zinc/imidazole negative staining method.

  7. Staining tomato fruit cuticle and exocarp tissues.

    PubMed

    Graham, E T

    1997-05-01

    Immature fruit of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Celebrity), was examined to observe the cuticle, its interface with the epidermis, and the general histology of the outer exocarp. Paraffin sections were stained first with Bismarck brown Y. Structures already stained in various hues of brown were stained again with either azure B, aluminum hematoxylin and alcian blue SGX, or the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Bismarck brown-azure B displayed the cuticle in strong contrast with subjacent tissue; however, nuclei were not easily identified at low magnification. Bismarck brown-hematoxylin-alcian blue produced a sharply contrasted combination of yellow cuticle, bright blue cell walls and purple nuclei. Nuclei stained purple with hematoxylin were easily identified at x100. Bismarck brown-PAS stained the cuticle golden brown and subjacent tissues mageta red. Surprisingly, epidermal cells stained specifically and intensely with PAS while pretreatment with an aldehyde blockade and omission of periodic acid prevented staining of all other tissues.

  8. The double-antigen ELISA concept for early detection of E(rns) -specific classical swine fever virus antibodies and application as an accompanying test for differentiation of infected from marker vaccinated animals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D; Fritsche, S; Luo, Y; Engemann, C; Blome, S; Beyerbach, M; Chang, C-Y; Qiu, H-J; Becher, P; Postel, A

    2017-02-03

    Emergency vaccination with live marker vaccines represents a promising control strategy for future classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks, and the first live marker vaccine is available in Europe. Successful implementation is dependent on a reliable accompanying diagnostic assay that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). As induction of a protective immune response relies on virus-neutralizing antibodies against E2 protein of CSF virus (CSFV), the most promising DIVA strategy is based on detection of E(rns) -specific antibodies in infected swine. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate a novel E(rns) -specific prototype ELISA (pigtype CSFV E(rns) Ab), which may be used for CSF diagnosis including application as an accompanying discriminatory test for CSFV marker vaccines. The concept of a double-antigen ELISA was shown to be a solid strategy to detect E(rns) -specific antibodies against CSFV isolates of different genotypes (sensitivity: 93.5%; specificity: 99.7%). Furthermore, detection of early seroconversion is advantageous compared with a frequently used CSFV E2 antibody ELISA. Clear differences in reactivity between sera taken from infected animals and animals vaccinated with various marker vaccines were observed. In combination with the marker vaccine CP7_E2alf, the novel ELISA represents a sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 93.8%. However, cross-reactivity with antibodies against ruminant pestiviruses was observed. Interestingly, the majority of samples tested false-positive in other E(rns) -based antibody ELISAs were identified correctly by the novel prototype E(rns) ELISA and vice versa. In conclusion, the pigtype CSFV E(rns) Ab ELISA can contribute to an improvement in routine CSFV antibody screening, particularly for analysis of sera taken at an early time point after infection and is applicable as a DIVA assay. An additional E(rns) antibody assay is recommended for identification of false-positive results

  9. Class II major histocompatibility complex tetramer staining: progress, problems, and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Vollers, Sabrina S; Stern, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    The use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramers in the detection and analysis of antigen-specific T cells has become more widespread since its introduction 11 years ago. Early challenges in the application of tetramer staining to CD4+ T cells centred around difficulties in the expression of various class II MHC allelic variants and the detection of low-frequency T cells in mixed populations. As many of the technical obstacles to class II MHC tetramer staining have been overcome, the focus has returned to uncertainties concerning how oligomer valency and T-cell receptor/MHC affinity affect tetramer binding. Such issues have become more important with an increase in the number of studies relying on direct ex vivo analysis of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. In this review we discuss which problems in class II MHC tetramer staining have been solved to date, and which matters remain to be considered. PMID:18251991

  10. A negative stain for electron microscopic tomography.

    PubMed

    Fera, Andrea; Farrington, Jane E; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Reese, Thomas S

    2012-04-01

    While negative staining can provide detailed, two-dimensional images of biological structures, the potential of combining tomography with negative staining to provide three-dimensional views has yet to be fully realized. Basic requirements of a negative stain for tomography are that the density and atomic number of the stain are optimal, and that the stain does not degrade or rearrange with the intensive electron dose (~10⁶ e/nm²) needed to collect a full set of tomographic images. A commercially available, tungsten-based stain appears to satisfy these prerequisites. Comparison of the surface structure of negatively stained influenza A virus with previous structural results served to evaluate this negative stain. The combination of many projections of the same structure yielded detailed images of single proteins on the viral surface. Corresponding surface renderings are a good fit to images of the viral surface derived from cryomicroscopy as well as to the shapes of crystallized surface proteins. Negative stain tomography with the appropriate stain yields detailed images of individual molecules in their normal setting on the surface of the influenza A virus.

  11. Ultraphosphate, a potent stain control agent that is effective for both stain removal and prevention of stain deposition.

    PubMed

    Koyasu, Masahiro; Shiba, Toshikazu; Kawazoe, Yumi; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Polyphosphate is a phosphate polymer which is effective for stain removal and prevention of stain deposition. Ultraphosphate belongs to the polyphosphate group and has a highly branched mesh-like structure. To evaluate stain control ability of ultraphosphate, we used HAP powder, glass-ionomer cement and detached human teeth for models of in vitro stain control experiments. When using HAP powder, the stain removal ability of ultraphosphate was the highest among common chelating agents. In addition, ultraphosphate efficiently removed stain and prevented stain deposition on glass-ionomer cement at 20°C and 37°C. Finally, ultraphosphate removed coffee stain from human teeth surface efficiently and the color difference (ΔE*ab) before and after ultraphosphate treatment was changed dramatically from 59.4 to 8.3. Similarly, the ΔE*ab value of human teeth treated with ultraphosphate before coffee treatment was only 9.9, while the value without ultraphosphate pre-treatment was 21.2. These results indicate that ultraphosphate is a potent agent for stain control.

  12. The antigens - Volume VII

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four chapters. They are: Ir Genes: Antigen-Specific Genetic Regulation of the Immune Response; Molecular Genetics of Class II (Ia) Antigens; Antigen-Specific T Cell Clones and T Cell Factors; and Infection and Autoimmunity.

  13. Development of Cell Staining Technique for X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P. Y.; Shih, Y. T.; Liu, C. J.; Hsu, T.; Chien, C. C.; Leng, W. H.; Liang, K. S.; Yin, G. C.; Chen, F. R.; Je, J. H.; Margaritondo, G.; Hwu, Y.

    2007-01-19

    We report a technique for detection of sub-cellular organelles and proteins with hard x-ray microscopy. Several metals were used for enhancing contrast for x-ray microscopy. Osmium tetroxide provides an excellent stain for lipid and can delineate cell membrane. Uranyl acetate has high affinity for nucleotide and can stain nucleus. Immunolocalization of specific proteins and sub-cellular organelles was achieved by 3'3 diaminobenzidine (DAB) with nickel enhancement and nanogold-conjugated secondary antibody with silver enhancement. The x-rays emitted from synchrotron source was monochromatized by double crystal monochromator, the photon energy was fixed at 8 keV to optimize the focusing efficiency of the zone plates. The estimated resolution is about 60 nm. When compared with visible light and conventional confocal microscopy, the X-ray microscopy provides a superior resolution to both conventional optical microscopes.

  14. Serological characterization of strains of Moraxella bovis using double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Gil-Turnes, C; de Araujo, F L

    1982-04-01

    Sera were produced in rabbits against nine Moraxella bovis strains isolated in Brazil and three in the United States. Antigens were prepared for double immunodiffusion tests by thawing concentrated suspensions of the strains. Sera were tested against homologous and heterologous antigen preparations by the double immunodiffusion method. Sera showing precipitin bands with heterologous antigens were absorbed. Antigenic differences were detected between the strains and a provisional grouping of strains of M. bovis was suggested on the basis of antigenic composition. Differences between isolates from different geographical locations were found and some strains appeared antigenically more complex than others. The relevance of this work to vaccine production was suggested.

  15. Serological characterization of strains of Moraxella bovis using double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Turnes, C; de Araujo, F L

    1982-01-01

    Sera were produced in rabbits against nine Moraxella bovis strains isolated in Brazil and three in the United States. Antigens were prepared for double immunodiffusion tests by thawing concentrated suspensions of the strains. Sera were tested against homologous and heterologous antigen preparations by the double immunodiffusion method. Sera showing precipitin bands with heterologous antigens were absorbed. Antigenic differences were detected between the strains and a provisional grouping of strains of M. bovis was suggested on the basis of antigenic composition. Differences between isolates from different geographical locations were found and some strains appeared antigenically more complex than others. The relevance of this work to vaccine production was suggested. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6178487

  16. Staining sectioned biological specimens for transmission electron microscopy: conventional and en bloc stains.

    PubMed

    Ellis, E Ann

    2014-01-01

    Post-staining of ultrathin sections and/or en bloc staining of specimens is necessary for differential contrast and improved resolution of cellular structures. Often specimens are fixed and stained with osmium tetroxide during fixation, but additional contrast is the result of additional heavy metal stains on the sections. The most common post-staining of sections is done on grids by aqueous uranyl acetate followed by lead citrate. When it is apparent that simple, aqueous uranium and lead post-staining is not adequate, other stains are invoked. These procedures can be as simple as en bloc staining with uranyl acetate after primary fixation and osmication. Over the years, several other treatments have been developed for use with the primary fixation or during dehydration. Tannic acid, paraphenylenediamine (PPD), and malachite green can all serve as en bloc stains and can contribute to overall improved visualization of ultrastructural details in biological specimens. Tannic acid and PPD improve membrane preservation, and malachite green is a phospholipid stain. All of these stains are compatible with aqueous fixatives and should be considered when the usual stains are not satisfactory. Marinozzi rings and microwave-assisted post-staining offer alternatives to traditional grid staining. In addition, stain precipitates on grids often can be removed by treatment with 10 % (v/v) acetic acid.

  17. Electroblotting and immunohistochemical staining for identification of platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rock, G; Decary, F; Tittley, P; Fuller, V

    1987-12-01

    The Western blot procedure has been adapted for use with a biotinylated antiglobulin reagent and a horseradish peroxidase complex (Vectastain ABC) to determine specific sites of antigen binding and permit discrimination between various types of platelet antibodies. Monospecific anti-PlA1 antisera or sera containing mixtures of multispecific HLA and unidentified platelet specific antibodies were tested with PlA1 phenotyped platelets. Using monospecific anti-PlA1, one intense band with relative molecular weight (Mr) of 88,000 and corresponding to glycoprotein IIIa was seen with the PlA1+ platelets. With mixtures of antibodies, reactions were seen with platelet specific antibodies without interference from the HLA antibodies; with one serum a band of Mr approximately 135,000 was identified with Baka+, but not Baka- platelets, indicating the presence of an anti-Baka in the serum. The location of the Baka antigen corresponded to the area for GP IIb. With another serum, a band of Mr 88,000 was revealed with PlA1- and some PlA1+ platelets suggesting the presence of an anti-PlA2. Two additional bands of Mr 160,000 and 200,000 were present on all preparations including autologous controls, probably due to the presence of non-specific IgG. Thus, immunohistochemical staining is readily adaptable to the Western blot technique, and antibodies to platelet-specific antigens can be easily differentiated from HLA antibodies.

  18. Immunofluorescence staining with frozen mouse or chick embryonic tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Matise, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF), a form of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with specific applications, is commonly used for both basic research and clinical studies, including diagnostics, and involves visualizing the cellular distribution of target molecules (e.g., proteins, DNA, and small molecules) using a microscope capable of exciting and detecting fluorochrome compounds that emit light at specific, largely nonoverlapping wavelengths. The procedure for carrying out IF varies according to the tissue type and methods for processing and preparing tissue (e.g., fixative used to preserve tissue morphology and antigenicity). The protocol presented here provides a general guideline for multichannel IF staining using frozen embryonic mouse or chicken tissue sectioned on a cryostat. In general, the procedure involves the following: (1) fixing freshly dissected tissues in a 4 % paraformaldehyde solution buffered in the physiological pH range, (2) cryopreservation of tissue in a 30 % sucrose solution, (3) embedding and sectioning tissue in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) matrix compound, (4) direct or indirect detection of the target antigen/s using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies.

  19. Use of the gram stain in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T J

    2001-05-01

    The Gram stain differentiates bacteria into two fundamental varieties of cells. Bacteria that retain the initial crystal violet stain (purple) are said to be "gram-positive," whereas those that are decolorized and stain red with carbol fuchsin (or safranin) are said to be "gram-negative." This staining response is based on the chemical and structural makeup of the cell walls of both varieties of bacteria. Gram-positives have a thick, relatively impermeable wall that resists decolorization and is composed of peptidoglycan and secondary polymers. Gram-negatives have a thin peptidoglycan layer plus an overlying lipid-protein bilayer known as the outer membrane, which can be disrupted by decolorization. Some bacteria have walls of intermediate structure and, although they are officially classified as gram-positives because of their linage, they stain in a variable manner. One prokaryote domain, the Archaea, have such variability of wall structure that the Gram stain is not a useful differentiating tool.

  20. The Giemsa stain: its history and applications.

    PubMed

    Barcia, Juan José

    2007-07-01

    Gustav Giemsa was born in Germany in 1867, worked mainly as a chemist, and died in 1948. The staining method, which carries his name, was designed primarily for the demonstration of parasites in malaria, but it was also employed in histology because of the high-quality staining of the chromatin and the nuclear membrane, the metachromasia of some cellular components, and the different qualities of cytoplasmic staining depending on the cell type. The use of methylene azure and its mixture with methylene blue to form an eosinate made stable the stain and its results. Giemsa's stain is regarded as the world's standard diagnostic technique for malaria's plasmodium, and it is also the basic stain for classifying lymphomas in the Kiel classification.

  1. Cresyl violet: a red fluorescent Nissl stain.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Buylla, A; Ling, C Y; Kirn, J R

    1990-08-01

    Cresyl violet is widely used by neurobiologists to visualize Nissl substance in bright-field microscopy. Here we describe a method for using this dye as a red fluorescent Nissl stain. Unlike the bright-field staining technique, fluorescent cresyl is compatible with other fluorescent dyes and tracers, such as fluorescein, Fluoro-Gold and Fast Blue. The procedure requires only minor modifications of routine bright-field cresyl staining, the most significant being dilution of the stain. Thus, fluorescent red cresyl violet is simple to implement and may be of general use in fluorescence microscopy.

  2. Bodian's Silver Method Stains Neurofilament Polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetti, P.; Autilio-Gambetti, L.; Papasozomenos, S. Ch.

    1981-09-01

    Bodian's silver method was used to stain polypeptides of rat spinal cord or peripheral nerve separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands corresponding to the three polypeptide subunits of the neurofilaments were intensely impregnated. Two other polypeptides were stained inconsistently and less intensely. The tubulin band was stained weakly or not at all; other polypeptides, including glial fibrillary acidic protein, actin, and vimentin, remained unstained. This novel application of Bodian's method provides indirect proof that neurofilaments are the neuronal subcellular structure stained by the technique.

  3. [Simultaneous staining with fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide to determine isolated cochlear outer hair cell viability of guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Shi, H; Wang, J

    1995-01-01

    A simultaneous double-staining procedure using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) is discribed for use in the determination of isolated cochlear outer hair cell viability. With exciter light, viable cells fluoresce bright green, while nonviable cells are bright red. In cell culture and cytotoxicity studies, double-staining with FDA-PI is a accurate method to discriminate between live and nonviable cells.

  4. Acrosomal and viability status of bovine spermatozoa evaluated by two staining methods.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Jana; Simon, Michal; Antalíková, Jana; Horovská, L'ubica

    2008-03-01

    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa is commonly used in cattle breeding. A simple and fast procedure is needed for routine evaluation of the acrosomal status of frozen-thawed bovine sperm. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test two staining procedures used to determine the viability and integrity of acrosome of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa. Double staining and Hoechst/FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) labelling were tested for evaluating the viability and acrosome reaction induced by calcium ionophore of bull spermatozoa. In our experiments no significant differences were detected in the frequency of acrosome-reacted sperm either by double staining (37.98%) or by FITC-PSA labelling (39.33%). The viability of sperm stained by the double staining method was 67.17%, and a higher portion of viable sperm (82.67%) was observed by staining with the Hoechst procedure (P < 0.01). On the basis of the results obtained it is concluded that both methods can be used for detecting the acrosome reaction of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa.

  5. Transient partial permeabilization with saponin enables cellular barcoding prior to surface marker staining1

    PubMed Central

    Behbehani, Gregory K.; Thom, Colin; Zunder, Eli R.; Finck, Rachel; Gaudilliere, Brice; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Fantl, Wendy J.; Nolan, Garry P.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent cellular barcoding and mass-tag cellular barcoding are cytometric methods that enable high sample throughput, minimize inter-sample variation, and reduce reagent consumption. Previously employed barcoding protocols require that barcoding be performed after surface marker staining, complicating combining the technique with measurement of alcohol-sensitive surface epitopes. This report describes a method of barcoding fixed cells after a transient partial permeabilization with 0.02% saponin that results in efficient and consistent barcode staining with fluorescent or mass-tagged reagents while preserving surface marker staining. This approach simplifies barcoding protocols and allows direct comparison of surface marker staining of multiple samples without concern for variations in the antibody cocktail volume, antigen-antibody ratio, or machine sensitivity. Using this protocol, cellular barcoding can be used to reliably detect subtle differences in surface marker expression. PMID:25274027

  6. Granules of blood eosinophils are stained directly by anti-immunoglobulin fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugates.

    PubMed

    Floyd, K; Suter, P F; Lutz, H

    1983-11-01

    Direct staining of the granules of blood eosinophils by anti-immunoglobulin fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugates was observed when feline blood smears were tested for presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen by immunofluorescent antibody. When blood smears of other species including swine, horses, cattle, dogs, sheep, birds, and human beings were examined, direct staining of eosinophils by FITC conjugates was also detected. This FITC staining was restricted to eosinophils and was not observed in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets. Direct FITC staining of eosinophils does not represent a problem in immunofluorescent test for the detection of FeLV infection in cats, as long as the eosinophils, which can easily be recognized as such, are excluded from the spectrum of interpreted cells.

  7. Image analysis to quantify histological and immunofluorescent staining of ex vivo skin and skin cell cultures.

    PubMed

    McMullen, R L; Bauza, E; Gondran, C; Oberto, G; Domloge, N; Farra, C Dal; Moore, D J

    2010-04-01

    Image processing steps and analysis techniques were developed for the quantification of photomicrographs obtained from light and fluorescence microscopy. The substrates examined were either skin cell cultures, such as normal human keratinocytes (NHK) or fibroblasts, or ex vivo skin sections. Examples of the analyses are provided for the comparison of skincare active ingredient treated samples vs. placebo to demonstrate the utility of the methods to quantify and provide numerical data for a procedure that is typically qualitative in nature and based on observations by a histologist. Quantifiable experiments that are discussed include: Fontana Masson staining for melanin expression; Nile red staining to detect cellular lipid droplets; nuclei staining with diamidino-phenylindole (DAPI); and immunofluorescent staining of protein expression with a primary antibody directed against the protein (antigen) and a secondary antibody tagged with a fluorescent dye (Alexa Fluor 488) against the primary antibody.

  8. Immunofluorescent antibody staining of intact Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Manning, Laurina; Doe, Chris Q

    2017-01-01

    Antibody staining is a vital technique for studying the development of many model organisms, including Drosophila. Reliable protocols have long been available for antibody staining of Drosophila whole-mount embryos and dissected larvae. By contrast, methods for staining whole larvae have rarely been reported, are unreliable, and fail to work on large third-instar larvae. This has become a major limitation to understanding the role of multitissue interactions such as neural circuit formation and cell metastasis. We have modified existing embryo protocols to develop a reliable method for antibody staining of whole Drosophila larvae of any developmental stage. The procedure consists of a bleach wash, enzymatic digestion, first fixation, 'cracking', second fixation, (optional) Proteinase K (Pro-K) or sonication treatment, antibody staining, clearing, and mounting. The method takes longer than typical antibody stains of dissected larval tissues-12 or 16 d, depending on the size of the larvae, compared with 2-3 d for embryos or dissected tissue stains-but time is saved by eliminating the need for larval dissections and by allowing hundreds of larvae to be batch-processed. The method also works well for staining embryos, even late-stage embryos with cuticles, allowing characterization from early embryogenesis to the end of larval development.

  9. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  10. Staining proteins in gels with coomassie blue.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe most commonly used dye for visualizing proteins in SDS-PAGE gels is Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 (CBR-250) because of its relatively high sensitivity. This protocol describes the standard CBR-250 staining method, along with a simple method for preparing stained gels for long-term storage.

  11. Evaluation of Decalcification Techniques for Rat Femurs Using HE and Immunohistochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Zhu, Ruyuan; Liu, Chenyue; Ma, Rufeng; Wang, Lili; Chen, Beibei; Li, Lin; Niu, Jianzhao; Mo, Fangfang; Fu, Min; Brömme, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Aim. In routine histopathology, decalcification is an essential step for mineralized tissues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different decalcification solutions on the morphological and antigenicity preservation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat femurs. Materials and Methods. Four different decalcification solutions were employed to remove the mineral substances from rat femurs, including 10% neutral buffered EDTA, 3% nitric acid, 5% nitric acid, and 8% hydrochloric acid/formic acid. Shaking and low temperature were used to process the samples. The stainings of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical (IHC) were employed to evaluate the bone morphology and antigenicity. Key Findings. Different decalcification solutions may affect the quality of morphology and the staining of paraffin-embedded sections in pathological examinations. Among four decalcifying solutions, 3% nitric acid is the best decalcifying agent for HE staining. 10% neutral buffered EDTA and 5% nitric acid are the preferred decalcifying agents for IHC staining. Significance. The current study investigated the effects of different decalcifying agents on the preservation of the bone structure and antigenicity, which will help to develop suitable protocols for the analyses of the bony tissue. PMID:28246608

  12. Evaluation of Decalcification Techniques for Rat Femurs Using HE and Immunohistochemical Staining.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haixia; Zhu, Ruyuan; Liu, Chenyue; Ma, Rufeng; Wang, Lili; Chen, Beibei; Li, Lin; Niu, Jianzhao; Zhao, Dandan; Mo, Fangfang; Fu, Min; Brömme, Dieter; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2017-01-01

    Aim. In routine histopathology, decalcification is an essential step for mineralized tissues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different decalcification solutions on the morphological and antigenicity preservation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat femurs. Materials and Methods. Four different decalcification solutions were employed to remove the mineral substances from rat femurs, including 10% neutral buffered EDTA, 3% nitric acid, 5% nitric acid, and 8% hydrochloric acid/formic acid. Shaking and low temperature were used to process the samples. The stainings of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical (IHC) were employed to evaluate the bone morphology and antigenicity. Key Findings. Different decalcification solutions may affect the quality of morphology and the staining of paraffin-embedded sections in pathological examinations. Among four decalcifying solutions, 3% nitric acid is the best decalcifying agent for HE staining. 10% neutral buffered EDTA and 5% nitric acid are the preferred decalcifying agents for IHC staining. Significance. The current study investigated the effects of different decalcifying agents on the preservation of the bone structure and antigenicity, which will help to develop suitable protocols for the analyses of the bony tissue.

  13. Tooth bleaching and pit and fissure stain.

    PubMed

    Falconer, David Scott; Hamilton, James C; Stoffers, Kenneth W; Gregory, William A

    2008-04-01

    To investigate if tooth whitening had any effect on the shade of occlusal pit and fissure stains and whether reservoirs in bleaching trays affected bleaching of occlusal pit and fissure stains. 96 extracted molars were randomly divided into three paired groups for whitening using a 10% carbamide peroxide solution (Opalescence) or a 22% carbamide peroxide solution (Nite White Excel 3), or tap water for a control. One of each pair utilized reservoirs in their custom bleaching trays. Three dentists evaluated the shade of a specified occlusal area of pit and fissure stain twice before bleaching and twice after bleaching. Pit and fissure stain showed significant lightening of shade for either of the bleaching systems (P < 0.0005) but not the control (P = 0.816). There was no significant difference in pit and fissure stain shade lightening following treatment between those groups utilizing reservoirs in the custom trays and those without reservoirs (P = 0.658).

  14. A new human cholangiocellular carcinoma cell line (HuCC-T1) producing carbohydrate antigen 19/9 in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Miyagiwa, M; Ichida, T; Tokiwa, T; Sato, J; Sasaki, H

    1989-06-01

    A human cholangiocellular carcinoma cell line, HuCC-T1, was established in vitro from the malignant cells of ascites of a 56-yr-old patient. Histologic findings of the primary liver tumor revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tumor cells from the ascites have been cultured with RPMI 1640 medium containing 0.2% lactalbumin hydrolysate and the cultured cells grew as monolayers with a population doubling time of 74 h during exponential growth at Passage 25. They had an epithelial-like morphology and were positive for mucine staining. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surface and poorly developed organelles in the cytoplasm. The HuCC-T1 cell was tumorigenic in nude mice. The number of chromosomes in HuCC-T1 ranged from 61 to 80. These human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells in serum-free medium secreted several tumor markers, including carbohydrate antigen 19/9, carbohydrate antigen 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen. The carbohydrate antigen 19/9 secretion level of HuCC-T1 cells cultured in RPMI 1640 medium with 1% fetal bovine serum was sixfold higher than that with 0.2% lactalbumin hydrolysate. These findings suggest that HuCC-T1 will provide useful information to clarify the mechanism of tumor marker secretion and tumor cell growth in the human cholangiocellular carcinoma.

  15. Stain removal efficacy of two manual toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Farrell, Svetlana; Grender, Julie M; Underwood, Jill; Cunningham, Pam; Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo A

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the dental stain removal efficacy of two commercially-available manual toothbrushes. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, two treatment clinical trial of 2 weeks duration. Subjects qualifying for the study had a mean Modified Lobene Stain Index of ≥ 1.5 on at least two anterior teeth. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups, receiving a test manual toothbrush (Oral-B 3D White Radiant) or a positive control (PC) manual brush to be used for 1 minute, twice daily for 2 weeks with a standard, anti-cavity fluoride dentifrice. Subjects were given written and verbal instructions, and the first use was supervised at the baseline visit. Stain was measured at baseline and after 2 weeks of product use. Stain measurements were conducted using the Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) and the Interproximal Modified Lobene Stain Index (IMLSI). Use of the two manual brushes resulted in statistically significant reductions of surface stain relative to baseline after 2 weeks of use. The mean MLSI composite stain reductions versus baseline were 1.37 for White Radiant and 0.87 for PC (P < 0.001 for both). Using the IMLSI, the mean stain reductions for composite, gingival and interproximal regions were 1.68, 1.20 and 1.68 for White Radiant (P < 0.001) and 1.25, 0.97 and 1.43 for PC (P ≤ 0.002). ANCOVA yielded statistically significant between group differences, with greater composite stain removal observed for White Radiant using both indices (P ≤ 0.025).

  16. Negative staining and Cryo-negative Staining of Macromolecules and Viruses for TEM

    PubMed Central

    De Carlo, Sacha; Harris, J. Robin

    2010-01-01

    In this review we cover the technical background to negative staining of biomolecules and viruses, and then expand upon the different possibilities and limitations. Topics range from conventional air-dry negative staining of samples adsorbed to carbon support films, the variant termed the “negative staining-carbon film” technique and negative staining of samples spread across the holes of holey carbon support films, to a consideration of dynamic/time-dependent negative staining. For each of these approaches examples of attainable data are given. The cryo-negative staining technique for the specimen preparation of frozen-hydrated/vitrified samples is also presented. A detailed protocol to successfully achieve cryo-negative staining with ammonium molybdate is given, as well as examples of data, which support the claim that cryo-negative staining provides a useful approach for the high-resolution study of macromolecular and viral structure. PMID:20634082

  17. Porcine Intestinal Mast Cells. Evaluation of Different Fixatives for Histochemical Staining Techniques Considering Tissue Shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, J.; Twardziok, S.; Huenigen, H.; Hirschberg, R.M.; Plendl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Staining of mast cells (MCs), including porcine ones, is critically dependent upon the fixation and staining technique. In the pig, mucosal and submucosal MCs do not stain or stain only faintly after formalin fixation. Some fixation methods are particularly recommended for MC staining, for example the fixation with Carnoy or lead salts. Zinc salt fixation (ZSF) has been reported to work excellently for the preservation of fixation-sensitive antigens. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable histological method for counting of MCs in the porcine intestinum. For this purpose, different tissue fixation and staining methods that also allow potential subsequent immunohistochemical investigations were evaluated in the porcine mucosa, as well as submucosa of small and large intestine. Tissues were fixed in Carnoy, lead acetate, lead nitrate, Zamboni and ZSF and stained subsequently with either polychromatic methylene blue, alcian blue or toluidine blue. For the first time our study reveals that ZSF, a heavy metal fixative, preserves metachromatic staining of porcine MCs. Zamboni fixation was not suitable for histochemical visualization of MCs in the pig intestine. All other tested fixatives were suitable. Alcian blue and toluidine blue co-stained intestinal goblet cells which made a prima facie identification of MCs difficult. The polychromatic methylene blue proved to be the optimal staining. In order to compare MC counting results of the different fixation methods, tissue shrinkage was taken into account. As even the same fixation caused shrinkagedifferences between tissue from small and large intestine, different factors for each single fixation and intestinal localization had to be calculated. Tissue shrinkage varied between 19% and 57%, the highest tissue shrinkage was found after fixation with ZSF in the large intestine, the lowest one in the small intestine after lead acetate fixation. Our study emphasizes that MC counting results from data using different

  18. Tooth staining effects of an alexidine mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Formicola, A J; Deasy, M J; Johnson, D H; Howe, E E

    1979-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the amount of tooth staining produced by an alexidine mouthrinse. One hundred and eighty subjects rinsed twice daily for 1 month with either 15 ml of alexidine (0.035%) or a placebo solution. Prior to the study, the subjects were classified according to their smoking, coffee and tea drinking habits and these factors were subsequently considered in the analysis of the stain scores. Additionally, the effects on staining of a prior prophylaxis and the use of a fluoridated toothpaste during the study were determined. Upon termination of the study, subjects utilizing the active mouthrinse manifested a greater degree of staining than placebo users. The amount and intensity of the stain due to alexidine were not influenced (increased) by smoking, tea or coffee drinking habits. A prior prophylaxis did not reduce the staining propensity of alexidine users. The method of scoring developed can be used to assess the degree of tooth staining induced by antiplaque agents.

  19. Compact, Automated Centrifugal Slide-Staining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Directional Acceleration Vector-Driven Displacement of Fluids (DAVD-DOF) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, would be a relatively compact, automated, centrifugally actuated system for staining blood smears and other microbiological samples on glass microscope slides in either a microgravitational or a normal Earth gravitational environment. The DAVD-DOF concept is a successor to the centrifuge-operated slide stainer (COSS) concept, which was reported in Slide-Staining System for Microgravity or Gravity (MSC-22949), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 64. The COSS includes reservoirs and a staining chamber that contains a microscope slide to which a biological sample is affixed. The staining chamber is sequentially filled with and drained of staining and related liquids from the reservoirs by use of a weighted plunger to force liquid from one reservoir to another at a constant level of hypergravity maintained in a standard swing-bucket centrifuge. In the DAVD-DOF system, a staining chamber containing a sample would also be sequentially filled and emptied, but with important differences. Instead of a simple microscope slide, one would use a special microscope slide on which would be fabricated a network of very small reservoirs and narrow channels connected to a staining chamber (see figure). Unlike in the COSS, displacement of liquid would be effected by use of the weight of the liquid itself, rather than the weight of a plunger.

  20. Analysis of proteins stained by Alexa dyes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shijun; Wang, Houyi; Carroll, Christopher A; Hayes, Shirley J; Weintraub, Susan T; Serwer, Philip

    2004-03-01

    Alexa dye staining of proteins is used for the fluorescence microscopy of single particles that are sometimes multimolecular protein complexes. To characterize the staining, post-staining determination must be made of which protein(s) in a complex have been Alexa-stained. The present communication describes the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for performing this determination. The Alexa-stained proteins are observed directly in gels by illumination with an ultraviolet transilluminator. The test multimolecular particle is bacteriophage T7. The protein capsid of T7 is a multimolecular complex that has both external and internal proteins. SDS-PAGE of Alexa-stained bacteriophage T7 produces fluorescent capsid proteins each of which usually comigrates with an unstained protein. However, one Alexa-induced modification of protein migration was observed by SDS-PAGE. Mass spectrometry shows that the protein with modified migration is the major protein of the outer shell of the T7 capsid. The procedures used are generally applicable. The distribution of Alexa staining among T7 capsid proteins depends on the size of the dye molecule used. The larger the dye molecule is, the greater the preference for external proteins.

  1. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories.

  2. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates

    PubMed Central

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. PMID:26888900

  3. [Radiocompetitive method of H antigen determination].

    PubMed

    Semenova, G B; Sokolov, Ia A; Liashenko, V A

    1978-06-01

    The authors describe a radiocompetitive method of H-d-monomere determination with the sensitivity of 2 ng/ml in double antibodies modification; this method was used for comparing the immunological affinity of the affiliated H-antigens. A difference between the immunological affinity to the antibodies in a monomere, polymere and the flagellum was shown.

  4. Periodic Acid-Schiff Staining with Diastase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dongtao A; Campbell-Thompson, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) with diastase (PAS-D) refers to the use of the PAS stain in combination with diastase, which is an enzyme that digests the glycogen. The purpose of using the PAS-D procedure is to differentiate glycogen from other PAS-positive elements in tissue samples. The PAS-D method is also used for periportal liver staining of AAT polymer inclusions that are seen in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency disease. Here, we describe the procedure of PAS-D staining in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human liver tissues.

  5. Instability of induction cooker (electromagnetic stove) antigen retrieval in immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Zheng, Xiang-Yi

    2012-03-01

    An induction cooker is a modern electric cooker that takes electromagnetic induction principle to heat. As it has high efficiency, no open flame, and is safe and convenient, more and more laboratories use it as an antigen retrieval heating tool in immunohistochemistry. We found that there was still some instability with the induction cooker, because with certain antigens the power change influenced the results of immunohistochemistry staining, showing weaker staining intensity or decreased number of positive cells, but which were not entirely negative. For some antigens, it had no influence on results. The instability of this heating tool for antigen retrieval was caused partly by negligent operators, and which may influence the experimental results and the pathologic diagnosis.

  6. Permanent stained preparations of synovial fluid for detection of calcium compounds using alizarin red S.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, O; Bilbao, J; Beissner, R S; Vandiver, M; Li, C Y

    1992-01-01

    Permanent preparations of air dried synovial fluids were prepared by staining calcium compounds with alizarin red S stain; each slide was coverslipped with Permount. Variables studied were: (a) concentration of the solution of alizarin red S, (b) pH of staining solution, (c) time of incubation in staining solution and aqueous and ethanolic content of staining solution. The staining effect of each solution was tested on calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate, calcium oxalate, apatite and monosodium urate (MSU). Of all the solutions, best results were obtained with 0.25% alizarin red S in 50% ethanol at pH 7.0 for 30 min. With this solution, the calcium-containing compounds were well stained. MSU did not stain and still preserved negative birefringence on polarization. Fixation of smears with ethanol served a double purpose: It fixed the slides without dissolving or removing MSU or the calcium compounds, yet it did dissolve five corticosteroids commonly used for intra-articular injection which may interfere with interpretation of compensated polarized light microscopy of synovial fluids.

  7. A simple method for immunocytochemical staining with multiple rabbit polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Terence J; Stanley, Elise F

    2003-08-15

    We report a single step, simple, repeatable, rapid and reliable technique for simultaneous immunocytochemical staining with two or more rabbit polyclonal antibodies. This technique, which we have dubbed the "Pretty Poly" method, is based on conjugating the antibodies with commercially available, fluorophore-tagged Staphylococcal protein-A (SP-A). Staining is illustrated at the calyx type presynaptic nerve terminal of the chick ciliary ganglion with antibodies directed against three nerve terminal proteins: neurofilaments of the axonal cytoskeleton, and two secretory vesicle proteins, SV2 and cysteine string protein (CSP). Images were deblurred with an iterative deconvolution protocol. Staining with a single polyclonal antibody was bright and had a resolution approaching light microscope limit. Treatment with two different polyclonal antibodies conjugated with contrasting dye-tagged protein-A resulted in double staining without significant crossover that was fully equivalent to the standard primary/secondary technique. The same single step protocol was used to stain with all three rabbit polyclonal antibodies or to combine the technique with a standard monoclonal primary/secondary antibody stain. Thus, the Pretty Poly protocol is a highly flexible, simple and yet effective staining technique that essentially solves the problem of co-staining with multiple polyclonal rabbit antibodies.

  8. Stain Removal Assessment of Two Manual Toothbrushes with an Interproximal Tooth Stain Index.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Svetlana; Grender, Julie M; Terézhalmy, Geza; Archila, Luis R

    2015-01-01

    To assess a newly developed index to measure interproximal stain and evaluate the stain removal efficacy of two commercially available manual toothbrushes. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, two-treatment clinical trial of two weeks' duration. Subjects qualified for the study if they had an average Modified Lobene Stain Index of ≥ 1.5 from two anterior teeth. At baseline, subjects brushed in front of a mirror for one minute under supervision. All subjects were provided with a standard 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice and were randomly assigned either an Oral-B Pulsar manual brush (OBP) or a Colgate Whitening manual brush (CW) to use for two weeks. Stain was reassessed after two weeks of product use. Stain measurements were conducted using the Modified Lobene Stain Index and the new Interproximal Modified Lobene Stain Index, which allows for assessment of stain in hard-to-reach areas using the same area and intensity scales as the Modified Lobene Stain Index. Use of the two manual brushes resulted in statistically significant reductions in surface stain relative to baseline after two weeks of use. Median stain reductions were 78% and 60% for the OBP and CW, respectively, as measured by the Modified Lobene Stain Index. The mean changes in the composite scores from baseline to week two were 1.85 and 1.57 for the two treatment groups, respectively. Statistically significant reductions from baseline were also found for the intensity and extent of stain measures (p < 0.001). Similar trends were found using the new Interproximal Modified Lobene Index. Composite median stain removal percentages versus baseline were 88% and 73% for the OBP and CW groups, respectively (p < 0.001). For the interproximal sites, a median stain removal of 92% was observed with the OBP brush and 83% reduction with the CW brush. For the gingival sites, the median stain removal percentages were 83% and 50%, respectively For the body region, a median stain removal of 100% was

  9. De-staining and re-staining mucins in formalin fixed paraffin sections.

    PubMed

    Smith, A A; Glickfield, I

    2011-04-01

    Re-staining of formalin fixed paraffin sections sometimes is required and this requires prior de-staining. Some simple and effective protocols for de-staining are described. Mucihematoxylin and mucicarmine can be removed with acid alcohol. Zirconyl hematoxylin can be removed with periodic acid or Sinha's fixative. Alcian blue can be removed with 5% trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane. Colloidal iron can be bleached in 1% household bleach in alcohol. PAS can be removed with hydrogen peroxide or ammonium hydroxide. With few exceptions, de-stained sections can be re-stained with mucihematoxylin, PAS or Gabe's trichrome.

  10. Thrombin Increases Expression of Fibronectin Antigen on the Platelet Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Mark H.; Painter, Richard G.; Forsyth, Jane; Birdwell, Charles; Plow, Edward F.

    1980-02-01

    Fibronectins (fn) are adhesive glycoproteins which bind to collagen and to fibrin and appear to be important in cellular adhesion to other cells or surfaces. Fn-related antigen is present in human platelets, suggesting a possible role for fn in the adhesive properties of platelets. We have studied the localization of fn in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets by immunofluorescence and quantitative binding of radiolabeled antibody. In resting fixed platelets, variable light surface staining for fn was observed. When these cells were made permeable to antibody with detergent, staining for fn was markedly enhanced and was present in a punctate distribution, suggesting intracellular localization. Stimulation with thrombin, which is associated with increased platelet adhesiveness, resulted in increased staining for fn antigen on intact platelets. These stimulated cells did not leak 51Cr nor did they stain for F-actin, thus documenting that the increased fn staining was not due to loss of plasma membrane integrity. The thrombin-induced increase in accessible platelet fn antigen was confirmed by quantitative antibody binding studies in which thrombin-stimulated platelets specifically bound 15 times as much radiolabeled F(ab')2 anti-fn as did resting cells. Thus, thrombin stimulation results in increased expression of fn antigen on the platelet surface. Here it may participate in interactions with fibrin, connective tissue, or other cells.

  11. Removal of extrinsic stain using a tartar control whitening dentifrice: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, R W; White, D J

    2001-01-01

    A nine-week, double blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel tartar control whitening dentifrice with a silica-based abrasive system on induced dental stain. The study model involved three weeks of stain induction followed by six weeks of unsupervised brushing to assess efficacy. To induce stain, 222 healthy adult volunteers received a dental prophylaxis, and then began a limited brushing regimen supplemented by three-times daily rinsing with tea and once daily rinsing with 15 ml of 0.12% chlorhexidine. This regimen was suspended, and 187 subjects with tooth stain were entered into a six-week clinical trial where they were randomized to either a silica-based tartar control whitening dentifrice or a marketed regular dentifrice control, balancing for stain levels and smoking status. At baseline, three and six weeks, stain area and stain intensity were measured on the 8 anterior teeth using the Lobene Index. After six weeks' use, composite Lobene means were 35% lower for the whitening dentifrice compared to the regular control. In addition to the overall reductions, there were statistically significant reductions in stain area (p < 0.015) and stain intensity (p < 0.01) at both three and six weeks. The tartar control whitening dentifrice was effective in removing stain on the gingival margins and elsewhere on the body of the tooth. Safety profiles for the two test dentifrices were generally similar. After three and six weeks' use, the tartar control whitening dentifrice reduced chlorhexidine and tea stain compared to the marketed control.

  12. Platinum blue as an alternative to uranyl acetate for staining in transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Inaga, Sumire; Katsumoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Keiichi; Kameie, Toshio; Nakane, Hironobu; Naguro, Tomonori

    2007-04-01

    This paper introduces an aqueous solution of platinum blue (Pt-blue) as an alternative to uranyl acetate (UA) for staining in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pt-blue was prepared from a reaction of cis-dichlorodiamine-platinum (II) (cis-platin) with thymidine. When Pt-blue was dried on a microgrid and observed by TEM it showed a uniform appearance with tiny particles less than 1 nm in diameter. The effect of Pt-blue as an electron stain was then examined not only for positive staining of conventional ultrathin resin sections and counterstaining of post-embedding immuno-electron microscopy but also for negative staining. In ultrathin sections of the rat liver and renal glomerulus, Pt-blue provided good contrast images, especially in double staining combined with a lead stain (Pb). Almost all cell organelles were clearly observed with high contrast in these sections. Glycogen granules in the hepatic parenchymal cells were particularly electron dense in Pt-blue stained sections compared with those treated with UA. In longitudinal and transverse sections of budding influenza A viruses, a specific arrangement of rod-like structures, which correspond to the ribonucleoprotein complexes, was clearly shown in each virion stained with Pt-blue and Pb. When post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy was performed in ultrathin sections of HeLa cells embedded in Lowicryl K4M, the localization of Ki-67 protein was sufficiently detected even after Pt-blue and Pb staining. The present study also revealed that Pt-blue could be used for the negative staining of E. coli, allowing the visualization of a flagellum. These findings indicate that Pt-blue is a useful, safe, and easily obtainable electron stain that is an alternative to UA for TEM preparations.

  13. Immunocytochemical and Immunohistochemical Staining with Peptide Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Friis, Tina; Pedersen, Klaus Boberg; Hougaard, David; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibodies are particularly useful for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), where antigens may denature due to fixation of tissues and cells. Peptide antibodies can be made to any defined sequence, including unknown putative proteins and posttranslationally modified sequences. Moreover, the availability of large amounts of the antigen (peptide) allows inhibition/adsorption controls, which are important in ICC/IHC, due to the many possibilities for false-positive reactions caused by immunoglobulin Fc receptors, nonspecific reactions, and cross-reactivity of primary and secondary antibodies with other antigens and endogenous immunoglobulins, respectively. Here, simple protocols for ICC and IHC are described together with recommendations for appropriate controls.

  14. A chewing gum containing 7.5% sodium hexametaphosphate inhibits stain deposition compared with a placebo chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia; Bartizek, Robert D

    2004-04-01

    The 2-period, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study compared the stain-prevention and stain-removal benefit of a chewing gum containing 7.5% sodium hexametaphosphate (measured by digital image analysis) with a placebo chewing gum. The results of this study support that sodium hexametaphosphate delivered from a chewing gum prevents dental stain formation and facilitates stain removal, which leads to a perceptible whitening benefit. The long-term clinical benefits of sodium hexametaphosphate delivered from chewing gum have not been reported in the literature.

  15. Antigen Masking During Fixation and Embedding, Dissected.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Carla Rossana; Boi, Giovanna; Bolognesi, Maddalena Maria; Riva, Lorella; Manzoni, Marco; DeSmedt, Linde; Bosisio, Francesca Maria; Ronchi, Susanna; Leone, Biagio Eugenio; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Antigen masking in routinely processed tissue is a poorly understood process caused by multiple factors. We sought to dissect the effect on antigenicity of each step of processing by using frozen sections as proxies of the whole tissue. An equivalent extent of antigen masking occurs across variable fixation times at room temperature. Most antigens benefit from longer fixation times (>24 hr) for optimal detection after antigen retrieval (AR; for example, Ki-67, bcl-2, ER). The transfer to a graded alcohol series results in an enhanced staining effect, reproduced by treating the sections with detergents, possibly because of a better access of the polymeric immunohistochemical detection system to tissue structures. A second round of masking occurs upon entering the clearing agent, mostly at the paraffin embedding step. This may depend on the non-freezable water removal. AR fully reverses the masking due both to the fixation time and the paraffin embedding. AR itself destroys some epitopes which do not survive routine processing. Processed frozen sections are a tool to investigate fixation and processing requirements for antigens in routine specimens.

  16. Development of new staining technology "eastern blotting" using monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2011-03-01

    Ginsenosides contained in Panax species were separated by silica gel TLC blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane which was dipped in a sodium periodide (NaIO(4)) solution and reacted with protein, preparing a ginsenoside-protein conjugate for binding a ginsenoside on a PVDF membrane. The blotted spots were stained by anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and anti-ginsenoside-Rg1MAb, respectively. The newly established immunostaining method, eastern blotting was applied for the determination of ginsenosides possessing protopanaxadiol and/or protopanaxatriol. Double staining of eastern blotting for ginsenosides using anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb and anti-ginsenoside-Rg1 MAb promoted complete identification of ginsenosides in Panax species. This technique has been devised for the chromatographic separation and identification of ginsenosides using polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. It caused an acceptable separation of ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rc and -Rd in various ginseng extracts. Newly developed technique is quite simple and applies for immunoassay system. Ginsenosides separated using a PES membrane were directly treated with a NaIO(4) solution and then reacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for making a ginsenoside-protein conjugate. After the blocking, anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb recognized a ginsenoside on a PES membrane and then a sec-ond antibody labeled with enzyme reacted to the first antibody. Finally a substrate was oxidized with the enzyme and de-veloped the staining of ginsenosides. The staining spots of ginsenosides on membrane were quantitatively evaluated by NIH Image indicating at least 62.5 ng of each ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rc and -Rd were detected with clarity. The determination range of three ginsenosides was from 0.125 to 2.0 µg of direct amount on PES membrane.

  17. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  18. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, T C; Brown, H D; Irbe, R M; Pierson, D L

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space. Images PMID:1690529

  19. Vestibular schwannoma or tanycytic ependymoma: Immunohistologic staining reveals

    PubMed Central

    Divito, Anthony; Keller, Jeffrey T.; Hagen, Matthew; Zuccarello, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a common location for primary tumors, most often vestibular schwannomas, and also meningiomas, dermoids, and a host of other neoplasms. Our case report illustrates how radiologic and histopathologic presentations of an unusual variant of ependymal neoplasm can be diagnostically challenging and how accurate diagnosis can affect treatment protocols. Case History: Our patient had a CPA mass that was a variant of ependymoma known as tanycytic ependymoma that mimicked vestibular schwannoma radiologically and during intraoperative pathologic examination. Diagnosis as a World Health Organization (WHO) grade II tanycytic ependymoma was supported by its appearance on evaluation of the permanent sections, its diffuse immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the perinuclear dot-and-ring-like staining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Conclusions: Our patient's CPA mass initially believed to be a vestibular schwannoma on preoperative evaluation, surgical appearance, and intraoperative pathologic consultation was then correctly diagnosed as a WHO grade II tanycytic ependymoma on permanent histologic sections with the assistance of immunohistochemical stains, including EMA. After this definitive diagnosis, our patient's adjuvant treatment was adjusted. Earlier diagnosis could have provided guidance for goals of resection and prompt initiation of adjuvant treatment. PMID:25506503

  20. Antibody staining in C. elegans using "freeze-cracking".

    PubMed

    Duerr, Janet S

    2013-10-14

    To stain C. elegans with antibodies, the relatively impermeable cuticle must be bypassed by chemical or mechanical methods. "Freeze-cracking" is one method used to physically pull the cuticle from nematodes by compressing nematodes between two adherent slides, freezing them, and pulling the slides apart. Freeze-cracking provides a simple and rapid way to gain access to the tissues without chemical treatment and can be used with a variety of fixatives. However, it leads to the loss of many of the specimens and the required compression mechanically distorts the sample. Practice is required to maximize recovery of samples with good morphology. Freeze-cracking can be optimized for specific fixation conditions, recovery of samples, or low non-specific staining, but not for all parameters at once. For antibodies that require very hard fixation conditions and tolerate the chemical treatments needed to chemically permeabilize the cuticle, treatment of intact nematodes in solution may be preferred. If the antibody requires a lighter fix or if the optimum fixation conditions are unknown, freeze-cracking provides a very useful way to rapidly assay the antibody and can yield specific subcellular and cellular localization information for the antigen of interest.

  1. Detection of antigenically distinct rotaviruses from infants.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, D H; Estes, M K; Rangelova, S M; Shindarov, L M; Melnick, J L; Graham, D Y

    1983-01-01

    Antigenically distinct rotaviruses, i.e., viruses morphologically identical to conventional rotaviruses by electron microscopy, yet lacking the common group antigen(s) detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were found in 2 of 51 fecal samples from Bulgarian infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis. These antigenically distinct viruses contained 11 segments of double-stranded RNA, but they demonstrated a unique RNA migration profile after electrophoresis of the genome RNA in polyacrylamide gels. This report confirms the presence of a new group of rotaviruses in humans. The significance of these viruses is currently unknown, and specific diagnostic tests must be developed for epidemiological studies to determine their role as human and veterinary pathogens and to evaluate their impact on proposed vaccine development programs. Images PMID:6307873

  2. ELECTRON DENSITOMETRY OF STAINED VIRUS PARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Cecil E.

    1955-01-01

    Methods are described for determining the relative mass of particles in electron microscope specimens through the measurement of photographic densities in recorded images. These methods were applied to a quantitative study of the amounts of electron stains that could be associated with the particles of tomato bushy stunt virus (BSV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In the pH range above 2 where the viruses are stable, the amount of stain absorbed is too small to produce adequate contrast in the electron microscope. Maximum stain absorption was achieved at pH about 1 where with several reagents and combinations of reagents the mass of BSV could be increased to about four times that of the unstained particles. Optimum results were obtained with phosphotungstic acid alone or in combination with Pt, Th, or La ions. Since the pH conditions for high stain absorption are normally destructive, morphology is satisfactorily preserved only when the phosphotungstic acid is applied in concentrations of 10 per cent or greater or when the use of destructive reagents is preceded by a preliminary fixation under mild conditions. Maximum staining of TMV increased the mass of the particles to about two times that of the unstained. Estimates of the mass of heavily stained BSV particles indicate that their density is 3.3 gm./cm.3 The high internal hydration of BSV probably accounts for the greater stain absorption and penetration compared to those of TMV which has very low or zero internal hydration. Anomalous images resulting from the use of electron stains are shown and discussed. PMID:14381423

  3. Specific immunofluorescent staining of pathogenic treponemes with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, F; Hunter, E F; George, R W; Pope, V; Larsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Two hybrid cell lines which produced mouse monoclonal antibody to the DAL-1 street strain of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were established. These monoclonal antibodies strongly reacted with T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain, DAL-1, and two other street strains, strains MN-1 and MN-3) and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue by indirect microimmunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, but they did not react with normal rabbit testicular tissue. These monoclonal antibodies did not react with nonpathogenic treponemes, such as T. phagedenis Reiter, T. denticola MRB, T. refringens Noguchi, or other spirochetes, such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in microimmunofluorescent antibody smear slides or in Western blots (immunoblots). While unlabeled antibodies are useful for investigating the antigenic structures of T. pallidum, we labeled these monoclonal antibodies with fluorescein isothiocyanate and used them for diagnosing syphilis by direct staining of lesion exudate or T. pallidum subsp. pallidum in formalin-fixed tissues from patients suspected of having syphilis. Both monoclonal antibodies were directed against antigens of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum with a molecular weight of 37,000 as determined by the Western blotting technique. Images PMID:1374079

  4. New Grocott Stain without Using Chromic Acid.

    PubMed

    Shiogama, Kazuya; Kitazawa, Kayo; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Onouchi, Takanori; Inada, Ken-Ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established a new "ecological" Grocott stain for demonstrating fungi, based upon a 4R principle of refusal, reduction, reuse, and recycle of waste management. Conventional Grocott stain employs environmentally harsh 5% chromic acid for oxidization. Initially, we succeeded in reducing the concentration of chromic acid from 5% to 1% by incubating the solution at 60°C and using five-fold diluted chromic acid solution at which point it was reusable. Eventually, we reached the refusal level where 1% periodic acid oxidization was efficient enough, when combined with preheating of sections in the electric jar, microwave oven, or pressure pan. For convenience sake, we recommend pressure pan heating in tap water for 10 min. Stainability of fungi in candidiasis and aspergillosis was comparable with conventional Grocott stain, while Mucor hyphae showed enhanced staining. The modified sequence was further applicable to detecting a variety of mycotic pathogens in paraffin sections. Our environmentally-friendly Grocott stain also has the advantage of avoiding risk of human exposure to hexavalent chromium solution in the histopathology laboratory. The simple stain sequence is can be easily applied worldwide.

  5. High-throughput staining for the evaluation of fetal skeletal development in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Brian G; Wise, L David

    2007-06-01

    Typical developmental toxicity studies require the assessment of fetal skeletal development. Regulatory guidelines require the assessment of bone ossification and indicate preferences for an assessment of both ossified bone as well as cartilaginous elements. Current manual methods to process fetuses for skeletal examination, whether single or double staining, are laborious and time consuming, and ultimately extend the time before study interpretations. There is a definite need for a quick and efficient, yet reliable, procedure to generate stained fetal skeletons for analysis. A non-automated high-throughput method for single and double staining rat and rabbit fetuses for skeletal evaluations is described, which results in excellent quality specimens ready for evaluations in approximately 3 days for rats and 7 days for rabbits. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Tracy S; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Feist, Stephen W; Kent, Michael L

    2011-06-16

    Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation, or small spores in nuclei (i.e. Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selective stains that enhance visualization of spores is recommended. We discovered that the Luna stain, used to highlight eosinophils, red blood cells, and chitin in arthropods and other invertebrates, also stains spores of Pseudoloma neurophilia. We compared this stain to the Gram, Fite's acid fast, Giemsa, and H&E stains on 8 aquatic microsporidian organisms that were readily available in our 2 laboratories: Loma salmonae, Glugea anomala, Pseudoloma neurophilia, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, Pleistophora vermiformis, Glugea sp., Steinhausia mytilovum, and an unidentified microsporidian from UK mitten crabs Eriocheir sinensis. Based on tinctorial properties and background staining, the Luna stain performed better for detection of 6 of the 8 microsporidia. Gram stain was superior for the 2 microsporidia from invertebrates: S. mytilovum and the unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis.

  7. [Effect of heat-staining procedure on the gram staining properties of mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Harano, Y; Koga, T

    1991-03-01

    Since the establishment of Gram stain by H.C.Y. Gram in 1884, it has been widely and routinely used as an aid for differentiation of bacteria. The bacteria are divided into three categories by the staining properties; Gram-positive, -negative, and -indefinite. All the text books in the world describe that mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis are Gram-positive. By the merest chance, however, it was found that M. lepraemurium grown in tissues was not stained by the routinely used Gram staining method. Therefore, we tried to stain some of the mycobacteria by the Gram staining procedure which is widely used at present. The results obtained indicated that the mycobacteria tested were divided into three groups; the unstainable group such as M. leprae and M. lepraemurium, the Gram-positive and difficult-to-stain group which involves such slow growing mycobacteria as M. tuberculosis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare, and the Gram-indefinite group which contains such rapid growing mycobacteria as M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. chelonae. However, if Gram stain is carried out by the heating procedure at the first staining step, all the mycobacteria would become Gram-positive. Therefore, we emphasize that Gram staining of mycobacteria should be performed by the heating procedure.

  8. The Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Tracy S.; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Feist, Stephen W.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation or small spores in nuclei (i.e., Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selective stains that enhance visualization of spores are recommended. We discovered that the Luna stain, used to highlight eosinophils, red blood cells and chitin in arthropods and other invertebrates, also stains spores of Pseudoloma neurophilia. We compared this stain to the Gram, Fite’s acid fast, Giemsa, and H&E stains on eight aquatic microsporidian organisms that were readily available in our two laboratories: Loma salmonae, Glugea anomala, Pseudoloma neurophilia, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, Pleistophora vermiformis, Glugea sp., Steinhausia mytilovum and an unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis, UK. Based on tinctorial properties and background staining, the Luna stain performed better for detection of 6 of the 8 microsporidia. Gram stain was superior for the two microsporidia from invertebrates, Steinhausia mytilovum and the unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis. PMID:21848126

  9. Stain efficiency and MALDI-TOF MS compatibility of seven visible staining procedures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-feng; Chen, Qing-xi; Tian, Hong-yu; Gao, Xia; Yu, Mei-lan; Xu, Gen-jun; Zhao, Fu-kun

    2008-04-01

    Visible stain is still the most popular protein staining method used in proteomic approaches. However, most published data have been derived from comparisons between visible dyes and fluorescent dyes. In this work, we have focused on seven widely used visible staining procedures--Neuhoff CCB, blue silver, and five silver stains (LKB SN, He SN, Yan SN, Vorum SN, and Blum SN)--and studied their stain efficiencies and MALDI-TOF MS compatibilities on 1-D and 2-D PAGE. It was concluded that blue silver is slightly better in terms of stain efficiency than Neuhoff CCB, but it presented worse MS compatibility. Neuhoff CCB presented better MS compatibility and superior linearity but worse sensitivity than silver stains. Among the five silvering procedures, He SN showed the best MS compatibility and a reasonable staining efficiency; Yan SN lowered the chances of obtaining the protein identity by PMF but gave the best stain efficiency; Vorum SN gave a very clear background and a great contrast, while Blum SN was the worst in this respect. The implications of these results for the selection of a convenient stain are discussed according to specific objectives as well as practical aspects.

  10. [Serological detection of Rhesus antigen D in blood traces from Rh-negative (cde) people].

    PubMed

    Sakharov, R S; Kondratova, I V; Fedulova, M V; Krest'ianova, I N

    2002-01-01

    A D-like structure was serologically detected on the internal side of Rh-negative (cde) erythrocyte membrane. This structure is absolutely inaccessible for anti-D antibodies in morphologically intact liquid blood erythrocytes. In hemolyzed erythrocytes of blood stains this antigenic structure, serologically identified as Rh antigen D, is accessible for binding with anti-D antibodies and for detection by the absorption-elution test, particularly so after blood stain treatment with proteases.

  11. Stain-Free total protein staining is a superior loading control to β-actin for Western blots.

    PubMed

    Gilda, Jennifer E; Gomes, Aldrin V

    2013-09-15

    Semi-quantification of proteins using Western blots typically involves normalization against housekeeping genes such as β-actin. More recently, Ponceau S and Coomassie blue staining have both been shown to be suitable alternatives to housekeeping genes as loading controls. Stain-Free total protein staining offers the advantage of no staining or destaining steps. Evaluation of the use of Stain-Free staining as an alternative to β-actin or the protein stain Ponceau S showed that Stain-Free staining was superior to β-actin and as good as or better than Ponceau S staining as a loading control for Western blots.

  12. Granuloma cells in chronic inflammation express CD205 (DEC205) antigen and harbor proliferating T lymphocytes: similarity to antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Haruo

    2013-02-01

    Granulomas are classified as immune or foreign body granulomas. Of these, the immune granulomas, a hallmark of granulomatous inflammation, are closely related to cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study is to characterize immune granuloma cells in 33 patients with granulomatous inflammation focusing on the expression of CD205 (DEC205), a cell surface marker of antigen presenting cells, and their spatial relationship to T cells. CD205 was frequently expressed by immune granuloma cells, in contrast to foreign body granuloma cells that lacked CD205 expression. T cells were not only distributed in a lymphocyte collar around the granuloma, but also present among the granuloma cells (termed 'intra-granuloma T cells'). Intra-granuloma T cells stained positive for Ki-67 (median positivity = 9.4%) by double immunostaining for CD3 and Ki-67. This indicated the presence of proliferative stimuli within the granuloma that could activate the intra-granuloma T cells. The labeling index of Ki-67 in intra-granuloma T cells was significantly higher than that of T cells in the lymphocyte collar (P < 0.0001) or T cells in the T cell zone (paracortex) of chronic tonsillitis or reactive lymphadenitis (P = 0.002). These data indicate a close similarity between immune granulomas and antigen presenting cells.

  13. A Comparison of Acquired Port-wine Stain with Congenital Port-wine Stain Using an Image Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok Jong; Kim, Do Won; Jang, Yun Hwan; Bae, Han Ik

    2008-03-01

    Recent reports have proposed that there were no differences between acquired port-wine stain (APWS) and congenital port-wine stain (CPWS) except the onset of disease. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) therapy is regarded as the treatment of choice in PWS. Although in some articles, APWS might have shown a better response to PDL than CPWS, this is still controversial. It has been assumed however, that there might be some differences determining therapeutic responses between the two entities. The purpose of this study is to find out some histopathologic differences between APWS and CPWS. 14 patients with APWS and 17 patients with CPWS from our patient files were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining by factor VIII-related antigen was carried out on the specimens of punch biopsy to better visualize the blood vessels. Histopathologic assessment of variables such as vessel area, percentage of vascular area and vessel depth was performed using a computer-assisted image analyzer program. The mean vessel area in APWS was 1014.7 ± 782.5µm(2) and that of CPWS was 1341.5 ± 689.9µm(2). The mean percentage of vascular area in APWS was 2.02 ± 1.38% and that of CPWS was 2.65 ± 1.56%. The mean vessel depth in APWS was 327.5 ± 120.7µm and 321.7 ± 93.1µm in CPWS. No histopathologic variable was statistically significant using the Mann-Whitney test (p>0.05).

  14. A Comparison of Acquired Port-wine Stain with Congenital Port-wine Stain Using an Image Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Do Won; Jang, Yun Hwan; Bae, Han Ik

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent reports have proposed that there were no differences between acquired port-wine stain (APWS) and congenital port-wine stain (CPWS) except the onset of disease. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) therapy is regarded as the treatment of choice in PWS. Although in some articles, APWS might have shown a better response to PDL than CPWS, this is still controversial. It has been assumed however, that there might be some differences determining therapeutic responses between the two entities. Objective The purpose of this study is to find out some histopathologic differences between APWS and CPWS. Methods 14 patients with APWS and 17 patients with CPWS from our patient files were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining by factor VIII-related antigen was carried out on the specimens of punch biopsy to better visualize the blood vessels. Histopathologic assessment of variables such as vessel area, percentage of vascular area and vessel depth was performed using a computer-assisted image analyzer program. Results The mean vessel area in APWS was 1014.7 ± 782.5µm2 and that of CPWS was 1341.5 ± 689.9µm2. The mean percentage of vascular area in APWS was 2.02 ± 1.38% and that of CPWS was 2.65 ± 1.56%. The mean vessel depth in APWS was 327.5 ± 120.7µm and 321.7 ± 93.1µm in CPWS. No histopathologic variable was statistically significant using the Mann-Whitney test (p>0.05). PMID:27303148

  15. Antigen presentation by Hodgkin's disease cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R I; Cossman, J; Diehl, V; Volkman, D J

    1985-11-01

    The L428 tumor cell line is a long-term tissue culture of Reed-Sternberg cells which was derived from the pleural effusion of a patient with Hodgkin's disease. The L428 cells express all known cell surface antigens, cytochemical staining, and cytologic features of freshly explanted Reed-Sternberg cells. In addition to the previously described HLA-DR cell surface antigens, the L428 cells are now demonstrated to express both DS and SB alloantigens. Thus, the L428 cells express all of the known subclasses of the human immune response genes that are located in the major histocompatibility complex. Furthermore, the L428 cells are capable of presenting soluble antigen to T cells in a genetically restricted fashion. T cell lines were established from normal donors previously immunized with tetanus toxoid. The T cells utilized were incapable of tetanus toxoid-induced proliferation unless antigen-presenting cells were added to the cultures. However, T cells from the two normal donors, which like the L428 cells expressed HLA-DR 5, demonstrated significant proliferative responses when cultured with tetanus toxoid and L428 cells. No proliferative response was observed when the L428 cells were used as antigen-presenting cells for a DR (4,-), DR (2,-) or DR (1,7) T cell line. The tetanus toxoid dose-response curve was similar regardless of whether autologous mononuclear leukocytes or L428 cells were used as antigen-presenting cells. The T cell proliferation induced by soluble antigen was also blocked by anti-HLA-DR antibody. Thus, functionally, Hodgkin's disease may be classified as a tumor of antigen-presenting cells.

  16. Digital stain separation for histological images.

    PubMed

    Tadrous, P J

    2010-11-01

    It is often desirable to perform digital image analyses on sections prepared for human interpretation, e.g. nuclear chromatin texture analysis or three-dimensional reconstructions using sections requiring human delineation of structures of interest. Unfortunately such analyses are often more effective using stains with less complex contrast. Here an automated selective 'de-staining' method for digital images is presented. The method separates an image into its red, green and blue and hue, saturation and intensity components. A mask of stained tissue is prepared by automatic percentile thresholding. A single weighted inverted colour channel is then added to each of the three primary colour channels separately by an iterative algorithm that adjusts the weights to give minimum variance within the mask. The modified red, green and blue channels are then recombined. This method is automatic requiring no pre-definition of stain colours or special hardware. The method is demonstrated to 'de-stain' nuclei in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections (and a separate haematoxylin image can be derived from this). An image of isolated brown reaction product is produced with immunoperoxidase preparations counterstained with haematoxylin. Furthermore trichrome (haematoxylin van Gieson, picrosirius red) and other common stains may be separated into their components with modifications of the same algorithm. Although other methods for colour separation do exist (e.g. spectral pathology and colour deconvolution) these require special apparatus or precise calibration and foreknowledge of pure dye colour spectra. The present method of digital stain separation is fully automatic with no such prerequisites. © 2010 The Author Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. HLA Class II Antigen Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma Tumors as a Favorable Prognostic Marker12

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Arriga, Roberto; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Lauro, Davide; Lugli, Alessandro; Han, Junyi; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ferrone, Cristina; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Rossi, Piero; Attanasio, Antonio; Ferrone, Soldano; Terracciano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of HLA class II antigen expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors, its association with the clinical course of the disease, and the underlying mechanism(s). Two tissue microarrays constructed with 220 and 778 CRC tumors were stained with HLA-DR, DQ, and DP antigen-specific monoclonal antibody LGII-612.14, using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The functional role of HLA class II antigens expressed on CRC cells was analyzed by investigating their in vitro interactions with immune cells. HLA class II antigens were expressed in about 25% of the 220 and 21% of the 778 tumors analyzed with an overall frequency of 23%. HLA class II antigens were detected in 19% of colorectal adenomas. Importantly, the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity were significantly lower than those detected in CRC tumors. However, HLA class II antigen staining was weakly detected only in 5.4% of 37 normal mucosa tissues. HLA class II antigen expression was associated with a favorable clinical course of the disease. In vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ) induced HLA class II antigen expression on two of the four CRC cell lines tested. HLA class II antigen expression on CRC cells triggered interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by resting monocytes. HLA class II antigen expression in CRC tumors is a favorable prognostic marker. This association may reflect stimulation of IL-1β production by monocytes. PMID:24563618

  18. Negative staining and cryo-negative staining: applications in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; De Carlo, Sacha

    2014-01-01

    Negative staining is widely applicable to isolated viruses, protein molecules, macromolecular assemblies and fibrils, subcellular membrane fractions, liposomes and artificial membranes, synthetic DNA arrays, and also to polymer solutions and a variety of nanotechnology samples. Techniques are provided for the preparation of the necessary support films (continuous carbon and holey/perforated carbon). The range of suitable negative stains is presented, with some emphasis on the benefit of using ammonium molybdate and of negative stain-trehalose combinations. Protocols are provided for the single droplet negative staining technique (on continuous and holey carbon support films), the floating and carbon sandwich techniques in addition to the negative staining-carbon film (NS-CF) technique for randomly dispersed fragile molecules, 2D crystallization of proteins and for cleavage of cells and organelles. Immuno-negative staining and negative staining of affinity labeled complexes (e.g., biotin-streptavidin) are presented in some detail. The formation of immune complexes in solution for droplet negative staining is given, as is the use of carbon-plastic support films as an adsorption surface on which to perform immunolabeling or affinity experiments, prior to negative staining. Dynamic biological systems can be investigated by negative staining, where the time period is in excess of a few minutes, but there are possibilities to greatly reduce the time by rapid stabilization of molecular systems with uranyl acetate or tannic acid. The more recently developed cryo-negative staining procedures are also included: first, the high concentration ammonium molybdate procedure on holey carbon films and second, the carbon sandwich procedure using uranyl formate. Several electron micrographs showing examples of applications of negative staining techniques are included and the chapter is thoroughly referenced.

  19. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1998-05-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. The methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. The probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. The invention provides for automated means to detect and analyze chromosomal abnormalities. 17 figs.

  20. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  1. Artifactual Sulfation of Silver-stained Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Marlene; Marcantonio, Maria; Lehmann, Sylvia G.; Courcelles, Mathieu; Meloche, Sylvain; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Sulfation and phosphorylation are post-translational modifications imparting an isobaric 80-Da addition on the side chain of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. These two post-translational modifications are often difficult to distinguish because of their similar MS fragmentation patterns. Targeted MS identification of these modifications in specific proteins commonly relies on their prior separation using gel electrophoresis and silver staining. In the present investigation, we report a potential pitfall in the interpretation of these modifications from silver-stained gels due to artifactual sulfation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues by sodium thiosulfate, a commonly used reagent that catalyzes the formation of metallic silver deposits onto proteins. Detailed MS analyses of gel-separated protein standards and Escherichia coli cell extracts indicated that several serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues were sulfated using silver staining protocols but not following Coomassie Blue staining. Sodium thiosulfate was identified as the reagent leading to this unexpected side reaction, and the degree of sulfation was correlated with increasing concentrations of thiosulfate up to 0.02%, which is typically used for silver staining. The significance of this artifact is discussed in the broader context of sulfation and phosphorylation site identification from in vivo and in vitro experiments. PMID:18936056

  2. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1998-05-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. The methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. The probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. The invention provides for automated means to detect and analyze chromosomal abnormalities. 17 figs.

  3. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  4. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  5. The efficacy of two prototype chewing gums for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    2003-04-01

    To compare the potential efficacy of two prototype chewing gums in extrinsic stain removal on natural teeth. Dental school clinics. Double-blind, two groups, parallel design. 76 adult volunteers (32m, 44f, mean age: 20.6 years old). Oral hard and soft tissue health was examined. The subjects were randomly assigned to use either Product A (without active ingredients) or Product B (with active ingredients). Each subject was asked to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily (mornings and nights) and chew the gums supplied for 15 min (2 dragees each time), three times daily, once after each meal (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for the entire four-week duration. Dental stain assessment was made on the 12 incisors using the Lobene Stain Index (LSI). The overall difference between the stain scores after 4-weeks' use of the chewing gums was statistically significant (p<0.01) for both test Product A (10.84) and Product B (7.77) with regard to the mean baseline stain scores (21.57). This difference represented a 48% reduction in stain scores for those subjects using Product A, while the reduction was 64% for the subjects using Product B. The results of this in vivo study suggest that chewing gums with and without active ingredients have potential effect on stain removal after regular use for one month.

  6. Immunoperoxidase staining of alveolar hydatid cyst from an experimentally infected gerbil.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the small fox tapeworm, has an extensive geographical range in the northern hemisphere where foxes and small rodents represent natural hosts. The larval stage of this parasite, alveolar echinococcosis (AE), is an emerging zoonosis of increasing importance. It is a serious human illness which is often misdiagnosed as hepatic cancer. If not identified at an early stage of parasite development it can lead to the death of patients. Histological examination of biopsies is one of the classical methods of diagnosis. In this study, in order to gain unequivocal histopathological diagnosis of AE, the immunoperoxidase staining technique was performed on routinely processed histological sections of an experimentally infected gerbil, using rabbit anti-E. multilocularis protoscolex IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase. Demonstration of AE antigen was achieved by dark brown stain of cyst membranes against a blue background of the host liver cells stained with hematoxylin.

  7. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Treesearch

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  8. Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Bruce H; Peiffer, Robert L; Cullen, Cheryl L; Haines, Deborah M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms. Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. Sections of these globes were then stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical (IHC) labels for various cellular markers. Histochemical staining and IHC labeling confirmed cellular differentiation in 73/75 neoplasms but was discordant with morphologic diagnoses in 8/75. These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1). Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas. Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.

  9. Tape transfer sectioning of tissue microarrays introduces nonspecific immunohistochemical staining artifacts.

    PubMed

    Catchpoole, D; Mackie, N; McIver, S; Chetcuti, A; Henwood, A; Graf, N; Arbuckle, S

    2011-12-01

    Tissue microarrays place tens to hundreds of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue cores into a paraffin block in a systematic grid pattern that permits their simultaneous evaluation in a single section. The fragmented nature of the tissue cores often makes sectioning of tissue microarrays difficult so that the resulting disks of tissue lose their shape, fracture or fall out of the paraffin section altogether. We have evaluated an alternative sectioning protocol for stabilizing the tissue microarray surface by placing an adhesive tape "window" over the face of the paraffin block prior to sectioning. Once sectioned, the tape/sections are transferred directly onto coated microscope slides, thereby avoiding routine floating of sections on a water bath. After sectioning with either the tape transfer or standard protocols, slides were stained either using hematoxylin and eosin or immunohistochemistry using antibodies to S-100 protein and the tissue specific antigens, keratin (AE1/3) and the leukocyte common antigen CD45. We found that the tape method produced thicker sections that were darker and more densely packed with loss of tissue definition compared to sections prepared using water bath flotation. Quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the tape method produced a higher incidence of nonspecific staining, which raised the potential for false positive staining.

  10. Rapid coomassie blue staining of protein gels.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2010-04-01

    Coomassie brilliant blue R250 (CBR-250) and silver staining are the most widely used methods for the routine visualization of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. CBR-250 is an organic dye that complexes with basic amino acids, such as arginine, lysine, and histidine, as well as tyrosine. Conventional CBR-250 staining is capable of detecting as little as 30-100 ng of protein, but sensitivity can be improved by performing the staining and destaining at elevated temperatures. The method described in this protocol, which is a modified version of the conventional Coomassie protocol, speeds up the destaining process for faster results with increased sensitivity and is compatible with mass-spectrometry-based methods for identifying proteins.

  11. Automated single-slide staining device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A simple apparatus and method is disclosed for making individual single Gram stains on bacteria inoculated slides to assist in classifying bacteria in the laboratory as Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The apparatus involves positioning a single inoculated slide in a stationary position and thereafter automatically and sequentially flooding the slide with increments of a primary stain, a mordant, a decolorizer, a counterstain and a wash solution in a sequential manner without the individual lab technician touching the slide and with minimum danger of contamination thereof from other slides.

  12. Detection Of Concrete Deterioration By Staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1999-09-21

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and a rhodamine dye is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and to identify degraded concrete which results in a porous or semi-permeable paste due to carbonation or leaching. These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  13. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Lori A; Geronemus, Roy G; Reddy, Kavitha K

    2015-01-01

    Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25624768

  14. The effect of a calcium carbonate/perlite toothpaste on the removal of extrinsic tooth stain in two weeks.

    PubMed

    Collins, L Z; Naeeni, M; Schäfer, F; Brignoli, C; Schiavi, A; Roberts, J; Colgan, P

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of a calcium carbonate/perlite toothpaste on the levels of extrinsic stain removed at two weeks compared to a silica control toothpaste. In this parallel group, double-blind study, subjects were stratified by natural baseline stain and tobacco use and allocated at random to one of the two study toothpastes. Subjects brushed with their allocated toothpaste twice daily for two weeks before extrinsic tooth stain was again assessed. The study was performed at 4-Front Research UK Limited, Maldon, UK. 152 adult subjects with at least eight assessable incisors/ canines with natural extrinsic tooth stain completed the study. The extrinsic tooth stain on the facial surfaces of incisors and canines was measured using the Macpherson modification of the Lobene Stain Index. Both of the toothpaste groups had significantly less stain after two weeks of use compared to the baseline value (p<0.001). Analysis of covariance on the sum of the whole mouth stain scores showed that the calcium carbonate/perlite toothpaste removed significantly more stain over the two week study than the silica control toothpaste (p<0.05). Twice daily brushing for two weeks with a calcium carbonate/perlite toothpaste removes more extrinsic stain than a silica control toothpaste.

  15. Gold nanoparticles for immunogold localization of antigens in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Sadaki

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe postembedding immunoelectron microscopic technique applied to ultrathin sections of plant material. The method relies on the use of gold nanoparticles. The methods include tissue fixation, dehydration, embedding of plant specimens, and staining of semithin and ultrathin sections. The described method is suitable for localization of antigens including proteins (peroxisomal enzymes) and a low molecular substance such as ginsenoide-Rb1.

  16. Rapid contrast evaluation method based on affinity beads and backscattered electron imaging for the screening of electron stains.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Hiroki; Inoue, Kanako; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Park, Pyoyun; Ikeda, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl salts are toxic and radioactive; therefore, several studies have been conducted to screen for substitutes of electron stains. In this regard, the contrast evaluation process is time consuming and the results obtained are inconsistent. In this study, we developed a novel contrast evaluation method using affinity beads and a backscattered electron image (BSEI), obtained using scanning electron microscopy. The contrast ratios of BSEI in each electron stain treatment were correlated with those of transmission electron microscopic images. The affinity beads bound to cell components independently. Protein and DNA samples were enhanced by image contrast treated with electron stains; however, this was not observed for sugars. Protein-conjugated beads showed an additive effect of image contrast when double-stained with lead. However, additive effect of double staining was not observed in DNA-conjugated beads. The varying chemical properties of oligopeptides showed differences in image contrast when treated with each electron stain. This BSEI-based evaluation method not only enables screening for alternate electron stains, but also helps analyze the underlying mechanisms of electron staining of cellular structures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pleural and Pulmonary Staining at Inferior Phrenic Arteriography Mimicking a Tumor Staining of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Deok Hee; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lim, Soo Mee; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Song, Ho-Young

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To describe the findings of pleural and pulmonary staining of the inferior phrenic artery, which can be confused with tumor staining during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatoma.Methods: Fifteen patients who showed pleural and pulmonary staining without relationship to hepatic masses at inferior phrenic arteriography were enrolled. The staining was noted at initial TACE (n = 8), at successive TACE (n = 5), and after hepatic surgery (n = 2). The angiographic pattern, the presence of pleural change on computed tomography (CT), and clinical history were evaluated.Results: Draining pulmonary veins were seen in all cases. The lower margin of the staining corresponded to the lower margin of the pleura in 10 patients. CT showed pleural and/or pulmonary abnormalities in all cases. After embolization of the inferior phrenic artery, the accumulation of iodized oil in the lung was noted.Conclusion: Understanding the CT and angiographic findings of pleural and pulmonary staining during TACE may help differentiate benign staining from tumor staining.

  18. Immunofluorescence staining of paraffin sections: creating DAB staining like virtual digital images using CMYK color conversion.

    PubMed

    Buchynska, L; Kashuba, E; Szekely, L

    2008-12-01

    Crystal violet treatment of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue slides greatly reduces the endogenous autofluorescence, and allows immunofluorescence (IF) staining with FITC or Alexa488 conjugated antibodies. Using cold CCD camera to capture the fluorescence images makes this staining method very sensitive. Here we show that combination of IF with the simultaneous recording of crystal violet induced red and Hoechst 33258 induced blue fluorescence permits the localization of the IF signal over a cytoplasmic: nuclear red:blue stain that visualizes the microscopic anatomy of the underlying tissue. To make the visual interpretation of the IF staining easier for microscopists, who are used to DAB staining over weak hematoxilin-eosin background, we created a simple color conversion procedure that turns the captured three-color fluorescence RGB (red, green, blue) images over a black background into four color CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key color (black)) images.

  19. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  20. Black Stain Root Disease of Conifers (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Donald J. Goheen; Robert V. Bega

    1995-01-01

    The black stain fungus?Leptographium wageneri (Kendrick) Wingfield*?infects and kills several species of western conifers. The fungus colonizes water-conducting tissues of the host's roots, root collars, and lower stems, ultimately blocking the movement of water to foliage. Severely infected trees exhibit wilting symptoms characteristic of vascular wilt diseases...

  1. A magnetic Gram stain for bacterial detection.

    PubMed

    Budin, Ghyslain; Chung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-07-27

    Magnetizing: Bacteria are often classified into gram-positive and gram-negative strains by staining with crystal violet (CV). The described bioorthogonal modification of CV with trans-cyclooctene (TCO) can be used to render gram-positive bacteria magnetic with tetrazine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNP-Tz). This method allows class-specific automated magnetic detection and magnetic separation.

  2. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2010-01-01

    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  4. Canker Stain Affects Delaware Sycamores Pest Alert

    Treesearch

    Alan Iskra; Gary Schwetz; Michael Valenti

    2001-01-01

    An often fatal disease of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), known as canker stain, is caused by the fungus, Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani. This fungus, indigenous to the United States, occurs in urban and forested areas from New Jersey to Georgia and west to Missouri and Louisiana. Other trees affected are the Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) and...

  5. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2010-01-01

    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  6. Extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a stannous fluoride dentifrice with sodium hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Baker, Robert; Bartizek, Robert D; Biesbrock, Aaron R; Chaves, Eros; Terézhalmy, Geza

    2007-01-01

    Two randomized, six-week, double-blind, parallel group, clinical trials were independently conducted to compare the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a novel whitening therapeutic dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride and sodium hexametaphosphate in a formulation with high cleaning silica, relative to a positive control whitening dentifrice. Generally healthy adults, 56 for study 1 and 60 for study 2, with visible extrinsic tooth stain were enrolled in the studies. At the baseline visit, stain was assessed on the facial surfaces of the eight central and lateral incisors using the modified Lobene Stain Index. Oral soft and hard tissue examinations were also conducted. In each study, subjects were randomized to either the stannous fluoride + sodium hexametaphosphate toothpaste (Crest Pro-Health) or the positive control toothpaste (Colgate Total Plus Whitening) to use twice per day for six weeks. Stain and safety were reassessed at weeks three and six. Fifty-two and 58 subjects completed studies 1 and 2, respectively. In each study, there were no statistically significant differences in Lobene composite stain scores between the two treatment groups across all three visits. Both groups showed statistically significant reductions in Lobene composite stain scores at week three (p < 0.0001) and week six (p < 0.0001) relative to baseline. The percent of Lobene composite scores with a greater than 0.5 unit reduction from baseline at week six was 86% for study 1 and 97% for study 2 for the stannous fluoride + sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice group. Collectively, these two stain removal clinical trials demonstrate the statistically significant extrinsic stain removal efficacy for the stannous fluoride + sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice relative to baseline. There were no statistically significant differences between the stannous fluoride + sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice and positive control treatment group.

  7. An activation antigen on a subpopulation of B lymphocytes identified by the monoclonal antibody CMRF-17.

    PubMed Central

    Peach, S F; Davidson, S E; McKenzie, J L; Nimmo, J C; Hart, D N

    1989-01-01

    The identification of membrane molecules expressed on subpopulations of B lymphocytes is of potential significance because these molecules may be candidates for regulating the activation, proliferation and differentiation of B cells. A new monoclonal antibody, CMRF-17, which reacts with a subpopulation of tonsil B lymphocytes has been produced. The antibody did not react with T lymphocytes in tonsil or peripheral blood nor most peripheral blood B lymphocytes but did label erythrocytes and some platelets. In tonsil, the germinal centre cells, cells in the interfollicular region and endothelial cells were positive, but mantle zone B cells were negative. Double labelling experiments showed that CMRF-17 reacted with activated tonsillar lymphocytes. The antigen recognized by CMRF-17 was heat stable, resistant to treatment with proteolytic enzymes and neuraminidase and was shown to be a carbohydrate determinant on one or more glycolipids. These characteristics of the antigen recognized by CMRF-17 and its pattern of reactivity distinguish this antibody from other monoclonal antibodies recognizing B-cell activation markers. It was notable that of the B-lymphoid malignancies tested to date, including those of probable follicular origin, few stained with CMRF-17. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:2474491

  8. Immunofluorescence Staining — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Direct immunofluorescence method is used to detect the deposit of immunoglobulins, complement components, fibrinogen, etc. in tissues. This technique is usually performed on frozen sections. The primary antibody is conjugated to fluorescein binds directly with the antigen and can be detected by the fluorescent tag using a fluorescent microscope.

  9. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  10. A Reproducible Technique for Specific Labeling of Antigens Using Preformed Fluorescent Molecular IgG-F(ab’)2 Complexes From Primary Antibodies of the Same Species

    PubMed Central

    OWEN, GETHIN RH.; HÄKKINEN, LARI; WU, CHUANYUE; LARJAVA, HANNU

    2011-01-01

    Immunolabeling two different antigens using the indirect approach with antibodies from the same species is not possible as secondary antibodies can bind to either primary target antibodies. In this study, we describe how preformed complexes of primary and secondary labeled antibodies can be used in such circumstances. In this situation, the first antigen is labeled using the conventional indirect method followed by incubation with the preformed primary–secondary antibody complex against the second antigen. To prevent unbound secondary antibody from binding the indirectly-labeled antibodies, resulting in a false positive, we quenched excess secondary antibody with nonimmune murine serum from the species of the primary antibody. Before the formation of the preformed complex, the optimum dilution of both primary and secondary antibodies was determined. Once these concentrations were established, the concentration of nonimmune murine serum required to quench excess unbound secondary was determined. This step was accomplished by first incubating the sample with an antibody against an antigen known to be localized away from the antigen of interest, followed by the preformed complex. If specific staining was seen, other than that expected from the preformed complex, then the concentration of the serum was deemed insufficient for quenching, and increased accordingly. We demonstrate that this approach is successful in determining the optimum conditions for the preformation of ascites and purified monoclonal primary IgG with fluorescently conjugated F(ab’)2. Double immunolabelling of two focal adhesion antigens and two cytoskeletal proteins, with two murine primary antibodies, are presented as examples of the methodology. PMID:20025053

  11. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  12. AntigenMap 3D: an online antigenic cartography resource.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J Lamar; Yang, Jialiang; Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Antigenic cartography is a useful technique to visualize and minimize errors in immunological data by projecting antigens to 2D or 3D cartography. However, a 2D cartography may not be sufficient to capture the antigenic relationship from high-dimensional immunological data. AntigenMap 3D presents an online, interactive, and robust 3D antigenic cartography construction and visualization resource. AntigenMap 3D can be applied to identify antigenic variants and vaccine strain candidates for pathogens with rapid antigenic variations, such as influenza A virus. http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap3D

  13. Effect of toothpaste with natural calcium carbonate/perlite on extrinsic tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Matheson, J R; Cox, T F; Baylor, N; Joiner, A; Patil, R; Karad, V; Ketkar, V; Bijlani, N S

    2004-01-01

    The current study was designed to determine the effect of natural calcium carbonate toothpaste containing Perlite and microgranules (Whitening toothpaste) on extrinsic tooth stain compared to a standard commercial toothpaste formulation with precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) as abrasive and a commercial toothpaste with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) as abrasive. The toothpastes were evaluated in a double blind, three-cell, stratified (tobacco use; baseline tooth stain level), parallel group design study involving 600 subjects with extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects brushed twice daily with their allocated toothpaste for four weeks. Extrinsic tooth stain was measured using the Macpherson modification of the Lobene stain index. ANCOVA showed significant differences between toothpastes (p=0.037). Subsequent multiple comparisons using pairwise t-tests, showed the Whitening toothpaste to be superior to the DCPD toothpaste (p=0.014) and the PCC toothpaste (p=0.067). When a Box-Cox transformation was made to the data (y0.6) to improve normality, these two differences were more accurately estimated at p=0.004 and p=0.03 respectively. The Whitening toothpaste has been shown to be significantly more effective in tooth stain removal than the two standard commercial toothpaste formulations.

  14. Increased CD4+/CD8+ Double-Positive T Cells in Chronic Chagasic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Nicolas A.; Bolaños, Natalia I.; Cuellar, Adriana; Guzman, Fanny; Uribe, Ana Maria; Bedoya, Astrid; Olaya, Natalia; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Roa, Nubia; Rosas, Fernando; Velasco, Víctor; Puerta, Concepción J.; González, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background CD4+/CD8+ double positive (DP) T cells have been described in healthy individuals as well as in patients with autoimmune and chronic infectious diseases. In chronic viral infections, this cell subset has effector memory phenotype and displays antigen specificity. No previous studies of double positive T cells in parasite infections have been carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen chronic chagasic patients (7 asymptomatic and 10 symptomatic) and 24 non-infected donors, including 12 healthy and 12 with non-chagasic cardiomyopathy donors were analyzed. Peripheral blood was stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, HLA-DR and CD38, and lymphocytes for intracellular perforin. Antigen specificity was assessed using HLA*A2 tetramers loaded with T. cruzi K1 or influenza virus epitopes. Surface expression of CD107 and intracellular IFN-γ production were determined in K1-specific DP T cells from 11 chagasic donors. Heart tissue from a chronic chagasic patient was stained for both CD8 and CD4 by immunochemistry. Chagasic patients showed higher frequencies of DP T cells (2.1%±0.9) compared with healthy (1.1%±0.5) and non-chagasic cardiomyopathy (1.2%±0.4) donors. DP T cells from Chagasic patients also expressed more HLA-DR, CD38 and perforin and had higher frequencies of T. cruzi K1-specific cells. IFN-γ production in K1-specific cells was higher in asymptomatic patients after polyclonal stimulation, while these cells tended to degranulate more in symptomatic donors. Immunochemistry revealed that double positive T cells infiltrate the cardiac tissue of a chagasic donor. Conclusions Chagasic patients have higher percentages of circulating double positive T cells expressing activation markers, potential effector molecules and greater class I antigenic specificity against T. cruzi. Although K1 tetramer positive DP T cell produced little IFN-γ, they displayed degranulation activity that was increased in symptomatic patients. Moreover, K1-specific DP T cells can

  15. Examination of electron stains as a substitute for uranyl acetate for the ultrathin sections of bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Electron staining reagents were examined to find a possible substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in electron microscopy of bacterial ultrathin sections. Four kinds of stains, platinum blue (Pt-blue), oolong tea extract (OTE), potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA), were examined in comparison with UA either with or without post-staining with lead citrate (Pb). Electron microscopy was performed on sections from Spurr-embedded cells of a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus NBRC 13597, and a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli NBRC 3301. Both Pt-blue and OTE showed staining similar to each other and to that of double staining with UA and Pb in B. cereus, while in E. coli the cytoplasmic membrane appeared less dense when compared with UA and Pb. KMnO(4) stained excessively to some extent, but showed images of the best contrast in the cytoplasmic membrane comparable with UA and Pb among the four reagents. PTA could stain the peptidoglycan layer but gave images of low quality for both bacteria. This study demonstrated that none of the reagents examined showed staining results of the same quality or better than the conventional method with UA and Pb. However, stains of Pt-blue, OTE and KMnO(4) could possibly be an alternative candidate for the UA according to the structure in question.

  16. Use of DNA stains in immunophenotyping by slide-based cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Andreas O. H.; Laffers, Wiebke; Bootz, Friedrich; Tarnok, Attila

    2003-06-01

    Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) is a very well documented application of Slide Based Cytometry (SBC). As for any other assay it is of highest importance to ensure that all cells which are relevant for an analysis are recognized. Unlike assays for cultured cells which have homogenous morphology immunophenotyping of PBLs is performed on cells with heterogeneous size and shape. Therefore, triggering on parameters related to cell morphology might lead to an incomplete analysis of just a subset of cells especially in pathological conditions. Several dyes stain DNA specifically in a wide variety of emission spectra. Many of them show some influence of the chromatin condensation and organization on the staining intensity. DNA dyes therefore can be used to differentiate between cell types having the same ploidy. This can be exploited for immunophenotyping since some dyes therefore can partially replace antibody staining. The concept of using DNA dyes in the setting of immunostaining has the following advantages: (1) nuclear staining provides a stable and easy triggering signal that guarantees both, that neither cells are excluded nor that debris or polluting particles are included into the analysis; (2) some DNA dyes differentiate between mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. A disadvantage of DNA dyes is that mostly cells have to be permeabilized. Because of this only one set of immunophenotypic markers can be stained, cells are fixed and permeabilized, and then nuclei are stained with the appropriate DNA dye. In the study we demonstrate the use of the most commonly available DNA dyes (7-AAD, To-Pro, To-To, PI etc.) in their applicability in immunophenotyping. An overview of spectral properties, fluorescence spill-over and optimal combinations with surface antigen staining will be shown. As in general for SBC only very small sample volumes are needed. This allows to serially analyze PBL in clinical settings that up to now could not be studied in

  17. Laser Treatment of Port Wine Stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    Port wine stain (PWS), also called nevus flammeus, is a congenital, cutaneous vascular malformation involving post-capillary venules which produce a light pink to red to dark-red-violet discoloration of human skin [1]. PWS occurs in an estimated 3 children per 1000 live births, affecting males and females and all racial groups equally [2]. There appears to be no hereditary predilection for PWS within families. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent PWS.

  18. Stain Test Modules for Periodontal Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-18

    important in positively staining the types of Gram negative bacteria present in subgingival plaques . At the end of last year it was noted that activated...macrophages could be demonstrated in smears of subgingival plaque or crevicular fluid from periodontal disease sites by out PATS reaction as well as in... gingival biopsy specimens as had previously been reported by others. The fact that these cells were macrophages, not neutrophils, was supported by

  19. Coffee Stain Effect with Liquid Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sushanta; Das, Siddhartha

    2012-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of immiscible bidispersed oil droplets that are suspended in an evaporating water sessile drop. Therefore, in contrast to classical coffee stain problem, the depositing ``particles'' are replaced by microscopic oil droplets - hence, we discuss a liquid-droplet coffee stain phenomenon. We show experimentally that unlike colloidal particles in a classical coffee stain problem, liquid oil droplets cannot reach the three phase contact line (TPCL) due to the aversion of the oil droplets to form finite oil-air interface in water medium. Therefore, the oil droplets get positioned at a finite distance from the TPCL. We call this distance the ``enclosure'' distance, which being a function of the droplet size, triggers a spontaneous size-based oil droplet separation. In addition, the ``enclosure'' effect is a function of the surface energies of the oil droplet and the rate of evaporation. We develop a theory to describe this effect, and the results show excellent agreement with the experimental findings. NSERC Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship for S. Das.

  20. Time-Saving Benefits of Intravital Staining.

    PubMed

    Macgillivray, Catherine; Sylvan, Jeremy; Lee, Richard T; Huang, Hayden

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges in labeling tissues for fluorescence microscopy is minimizing sample processing while maintaining or improving the information generated by the fluorescent label. Generally, tissues are extracted, fixed, and embedded in mounting media (such as paraffin), sectioned, and then postprocessed by removing the paraffin, blocking, labeling, and washing. Despite all of these steps, the consistency of labeling quality can vary as a result of several factors, including heterogeneity in labeling efficiency from slide to slide, the necessity of postprocessing to obtain information on sequential sections of tissue, interference from the mounting media, and loss of native three-dimensional structural information, especially in thicker sections. A method for embedding and processing tissues that have been labeled by intravital staining is described in this study. Intravital staining is the process in which live-cell dyes and other labels are injected into the bloodstream before fixation of the tissues. Tissues processed this way can be imaged upon sectioning without further staining and retain their native, three-dimensional information, thereby improving the information retained by the labels and speeding up sample processing.

  1. Isolation of human CD4/CD8 double-positive, graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor histocompatibility antigen-specific regulatory T cells and of a novel HLA-DR7-restricted HY-specific CD4 clone.

    PubMed

    Eljaafari, Assia; Yuruker, Ozel; Ferrand, Christophe; Farre, Annie; Addey, Caroline; Tartelin, Marie-Laure; Thomas, Xavier; Tiberghien, Pierre; Simpson, Elizabeth; Rigal, Dominique; Scott, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility (H) Ags are classically described as self-peptides derived from intracellular proteins that are expressed at the cell surface by MHC class I and class II molecules and that induce T cell alloresponses. We have isolated three different T cell populations from a skin biopsy of a patient suffering from acute graft-versus-host disease following sex-mismatched HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation. The first population was: 1) CD4(+)/CD8(+) double-positive; 2) specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomal Ag; 3) expressed a Tr1 profile with high levels of IL-10, but low IL-2 and IFN-γ; and 4) exerted regulatory function in the presence of recipient APCs. The second was CD8 positive, specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomally encoded minor H Ag, but was only weakly cytotoxic. The third was CD4 single positive, specific for an HLA-DR7-restricted HY epitope and exerted both proliferative and cytotoxic functions. Identification of the peptide recognized by these latter cells revealed a new human HY epitope, TGKIINFIKFDTGNL, encoded by RPS4Y and restricted by HLA-DR7. In this paper, we show human CD4/CD8 double-positive, acute graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor H Ag-specific regulatory T cells and identify a novel HLA-DR7/ HY T cell epitope, encoded by RPS4Y, a potential new therapeutic target.

  2. Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    2003-07-22

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  3. A Versatile Giemsa Protocol for Permanent Nuclear Staining of Fungi

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson

    1992-01-01

    A variety of cytological stains and staining procedures including Giemsa-HCL, acetic-or-cein, propionic-carmine, iron haema-toxylin, safranin O, aniline blue or trypan blue, toluidine blue and basic fuchsin or Feulgen stain have been used to investigate the nuclear condition of reproductive and somatic structures of fungi. Fluorescent stains such as acriflavin acridine...

  4. Stain Deconvolution Using Statistical Analysis of Multi-Resolution Stain Colour Representation

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Najah; Trahearn, Nicholas; Raza, Shan E. Ahmed; Snead, David; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2017-01-01

    Stain colour estimation is a prominent factor of the analysis pipeline in most of histology image processing algorithms. Providing a reliable and efficient stain colour deconvolution approach is fundamental for robust algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel method for stain colour deconvolution of histology images. This approach statistically analyses the multi-resolutional representation of the image to separate the independent observations out of the correlated ones. We then estimate the stain mixing matrix using filtered uncorrelated data. We conducted an extensive set of experiments to compare the proposed method to the recent state of the art methods and demonstrate the robustness of this approach using three different datasets of scanned slides, prepared in different labs using different scanners. PMID:28076381

  5. A simple technique for staining of platyhelminths with the lactophnol cotton blue stain.

    PubMed

    Henedi, Adawia A M; El-Azazy, Osama M E

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for staining of flatworms using lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB). The staining was tested on 2 trematode species: Heterophyes heterophyes and Mesostephanus appendiculatus, and one cestode: Diplopylidium acanthotetra, which were collected from the intestine of stray cats in Kuwait. The specimens were mounted in a small amount of the LPCB stain on a clean slide for 2-3 minutes before covering with a cover slip. The technique rapidly and clearly differentiated the internal structures of the helminthes. Its speed and simplicity are advantages over other staining methods. It is easily used in wide-scale surveys where a large number of platyhelminths have to be identified and it is suitable for field studies.

  6. Recovery of antigenically reactive HIV-2 cores.

    PubMed

    Chrystie, I L; Almeida, J D

    1989-03-01

    Negative staining studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been hampered by the fragile nature of the particles. Although detergent treatment is capable of releasing cores from HIV-2 particles, these are unstable and do not retain morphological integrity. Addition of glutaraldehyde will stabilise these structures but, if used at too high a concentration, will destroy their antigenicity. This study shows that if both detergent and glutaraldehyde are used in correct proportions, antigenically reactive cores can be recovered from HIV-2 cell cultures. More specifically we show that a mixture of 0.1% Nonidet P40 and 0.1% glutaraldehyde produces preparations of HIV-2 cores that are suitable for immune electron microscopy. These cores reacted positively, that is, formed immune complexes, with both human HIV-2 antisera and a mouse monoclonal antibody that, although directed against p24 (HIV-1), reacts also with p25 (HIV-2).

  7. Evaluation of staining susceptibility of resin artificial teeth and stain removal efficacy of denture cleansers.

    PubMed

    Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Deniz, Sule Tugba

    2014-11-01

    To assess the staining susceptibility of four acrylic resin (Ivostar, SR Vivodent PE, Major Dent, Integral) and a nanocomposite resin (Veracia) artificial teeth and to evaluate the stain removal efficacy of denture cleansers. Sixty maxillary incisors of each brand (total = 300) were divided into three groups according to staining solution as coffee, red wine and tea. Baseline color measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions for 14 h (2 h × 7 days) and then second color measurements were performed. Each group was further divided into four sub-groups according to denture cleanser as Corega tabs, Fittydent, NaOCl (0.5%) and distilled water (control) (n = 5). Specimens were immersed in denture cleansers for 8 h and third color measurements were made. Thus, the weekly simulation period was completed. This cycle was repeated 12 times to simulate a 3-month time period and measurements were performed at the end of the 4th, 8th and 12th cycles. ΔE values were calculated and data were analyzed with 3-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Significant color differences were found among the teeth and staining solutions, but all of the color differences were in the clinically acceptable range (ΔE < 5.5). Integral showed the highest ΔE values for all solutions, while Ivostar and Vivodent demonstrated the lowest ΔE values for red wine and tea solutions. There was no significant difference among the denture cleansers in terms of stain removal efficacy. Cross-linked acrylic (Integral) and nanocomposite (Veracia) resin teeth were more susceptible to staining. Denture cleansers were efficient on stain removal from artificial teeth.

  8. Newer applications of the histological stain prepared from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, P C; Mukherjee, A K

    1981-03-01

    A histological stain prepared from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. has been found to be an excellent nuclear stain for various cells of animal and plant origin. As an elastic tissue stain, the results are comparable to standard elastic tissue stains. The striations of voluntary muscle fibers are well shown. The Nissl granules and fibers of cranial nerves in the pons are visualized. When counterstained with light green, it differentially stains muscle and fibrous tissue. The stain can be used as counterstain with certain histochemical procedures with satisfactory results. The preparation and use of this versatile stain are described.

  9. In Vitro Targeted Photodynamic Therapy with a Pyropheophorbide-a Conjugated Inhibitor of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Choi, Joseph K.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKROUND The lack of specific delivery of photosensitizers (PSs), represents a significant limitation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The biomarker prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has attracted considerable attention as a target for imaging and therapeutic applications for prostate cancer. Although recent efforts have been made to conjugate inhibitors of PSMA with imaging agents, there have been no reports on photosensitizer-conjugated PSMA inhibitors for targeted PDT of prostate cancer. The present study focuses on the use of a PSMA inhibitor-conjugate of pyropheophorbide-a (Ppa-conjugate 2) for targeted PDT to achieve apoptosis in PSMA+ LNCaP cells. METHODS Confocal laser scanning microscopy with a combination of nuclear staining and immunofluorescence methods were employed to monitor the specific imaging and PDT-mediated apoptotic effects on PSMA-positive LNCaP and PSMA-negative (PC-3) cells. RESULTS Our results demonstrated that PDT-mediated effects by Ppa-conjugate 2 were specific to LNCaP cells, but not PC-3 cells. Cell permeability was detected as early as 2 h by HOE33342/PI double-staining, becoming more intense by 4 h. Evidence for the apoptotic caspase cascade being activated was based on the appearance of PARP p85 fragment. TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation 16 h post-PDT, confirming apoptotic events. CONCLUSIONS Cell permeability by HOE33342/PI double-staining as well as PARP p85 fragment and TUNEL assays confirm cellular apoptosis in PSMA+ cells when treated with PS-inhibitor conjugate 2 and subsequently irradiated. It is expected that the PSMA targeting small-molecule of this conjugate can serve as a delivery vehicle for PDT and other therapeutic applications for prostate cancer. PMID:19142895

  10. Enhancement of immunohistochemical staining of scrapie proteins and immune cells within lymph nodes of early scrapie-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Furr, Annissa; Knudsen, David; Hildreth, Michael B; Young, Alan J

    2011-08-31

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect animals as well as humans. The oldest of these diseases is Scrapie seen in sheep. Scrapie is caused by an altered form (PrP(sc)), capable of inducing "self-replication" of the normal host prion protein (PrP(c)). There is currently no universal standard for antigen retrieval when using immunohistochemistry to simultaneously stain the PrP(c) protein and other cellular markers. The use of formalin-fixed tissue creates a challenge by concealing the antigenic sites where an antibody would bind, and lengthy antigen retrieval methods must be applied in order to facilitate staining. Further complicating sheep tissue immunohistochemistry is a significant lack of commercial antibodies to sheep cell markers available in research. Here we developed a novel immunohistochemical technique using trypsin, formic acid, and hydrated autoclaving using citraconic anhydride buffer to increase sensitivity of staining for scrapie proteins and immune cell subsets. This allowed us to stain and identify cells within lymphoid tissue associated with early lymphoid pathogenesis in scrapie.

  11. Double loading of dendritic cell MHC class I and MHC class II with an AML antigen repertoire enhances correlates of T-cell immunity in vitro via amplification of T-cell help.

    PubMed

    Decker, William K; Xing, Dongxia; Li, Sufang; Robinson, Simon N; Yang, Hong; Yao, Xin; Segall, Harry; McMannis, John D; Komanduri, Krishna V; Champlin, Richard E; Shpall, Elizabeth J

    2006-04-12

    Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells presenting tumor-specific antigens is now recognized as an important investigational therapy for the treatment of neoplastic disease. Dendritic cell cross-presentation is credited with the ability of tumor lysate-loaded dendritic cells to prime both CD4 and CD8-specific T-lymphocyte responses, enabling the generation of cancer specific CTL activity without the loading of the classical MHC class I compartment. Recently, however, several reports have raised doubts as to the efficiency of cross-presentation as a mechanism for CTL priming in vivo. To examine this issue, we have doubly-loaded human dendritic cells with both AML-specific tumor lysate and AML-specific tumor mRNA. Our results show that these doubly-loaded dendritic cells can mediate superior primary, recall, and effector lytic responses in vitro in comparison to those of dendritic cells loaded with either tumor lysate or tumor mRNA alone. Enhanced recall responses appeared to be influenced by CD40/CD40L signaling, underscoring the importance of T-cell help in the generation and perpetuation of the adaptive immune response.

  12. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  13. Comparison of methylene blue/gentian violet stain to Gram's stain for the rapid diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis in men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie N; DiCarlo, Richard P; Martin, David H

    2011-11-01

    We compared a simple, one-step staining procedure using a mixture of methylene blue and gentian violet to Gram stain for the detection of gonococcal urethritis. The sensitivity and specificity of both Gram stain and methylene blue/gentian violet stain were 97.3% and 99.6%, respectively. There was a 100% correlation between the 2 methods.

  14. Fine structure of A and M antigens from Brucella biovars.

    PubMed

    Meikle, P J; Perry, M B; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Bundle, D R

    1989-09-01

    Brucella A and M epitopes were found on single O-polysaccharide chains of all biotype strains of this species. Lipopolysaccharides from the type and reference strains of five of the six Brucella species, B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. canis, and B. neotomae, were extracted and purified. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, in conjunction with silver staining and immunoblotting developed by monoclonal antibodies, showed bands characteristic of A, M, or mixed A and M antigens. The A antigen previously described as an exclusively alpha 1,2-linked homopolymer of 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-D-mannopyranose was shown by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to possess a fine structure consistent with the low-frequency occurrence of alpha 1, 3-linked 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-D-mannopyranose residues. This feature was previously attributed only to the M antigen, which is also a homopolymer of the same sugar. B. melitensis biotype 3 and B. suis biotype 4 lipopolysaccharides showed characteristics of mixed A and M antigens. Immunoabsorption of these O polysaccharides on a column of immobilized A-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody enriched polymer chains with A-antigen characteristics but did not eliminate M epitopes. Composite A- and M-antigen characteristics resulted from O polysaccharides in which the frequency of alpha 1,3 linkages, and hence, M-antigen characteristics, varied. All biotypes assigned as A+ M- expressed one or two alpha 1,3-linked residues per polysaccharide O chain. M antigens (M+ A-) also possessed a unique M epitope as well as a tetrasaccharide determinant common to A-antigen structures. B. canis and B. abortus 45/20, both rough strains, expressed low-molecular-weight A antigen.

  15. Intradermal antigen tests in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Powles, A V; Baker, B S; Valdimarsson, H; Fry, L

    1990-01-01

    To assess whether elicitation of delayed hypersensitivity may be superior to trauma in inducing the Koebner reaction in psoriasis, 12 affected patients and 9 control subjects were tested with 0.1 ml intradermal injections of streptokinase/streptodornase (20 mu/5 mu per 0.1 ml), PPD (1 in 1000) and saline control solutions in a double-blind study; Koebner status was also established in the psoriatic patients. Injected sites were examined at 48 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for local development of psoriasis, erythema and induration (diameter). One patient was Koebner-positive and developed psoriasis at all three injection sites. The other, Koebner-negative psoriatic subjects did not develop psoriasis locally. However, compared with non-psoriatic controls they showed a marked delay in resolution of the delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the PPD antigen and a similar but less marked phenomenon was observed for streptokinase/streptodornase. These findings indicate that intradermal antigen, of the nature and amount used in this study, is no more effective in inducing the Koebner phenomenon than injury alone. However, the ability of psoriasis patients to switch off cell-mediated immune reaction appears to be impaired.

  16. Isolation, Culture, and Staining of Single Myofibers

    PubMed Central

    Gallot, Yann Simon; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Mann, Aman K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle regeneration is orchestrated by a specialized population of adult stem cells called satellite cells, which are localized between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. The process of satellite cell-activation, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation that occurs during muscle regeneration can be recapitulated ex vivo by isolation of single myofibers from skeletal muscles and culturing them under suspension conditions. Here, we describe an improved protocol to evaluate ex vivo satellite cells activation through isolation of single myofibers from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mice and culturing and staining of myofiber-associated satellite cells with the markers of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. PMID:27819014

  17. Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G J

    2000-04-01

    Amnioinfusion reduces the risk of meconium aspiration by the infants of women with thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. The benefits are clear in facilities with high baseline rates of meconium aspiration, and are therefore likely to outweigh the risk of uncommon but serious maternal side-effects. Larger randomized trials are needed to determine more precisely the relative risks and benefits in facilities with low baseline rates of meconium aspiration. The addition of antibiotics to the infusate has not been shown to reduce the risk of sepsis related to meconium.

  18. Bleaching of fluorosis stains using sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Sharanesha, Rajashekhara Bhari

    2015-01-01

    Fluorosis staining is commonly considered an esthetic problem because of the psychological impact of unesthetic maxillary anterior teeth. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed, ranging from bleaching to enamel reduction to restorative techniques. Bleaching of hypomineralized enamel lesions, using 5% sodium hypochlorite, has been useful clinically. The technique described, in this case, appears to have advantages over other methods for improving the appearance of fluorotic lesions. It is simple, low cost, noninvasive, so the enamel keeps its structure, relatively rapid, and safe; it requires no special materials, and it can be used with safety on young permanent teeth. PMID:26538964

  19. Co-staining for Keratins 8/18 plus Ubiquitin Improves Detection of Hepatocyte Injury in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Cynthia D; Suzuki, Ayako; Burchette, James L; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Cardona, Diana; McCall, Shannon J; Ünalp, Aynur; Belt, Patricia; Ferrell, Linda D; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health dilemma. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. Ballooned hepatocytes (BH) are histologic manifestations of hepatocellular injury and are characteristic features of steatohepatitis (SH), the more severe form of NAFLD. Definitive histologic identification of BH on routine stains, however, can be difficult. Immunohistochemical (IHC) evidence for loss of the normal hepatocytic keratins 8/18 (K8/18) can serve as an objective marker of BH. We sought to explore the utility of a K8/18 plus ubiquitin (Ub) double IHC stain for the histologic evaluation of adult NAFLD. Double IHC staining for K8/18 and Ub was analyzed using 40 adult human NAFLD core liver biopsies. Ballooned hepatocytes lack K8/18 staining (KBH) as previously shown by others, but normal size hepatocytes with keratin loss (KH) are approximately five times greater in number than KBH. KBH, KH, and Ub deposits show a zonal distribution, are positively associated with each other, and are frequently found adjacent to or intermixed with fibrous matrix. All three lesions correlate with fibrosis stage and the H&E diagnosis of SH (all p values < 0.05). Compared to H&E staining, IHC staining improves the receiver operating characteristics curve for advanced fibrosis (0.77 vs. 0.83, 0.89, and 0.89 for KBH, KH, and Ub, respectively) because IHC is more sensitive and specific for fibrogenic hepatocellular injury than H&E staining. K8/18+Ub double IHC stain improves detection of hepatocyte injury in NAFLD. Thus, it may help differentiate NASH from NAFL. PMID:22036053

  20. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  1. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  2. Appearance and Distribution of Neuronal Cell Surface and Synaptic Vesicle Antigens in the Developing Rat Superior Cervical Ganglion1

    PubMed Central

    Greif, Karen F.; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against a neuronal cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan and against a synaptic vesicle protein were used to study the postnatal development of ganglionic neurons and synapses in the rat superior cervical ganglion. Antigen levels in developing ganglia were quantitated by radioimmune assays. Localization of antigens in adult and developing ganglia was carried out using peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry at the light microscopic level. Ultrastructural staining patterns in adult ganglia also were studied. The time course of antigen increases parallels those in previous reports on the accumulation of neurotransmitter enzymes within the ganglion. Both synaptic and surface antigens increase postnatally, with the most rapid changes occurring during the 2nd week. Antibodies stain adult tissue in patterns consistent with the expected distribution of antigens: antibodies directed against synaptic vesicles stain synaptic terminals and cell cytoplasm and those directed against surface proteoglycan stain the plasma membranes of neuronal cell bodies and processes. Variable staining of the cell cytoplasm also is observed. No apparent changes in antigen distribution are observed with the light microscope during development. Variations in the time course of the development of antigens associated with different portions of the proteoglycan molecule suggest that the intracellular processing of this molecule may vary during development. PMID:6212651

  3. JL1, a novel differentiation antigen of human cortical thymocyte

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Expression of a novel thymocyte differentiation antigen, JL1, defined by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) developed against human thymocytes showed a specificity for stage II double positive (CD4+CD8+) human cortical thymocytes. This antigen was not expressed at detectable levels on medullary thymocytes, mature peripheral leukocytes, bone marrow cells or on other types of tissues elsewhere in the human body. Immunohistologic analysis revealed that JL1 had a clear pattern of distribution on cortical thymocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I- labeled cell lysates from human thymocytes and Molt-4 leukemic cell line with anti-JL1 mAb yielded a 120-130-kD single chain glycoprotein. When immunoprecipitation of cell lysate was done after endoglycosidase F treatment, JL1 antigen was still detected by antibody but the band showed a reduction in apparent molecular mass of approximately 5 kD. This suggests that, although JL1 molecule contains carbohydrate group, this does not form a critical part of the antigenic determinant for anti-JL1 antibody. JL1 antigen appears to be the first double positive, stage-specific differentiation antigen of human thymocyte reported so far. This antigen would be a useful marker for lymphoblastic malignancy of stage II thymocyte origin and it may be involved in the thymocyte education process. PMID:8376947

  4. Measuring Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential by TMRE Staining.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main source of energy for metabolism. Mitochondria provide the majority of this ATP by a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. This process involves active transfer of positively charged protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane resulting in a net internal negative charge, known as the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). The proton gradient is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP by fusing adenosine diphosphate and free phosphate. The net negative charge across a healthy mitochondrion is maintained at approximately -180 mV, which can be detected by staining cells with positively charged dyes such as tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE). TMRE emits a red fluorescence that can be detected by flow cytometry or fluorescence microscopy and the level of TMRE fluorescence in stained cells can be used to determine whether mitochondria in a cell have high or low ΔΨm. Cytochrome c is essential for producing ΔΨm because it promotes the pumping the protons into the mitochondrial intermembrane space as it shuttles electrons from Complex III to Complex IV along the electron transport chain. Cytochrome c is released from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol during apoptosis. This impairs its ability to shuttle electrons between Complex III and Complex IV and results in rapid dissipation of ΔΨm. Loss of ΔΨm is therefore closely associated with cytochrome c release during apoptosis and is often used as a surrogate marker for cytochrome c release in cells.

  5. LIF spectroscopy of stained malignant breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Parvin, Parviz; Motlagh, Najme Sadat Hosseini; Abachi, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    We employ laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy to discriminate between normal and cancerous human breast (in-vitro) tissues. LIF signals are usually enhanced by the exogenous agents such as Rhodamine 6G (Rd6G) and Coumarin 7 (C7). Although we observe fluorescence emissions in both fluorophores, Rd6G–stained tissues give notable spectral red shift in practice. The latter is a function of dye concentration embedded in tissues. We find that such red shifts have a strong dependence on the dye concentration in bare, in stained healthy, and in malignant breast tissues, signifying variations in tubular abundances. In fact, the heterogeneity of cancerous tissues is more prominent mainly due to their notable tubular densities– which can provide numerous micro-cavities to house more dye molecules. We show that this can be used to discriminate between the healthy and unhealthy specimens in different biological scaffolds of ordered (healthy) and disordered (cancerous) tissues. It is demonstrated that the quenching process of fluorophore’ molecules slows down in the neoplastic tumors according to the micro-partitioning, too. PMID:28270964

  6. Treatment of port-wine stains: analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Welch, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) are bluish red skin stains that are caused by enlarged, ectatic blood vessels in the dermis. Laser treatment of PWS is analyzed from computation of the spatial distribution of heat production by direct absorption of the laser light and subsequent heat conduction. The absorption and scattering caused by oxyhemoglobin, epidermis, and dermis as a function of wavelength are utilized in this analysis. Ideal treatment is defined as coagulating the ectatic blood vessels without irreversible damage to the epidermis and dermis. The analysis shows that a millisecond pulsed, yellow dye laser at 577 nm (one of the large absorption bands in blood) is the laser of choice to treat PWS, offering as close to the ''ideal treatment'' as possible. The blue-green argon laser, which is currently the most frequently used laser for this purpose, is strongly recommended with irradiation times in milliseconds. Other lasers that are in clinical use, such as the red ruby and near-infrared Nd-YAG lasers, can provide selective treatment only when the epidermis is cooled concurrently. The CO/sub 2/ laser, on the other hand, can coagulate the blood vessels only through heat conduction from the hot epidermis; hence, it has neither the treatment selectivity nor any other physical option to force this selectivity.

  7. Karyometry: correction algorithm for differences in staining.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Peter H; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2009-04-01

    To describe an algorithm that allows the correction of differences in staining of histopathologic sections while preserving chromatin texture. In order to preserve the texture of the nuclear chromatin in the corrected digital imagery, it is necessary to correct the images pixel for pixel. This is accomplished by mapping each pixel's value onto the cumulative frequency distribution of the data set to which the image belongs, to transfer to the cumulative frequency distribution of the data set serving as standard and to project the intersection down onto the pixel optical density scale for the corrected value. Feature values in the corrected imagery, for the majority of features used in karyometry, are between < 1% and a few percent of the feature values in standard imagery. For some higher-order statistical features involving multiple pixels, sensitivity to a shift in the cumulative frequency distribution may exist, and a secondary small correction by a factor may be required. The correction algorithm allows the elimination of the effects of small staining differences on karyometric analysis.

  8. Blood stained cerebrospinal fluid responsible for false positive reactions of latex particle agglutination tests.

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, P A; Almeida, M S; Filho, G L; Batista, K W; Carvalho, A G; Pereira, C L

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of the latex particle agglutination test (LPAT) was assessed in blood stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 166 paediatric patients, aged from three months to 13 years. A commercial LPAT kit was used to detect Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis A, B, and C soluble antigens. Culture of CSF specimens was used as the standard and all laboratory procedures were performed blind. The mean CSF erythrocyte count was 66,406 cells/mm3 in the cases and 11,560 cells/mm3 in the controls. The sensitivity and the specificity of LPAT were 83.8 and 94.0%, respectively, suggesting that LPAT is a useful diagnostic tool even in blood stained CSF specimens. PMID:7876387

  9. Production, fixation, and staining of cells on slides for maximum photometric sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Harlow, Patrick M.; Vallarino, Lidia M.

    1994-07-01

    The need to detect increasingly low levels of antigens or polynucleotides in cells requires improvements in both the preparation and the staining of samples. The combination of centrifugal cytology with the use of glyoxal as cross-linking fixative produces monolayers of cells having minimum background fluorescence. Detection can be further improved by the use of a recently developed type of luminescent tag containing a lanthanide(III) ion as the light- emitting center. These novel tags are macrocyclic complexes functionalized with an isothiocyanate group to allow covalent coupling to a biosubstrate. The Eu(III) complex possesses a set of properties -- water solubility, inertness to metal release over a wide pH range, ligand-sensitized narrow-band luminescence, large Stoke's shift, and long excited-state lifetime -- that provides ease of staining as well as maximum signal with minimum interference from background autofluorescence. Luminescence efficiency studies indicate significant solvent effects.

  10. Romanowsky staining in cytopathology: history, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Krafts, K P; Pambuccian, S E

    2011-04-01

    If the entire discipline of diagnostic cytopathology could be distilled into a single theme, it would be the Papanicolaou stain. Yet it was the Romanowsky stain upon which the discipline of cytopathology was founded. Both stains are used today in the cytopathology laboratory, each for a different and complementary purpose. We trace the history of cytopathological stains and discuss the advantages and limitations of Romanowsky-type stains for cytological evaluation. We also provide suggestions for the advantageous use of Romanowsky-type stains in cytopathology.

  11. Technical report: immunofluorescence and TUNEL staining of celloidin embedded human temporal bone tissues.

    PubMed

    Markaryan, Adam; Nelson, Erik G; Tretiakova, Maria; Hinojosa, Raul

    2008-07-01

    The large archival human temporal bone collections of the world have been fixed in formalin and embedded in celloidin. These treatments have created challenges to the use of contemporary probes, which are routinely used in the evaluation of fresh and frozen tissues, for the analysis of archival temporal bone tissues. Formalin alters the configuration of proteins and can obscure antigens by modifying the epitopes recognized by antibodies. Celloidin embedding provides superior support of the delicate membranous structures of the inner ear to maintain tissue integrity during sectioning, however, inadequate removal of celloidin may limit tissue permeability resulting in poor penetration of large molecules. Methods are described in this manuscript that have allowed reproducible immunofluorescence and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling) staining results in these archival tissues. To our knowledge, successful immunofluorescence staining of type I collagen, immunofluorescence staining of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III), and TUNEL staining in archival human temporal bone tissues with confocal microscopy has not been previously reported. These results demonstrate the utility of developing techniques to evaluate the existing collections of archival temporal bones which remain our greatest source of tissue for investigating the causes of ear diseases.

  12. Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections based on examples of animal tissues for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Liu, Bin

    2017-03-20

    Oolong tea extract (OTE) was assessed for its potential as an electron stain to substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative analysis of the ultrastructures of biological specimens (i.e. compound eye and sciatic nerve tissue) stained by different methods (UA and 0.1% OTE) has been performed. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the OTE double staining method and the traditional double staining method, except the contrast in the OTE method was slightly lower than the UA method. Nevertheless, the OTE method yielded better or equal details in collagen fibres, neurofilaments and basal lamina in the mammalian sciatic nerve samples, as well as in the microvilli between the cornea and crystalline cone of the insect compound eye. On the whole, it was suggested that OTE could potentially be used as a nonradioactive and hazard-free alternative to UA in TEM staining.

  13. Proper paraffin slide storage is crucial for translational research projects involving immunohistochemistry stains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of paraffin slides and tissue microarrays (TMA) is indispensable for translational research. However, storage of paraffin slides over time has a substantial detrimental effect on the quality and reliability of immunohistochemistry stains. Particularly affected by this issue may be any collaborative efforts where paraffin slides or TMAs are shipped to central laboratories and then ‘biobanked’ for some time until use. This article summarizes some of the key issues affecting loss of antigenicity on paraffin slides and some simple storage solutions to help maintain high quality immunohistochemistry results when paraffin slides must be stored for a certain time prior to use. PMID:24636624

  14. Clinical studies to assess the extrinsic stain prevention and stain removal efficacy of a variant of a commercially available dentifrice containing a new dual silica system.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Salim; Singh, Surendra; Petrone, Dolores M; Wachs, Gerald N; Chaknis, Pat; DeVizio, William; Proskin, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these two six-week, double-blind clinical studies was to compare the extrinsic stain prevention (Study #1) and stain removal (Study #2) efficacy of a new dentifrice (Colgate Total Advanced Toothpaste) containing 0.3% triclosan/ 2.0% polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride in a 17% dual silica base, to a commercially available fluoride dentifrice without tooth whitening ingredients (Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste) containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base. Following baseline examinations for extrinsic tooth stain and an oral tissue examination, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the northern and central New Jersey, USA areas were randomized for each study into two treatment groups which were balanced for gender and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects received a full oral prophylaxis at the start of Study #1 only. All subjects were provided with their assigned product and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute twice daily (morning and evening) using only the dentifrice and toothbrush provided, and to refrain from using any other oral hygiene products for the entire six weeks of the study. There were no restrictions regarding diet or smoking habits during the course of the study. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain and oral tissue assessments were repeated after three weeks and six weeks of product use. One-hundred fourteen (114) subjects participating in Study #1 and 119 subjects participating in Study #2 complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. In both studies, at the three-week and the six-week examinations, subjects who used the new dentifrice exhibited statistically significantly lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain area and extrinsic tooth stain intensity than did those subjects who used the commercially available fluoride control dentifrice. A new dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2

  15. Differential levels of human leukocyte antigen-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 and androgen receptor expressions in untreated prostate cancer cells: the robustness of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shigenori; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Harada, Mamoru; Saya, Hideyuki; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo; Noguchi, Masanori

    2007-08-01

    Tumors are highly robust and maintain their proliferative potential against a wide range of both host-defense mechanisms and anticancer therapies. One of the approaches to overcome cancer robustness could be combined therapy in which each modality imposes independent selective pressures against the acquired mutation of cancer. To develop such a therapy, it is crucial to understand the magnitude of acquired mutations. In this study, we investigated the levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR1), and androgen receptor (AR) expressions in untreated prostate cancers harvested by radical prostatectomy. The mean percentages of cancer cells expressing HLA-class I, MDR and AR among the 10 cancer samples were 41, 35 and 74%, respectively. In addition, double-staining of HLA and MDR revealed the four definite populations (HLA+/MDR+, HLA+/MDR-, HLA-/MDR+ and HLA-/MDR-) in cancer tissues from the majority of cancer patients tested, and the mean percentages of cells expressing these combinations were 13, 29, 22 and 38%, respectively. Similar results were obtained by double-staining of HLA and AR, except for 2 cases in which HLA-/AR+ cancer cells predominated. These results indicated that untreated prostate cancer cells acquired a wide range of genomic mutations, which may have been caused by internal host pressure to eliminate malignant cells, and would provide evidence of the robustness of untreated prostate cancer.

  16. Antigen injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  17. Can Feulgen Stain be a Reliable Biomarker over PAP Stain for Estimation of Micronuclei Score?

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Umesh Chandra; Chandolia, Betina; Manjunath, S M; Basu, Shiva; Verma, Silvie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malignant transformation of the Potentially Malignant Lesions (PML) in the oral cavity is associated with elevated mortality rate because of its aggressive and exceedingly invasive nature. Meticulous diagnosis and prompt therapy of PML may help prevent malignant conversion in oral lesions. Carcinogenic insult to oral cells results in chromosomal damage and formation of Micronuclei (Mn), before the development of clinical symptoms. Aim To determine the genotoxic effect of smoking and chewing tobacco on target tissue using Mn assay and to evaluate the prevalence of other nuclear anomalies associated with it and to determine the reliability of feulgen stain for Mn assay over Papaincolau (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods PAP and feulgen staining was done to study Mn in individuals who were having tobacco habits (smoking and chewing) without lesion (n=30), individuals who were having tobacco habit (smoking and chewing) with PML (n=30) and apparently healthy subjects (n=30). Data was analysed for statistical significance using SPSS 17.0 by Kruskal - Wallis Test and Bonferronii test. Results Tobacco habits in the form of smoking and chewing have mutagenic effects on human chromosomes which is indicated by increased frequency of Mn in oral exfoliative cells. The mean Mn frequency using feulgen stain was found to be 12.27 with lesion, 10.23 with without lesion and 3.87 in controls. Whereas, metanucleated analysis revealed no significant correlation with the formation of Mn. Non-specific DNA stain (PAP) showed high numbers of Mn cells in all the groups compared to feulgen. Statistically significant difference (p<0.0001) was observed when both the stains were compared for Mn numbers. Conclusion These findings indicate that the individuals having tobacco habits (smoking and chewing) with lesion have high number of Mn cells, thus supporting the assay to be used as a reliable biomarker to assess the genotoxic effect of tobacco in the oral mucosa. The reason for

  18. Isolation and antigenicity of a 45-kilodalton Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodominant antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed human antibody responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular antigens by the immunoblot technique to identify specific cellular components and to investigate the existence of antigen profile differences among serological responses of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients. Among the 64 PCM serum samples analyzed, a relatively homogeneous immunoglobulin G response to P. brasiliensis antigens was observed. The polypeptide with a mass of 45 kDa was the most clinically important, since antibody to this antigen was detectable in 90.6% of PCM patients studied and the six individuals who did not produce antibody were either at the end of treatment or in the posttherapy period and had shown clinical recovery. These facts suggested that the presence of this antibody may be an indicator of active disease. The 45-kDa antigen was also the most specific antigen of the PCM humoral immune response, since it reacted with only 2 of 79 (2.5%) heterologous serum samples tested: 1 histoplasmosis case and 1 tuberculosis case. This polypeptide was isolated from gels by electroelution and, when tested by an immunoradiometric assay and immunoblotting, maintained its reactivity with PCM sera and also with anti-P. brasiliensis polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits at the same sensitivity levels as those obtained in immunoblotting with a crude antigen. Since in our assays the 45-kDa polypeptide was the major P. brasiliensis antigen and seemed to be specific for PCM, its use in alternative diagnostic methods is promising, especially in patients suspected of having the juvenile clinical form of PCM often associated with negative double-immunodiffusion results. Images PMID:1612736

  19. Isolation and antigenicity of a 45-kilodalton Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodominant antigen.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C

    1992-07-01

    In the present study, we analyzed human antibody responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular antigens by the immunoblot technique to identify specific cellular components and to investigate the existence of antigen profile differences among serological responses of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients. Among the 64 PCM serum samples analyzed, a relatively homogeneous immunoglobulin G response to P. brasiliensis antigens was observed. The polypeptide with a mass of 45 kDa was the most clinically important, since antibody to this antigen was detectable in 90.6% of PCM patients studied and the six individuals who did not produce antibody were either at the end of treatment or in the posttherapy period and had shown clinical recovery. These facts suggested that the presence of this antibody may be an indicator of active disease. The 45-kDa antigen was also the most specific antigen of the PCM humoral immune response, since it reacted with only 2 of 79 (2.5%) heterologous serum samples tested: 1 histoplasmosis case and 1 tuberculosis case. This polypeptide was isolated from gels by electroelution and, when tested by an immunoradiometric assay and immunoblotting, maintained its reactivity with PCM sera and also with anti-P. brasiliensis polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits at the same sensitivity levels as those obtained in immunoblotting with a crude antigen. Since in our assays the 45-kDa polypeptide was the major P. brasiliensis antigen and seemed to be specific for PCM, its use in alternative diagnostic methods is promising, especially in patients suspected of having the juvenile clinical form of PCM often associated with negative double-immunodiffusion results.

  20. Staining Protocols for Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha L.; Heiple, Tiffany; Montgomery, Emily; Zhang, Li; Schneider, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of islet area and numbers and endocrine cell composition in the adult human pancreas vary from several hundred thousand to several million and beta mass ranges from 500 to 1500 mg 1-3. With this known heterogeneity, a standard processing and staining procedure was developed so that pancreatic regions were clearly defined and islets characterized using rigorous histopathology and immunolocalization examinations. Standardized procedures for processing human pancreas recovered from organ donors are described in part 1 of this series. The pancreas is processed into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by transverse sections. Transverse sections from the pancreas head are further divided, as indicated based on size, and numbered alphabetically to denote subsections. This standardization allows for a complete cross sectional analysis of the head region including the uncinate region which contains islets composed primarily of pancreatic polypeptide cells to the tail region. The current report comprises part 2 of this series and describes the procedures used for serial sectioning and histopathological characterization of the pancreatic paraffin sections with an emphasis on islet endocrine cells, replication, and T-cell infiltrates. Pathology of pancreatic sections is intended to characterize both exocrine, ductular, and endocrine components. The exocrine compartment is evaluated for the presence of pancreatitis (active or chronic), atrophy, fibrosis, and fat, as well as the duct system, particularly in relationship to the presence of pancreatic intraductal neoplasia4. Islets are evaluated for morphology, size, and density, endocrine cells, inflammation, fibrosis, amyloid, and the presence of replicating or apoptotic cells using H&E and IHC stains. The final component described in part 2 is the provision of the stained slides as digitized whole slide images. The digitized slides are organized by case and pancreas region in an online pathology database

  1. Staining protocols for human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha L; Heiple, Tiffany; Montgomery, Emily; Zhang, Li; Schneider, Lynda

    2012-05-23

    Estimates of islet area and numbers and endocrine cell composition in the adult human pancreas vary from several hundred thousand to several million and beta mass ranges from 500 to 1500 mg. With this known heterogeneity, a standard processing and staining procedure was developed so that pancreatic regions were clearly defined and islets characterized using rigorous histopathology and immunolocalization examinations. Standardized procedures for processing human pancreas recovered from organ donors are described in part 1 of this series. The pancreas is processed into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by transverse sections. Transverse sections from the pancreas head are further divided, as indicated based on size, and numbered alphabetically to denote subsections. This standardization allows for a complete cross sectional analysis of the head region including the uncinate region which contains islets composed primarily of pancreatic polypeptide cells to the tail region. The current report comprises part 2 of this series and describes the procedures used for serial sectioning and histopathological characterization of the pancreatic paraffin sections with an emphasis on islet endocrine cells, replication, and T-cell infiltrates. Pathology of pancreatic sections is intended to characterize both exocrine, ductular, and endocrine components. The exocrine compartment is evaluated for the presence of pancreatitis (active or chronic), atrophy, fibrosis, and fat, as well as the duct system, particularly in relationship to the presence of pancreatic intraductal neoplasia. Islets are evaluated for morphology, size, and density, endocrine cells, inflammation, fibrosis, amyloid, and the presence of replicating or apoptotic cells using H&E and IHC stains. The final component described in part 2 is the provision of the stained slides as digitized whole slide images. The digitized slides are organized by case and pancreas region in an online pathology database creating a

  2. Studies on the effect of polyvinyl pyrrolidone on the activity of chlorhexidine mouthrinses: plaque and stain.

    PubMed

    Claydon, N; Addy, M; Jackson, R; Smith, S; Newcombe, R G

    2001-06-01

    Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was shown in vitro to reduce chlorhexidine induced, dietary staining without affecting the uptake of the antiseptic to the test substrate. The aim of these studies in vivo was to determine whether PVP affected plaque and dietary staining by a low concentration chlorhexidine rinse. The plaque and stain studies used a double blind, randomised 6, treatment crossover design involving healthy subjects with a high standard of oral hygiene and gingival health. The rinse formulations under test were: (A) aqueous alcohol (placebo control), (B) 0.03% chlorhexidine, (C) 0.06% chlorhexidine, (D) 0.06% chlorhexidine+1.2% PVP, (E) 0.06% chlorhexidine+5% PVP, (F) 0.06% chlorhexidine+10% PVP. In the plaque study, on day 1 of each period, subjects were rendered plaque free and then rinsed with 15 ml of the test rinse for 60 s. No further tooth cleaning was performed and subjects returned 24 h later for plaque scoring by area. In the stain study, on day 1 of each period, the tongue and teeth of each subject were rendered stain free. Subjects then rinsed under supervision for 60 s with 15 ml of the allocated rinse 8 x a day between 09:00 h and 17:00 h for 3 days. Immediately after each rinse with the test formulation, subjects rinsed for 120 s with 15 ml of warm black tea. Subjects were requested to also drink at least 5 cups of tea or coffee per day. On day 4, stain was scored by area and intensity from designated teeth and dorsum of the tongue. Washout periods were at least 7 days in both studies. Plaque areas were greatest with placebo and least with 0.06% chlorhexidine. Plaque scores increased with increasing concentrations of PVP in the 0.06% chlorhexidine rinse and were significantly higher than 0.06% chlorhexidine without PVP rinse. Tooth stain areas were comparable for placebo, 0.03% and 0.06% chlorhexidine rinses, but significantly reduced with the PVP/chlorhexidine rinses compared to the 0.06% chlorhexidine rinse. Tooth stain intensity was

  3. Antigen Retrieval Causes Protein Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Carol B.; Evers, David L.; O’Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Antigen retrieval (AR), in which formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections are briefly heated in buffers at high temperature, often greatly improves immunohistochemical staining. An important unresolved question regarding AR is how formalin treatment affects the conformation of protein epitopes and how heating unmasks these epitopes for subsequent antibody binding. The objective of the current study was to use model proteins to determine the effect of formalin treatment on protein conformation and thermal stability in relation to the mechanism of AR. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify the presence of protein formaldehyde cross-links, and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry was used to determine the effect of formalin treatment and high-temperature incubation on the secondary and tertiary structure of the model proteins. Results revealed that for some proteins, formalin treatment left the native protein conformation unaltered, whereas for others, formalin denatured tertiary structure, yielding a molten globule protein. In either case, heating to temperatures used in AR methods led to irreversible protein unfolding, which supports a linear epitope model of recovered protein immunoreactivity. Consequently, the core mechanism of AR likely centers on the restoration of normal protein chemical composition coupled with improved accessibility to linear epitopes through protein unfolding. PMID:21411808

  4. [Histochemical staining using silver salts using a microwave oven].

    PubMed

    Balaton, A

    1987-01-01

    Some metallic impregnations--Fontana-Masson, Warthin-Starry, Grocott's methenamine silver, Grimelius' and Dieterle's stains have been modified to use a microwave oven. Microwave bombardment markedly reduces the staining times and produces a cleaner background.

  5. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  6. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong-Hoon; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yun, Na-Ra; Shin, Sung-Heui; Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Dong-Min

    2012-09-28

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi). We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens, serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O. tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes. This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis. Thus, scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses, which causes severe lobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration, necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis, such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  7. Ultrafast tissue staining with chemical tags

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Johannes; Ng, Julian; Cachero, Sebastian; Ciabatti, Ernesto; Dolan, Michael-John; Sutcliffe, Ben; Tozer, Adam; Ruehle, Sabine; Krueger, Daniel; Frechter, Shahar; Branco, Tiago; Tripodi, Marco; Jefferis, Gregory S. X. E.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and immunostaining are widely used to detect cellular and subcellular structures in fixed biological samples. However, for thick or whole-mount tissue, each approach suffers from limitations, including limited spectral flexibility and lower signal or slow speed, poor penetration, and high background labeling, respectively. We have overcome these limitations by using transgenically expressed chemical tags for rapid, even, high-signal and low-background labeling of thick biological tissues. We first construct a platform of widely applicable transgenic Drosophila reporter lines, demonstrating that chemical labeling can accelerate staining of whole-mount fly brains by a factor of 100. Using viral vectors to deliver chemical tags into the mouse brain, we then demonstrate that this labeling strategy works well in mice. Thus this tag-based approach drastically improves the speed and specificity of labeling genetically marked cells in intact and/or thick biological samples. PMID:25157152

  8. Estrogen staining in breast carcinoma by PAP methods compared to CEA and ferritin staining.

    PubMed

    Osamu, K; Takashi, M; Yohichi, T; Yasuo, U; Tetsuro, Y; Yoshiro, F; Toshio, T

    1987-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to demonstrate the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin in breast carcinomas, fibroadenomas, and fibrocystic diseases; to examine whether the findings of endogenous estrogen using the immunohistochemical detection method are related to estrogen receptor (ER) assays; and to determine whether the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin were related to the prognosis of breast carcinomas. In breast cancer, the stainability of estrogen using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method was positively correlated with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay for ER. In breast cancers, the percentage of positive staining was 46% for estrogen, 48% for CEA, and 47% for ferritin. With all three stains, significant differences were observed between cancer and benign diseases. Cases that were both positive for estrogen staining and negative for CEA showed a good prognosis after the recurrence of disease. Our data suggest that the immunohistochemical staining of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin might predict the biological behavior of breast carcinomas and be a prognostically useful indicator of breast cancer patients.

  9. Rapid-air-dry papanicolaou stain in canine and feline tumor cytology: a quantitative comparison with the Giemsa stain.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Mariko; Yabuki, Akira; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Arai, Kou; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The Papanicolaou stain is a gold-standard staining method for tumor diagnosis in human cytology. However, it has not been used routinely in veterinary cytology, because of its complicated multistep procedure and requirement for wet fixation. Currently, a rapid Papanicolaou stain using air-dried smears is utilized in human cytology, but usefulness of this rapid-air-dry Papanicolaou (RAD-Pap) stain in the veterinary field has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the RAD-Pap stain by using quantitative analysis. Air-dried impression smears were collected from tumor specimens and stained with RAD-Pap and Giemsa. Twelve parameters representing the criteria of malignancy were quantitated, and characteristics of the RAD-Pap were evaluated statistically. The RAD-Pap stain could be applied to all the smears, and images of nucleoli and chromatin patterns were clear and detailed. In quantitative analysis with the RAD-Pap stain, but not with the Giemsa stain, dispersion of nucleolus size and dispersion of nucleolus/nucleus ratio in malignant tumors were significantly higher than those in benign tumors. These findings demonstrated that the RAD-Pap stain was useful for obtaining detailed nuclear information, and the ability to differentiate benignity and malignancy by nucleolus findings was a principal advantage of this stain. This RAD-Pap stain could be routinely used as a supportive staining method in veterinary diagnostic cytology.

  10. LOCALIZATION OF ANTIGEN IN TISSUE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Albert H.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Kaplan, Melvin H.

    1951-01-01

    The fate of three proteins, crystalline hen's egg albumin, crystalline bovine plasma albumin, and human plasma γ-globulin, was traced after intravenous injection into mice. This was done by preparing frozen sections of quick-frozen tissue, allowing what foreign protein might be present in the section to react with homologous antibody labelled with fluorescein, and examining the section under the fluorescence microscope. By this means, which employs the serological specificity of the protein as a natural "marker," all three of these proteins were found in the cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, the connective tissue, the vascular endothelium, the lymphocytes of spleen and lymph node, and the epithelium of the kidney tubules, the liver, and in very small amounts in the adrenal. The central nervous system was not studied. All three persisted longest in the reticulo-endothelial system and the connective tissue, and in the doses employed egg white (10 mg.) was no longer detectable after 1 day, bovine albumin (10 mg.) after 2 days, and human γ-globulin (4 mg.) after 6 days, although in a somewhat higher dose (10 mg.) human γ-globulin persisted longer than 8 days. Egg albumin differed from the others in not being detectable in the cells of the renal glomerulus. It was found that each of the three proteins was present in the nuclei of each cell type enumerated above, often in higher concentration than in the cytoplasm. Further, some of the nuclei not only contained antigen, soon after injection, but were also surrounded by a bright ring associated with the nuclear membrane. By means of photographic records under the fluorescence microscope of sections stained for antigen, and direct observation under the light microscope of the same field subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin, it could be determined that the antigen was not adsorbed to chromatin or nucleoli, but was apparently in solution in the nuclear sap. PMID:14803641

  11. Exploring methods for prevention of oxidative stain in soft maple

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Wiemann; Richard D. Bergman; Mark Knaebe; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    Interior gray enzymatic oxidative stain for white woods such as maple has plagued the wood industry for many years because methods that have been found to reduce stain are hard to scale up to industrial levels. We examined possible alternative treatments to eliminate stain in soft maple (Acer rubrum L.), and found that exposure to sulfur dioxide gas eliminates interior...

  12. Cigarette staining and cleaning of a maxillofacial silicone

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R.; Koran, A.; Raptis, C.N.; Craig, R.G.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, a maxillofacial silicone elastomer was stained with cigarette smoke. The stain was then removed by solvent extraction using 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The cigarette smoke produced large color changes in the elastomer as measured from spectrophotometric reflectance curves. The solvent was totally effective in removing the cigarette stain without changing the color of the silicone base.

  13. Lignin staining ...a limited success in identifying koa growth rings

    Treesearch

    Herbert L. Wick

    1970-01-01

    Among the lignin stains tested in trying to identify growth rings in koa (Acacia koa Gray), phloroglucinol was the most effective. The light colored sapwood of mature trees stained readily, with growth rings apparent. But staining failed to emphasize rings in the dark colored heartwood. Growth rings were not apparent on samples from young fast...

  14. Coomassie-Brilliant Blue staining of polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Claudia; Koristka, Stefanie; Feldmann, Anja; Bartsch, Holger; Bachmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Over the past, a series of staining procedures for proteins were published. The most commonly used staining dye for proteins is still Coomassie-Brilliant Blue. The major reason is Coomassie-Brilliant Blue staining is simple, fast, and sensitive. As Coomassie-Brilliant Blue is almost insoluble in water, a series of procedures including colloidal aqueous procedures were described.

  15. Control of brown stain: in Eastern white pine

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Stutz; Peter Koch; Millard L. Oldham

    1961-01-01

    Degrade caused by brown stain and blue stain in eastern white pine was virtually eliminated by the use of sap stain chemicals and sodium azide. Combinations of buffered sodium azide with both sodium pentachlorophenate plus borax and buffered ethyl mercury phosphate were effective.

  16. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  19. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. ...

  20. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  1. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  2. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton ...

  3. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  4. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  5. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. ...

  6. [Adaptation of the avidin-biotin system for identifying and quantifying Sendai virus antigens].

    PubMed

    Popa, L M; Marcheş, F; Repanovici, R; Iliescu, R; Muţiu, A; Cajal, N

    1989-01-01

    The avidin-biotin system was adapted in view of the identification and dosage of the Sendai parainfluenza virus and of its antigens, using the method of double antibodies (biotinylated and nonbiotinylated) in ELISA type tests.

  7. [Application of Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescence Staining in Detection of Phospholipase A2 Receptor on Paraffin Section of Renal Biopsy Tissue].

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan-yan; Wang, Guo-qin; Sun, Li-jun; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Yi-pu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the application of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence staining method in the detection of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) on paraffin section of renal biopsy tissue,and to find an accurate and fast method for the detection of PLA2R in renal tissue. The PLA2R of 193 cases were detected by immunohistochemical staining,and the antigen was repaired by the method of high pressure cooker (HPC) hot repair plus trypsin repair. The 193 samples including 139 cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), 15 cases of membranous lupus nephritis, 8 cases of hepatitis B virus associated membranous nephropathy, 18 cases of IgA nephropathy, and 13 cases of minimal change diseases. To compare the dyeing effects, 22 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 4 different. of antigen repairing,which included HPC hot repair, HPC hot repair plus trypsin repair, water bath heat repair, and water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair. To compare the dyeing effects, 15 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 3 different. of antigen repairing,which included water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair, protease K digestion repair, and pepsin digestion repair. In 193 cases, the positive rate of PLA2R in IMN cases was 90.6% (126/139), and the other 54 patients without IMN were negative. Twenty-two IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using the HPC heat repair plus trypsin repaire or the water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair;while only a few cases of 22 IMN cases were positive by using the HPC hot repair alone or water bath heat repair alone. Fifteen IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair,protease K digestion repair,and pepsin digestion repair, but the distribution of positive deposits and the background were different. PLA2R immunohistochemical staining can effectively identify IMN and secondary MN. For

  8. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tablet, at a cost of 1.70 rupees (∼3·5 US cents) per tablet. This mucolytic solution effectively clears the mucus, facilitating the accessibility of the antibody to the antigenic determinants. This pretreatment resulted in the increased percentage of positively stained cells as well as staining intensity, leading to improved overall ICC staining and score. This is a novel modification that can be cost-effectively applied in ICC staining protocols for cytology samples characterized by the presence of excess mucus. PMID:25620823

  9. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar αSMA + CD146 + PDGFRβ+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFRβ immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  10. Microwave-Assisted Tissue Preparation for Rapid Fixation, Decalcification, Antigen Retrieval, Cryosectioning, and Immunostaining

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microwave irradiation of tissue during fixation and subsequent histochemical staining procedures significantly reduces the time required for incubation in fixation and staining solutions. Minimizing the incubation time in fixative reduces disruption of tissue morphology, and reducing the incubation time in staining solution or antibody solution decreases nonspecific labeling. Reduction of incubation time in staining solution also decreases the level of background noise. Microwave-assisted tissue preparation is applicable for tissue fixation, decalcification of bone tissues, treatment of adipose tissues, antigen retrieval, and other special staining of tissues. Microwave-assisted tissue fixation and staining are useful tools for histological analyses. This review describes the protocols using microwave irradiation for several essential procedures in histochemical studies, and these techniques are applicable to other protocols for tissue fixation and immunostaining in the field of cell biology. PMID:27840640

  11. [Isolation and physico-chemical characteristics of human cancerocerebral antigen].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, P G; Borisenko, S A; Tatarinov, Iu S

    1984-01-01

    During gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 human cancerocerebral antigen (CCA) was eluted as two protein fractions with molecular mass of 135,000 and 270.000 daltons. Only one band of protein with molecular mass of about 15,000 daltons was noted after electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gel containing SDS. As characteristic properties of CCA were recognized an electrophoretic polymorphism and a distinct trend to polymerization and isomeria. The antigen was not stained with dyes designed for staining base proteins, lipo-,glyco- and ferroproteins; CCA was thermostable (5 min at 80 degrees), it was inactivated by trypsin and protease but was resistant to pronase, hexokinase, alpha-amylase and beta-glucuronidase. A procedure was developed for isolation of CCA from brain, including fractionation with ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. The procedure enabled to obtain the CCA preparations suitable for radioimmunological, immunobiological assays and amino acid analyses.

  12. Evaluation of Gastrothylax crumenifer antigenic preparation in serodiagnosis of paramphistomiasis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tariq; Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Cheshti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Fomada, Bashir Ahmad; Raina, O K

    2014-04-01

    An evaluation of Gastrothylax crumenifer crude antigen preparation viz., Somatic Antigen (SAg), Excretory Secretory Antigen (ESAg) and Egg Antigen (EAg) in serodiagnosis of disease was undertaken. Test sera samples were obtained from 30 Paramphistomiasis Positive and 30 Gastrothylax free sheep slaughtered at Hazratbal Kashmir. The referral antigenic preparation were evaluated against Paramphistomiasis positive sera, via., control negative sera, using double immunodiffusion test (DID), (IEP) Immunoelectrophoretic assay and ELISA. The performance of referral antigens, as assessed from percent sensitivity and specificity, revealed an increasing trend from DID (Double immunodiffusion-An immunological technique used in the detection, identification and quantification of antibodies and antigens) to IEP (immunoelectrophoresis-A general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies), followed by ELISA, detecting higher number of sheep positive for paramphistomiasis. In ELISA the ESAg and SAg were evaluated as most reactive antigens with no significant difference and EAg was the least antigenic. In IEP, EAg had the higher sensitivity (60%) and analogous specificity of SAg and ESAg. The formation of the preceptin lines in the proximity to EAg containing wells (cathode end) in IEP was suggestive of higher molecular weight of G. crumenifer specific protein molecules with slower rate of migration. Purification and characterization of G. crumenifer and identification of specific antigenic molecules, particularly in EAg has been suggested for qualitative improvement of diagnostic value of the antigens in the tests used here in.

  13. Laboratory investigation of Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush and Oral-B indicator toothbrush for the removal of dental stains.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Carl J; Kemp, James H; Moore, Michael H; Mintel, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the stain-removal efficacy of a newly designed manual toothbrush, the Colgate 360 degrees, relative to a commercially available toothbrush, the Oral-B Indicator. A modification of Stookey et al was used to evaluate the stain-removal effects of toothbrushes instead of dentifrice on bovine teeth. A V.8 mechanical cross-brushing machine equipped with the test toothbrushes and adjusted to 500g to enamel surfaces evaluated stain removal using a dentifrice slurry and water after 800 double strokes. The overall results of this laboratory investigation indicate that the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush is more effective, P < .05, than the commercial Oral-B Indicator toothbrush in removing dental stain and brightening teeth using a standard toothpaste or water.

  14. Clinical efficacy of an optimized stannous fluoride dentifrice, Part 5: A 3-month study of extrinsic tooth staining, northeast USA.

    PubMed

    Bosma, M L; Besho, R W; Walley, D; Mankodi, S; Petrone, M E; Chaknis, P; DeVizio, W; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 3-month, double-blind clinical study was to investigate the level of tooth staining associated with the use of Colgate Optimized Stannous Fluoride (COSF) dentifrice compared to the tooth staining associated with two commercially available dentifrices. The results of this clinical study support the conclusion that the intensity and extent of extrinsic tooth stain associated with the use of the COSF dentifrice are significantly lower than that associated with Crest Gum Care Toothpaste. Further, this study provided no indication that the use of the COSF dentifrice is associated with a greater level of stain than that associated with the use of Crest Regular Toothpaste, a standard 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica dentifrice.

  15. Double helicenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrach, Steven M.

    2016-12-01

    The even double helicenes with 4-12 phenyl groups in each helix were examined at B3LYP-D3/6-311G(d). The double helicenes with 4-10 phenyl rings are less than twice as strained as their component helicenes; the strain results from twisting about the shared naphthyl moiety, with accompanying loss of aromaticity. These compounds should be reasonable synthetic targets, and computed NMR shifts are provided to aid in their characterization.

  16. AntigenMap 3D: an online antigenic cartography resource

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, J. Lamar; Yang, Jialiang; Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Antigenic cartography is a useful technique to visualize and minimize errors in immunological data by projecting antigens to 2D or 3D cartography. However, a 2D cartography may not be sufficient to capture the antigenic relationship from high-dimensional immunological data. AntigenMap 3D presents an online, interactive, and robust 3D antigenic cartography construction and visualization resource. AntigenMap 3D can be applied to identify antigenic variants and vaccine strain candidates for pathogens with rapid antigenic variations, such as influenza A virus. Availability and implementation: http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap3D Contact: wan@cvm.msstate.edu; wanhenry@yahoo.com PMID:22399675

  17. A six-week clinical efficacy study of four commercially available dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Yankell, S L; Emling, R C; Petrone, M E; Rustogi, K; Volpe, A R; DeVizio, W; Chaknis, P; Proskin, H M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the efficacy for extrinsic tooth stain removal of four commercially available dentifrices: Colgate Tartar Control with Baking Soda & Peroxide Fluoride Toothpaste; Aquafresh Advanced Whitening Toothpaste with Fluoride; Rembrandt Tartar Control Low Abrasion Fluoride Whitening Toothpaste; and Crest Regular Fluoride Toothpaste. Following a baseline examination for extrinsic tooth stain on the anterior six mandibular and maxillary teeth, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area were randomized into four treatment groups which were balanced for age, gender, tobacco habits, and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain were repeated after six weeks' use of the study dentifrices. One hundred eighty (180) subjects complied with the protocol, and completed the entire study. At the six-week examination, subjects assigned to the Colgate Tartar Control with Baking Soda & Peroxide Fluoride Toothpaste treatment group exhibited statistically lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain area and extrinsic tooth stain intensity than did those subjects assigned to the Crest Regular Fluoride treatment group. Subjects assigned to the Aquafresh Advanced Whitening treatment group exhibited significantly lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain area than did those assigned the Crest Regular Fluoride group. No other significant differences among the four study dentifrices were noted. Thus, the results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that Colgate Tartar Control with Baking Soda & Peroxide Fluoride Toothpaste provides significantly greater control of extrinsic tooth stain than does Crest Regular Fluoride, a sodium fluoride/silica dentifrice.

  18. The effect of using a pre-brushing mouthwash (Plax) on removal of tooth stain in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mills, D C; Smith, S R; Chung, L

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of a pre-brushing mouthwash Plax reduced extrinsic tooth-staining in vivo and in vitro. Firstly, in a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over study, 20 subjects with tooth staining used Plax or a placebo for 14-day periods separated by a 1-month wash-out period. The area of stain was assessed before and after each mouthwash had been used from clinical photographs. Secondly, extracted 3rd molar teeth were stained with tea and chlorhexidine. After exposure to either Plax or placebo, the teeth were brushed in a standardized manner. The area and intensity of stain were assessed before and after rinsing and brushing. Results of the study in vivo showed that the mean % stained area for any of the surfaces studied changed very little throughout the study. No statistically significant changes were detected (Student t-test, p > 0.05). Results of the study in vitro showed that the mean area of stain fell by 19% after exposure to Plax and by 17% after exposure to placebo. No statistically significant changes were detected (Student t-test, p > 0.05). There were also no significant changes in intensity (Wilcoxon signed rank sum test p > 0.1).

  19. [Comparative study of root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by cone-beam CT and canal staining and clearing technique].

    PubMed

    Wen, Shan-hui; Lin, Zi-tong; Zhu, Min; Ge, Jiu-yu; Wang, Tie-mei

    2016-02-01

    To compare the root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by using cone-beam CT (CBCT) and canal staining and clearing technique. Sixty-one extracted mandibular incisors with complete dental root and apex which received no endodontic treatment and no post crown restoration were selected. Each tooth was radiographed with CBCT, and the root canal system was stained by canal staining and clearing technique. The consistency of the number of root canal, root canal Vertucci type of mandibular permanent incisors between the two methods were compared, and the differences of the detection rate on root canal branch structure between the two methods were analyzed. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. The Kappa value of single and double root canal types between CBCT and canal staining and clearing technique was 0.847 (P<0.001). The Kappa value of Vertucci root canal types between CBCT and canal staining and clearing technique was 0.861 (P<0.001). The detection rates of root canal branch structure were 8.19% and 22.95%, respectively, with significant difference between the two methods (P=0.025). The canal staining and clearing technique was significantly better than CBCT in detection of root canal branch structure. CBCT can reflect the root canal types nearly perfectly, but inferior to canal staining and clearing technique in detection of root canal branch structure, CBCT is a relatively accurate clinical diagnosis tool of root canal morphology.

  20. A comparative clinical study evaluating stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity whitening dentifrice compared to commercially available whitening dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nathan; Maggio, Brenda; Sufi, Farzana; Mason, Stephen; Kleber, Carl J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity dentifrice containing sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) to marketed whitening toothpastes after six weeks of product use. This was a single-center, double-blind, stratified, six-week clinical study comparing the reduction in stain area and intensity of Sensodyne Extra Whitening to Crest Maximum Strength Sensitivity Protection Whitening plus Scope and Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Mint dentifrice, as measured by MacPherson's Modification of the Lobene Stain Index (MMLSI) in a forced stain model. Two-hundred and ninety-five subjects completed the study. Tooth stain MMSLI scores showed significant differences between Sensodyne and Crest dentifrices in favor of Sensodyne for all surface sites (p = 0.014), and individually for facial (p = 0.023), lingual (p = 0.027), and interproximal (p = 0.014) surfaces. No significant statistical differences between Sensodyne and Colgate dentifrices were observed for any of the surfaces. Results from this stain removal clinical study demonstrate significant extrinsic stain removal efficacy for all dentifrices relative to baseline. Significant differences between the two marketed sensitivity whitening dentifrices were demonstrated in favor of the new Sensodyne Sensitivity Whitening dentifrice.

  1. Centrifuge-operated specimen staining method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of staining preselected, mounted specimens of either biological or nonbiological material enclosed within a staining chamber where the liquid staining reagents are applied and removed from the staining chamber using hypergravity as the propelling force. In the preferred embodiment, a spacecraft-operated centrifuge and method of diagnosing biological specimens while in orbit, characterized by hermetically sealing a shell assembly. The assembly contains slide stain apparatus with computer control therefor, the operative effect of which is to overcome microgravity, for example on board an International Space Station.

  2. Automated single-slide staining device. [in clinical bacteriology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    An automatic single-slide Gram staining device is described. A timer-actuated solenoid controls the dispensing of gentian violet, Gram iodine solution, decolorizer, and 1% aqueous safranin in proper sequence and for the time required for optimum staining. The amount of stain or reagent delivered is controlled by means of stopcocks below each solenoid. Used stains and reagents can be flushed automatically or manually. Smears Gram stained automatically are equal in quality to those prepared manually. The time to complete one Gram cycle is 4.80 min.

  3. Case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis: Gram staining as a useful initial diagnostic clue for tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Sayoko; Kawamura, Yasuyosi; Nishiyama, Kyouhei; Hatanaka, Hiroki; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Ono, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Nishiya, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    A 32-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever, headache, and loss of consciousness. Four days before admission, he had had difficulty speaking. On the day of admission, his colleague had found him to be unconscious and lying on his back. He was admitted to our hospital. The temperature at the eardrum was 35.2°C. Neurologic evaluation was negative. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed slight ventricular enlargement bilaterally. An X-ray film of the chest showed no abnormality. On the second hospital day, neck stiffness was noted. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained 870 white cells/μl, most of which were neutrophils; the glucose level in the CSF was 10 mg/dl, and the protein level was 140 mg/dl. Stained smears of the CSF, including Gram staining and India-ink preparations, disclosed no microorganisms. Capsular antigen tests for several bacteria were negative. Antimicrobial agents were started. However, by changing the microscope focus slightly while viewing Gram stains of the CSF, we could see brightened and Gram-positive bacilli that had been phagocytosed by neutrophils. This finding suggested the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the CSF and gastric juice revealed anti-acid bacilli. Polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis in the gastric juice was positive. This case showed that Gram staining could be useful as an initial adjunct for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis, particularly when the CSF shows predominantly neutrocytic pleocytosis, but no other evidence of bacterial meningitis.

  4. Ciliary microtubule capping structures contain a mammalian kinetochore antigen

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Structures that cap the plus ends of microtubules may be involved in the regulation of their assembly and disassembly. Growing and disassembling microtubules in the mitotic apparatus are capped by kinetochores and ciliary and flagellar microtubules are capped by the central microtubule cap and distal filaments. To compare the ciliary caps with kinetochores, isolated Tetrahymena cilia were stained with CREST (Calcinosis/phenomenon esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) antisera known to stain kinetochores. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that a CREST antiserum stained the distal tips of cilia that contained capping structures but did not stain axonemes that lacked capping structures. Both Coomassie blue- stained gels and Western blots probed with CREST antiserum revealed that a 97-kD antigen copurifies with the capping structures. Affinity- purified antibodies to the 97-kD ciliary protein stained the tips of cap-containing Tetrahymena cilia and the kinetochores in HeLa, Chinese hamster ovary, and Indian muntjak cells. These results suggest that at least one polypeptide found in the kinetochore is present in ciliary microtubule capping structures and that there may be a structural and/or functional homology between these structures that cap the plus ends of microtubules. PMID:2106524

  5. Factors relating to dental stain formation in the rat.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J L; Schemehorn, B R; Stookey, G K

    1985-05-01

    A series of studies was conducted to investigate the use of the rat as an in vivo model for studies of dental stain and to identify dietary factors which influence stain formation in this model. It was determined that appreciable amounts of stain formed on the molar teeth of rats provided a synthetic diet containing lactalbumin, and the amount of stain increased throughout a four-week test period. Stain formation was also observed when rats were provided their diet by gastric intubation. Topical applications of chlorhexidine generally resulted in an increase in stain formation, as did the presence of tea in the drinking water. These studies support the use of the rat for investigations of dental stain.

  6. Zirconyl hematoxylin: a new stain for acidic mucins.

    PubMed

    Smith, A A

    2000-05-01

    Most stains for acidic mucins are time-consuming to prepare and have poor stability. Zirconyl hematoxylin is easily prepared and works for a year or more. It is made by adding 5 ml freshly-made 0.1% aqueous sodium iodate, 400 mg zirconyl chloride octahydrate, and 40 ml 25% aqueous glycerol, in that order, to 100 mg of hematoxylin in 5 ml of absolute ethanol and stirring for 5 min. Stain 10 min and do not "blue" the stain. Chlorazole black or kernechtrot and fast green are good counterstains. Zirconyl hematoxylin stains acidic mucins violet or red violet, regardless of how they are fixed. It stains the same mucins as alcian blue in mouse and sheep salivary glands. It shows goblet cells in mouse rectum as well as alcian blue. It stains the same stomach regions in a lizard as alcian blue. Like alcian blue and colloidal iron, zirconyl hematoxylin stains the mucin of cancerous prostate, but not normal prostate.

  7. Clinical evaluation of the stain removal efficacy of a novel stannous fluoride and sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Terézhalmy, Geza; Chaves, Eros; Bsoul, Samer; Baker, Robert; He, Tao

    2007-02-01

    Recently, sodium hexametaphosphate has been introduced in dentifrice formulations to aid in the control of extrinsic stain. Two independent studies were conducted to evaluate the stain removal efficacy of a novel 0.454% stannous fluoride and sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice (Crest Pro-Health) relative to a positive control whitening dentifrice (Colgate Total + Whitening) over a 2-week period in a subject population with pre-existing natural extrinsic stain. These studies were randomized, positive-controlled, parallel groups, double-blind, 2-week trials. Each study involved approximately 30 healthy adults with visible stain of the facial surfaces of the 12 anterior teeth. After baseline examination, subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment and instructed to brush unsupervised with the assigned dentifrice at least twice daily as they normally do. Efficacy was evaluated by modified Lobene examination on anterior teeth at baseline and end-of treatment (Week 2). 59 subjects, 29 in Study 1 and 30 in Study 2, were evaluable and included in the Week 2 analyses. Subjects ranged from 21-68 years of age. In each study, the positive control dentifrice statistically significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced stain scores following 2 weeks of brushing with median reductions of 61.9% and 94.4%. Similarly, the experimental 0.454% stannous fluoride and sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice statistically significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced stain scores by 61.8% and 96.6% following 2 weeks of brushing. The adjusted mean changes between treatment groups did not differ significantly between the two dentifrice groups (P > 0.70 in each study). Both dentifrices were well tolerated. No subject discontinued treatment due to an adverse event.

  8. Safranine fluorescent staining of wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bond, J; Donaldson, L; Hill, S; Hitchcock, K

    2008-06-01

    Safranine is an azo dye commonly used for plant microscopy, especially as a stain for lignified tissues such as xylem. Safranine fluorescently labels the wood cell wall, producing green/yellow fluorescence in the secondary cell wall and red/orange fluorescence in the middle lamella (ML) region. We examined the fluorescence behavior of safranine under blue light excitation using a variety of wood- and fiber-based samples of known composition to interpret the observed color differentiation of different cell wall types. We also examined the basis for the differences in fluorescence emission using spectral confocal microscopy to examine lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls including reaction wood and decayed wood compared to normal wood. Our results indicate that lignin-rich cell walls, such as the ML of tracheids, the secondary wall of compression wood tracheids, and wood decayed by brown rot, tend to fluoresce red or orange, while cellulose-rich cell walls such as resin canals, wood decayed by white rot, cotton fibers and the G-layer of tension wood fibers, tend to fluoresce green/yellow. This variation in fluorescence emission seems to be due to factors including an emission shift toward red wavelengths combined with dye quenching at shorter wavelengths in regions with high lignin content. Safranine fluorescence provides a useful way to differentiate lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls without counterstaining as required for bright field microscopy.

  9. Chromatin texture from hematoxylin stained thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Roca, O; Pérez Gómez, J A; Estévez, M

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of cytology and histology should be considered in diagnostic standardisation processes. The present paper summarises the cytological differences detected in 75 thyroid lesions using a computerized textural analysis. Cells stained with progressive hematoxylin and taken from paraffin blocks were overlaid with the extracted texture. This technique was based on the lineal detection of a grey level gradient of the common logarithm of the integrated optical density (IOD) of each nucleus. Diffuse and nodular goiters (36 cases) were demonstrated to be composed of small cells containing high density texture that, on microscopical visual inspection, gave a "salt and pepper" appearance. The adenomatous goiters (2 cases) and adenomas (26 cases) were composed of low texture cells with a visual "blurry or smudgy" chromatin, while the atypical adenomas with capsular invasion (4 cases) were characterised by a "woodworm" nuclear appearance that produced the highest texture of the series. Finally, encapsulated folliculo-papillary carcinomas (3 cases) were composed of large clear nuclei with high IOD, low texture, and scattered lines that resulted in an "empty grape skin" aspect. Our findings seam to confirm the suitability of computerized textural techniques that aid in recognizing cell microscopic features objectively. The one used in the present work, based on a mathematical function of the DNA content of each individual nucleus (IOD), fulfills all microscopy detection criteria.

  10. Chromatin Texture from Hematoxylin Stained Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga; Pérez Gómez, José A.; Estévez, Maritza

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of cytology and histology should be considered in diagnostic standardisation processes. The present paper summarises the cytological differences detected in 75 thyroid lesions using a computerized textural analysis. Cells stained with progressive hematoxylin and taken from paraffin blocks were overlaid with the extracted texture. This technique was based on the lineal detection of a grey level gradient of the common logarithm of the integrated optical density (IOD) of each nucleus. Diffuse and nodular goiters (36 cases) were demonstrated to be composed of small cells containing high density texture that, on microscopical visual inspection, gave a “salt and pepper” appearance. The adenomatous goiters (2 cases) and adenomas (26 cases) were composed of low texture cells with a visual “blurry or smudgy” chromatin, while the atypical adenomas with capsular invasion (4 cases) were characterised by a “woodworm” nuclear appearance that produced the highest texture of the series. Finally, encapsulated folliculo-papillary carcinomas (3 cases) were composed of large clear nuclei with high IOD, low texture, and scattered lines that resulted in an “empty grape skin” aspect. Our findings seam to confirm the suitability of computerized textural techniques that aid in recognizing cell microscopic features objectively. The one used in the present work, based on a mathematical function of the DNA content of each individual nucleus (IOD), fulfills all microscopy detection criteria. PMID:10391373

  11. Electrostatic control of the coffee stain effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, Alex; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The ``coffee stain effect,'' as first explained by Deegan et al. 1997, has received a great deal of attention amongst modellers and experimentalists in recent years, perhaps due in part to its obvious casual familiarity. However, it maintains interest because of its intriguing reliance on an interplay of a trio of effects: contact line pinning, inhomogeneous mass flux, and resulting capillarity-driven flow. What is more, the effect, and especially its suppression or reversal, find applications in fields as diverse as sample recovery, mass spectroscopy and the printing of Organic LEDs. We examine the motion a nanoparticle-laden droplet deposited on a precursor film, incorporating the effects of capillarity, concentration-dependent rheology, together with a heated substrate and resultant mass flux and Marangoni effects. We allow the substrate to act as an electrode and incorporate a second electrode above the droplet. The potential difference together with a disparity in electrical properties between the two regions results in electrical (Maxwell) stresses at the interface. We show via lubrication theory and via direct numerical simulations that the ring effect typically observed may be suppressed or augmented via appropriate use of electric fields. EPSRC DTG

  12. The Biological Stain Commission's Quality Control Laboratory operations and improved traceability of certified stains.

    PubMed

    Fagan, C L

    2012-01-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) is a quality control laboratory that certifies biological dyes for staining cells and tissues. Originally, a single lot of a certified dye was sold to histologists. Today, companies frequently change their lot numbers as part of regulatory efforts. When a certified dye undergoes a lot number change, the BSC must re-certify this dye to verify that it is identical to the one certified earlier. The BSC has improved how these lot changes are monitored using a redesigned BSC certification label. Certification labels always have been issued by the BSC and are attached to every bottle of "BSC certified dye" that is sold. The new BSC certification label has added security features and currently bears both the BSC certification number and the manufacturer batch lot number. The result is improved security and traceability of certified dyes.

  13. Muscle Histology Characterization Using H&E Staining and Muscle Fiber Type Classification Using Immunofluorescence Staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yue, Feng; Kuang, Shihuan

    2017-01-01

    Muscle function is determined by its structure and fiber type composition. Here we describe a protocol to examine muscle histology and myofiber types using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. H&E stain nucleus in blue and cytoplasm in red, therefore allowing for morphological analyses, such as myofiber diameter, the presence of degenerated and regenerated myofibers, and adipocytes and fibrotic cells. Muscle fibers in adult skeletal muscles of rodents are classified into 4 subtypes based on the expression of myosin heavy chain proteins: Myh7 (type I fiber), Myh2 (type IIA fiber), Myh1 (type IIX fiber), Myh4 (type IIB fiber). A panel of monoclonal antibodies can be used to specifically label these muscle fiber subtypes. These protocols are commonly used in the study of muscle development, growth and regeneration (for example: Wang et al., 2015; Nie et al., 2016; Yue et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017). PMID:28752107

  14. Lipid antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowds, C. Marie; Kornell, Sabin-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are not only a central part of human metabolism but also play diverse and critical roles in the immune system. As such, they can act as ligands of lipid-activated nuclear receptors, control inflammatory signaling through bioactive lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and modulate immunity as intracellular phospholipid- or sphingolipid-derived signaling mediators. In addition, lipids can serve as antigens and regulate immunity through the activation of lipid-reactive T cells, which is the topic of this review. We will provide an overview of the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, the biology of lipid-reactive T cells, and their contribution to immunity. PMID:23999493

  15. Engineering Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kulemzin, S. V.; Kuznetsova, V. V.; Mamonkin, M.; Taranin, A. V.; Gorchakov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant protein molecules that redirect cytotoxic lymphocytes toward malignant and other target cells. The high feasibility of manufacturing CAR-modified lymphocytes for the therapy of cancer has spurred the development and optimization of new CAR T cells directed against a broad range of target antigens. In this review, we describe the main structural and functional elements constituting a CAR, discuss the roles of these elements in modulating the anti-tumor activity of CAR T cells, and highlight alternative approaches to CAR engineering. PMID:28461969

  16. Disaccharides Protect Antigens from Drying-Induced Damage in Routinely Processed Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Boi, Giovanna; Scalia, Carla Rossana; Gendusa, Rossella; Ronchi, Susanna; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Drying of the tissue section, partial or total, during immunostaining negatively affects both the staining of tissue antigens and the ability to remove previously deposited antibody layers, particularly during sequential rounds of de-staining and re-staining for multiple antigens. The cause is a progressive loss of the protein-associated water up to the removal of the non-freezable water, a step which abolishes the immunoavailability of the epitope. In order to describe and prevent these adverse effects, we tested, among other substances, sugars, which are known to protect unicellular organisms from freezing and dehydration, and stabilize drugs and reagents in solid state form in medical devices. Disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) prevented the air drying-induced antigen masking and protected tissue-bound antigens and antibodies from air drying-induced damage. Complete removal of the bound antibody layers by chemical stripping was permitted if lactose was present during air drying. Lactose, sucrose and other disaccharides prevent air drying artifacts, allow homogeneous, consistent staining and the reuse of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for repeated immunostaining rounds by guaranteeing constant staining quality in suboptimal hydration conditions. PMID:26487185

  17. Presence of a capsule in Neisseria lactamica, antigenically similar to the capsule of N. meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Martin, P V; Laviotola, A; Ohayon, H; Riou, J Y

    1986-01-01

    Three of thirteen strains of Neisseria lactamica, a species closely related to N. meningitidis, were selected on the basis of their ability to be strongly agglutinated by serogroup B antimeningococcal serum. The presence of a capsule was demonstrated using Alcian blue as a stain for acidic polysaccharide. When reacted with serogroup B antimeningococcal sera, 2 out of 3 N. lactamica B-coagglutanating strains exhibited an extracellular material comparable in size, antigenicity and staining properties to the capsule of serogroup B N. meningitidis.

  18. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  19. A simple and versatile cell wall staining protocol to study plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Musielak, Thomas J; Schenkel, Laura; Kolb, Martina; Henschen, Agnes; Bayer, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The optical brightener SCRI Renaissance 2200 can be used as versatile dye to study various aspects of plant reproduction by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The study of sexual reproduction of plants has traditionally relied on light microscopy in combination with a variety of staining methods. Transgenic lines that label specific cell or tissue types with fluorescent proteins in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy were an important development to visualize gametophyte development, the fertilization process, and to follow cell differentiation in the early embryo. Staining the cell perimeter to identify surrounding tissue is often a necessary prerequisite to put the fluorescent signal in the right context. Here, we present SCRI Renaissance 2200 (SR2200) as a versatile dye to study various aspects of plant reproduction ranging from pollen tube growth, guidance and reception to the early patterning process in the developing embryo of Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SR2200 can be combined with a wide variety of fluorescent proteins. If spectral information can be recorded, even double labeling with dyes that have very similar emission spectra such as 4',6-diamidin-2-phenylindol (DAPI) is possible. The presented staining method can be a single, easy-to-use alternative for a range of other staining protocols commonly used for microscopic analyses in plant reproductive biology.

  20. Hetero-organic thymus antigens.

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, L V; Gnezditskaya, E V

    1985-01-01

    The use of sera containing antibodies to tissue-specific antigens of highly specialized organs (skeletal muscles, heart, skin, excretory glands) enabled us to detect, by immunofluorescence, cells capable of synthesizing analogous antigens (i.e. hetero-organic thymus antigens) in human and animal thymus. Detection of hetero-organic antigens in the thymus is the basis for the hypothesis that natural immunological tolerance to tissue self antigens is formed within the thymus in the course of T-lymphocyte maturation, with thymus antigens taking part in the process.

  1. Identification of multiple equine infectious anemia antigens by immunodiffusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1975-10-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) cell antigens prepared from infected equine spleen, equine leukocyte cultures or a persistently infected equine dermis cell line contained at least two serologically reacting components. For convenience one component was designated as soluble antigen (SA) and the other as cell-associated antigen (CAA). The SA appeared as a single component when it was prepared from EIA virus precipitated from infectious tissue culture fluid with polyethylene glycol and ether treated but it was mixed with CAA when the source was infected cells. Cytolytic or mechanical disruption of infected cells appeared to accelerate the release of CAA. Reaction to each component could be identified in double and radial immunodiffusion tests by increasing the concentrations of SA in a two-component antigenic mixture. The CAA component does not appear to affect the value of the immunodiffusion test as a diagnostic aid.

  2. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  3. Quantitative chemical analysis of ocular melanosomes in stained and non-stained tissues.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, Antje; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Eibl, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Energy-filtered Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) was used to image the ultrastructure and determine quantitatively the chemical composition of rat melanosomes of the choroid and the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE). For the first time, the effect of staining in elemental analysis of melanosomes was investigated. Detection limits and accuracies of the applied methods were determined. Compared to previous work applying only quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in the TEM (Eibl, O., et al., 2006. Micron 37, 262), here we present a combined quantitative EDX and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, including N. This yields the fraction of eumelanin and pheomelanin in melanosomes by the S/N mole fraction ratio. Melanosomes of the sepia ink sac, used as eumelanin standard, showed an S/N mole fraction ratio of <0.004. Thus, they consist primarily of eumelanin as reported by degradation analysis. In contrast, melanosomes of the rats contained mixed melanin with significant amounts of pheomelanin (S/N 0.02) in the RPE and the choroid. Consistent with the previous publication, it was shown that oxygen mole fractions are especially large in melanosomes (7-10 at.%) compared to other cell compartments, e.g. 2-4 at.% oxygen in the cytoplasm. In the melanosomes of non-stained tissue, the oxygen mole fraction clearly correlated with the Ca mole fraction. EDX spectra used for quantitative analysis had about 15,000 net counts under the oxygen peak, which is necessary to obtain (i) a small statistical error for oxygen and (ii) optimum minimum detectable mole fractions for S, Ca and transition metals. The precise determination of the oxygen mole fraction in melanosomes is important for understanding metabolism. Therefore, a detailed analysis was carried out on the possible errors affecting quantification. While O, S, and N mole fractions yielded similar results in stained and non-stained ocular melanosomes of rats, transition metals can only be

  4. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Double-immunodiffusion assay for detecting specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hornbeck, P

    2001-05-01

    Double immunodiffusion owes its success to the unique nature of antibody-antigen interactions. When polyvalent antibodies with moderate-to-high intrinsic affinities are mixed with antigen at the right ratio (called the zone of equivalence) lattices of antibody-antigen complexes form and precipitate out of solution. When, as described in this unit, gradients of antigen and antibody are established by diffusion from adjacent wells in a bed of agar, a line of practically insoluble precipitation forms at the equivalence zone (precipitin lines).

  6. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells.

  7. Antigen detection systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  8. Antigen detection systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  9. Human liver nucleolar antigens.

    PubMed

    Busch, R K; Busch, H

    1981-10-01

    In an extension of previous studies on the antigens in rat liver nucleoli (R. K. Busch, R. C. Reddy, D. H. Henning, and H. Busch, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160, 185 (1979); R. K. Busch and H. Busch, Tumori 63, 347 (1977); F. M. Davis, R. K. Busch, L. C. Yeoman, and H. Busch, Cancer Res. 38, 1906 (1978), rabbit antibodies were elicited to human liver nucleoli isolated by the sucrose--Mg2+ method (10). Fluorescent nucleoli were found in liver cryostat sections treated with rabbit anti-human liver nucleolar antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies. In HeLa cells, fluorescence was distributed throughout the nucleus and in a nuclear network but was not localized to the nucleolus. In placental cryostat sections, an overall nuclear fluorescence was observed with some localization to nucleoli. Immunodiffusion analysis revealed two immunoprecipitin bands which appeared to be liver specific. Other immunoprecipitin bands were common to liver, placenta, and HeLa nuclear extracts. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed two liver-specific antigens, one migrating to the cathode and the other to the anode Other rockets exhibited identity to antigens of other nuclear extracts. These results demonstrate the presence of human liver nucleolar-specific antigens which were not found in the HeLa and placental cells.

  10. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  11. AntigenDB: an immunoinformatics database of pathogen antigens.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Flower, Darren R; Raghava, G P S

    2010-01-01

    The continuing threat of infectious disease and future pandemics, coupled to the continuous increase of drug-resistant pathogens, makes the discovery of new and better vaccines imperative. For effective vaccine development, antigen discovery and validation is a prerequisite. The compilation of information concerning pathogens, virulence factors and antigenic epitopes has resulted in many useful databases. However, most such immunological databases focus almost exclusively on antigens where epitopes are known and ignore those for which epitope information was unavailable. We have compiled more than 500 antigens into the AntigenDB database, making use of the literature and other immunological resources. These antigens come from 44 important pathogenic species. In AntigenDB, a database entry contains information regarding the sequence, structure, origin, etc. of an antigen with additional information such as B and T-cell epitopes, MHC binding, function, gene-expression and post translational modifications, where available. AntigenDB also provides links to major internal and external databases. We shall update AntigenDB on a rolling basis, regularly adding antigens from other organisms and extra data analysis tools. AntigenDB is available freely at http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/antigendb and its mirror site http://www.bic.uams.edu/raghava/antigendb.

  12. Visible luminescence from silicon wafers subjected to stain etches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Ksendzov, A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Etching of Si in a variety of solutions is known to cause staining. These stain layers consist of porous material similar to that produced by anodic etching of Si in HF solutions. In this work, photoluminescence peaked in the red from stain-etched Si wafers of different dopant types, concentrations, and orientations produced in solutions of HF:HNO3:H2O was observed. Luminescence is also observed in stain films produced in solutions of NaNO2 in HF, but not in stain films produced in solutions of CrO3 in HF. The luminescence spectra are similar to those reported recently for porous Si films produced by anodic etching in HF solutions. However, stain films are much easier to produce, requiring no special equipment.

  13. Gram staining in the diagnosis of acute septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Faraj, A A; Omonbude, O D; Godwin, P

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining of synovial fluid as a diagnostic tool in acute septic arthritis. A retrospective study was made of 22 patients who had arthroscopic lavage following a provisional diagnosis of acute septic arthritis of the knee joint. Gram stains and cultures of the knee aspirates were compared with the clinical and laboratory parameters, to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosing acute arthritis. All patients who had septic arthritis had pain, swelling and limitation of movement. CRP was elevated in 90% of patients. The incidence of elevated white blood cell count was higher in the group of patients with a positive Gram stain study (60%) as compared to patients with a negative Gram stain study (33%). Gram staining sensitivity was 45%. Its specificity was however 100%. Gram staining is an unreliable tool in early decision making in patients requiring urgent surgical drainage and washout.

  14. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes.

    PubMed

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A

    2012-08-01

    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  15. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain.

  16. A new technique for staining mast cells using ferroin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, V H; Orrea, S C; Raimondi, A R; Itoiz, M E

    2003-10-01

    We describe here a new method for specific staining of mast cells using ferroin. Different hamster tissues were fixed in 4% formalin and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin followed by ferroin acidified with 2.5 N sulfuric acid to pH 4.0. Mast cells stained an intense orange color that contrasted markedly with bluish violet nuclei. High contrast was also observed when ferroin colored sections were counterstained with light green instead of hematoxylin. To evaluate the specificity of the stain, hamster cheek pouch sections were stained with toluidine blue, alcian blue-safranin O, and ferroin. Quantitative evaluation of mast cells stained with the three techniques showed no statistical difference. The simplicity and selectivity of this method is sufficient for image analysis of mast cells.

  17. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  18. Comparison of methods for staining microvessels in bone.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yuekui; Tian, Xiaobin; Li, Qing; Li, Bo; Peng, Zhi

    2012-08-01

    Detection of microvessels is critical for studying bone tissue. We developed an intravascular ink-based method coupled with Van Gieson (VG) staining and compared it with other commonly used methods for capillary visualization. The ink perfusate was formulated as 10% ink, 10% formaldehyde and 20% mannitol. The ink solution was perfused into a healthy goat and the tibia was subjected to decalcification, dehydration, paraffin embedding, de-waxing and staining to observe microvessels. Angiogenesis was assessed by vascular area image analysis and the hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Masson, and VG staining techniques were compared to determine the reliability of these methods for counting microvessels. We found that HE, Masson, and VG staining produced poor contrast between the microvessels and surrounding tissues. By contrast, ink coupled with VG staining permitted clear discrimination between the microvessels and surrounding tissues. Our results indicate that ink-VG staining could be more useful than other methods for detecting tissue microvessels.

  19. Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining.

    PubMed

    Stockert, Juan C; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Horobin, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin.

  20. Double Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-23

    A double crater, called a crater doublet, is seen in the bottom right part of this image from NASA Dawn spacecraft of asteroid Vesta. This crater doublet was likely formed by the simultaneous impact of two fragments of a split projectile.

  1. Efficient staining of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma grains using henna extract.

    PubMed

    Zakout, Y M; Batran, S E

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural, nontoxic, convenient and eco-friendly dyes for histopathological diagnosis avoids some of the synthetic dyes' hazards. I used an aqueous extract of henna at a concentration of 20 g/ml and acidified with acetic acid to stain mycetoma grains. Henna stained mycetoma grains orange-red to brown. The engulfed mycetoma grains within inflammatory cells stained well with henna extract compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and hexamine silver.

  2. Coomassie staining as loading control in Western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Charlotte; Ekblad, Lars

    2011-03-04

    In Western blotting, immunodetection of housekeeping proteins is routinely performed to detect differences in electrophoresis loading. The present work describes a much faster and simpler protein staining method, which is compatible with ordinary blocking conditions. In addition, the method can be used after immunodetection with superior linearity compared to ordinary staining methods. After immunoblotting and staining, protein bands can be further identified using peptide mass fingerprinting.

  3. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    PubMed

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  4. Production and immunoanalytical application of 32 monoclonal antibodies against metacestode somatic antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Lu, Rui; Liu, Qiao-Feng; Chen, Jian-Ping; Deng, Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lou; Zhang, Bing-Hua; Xu, Jia-Nan; Sun, Lei; Niu, Qin-Wang; Liang, Quan-Zeng

    2010-06-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Immunodiagnosis based on antibodies or antigens plays an important role in its diagnosis. In this study, metacestode somatic antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis were used to immunize BALB/c mice, and hybridomas were formed by cell fusion. Making use of the inherent effect of monoclonal antibody techniques to isolate different epitopes, we obtained a repertoire of 32 monoclonal antibodies against the metacestode somatic antigens. These monoclonal antibodies were used to investigate the specificity and localization of the metacestode antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nine antibodies specifically reacted with E. multilocularis, while 14 and ten cross-reacted with Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia saginata, respectively. Twenty-five antibodies stained the laminated layer. Eight reacted with the tegument of the protoscolex. Fourteen antibodies recognized the germinal layer. Most of the monoclonal antibodies can react with the antigen Em2. One antibody can react with antigen Em2 and Em10. One antibody that cross-reacted with T. saginata stained the germinal layer and protoscolex, especially its hooklets and suckers, but could not react with Em2 and Em10 antigens. It detected protein bands at 26 and 52 kDa. Two E. multilocularis-specific monoclonal antibodies stained both the germinal and laminated layers and could be used not only to purify specific antigens but also for immunohistochemical studies of E. multilocularis. In summary, these 32 monoclonal antibodies could have potential applications as useful tools in further studies of E. multilocularis antigen profiles.

  5. Propidium iodide staining: a new application in fluorescence microscopy for analysis of cytoarchitecture in adult and developing rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Marcus; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Koch, Marco; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2012-10-01

    Immunohistochemical visualization of antigens in specimen has evolved to an indispensable technique in biomedical research for investigations of cell morphology and pathology both in bright field and fluorescence microscopy. While there are couple of staining methods that reveal entire cytoarchitecture in bright field microscopy such as Nissl or hemalaun-eosin, there are still limitations in visualizations of cytoarchitecture in fluorescence microscopy. The present study reports a simple staining method that provides the required illustration of cell allocations and cellular composition in fluorescence microscopy in adult and in developing rodent central nervous system using the fluorophore propidium iodide (PI, 5μg/mL). PI is a well-accepted marker for degenerating cells when applied prior to fixation (pre-fixation PI staining). Here, PI was added to the sections after the fixation (post-fixation PI staining). This revised labeling procedure led to similar cytoarchitectural staining patterns in fluorescence microscopy as observed with hemalaun in bright field microscopy. This finding was proven in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) and brain sections obtained from different postnatal developmental stages. Excitotoxically lesioned OHSC subjected to pre-fixation PI staining merely showed brightly labeled condensed nuclei of degenerating neurons. In contrast, post-fixation PI staining additionally revealed extensive labeling of neuronal cell bodies and glial cells within the OHSC, thus allowing visualization of stratification of neuronal layers and cell morphology. Furthermore, post-fixation PI staining was combined with NeuN, calbindin, calretinin, glial fibrillary acidic protein or Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB(4)) in post natal (p1 and p9) and adult rats. In early post-natal brain sections almost all mentioned cellular markers led to an incomplete staining of the native cell organization and resulted in an inaccurate estimation of cell

  6. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I.

    Treesearch

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield

    1968-01-01

    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  7. Diagnostic dilemma in female genital tuberculosis- staining techniques revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bineeta; Srivastava, Namita; R Kaur, Iqbal; Jhamb, Rajat; K Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an increasing public health concern worldwide. On a global scale it has a devastating impact in developing nations. Genital TB, an extrapulmonary form, is not uncommon particularly in areas where pulmonary TB is prevalent. Genital TB may be asymptomatic or may even masquerade as other gynaecological conditions; hence, diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and the use of appropriate investigations. Objective: This study attempted to identify endometrial TB in endometrial biopsies taken from women evaluated for infertility by comparison of various staining techniques. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted from February 2011 to April 2011 in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi. Endometrial biopsy specimens from 55 endometrial TB suspects were stained for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl Neelson staining and Gabbet staining. The biopsy samples were also subjected to Auramine Phenol fluroscent staining and H and E staining. Culture on Lowenstein Jensen medium was taken as the gold standard. Results: Three samples were culture positive giving positivity rate of 5.4%. Considering culture as the gold standard the senstivities of ZN, Gabbet, fluorescent and H and E staining were 33, 33, 66, and 66% respectively while their specificities were 100, 100, 98, and100% respectively. Conclusion: Combination of fluorescent staining techniques along with one of the acid fast staining techniques or histopathology achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for developing definitive diagnostic methods to make a conclusive diagnosis of genital TB. PMID:24639789

  8. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical... histopathology, cytopathology, or hematology. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). These devices...

  9. [Histochemical stains for minerals by hematoxylin-lake method].

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model by histological staining methods for minerals. After intraperitoneal injections of minerals, precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Liver tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as minerals containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for minerals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for minerals. Hematoxylin-lake was found of capable of staining minerals in tissue. A simple technique used was described for light microscopic detection of minerals.

  10. Dynamic staining of Bacillus endospores with Thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Lam, Samuel; Ha, Alice; Malik-Chaudhry, Harbani K; Vullev, Valentine I

    2012-01-01

    Rapid detection and identification of endospores presents a range of complex challenges. Dynamic staining approach, developed in our lab, utilizes the time-course fluorescence enhancement of an amyloid-staining dye, Thioflavin T (ThT), after mixing with intact endospores. We examined the kinetics of staining Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus thuringiensis endospores, and the rates of staining were different for the two bacilli when intact endospores were treated with ThT. This finding demonstrates an avenue for attaining information about the sporulated bacterial species without lysing, germinating or other pretreatment steps.

  11. Highly chlorinated Escherichia coli cannot be stained by propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Phe, M-H; Dossot, M; Guilloteau, H; Block, J-C

    2007-05-01

    Several studies have shown that the staining by fluorochromes (DAPI, SYBR Green II, and TOTO-1) of bacteria is altered by chlorination. To evaluate the effect of chlorine (bleach solution) on propidium iodide (PI) staining, we studied Escherichia coli in suspension and biomolecules in solution (DNA, RNA, BSA, palmitic acid, and dextran) first subjected to chlorine and then neutralized by sodium thiosulphate. The suspensions and solutions were subsequently stained with PI. The fluorescence intensity of the PI-stained DNA and RNA in solution dramatically decreased with an increase in the chlorine concentration applied. These results explain the fact that for chlorine concentrations higher than 3 micromol/L Cl2, the E. coli cells were too damaged to be properly stained by PI. In the case of highly chlorinated bacteria, it was impossible to distinguish healthy cells (with a PI-impermeable membrane and undamaged nucleic acids), which were nonfluorescent after PI staining, from cells severely injured by chlorine (with a PI-permeable membrane and damaged nucleic acids) that were also nonfluorescent, as PI penetrated but did not stain chlorinated nucleic acids. Our results suggest that it would be prudent to be cautious in interpreting the results of PI staining, as PI false-negative cells (cells with compromised membranes but not stained by PI because of nucleic acid damage caused by chlorine) are obtained as a result of nucleic acid damage, leading to an underestimation of truly dead bacteria.

  12. Tooth discolouration and staining: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Watts, A; Addy, M

    2001-03-24

    To carry out an extensive review of the literature on tooth staining with particular regard to some of the more recent literature on the mechanisms of tooth staining involving mouthrinses. Comprehensive review of the literature over four decades. A knowledge of the aetiology of tooth staining is of importance to dental surgeons in order to enable a correct diagnosis to be made when examining a discoloured dentition and allows the dental practitioner to explain to the patient the exact nature of the condition. In some instances, the mechanism of staining may have an effect on the outcome of treatment and influence the treatment options the dentist will be able to offer to patients.

  13. Luminescent iridium(III) complexes as novel protein staining agents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao; Zhou, Ming

    2012-05-01

    This article reports a new class of luminescent metal complexes, biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary bathophenanthroline disulfonate ligand, for staining protein bands that are separated by electrophoresis. The performances of these novel staining agents have been studied in comparison with tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) ruthenium(II) tetrasodium salt (i.e. RuBPS) using a commercially available imaging system. The staining agents showed different limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, and protein-to-protein variations. The overall performances of all three stains were found to be better than or equivalent to RuBPS under the experimental conditions.

  14. Sihler's whole mount nerve staining technique: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mu, L; Sanders, I

    2009-01-01

    Sihler's stain is a whole mount nerve staining technique that renders other soft tissue translucent or transparent while staining the nerves. It permits mapping of entire nerve supply patterns of organs, skeletal muscles, mucosa, skin, and other structures after the specimens are fixed in neutralized formalin, macerated in potassium hydroxide, decalcified in acetic acid, stained in Ehrlich's hematoxylin, destained in acetic acid, and cleared in glycerin. The unique advantage of Sihler's stain over other anatomical methods is that all the nerves within the stained specimen can be visualized in their three-dimensional positions. To date, Sihler's stain is the best tool for demonstrating the precise intramuscular branching and distribution patterns of skeletal muscles, which are important not only for anatomists, but also for physiologists and clinicians. Advanced knowledge of the neural structures within mammalian skeletal muscles is critical for understanding muscle functions, performing electrophysiological experiments and developing novel neurosurgical techniques. In this review, Sihler's stain is described in detail and its use in nerve mapping is surveyed. Special emphasis is placed on staining procedures and troubleshooting, strengths and limitations, applications, major contributions to neuroscience, physiological and clinical significance, and areas for further technical improvement that deserve future research. PMID:19572223

  15. Immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 in Diff-Quik-stained cytological smears of canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Choi, U S; Kim, D Y

    2011-04-01

    To investigate whether Diff-Quik stained fine needle aspirate smears can be used to evaluate Ki-67 expression by immunocytochemistry. Both cytological and histological samples were obtained from 24 dogs with spontaneously developed mammary gland tumours. The cytological and histological specimens were examined by Diff-Quik and H&E stains, respectively. After examination, both samples were immunostained using the same Ki-67 antibody. The % Ki-67 values were calculated based on the percentage of positively stained tumour cells per 500 and 1000 tumour cells in cytology and histology specimens, respectively. Ki-67 staining was successful in 17/24 smears (71%) and 19/23 sections (83%). The correlation coefficient between the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells in cytological smears and in the histological sections was 0.677 (P < 0.01). These values were significantly different between histologically benign and malignant tumour groups both in cytology and histology samples (P < 0.001). The threshold value of the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells for distinguishing benign from malignant tumours was set at 4.85% with 90.9% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve using histopathology as the gold standard. Diff-Quik-stained cytology smears can be used to detect the presence of Ki-67 antigen when histology sections are not available. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Dithizone staining of intracellular zinc: an unexpected and versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    Auxotrophic marker genes such as URA3, LEU2, and HIS3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have long been used to select cells that have been successfully transformed with recombinant DNA. A longstanding challenge in working with these genes is that counterselection procedures are often lacking. This paper describes the unexpected discovery of a simple plate assay that imparts a bright red stain to cells experiencing nutritional stress from the lack of a marker gene. The procedure specifically stains a zinc-rich vesicular compartment analogous to the zinc-rich secretory vesicles found in insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cells and glutamate-secreting neurons. Staining was greatly diminished in zap1 mutants, which lack a homeostatic activator of zinc uptake, and in cot1 zrc1 double mutants, which lack the two yeast homologs of mammalian vesicle-specific zinc export proteins. Only one of 93 strains with temperature-sensitive alleles of essential genes exhibited an increase in dithizone staining at its non-permissive temperature, indicating that staining is not simply a sign of growth-arrested or dying cells. Remarkably, the procedure works with most commonly used marker genes, highlights subtle defects, uses no reporter constructs or expensive reagents, requires only a few hours of incubation, yields visually striking results without any instrumentation, and is not toxic to the cells. Many potential applications exist for dithizone staining, both as a versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes and as a powerful new tool for the genetic analysis of a biomedically important vesicular organelle.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy staining methods for the cortex of human hair: a modified osmium method and comparison with other stains.

    PubMed

    Harland, D P; Vernon, J A; Walls, R J; Woods, J L

    2011-08-01

    For wool, superior staining of a wide range of ultrastructural components is achieved by en bloc treatment of fibres with a chemical reductant followed by osmium tetroxide. For human scalp hair, although staining quality is similar, the penetration of reagents is poor, resulting in large parts of the fibre cortex remaining unstained. Here we describe a modification to the reduction-osmication method in which reagents penetrate through a cut fibre end, allowing visualization of a wide range of features across the cortex. We compare the staining quality, artefacts and range of structure rendered visible using transmission electron microscopy for en bloc reduction-osmication to other staining alternatives including en bloc silver nitrate and section stains based on uranyl acetate and lead citrate, phosphotungstic acid, potassium permanganate, ammoniacal silver nitrate and some combinations of these stains. The effects of hair-care treatments are briefly examined. © 2011 AgResearch Ltd. Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Urinary antigens as markers of papillary toxicity. I. Identification and characterization of rat kidney papillary antigens with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, F W; Hildebrand, H; Lutte, L; Schwengberg, S; Henke, B; Greshake, D; Schmidt, B; Friederich, A; Rinke, M; Schlüter, G; Bomhard, E

    1996-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared in an attempt to develop diagnostic tools for the identification of toxic damage to the rat renal papilla. One IgG and five IgM monoclonal antibodies, reacting with antigens localized in the papilla were obtained. Three of the IgM class and the IgG class monoclonal antibodies were found to be specific for antigens localized in collecting ducts, two of them staining papillary collecting ducts more intensely than cortical collecting ducts. The IgG class antibody, termed Pap X 5C10, recognizes an antigen located at high density on the luminal side of papillary collecting duct epithelial cells and at lower density in cortical collecting duct cells. One of the IgM class monoclonal antibodies reacts with an antigen localized in epithelial cells as ascending and descending loops of Henle and of connecting tubules. Another of the IgM class monoclonal antibodies reacts with an antigen localized in the interstices of the inner medulla. All these monoclonal antibodies react with their antigens in native frozen as well as in Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue slices. Molecular properties of the Pap X 5C10 antigen have been investigated by gel permeation chromatography, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and isoelectric focusing. The results indicate that the antigen in both its tissue-derived and urinary form is of large (150-200 kDa) molecular size and can be separated into two molecular species with isoelectric points of pH 7.2 and 7.3 respectively. In the urine the antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies form large complexes with Tamm-Horsfall protein. The antigen-containing complexes can be extracted from urine by adsorption to diatomaceous earth and elution with SDS-containing buffer. Using sandwich ELISA-type assays it is possible to determine the concentration of the antigens. In preliminary experiments we were able to show that at least three of the antigens are detected in the urine following toxic insults to the kidney. The

  19. Dynamic quantification of MHC class I-peptide presentation to CD8+ T cells via intracellular cytokine staining.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ken C; Wei, Joe Q Z; Chen, Weisan

    2006-04-20

    In order to further our basic understanding of antigen processing and presentation as well as to translate that knowledge into clinically effective vaccines and immunotherapies, having appropriate tools to study MHC class I-peptide presentation is highly desirable. Current methods are based upon HPLC fractionation of extracted peptides, monoclonal Ab, multivalent T cell receptors (TCR), T cell hybridomas, TCR transgenic cells, and T cell lines. However, each of these is associated with problems that make them either difficult to apply generally or too insensitive to adequately quantitate antigen presentation. We have developed a method based upon intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) that dynamically and relatively quantitates MHC class I-peptide presentation to CD8+ T cells in a manner that is both widely applicable and highly sensitive. It is well-suited to assess antigen presentation in its early stages, does not require fixation nor labeling of antigen presenting cells (APC), can be used to examine cross-presentation, and is able to directly employ ex vivo T cells which obviates the need for the development and maintenance of T cell lines and hybridomas. Our method represents a simple yet powerful tool that others interested in studying antigen processing and presentation should find of great practical value.

  20. Double-staining techniques allows electrophysiological identification of monoamine-containing neurons.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, T E; Audesirk, G J

    1985-08-01

    Electrophysiological recording provides important evidence for positive identification of many neurons in gastropods. We describe a technique which combines intracellular recording and injection of a persistent, non-fluorescent dye (Fast Green) with subsequent histofluorescence treatment using a modification of the wholemount glyoxylic acid procedure developed by Barber (1983) to establish the presence or absence of monoamine transmitters in positively identified single gastropod neurons.

  1. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  2. Motility-dependence of the heterogenous staining of culture cells by a monoclonal anti-tropomyosin antibody

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CG1) which recognizes tropomyosin isoforms 1 and 3 of chicken embryo fibroblasts was used to detect what is a motility- dependent change in the availability of the antigenic determinant in tropomyosin molecules along microfilaments. Immunofluorescence microscopy with this antibody revealed a heterogenous staining pattern among chicken embryo fibroblasts cells such that a population (17%) of cells showed only background staining. Stress fibers in about half the population of the cells stained weakly with this antibody, while the stress fibers in another population of cells (35%) showed very strong staining. After glycerination or cytochalasin B treatment, all of the cells became positive in reaction to CG1 antibody, suggesting that the antigenic determinant was present in every cell. On the other hand, all of the cells after brief nonionic detergent treatment became negative to CG1 antibody. The CG1 staining pattern was not significantly changed in cells at different stages after release from colcemid blockage, nor was a brief treatment of cells with buffer containing 2 M urea, mild trypsin, chymotrypsin, or V.8 protease effective in changing the reactivity. However, most of the cells with a morphology typical of movement, and all of the contracted, glycerinated cells were strongly positive to CG1 antibody. These results suggest that the unmasking of the CG1 determinant may be motility-dependent. Immunoblot analysis showed that forced modification on the cysteine residue of tropomyosin molecules, caused either by performic acid oxidation or by disulfide cross-linking with the chemical 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate), results in drastic changes in the reactivity of the different isoforms to CG1 antibody. These results indicate that the cysteine residue is involved in the CG1 determinant. The motility-dependent unmasking of this determinant may suggest an important role for nonmuscle tropomyosin in regulating cell motility. PMID:2448313

  3. Autoantibodies to Argonaute 2 (Su antigen).

    PubMed

    Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Jason Y F; Ceribelli, Angela; Vazquez del-Mercado, Monica; Chan, Edward K L

    2013-01-01

    Like many other classical autoantibodies in systemic rheumatic diseases, anti-Su antibodies were originally defined by the double immunodiffusion assay in the early 80s. However, despite its high prevalence, only a few reports on anti-Su were published in the following years and the progress in characterizing the target antigens and clinical significance was slow, probably due to its inconsistent or poor reactivity in other standard immunoassays. In 2006 the target antigen was identified as the microRNA (miRNA)-binding protein Argonaute 2 (Ago2). Ago2 is a key component of the RNA-induced silencing complex enriched in cytoplasmic foci called GW bodies. Due to preferential reactivity of human autoantibodies with native antigens, immunoprecipitation is the only method to reliably detect anti-Su/Ago2 antibodies. Anti-Su/Ago2 does not appear to have disease specificity since it is found in 10-20% of patients with various rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome, as well as apparently healthy individuals at lower prevalence. The clinical significance and the mechanism of production of anti-Su/Ago2 remains to be clarified.

  4. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative.

  5. Comparison of tetrachromic VOF stain to other histochemical staining techniques for characterizing stromal soft and hard tissue components.

    PubMed

    Belaldavar, C; Hallikerimath, S; Angadi, P V; Kale, A D

    2014-11-01

    The components of hard tissues including dentin, enamel, cementum, bone and other calcified deposits, and mature and immature collagen pose problems for identification in routine hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained sections. Use of combinations of stains can demonstrate the components of hard tissues and soft tissues distinctly. We assessed the efficacy of the Verde Luz-orange G-acid fuchsin (VOF) stain for differentiating hard and soft connective tissues and compared results with other histochemical staining techniques. Eighty tissue sections comprising developing tooth (30), ossifying fibroma (30) and miscellaneous pathologies (20) expected to contain varying types of calcified tissues were stained with H & E, VOF, and Masson's trichrome (MT). In developing tooth, VOF demonstrated better differentiation of hard tissues, while it was comparable to MT for ossifying fibroma and miscellaneous pathologies. The intensity of staining was greater with VOF than with the other stains studied. VOF stains hard tissue components distinctly and gives good contrast with the surrounding connective tissue. VOF is comparable to MT, but has added advantages including single step staining, rapid and easy procedures, and it distinguishes the maturity of the tissues.

  6. Confusion over live/dead stainings for the detection of vital microorganisms in oral biofilms--which stain is suitable?

    PubMed

    Netuschil, Lutz; Auschill, Thorsten M; Sculean, Anton; Arweiler, Nicole B

    2014-01-11

    There is confusion over the definition of the term "viability state(s)" of microorganisms. "Viability staining" or "vital staining techniques" are used to distinguish live from dead bacteria. These stainings, first established on planctonic bacteria, may have serious shortcomings when applied to multispecies biofilms. Results of staining techniques should be compared with appropriate microbiological data. Many terms describe "vitality states" of microorganisms, however, several of them are misleading. Authors define "viable" as "capable to grow". Accordingly, staining methods are substitutes, since no staining can prove viability.The reliability of a commercial "viability" staining assay (Molecular Probes) is discussed based on the corresponding product information sheet: (I) Staining principle; (II) Concentrations of bacteria; (III) Calculation of live/dead proportions in vitro. Results of the "viability" kit are dependent on the stains' concentration and on their relation to the number of bacteria in the test. Generally this staining system is not suitable for multispecies biofilms, thus incorrect statements have been published by users of this technique.To compare the results of the staining with bacterial parameters appropriate techniques should be selected. The assessment of Colony Forming Units is insufficient, rather the calculation of Plating Efficiency is necessary. Vital fluorescence staining with Fluorescein Diacetate and Ethidium Bromide seems to be the best proven and suitable method in biofilm research.Regarding the mutagenicity of staining components users should be aware that not only Ethidium Bromide might be harmful, but also a variety of other substances of which the toxicity and mutagenicity is not reported. - The nomenclature regarding "viability" and "vitality" should be used carefully.- The manual of the commercial "viability" kit itself points out that the kit is not suitable for natural multispecies biofilm research, as supported by an

  7. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  8. Large bowel carcinoma-specific antigens detected by the lectin, Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-II.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, J; Katsuyama, T; Ono, K; Honda, T; Akamatsu, T; Hattori, H

    1985-11-01

    A lectin reactivity specific to human bowel carcinoma is reported. Twenty-six cases of carcinoma of the large intestine were examined. Normal as well as transitional mucosa and carcinoma tissues were removed from surgical specimens, and paraffin sections were stained with a battery of histochemical methods to characterize glycoconjugates, including high iron diamine-Alcian blue pH 2.5, modified PAS reaction to detect various sialic acids, paradoxical concanavalin A (Con A) staining, and stainings with 10 species of lectins labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Among the techniques employed, only Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-II (GS-II, specific to glucosamine)-HRP staining revealed highly selective affinity to the carcinoma tissues; the apical surface of the carcinoma cells stained most intensely. GS-II reactivity of the cells persisted after prior periodate oxidation, but was significantly enhanced by neuraminidase digestion. Comparison with two other lectin stainings with the same sugar specificity, viz. paradoxical concanavalin A staining and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-HRP staining, showed that the GS-II reactive sites lacked class III Con A reactivity but were possibly included in WGA reactive sites. The GS-II-HRP staining should be helpful in the identification of carcinoma tissue and for analysis of carcinoma-associated antigens.

  9. Characterization of X-ray-induced immunostaining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Masahiko; Sasaki, Takehito; Takasaki, Yoshinari

    1996-01-01

    The repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage related to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was characterized in human diploid fibroblasts by an indirect immunofluorescence method. PCNA staining induced by X rays was lost after DNase I treatment but not after RNase treatment. The staining was not induced when ATP was depleted or the temperature was lowered to 0{degrees}C during the X irradiation. When cells were incubated at 37{degrees}C after X irradiation, PCNA staining diminished gradually and was almost entirely absent 12-15 h later. On the other hand, PCNA staining persisted during aphidicolin treatment even 20 h after X irradiation. Induction of PCNA staining was not affected by the aphidicolin treatment. Cycloheximide treatment did not affect induction of the staining either, but did inhibit the disappearance of the staining. There was no difference in the staining pattern and time course of PCNA staining after X irradiation between normal and xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) cells. These results imply that PCNA-dependent, aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases may be involved in repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage in vivo, but the repair initiation step could be different from that of nucleotide excision repair initiated by XP proteins. 39 refs., 6 figs.

  10. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical...

  11. Iontophoretic Cobalt Staining of the Body Wall of Phocanema decipiens

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Clare; Croll, Neil A.

    1978-01-01

    Iontophoretic cobalt staining of the nematode Phocanema decipiens results in the deposition of cobalt between the contractile bases of adjacent muscle cells and in a hexagonal lattice pattern in the hypodermis. The possibility of staining sarcolemmal invaginations between muscle cells which are proprioceptive or coordinate the activity of adjacent muscle cells is suggested. PMID:19305836

  12. Negative Stains Containing Trehalose: Application to Tubular and Filamentous Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. Robin; Gerber, Max; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Wernicke, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen

    1996-02-01

    Several examples are presented that show the successful application of uranyl acetate and ammonium molybdate negative staining in the presence of trehalose for TEM studies of filamentous and tubular structures. The principal benefit to be gained from the inclusion of trehalose stems from the considerably reduced flattening of the large tubular structures and the greater orientational freedom of single molecules due to an increased depth of the negative stain in the presence of trehalose. Trehalose is likely to provide considerable protection to protein molecules and their assemblies during the drying of negatively stained specimens. Some reduction in the excessive density imparted by uranyl acetate around large assemblies is also achieved. Nevertheless, in the presence of 1% (w/v) trehalose, it is desirable to increase the concentration of negative stain to 5% (w/v) for ammonium molybdate and to 4% for uranyl acetate to produce satisfactory image contrast. In general, the ammonium molybdate-trehalose negative stain is more satisfactory than the uranyl acetate-trehalose combination, because of the greater electron beam sensitivity of the uranyl negative stain. Reassembled taxol-stabilized pig brain microtubules, together with collagen fibrils, sperm tails, helical filaments, and reassociated hemocyanin (KLH2), all from the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata, have been studied by negative staining in the presence of trehalose. In all cases satisfactory TEM imaging conditions were readily obtained on the specimens, as long as regions of excessively deep stain were avoided.

  13. Staining membrane-bound proteins with coomassie blue r250.

    PubMed

    Stochaj, Wayne R; Berkelman, Tom; Laird, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONCoomassie Blue R250 permanently stains membrane-bound proteins and is compatible with PVDF and nitrocellulose membranes, but it is incompatible with nylon membranes. This technique is relatively insensitive, with a detection limit of ~1.5 μg of protein. One drawback of Coomassie Blue staining is that it produces a high background that can make interpretation of results difficult.

  14. Fluorescein-labeled β-Glucosidase as a Bacterial Stain

    PubMed Central

    Pital, Abe; Janowitz, Sheldon L.; Hudak, Charles E.; Lewis, Evelyn E.

    1967-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled β-glucosidase was used as a simple staining reagent with selected gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Staining in situ appeared to be dependent on the presence of accessible glycosidic-type linkages in the bacterial cell wall. Extensive wall damage or lysis did not occur when stained cells were suspended in washing and mounting solutions. The apparent specificity of labeled enzyme for wall substance was tested by blocking reactions, staining of isolated cell walls, and failure to stain substances lacking appropriate glycosidic linkages. Severe cell wall lesions were produced after prolonged contact with labeled enzyme, and this phenomenon may also be related to staining specificity. Gram-negative organisms and spores were poorly stained unless protected glycopeptide substrate was previously exposed by treatment of cells with thioglycolic acid or dilute alkaline sodium hypochlorite solution. A potential for staining tissues and cell lines may also exist. Some possible applications of labeled enzymes are briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4169543

  15. The effect of selected staining techniques on bull sperm morphometry.

    PubMed

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Andraszek, Katarzyna; Czubaszek, Magdalena; Biesiada-Drzazga, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphometry has some value as an indicator of reproductive capacity in males. In laboratory practice a variety of slide-staining methods are used during morphological evaluation of semen to predict male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of staining of semen using four different techniques on the morphometry of the bull sperm cell. The material for the study consisted of semen collected from test bulls of the Black-and-White variety of Holstein-Friesians. The results obtained in the study indicate differences in the dimensions of bull sperm heads when different slide staining techniques were used. The most similar results for sperm head dimensions were obtained in the case of SpermBlue(®) and eosin+gentian violet complex, although statistically significant differences were found between all the staining techniques. Extreme values were noted for the other staining techniques - lowest for the Papanicolaou and highest for silver nitrate, which may indicate more interference in the cell by the reagents used in the staining process. However, silver nitrate staining was best at identifying the structures of the sperm cell. Hence it is difficult to determine which of the staining methods most faithfully reveals the dimensions and shape of the bull sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the color...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the color...

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of Brucella melitensis antigens in cases of naturally occurring abortions in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Fatma; Yener, Zabit

    2008-11-01

    Brucella melitensis, a worldwide zoonotic pathogen, is a significant cause of abortion in sheep and goats in some countries. The present study was carried out to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of B. melitensis antigens in 110 naturally occurring aborted sheep fetuses. Sections of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen of each fetus were stained with immunoperoxidase to detect Brucella antigens. Brucella melitensis antigens were detected in 33 of 110 fetuses (30%). In the 33 positive cases, Brucella antigens were found in lung (25 [22.7%]), liver (21 [19%]), spleen (13 [11.8%]), and kidney (6 [5.4%]). Microscopic studies demonstrated that Brucella antigens were mainly located in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils of the lung, and in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the portal infiltrates and Kupffer cells of the liver. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a useful tool for the diagnosis of spontaneous ovine abortion caused by B. melitensis.

  19. A New Antigen Retrieval Technique for Human Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Byne, William; Haroutunian, Vahram; García-Villanueva, Mercedes; Rábano, Alberto; García-Amado, María; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining of tissues is a powerful tool used to delineate the presence or absence of an antigen. During the last 30 years, antigen visualization in human brain tissue has been significantly limited by the masking effect of fixatives. In the present study, we have used a new method for antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed human brain tissue and examined the effectiveness of this protocol to reveal masked antigens in tissues with both short and long formalin fixation times. This new method, which is based on the use of citraconic acid, has not been previously utilized in brain tissue although it has been employed in various other tissues such as tonsil, ovary, skin, lymph node, stomach, breast, colon, lung and thymus. Thus, we reported here a novel method to carry out immunohistochemical studies in free-floating human brain sections. Since fixation of brain tissue specimens in formaldehyde is a commonly method used in brain banks, this new antigen retrieval method could facilitate immunohistochemical studies of brains with prolonged formalin fixation times. PMID:18852880

  20. Use of immunoblotting in testing Madurella mycetomatis specific antigen

    PubMed Central

    ELbadawi, Hana S.; Mahgoub, Elsheikh; Mahmoud, Najwa; Fahal, Ahmed H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Though serodiagnosis of actinomycetoma is established, that of eumycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis is limited because of lack of pure antigen. Reliable rapid tests are needed to make an accurate timely diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to detect antigen parts of M. mycetomatis, which act specifically with M. mycetomatis antibodies. Methods Cytoplasmic antigen was prepared from molecularly identified cultures of M. mycetomatis by sonication, ultracentrifugation, dried, weighed and appropriately reconstituted. M. mycetomatis cytoplasmic antigen were separated using 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, and immunoblotting to detect the reactive ones. Immunoblotting was carried out in nitrocellulose strips containing different molecular size. Sera from patients and co-patients as control were used. Results When stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R 250 seven molecular weights appeared but only three, 45, 60, 95 kDa reacted with M. mycetomatis patients few from control group, one from a malaria patient. No reactive band was observed with sera from actinomycetoma, Aspergillus flavus-associated aspergillosis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, fungal sinusitis nor healthy controls. Conclusions Specific fractions of M. mycetomatis antigen which were demonstrated by immunoblotting showed 75% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The true negative tests were 14 patients (32.5%). This also means that immunoblotting is reasonably reliable in diagnosis and follow-up of eumycetoma patients. PMID:27198216